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Exploration

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					Exploration
How Did Each of the Following
Influence European Expansion?
     •The Crusades
     •The Vikings
     •Marco Polo
V
i
k
i
n
g
s
  What Motivated Europeans
    To Venture Outward?
“To serve God and His Majesty,
to give light to those who were
in darkness, and to grow rich
as all men desire to do.”

Bartholomew Diaz
              Exploration
• 3 main reasons for exploration: God,
  Glory, and Gold
Technology
  The
Astrolabe
                    The Caravel

Its triangular sails allowed it to sail against the wind
                 Exploration
• The leading country in this sailing technology is
  Portugal
                  Exploration
• Prince Henry of Portugal
  influenced exploration by
  opening a navigational
  school
                 Exploration
• 1st Explorer is
  Bartolomeu Diaz
  who sailed to the tip
  of Africa
Exploration
   • The 1st European to go to
     India was Vasco da Gama
     for Portugal
              Exploration
• Spain was the next country to explore
Christopher Columbus
                Exploration
• In 1492, Christopher Columbus an Italian tried
  to sail west to get to the east and landed on an
  island in the Caribbean Sea
               Exploration
• Pedro Cabral of
  Portugal also went
  west and landed in
  Brazil

• He claimed it for
  Portugal and Spain
  got mad
              Exploration
• Spain and Portugal fought over the new
  land
• To decrease the conflict they signed the
  Treaty of Tordesillas dividing the world
  for Spanish and Portugal exploration
                     Spain
• Amerigo Vespucci
  was the first explorer
  to know that the
  Americas was a new
  world = new land was
  named after him
•Ferdinand Magellan
•First Person to
 Circumnavigate the
 World?
                 Spain
• Hernando Cortes led an expedition of
  conquistadors to Mexico where he heard
  of a great Aztec empire ruled by
  Montezuma II

• Cortes conquered the Aztecs by using
  guns, native enemies of the Aztecs, and
  disease
Hernando Cortes   Montezuma II
                 Spain
• Francisco Pizarro conquered the Incan
  Empire in South America by kidnapping
  and then killing the king
P
i
z
a
r
r
o
Coronado
                  Spain
• Spain would create an encomienda
  system where natives worked for Spanish
  lords in the new world = cheap labor force



• No women = Spanish married natives =
  Mestizo
Spain
   • Spanish priests came to
     the new world to spread
     faith and criticize the
     treatment of Native
     Americans

   • Bartolome de Las
     Casas sent letters to the
     Spanish King trying to
     help the Native
     Americans
                   Trade
• Columbian Exchange was the cultural diffusion
  of plants, animals, and diseases across the
  Atlantic Ocean
                  Spain
• However, disease like smallpox was killing
  the natives =
• Shortage of labor =
• Spain was the 1st country to import slaves
  to work the encomiendas
                     Spain

• Philip II was king of Spain
  who believed in divine
  right (god granted kings
  absolute rule)

• He used the gold of the
  new world to for 2 things
   – Defend Roman Catholicism
   – Stimulate the arts
Spain
                   Spain
• Miguel de Cervantes wrote Don Quixote
                       Spain
• Problems
• Dutch Revolt
• So much gold and
  silver led to inflation
• Pirates led to heavy
  taxes
                Netherlands
• The Dutch founded
  New Netherland and
  founded a city called
  New Amsterdam =
  New York
               Netherlands
• Famous for painters
  like Rembrandt and
  Jan Vermeer
                 France
• France explored New
  France benefiting
  from the fur trade
                 England
• The English established Jamestown in 1607
                England
• Pilgrims and the Puritans followed
  Jamestown
• They left England because of religious
  persecution
                  England
• France and England
  would fight for North
  America in the
  French and Indian
  War
• Britain would win and
  take all the French
  colonies in North
  America
                   Trade
• Triangular Trade was developed
                    Trade
• The voyage that brought the slaves from Africa
  to America is called the Middle Passage
A Slave Ship
Another View




Human Cargo
                 Trade
• The colonies started a new wave of business
  practices = Commercial Revolution



• A part of the Commercial Revolution was the
  rise of capitalism
• Capitalism is an economic system based on
  private ownership and investment of wealth
  for profit
                 Trade
• Commercial Revolution brought the theory
  of mercantilism
• Mercantilism is when a nation’s power is
  depends on how wealthy it is
• To be wealthy states had to sell more
  goods than they buy = favorable balance
  of trade
                  Trade
• To pay for these new colonies, joint-stock
  companies were created
• Joint-stock companies are when people
  combine their wealth for a common
  purpose
• Common purpose = fund the colonies

• Ex: East India Company

				
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