The Polish Fishing Industry

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					Foreign Fishery Developments

           The Polish Fishing Industry

   Polish fishennen caught about 700,00         capita fish consumption for years. The
metric tons (t) in 1980. The Polish catch        problem is that Poles prefer such fresh-
has been as high as 800,000 t, but has          water fish as carp and trout over un-
declined as a result of the 200-mile             known Pacific ocean and Antarctic
extensions by coastal countries.                species. A much more intensive public
   The NMFS Division of Foreign Fish-            relations and educational program will
eries Analysis forsees no large increase         have to be conducted before per capita
in future Polish fisheries catch and any        consumption significantly increases.
increase in per capita consumption will             Total annual catch in the past has
probably have to come from imports.              been as high as 800,000 t but the estimate
Consumption of fishery products is now          of the 1980 catch was closer to 700,000.      of the total Baltic annual catch, therefore,
7 kg per capita; consumption by 1985 is          No large increase in the annual catch is      is made by non-state boats.
planned at 12 kg, but Polish officials          foreseen and any increase in per capita           The number of vessels in the Baltic
believe that this figure will not be reached    consumption will have to come from            fleet exceeds needs by about 25 percent,
until at least 1990. The Government has         imports. Present domestic consumption          however, there is a shortage of properly
been trying to increase per capita fish-        of processed fish is about 240,000 t. An      equipped boats. State- built vessels are
eries consumption for years, but Polish         additional 40,000 t are exported.              reportedly fitted with too much and too
consumers have resisted, preferring                 In 1981,418,000 t of herring, 227,000 t   expensive navigational equipment for the
freshwater fish (i.e., carp and trout) to       of cod and 60,000 t of sprats were per-       Baltic fleet. These ships are more
unfamiliar marine species.                      mitted to be caught in the Baltic. Poland's   appropriately equipped for deep-sea
   Poland has one of the larger fleets          allocations were 80,000 t of herring,         fishing. There is also a shortage of pro-
fishing in U.S. waters. Fish plays an           60,000 t of cod, and 13,000 t of sprats.      cessing equipment such as ice factories
important role in the Polish diet as a              Poland's annual Baltic catch is about     and cold storage facilities. The short-
supplementary source of protein and as          200,000 t, 25-30 percent of the total         ages are felt most severely in early spring
a source of hard currency. One of the           annual Polish catch. Of this amount,          during the cod season.
directors of Rybex I stated that because        about 29,000 t, 15 percent of the total           There is also a shortage of deep-sea
of the poor state of Polish agriculture, it     annual catch, is caught by private fisher-    vessels. When the 200- mile limit was put
will be cheaper for Poland to obtain            men. These people own their own boats         into effect, Polish fishing companies
protein by fishing rather than by in-           and can hire help. They can sell privately    "temporarily" halted orders for new
creasing supplies of meat for at least the      or to the government-owned Centrala           ships. They wanted to wait to detennine
next 15 years, even though labor and            Rybna fish stores.                            what would be the best suitable vessel(s)
especially fuel costs will continue to rise.        Centrala Rybna must purchase the fish     as their chief future fishing activity was
   Poland hopes to increase fish supplies       if a fisherman wants to sell to the           not known. It still is not known and the
for the domestic market during the next         government. It is hard for individuals to     fleet is gradually growing older and
decade and beyond. Consumption of fish          sell privately as the government retail       smaller.
is now 7 kg per capita. The planned             price for fish is heavily subsidized and          There are now about 300 boats in the
consumption by 1985 is 12 kg per capita         has not been increased in 20 years. For       Baltic fleet (excluding those less than 30
but officials of the Central Board stated       example, 1 kg of cod Met sells for 20         feet long) and about 130 deep-sea vessels.
that this figure will probably not be           zloties (about 65 cents), less than half of   Morocco has closed its waters to Polish
reached at least until 1990. The govern-        its actual cost. Private sales of smoked      fishing vessels and the Polish- Senegalese
ment has been trying to increase per            or fried fish are usually made to tourists    joint venture ended in late 1980 when
                                                during the summer. An additional 43,000       Senegal refused to renew the agreement.
                                                t, 20 percent of the total annual catch, is       The Poles presently have three joint
'Rybex is the foreign trade enterprise of the   caught by cooperatives whose boats are        ventures with Peru but feel unsure about
Polish Central Fisheries Board.                 jointly owned. Approximately one- third       future Peruvian cooperation. A joint
February 1982, 44(2;                                                                                                                   23
venture agreement has been signed with        sales of cheap fIsh fIllets from Argentina.      Fishing crews are changed every 5
New Zealand and the Poles will soon           Moreover, Polish fishermen have                months. Odra alone spends over
start fishing there. But the ships formerly   recently won a 15 percent wage increase.       $800,000 annually on supplies and
fishing off Africa are not suitable for       One Polish official expressed the opinion      repairs in Vancouver and an additional
New Zealand waters. Poland will have          that subsidies for the price of fish should    $2,500,000 on fuel. Gryf spends about
an excess of coastal fishing vessels if new   be shifted to salaries so that there can be    half of these amounts, and Dalmor and
cooperative ventures are not established.     higher retail fish prices. As things stand     Transocean spend considerable sums as
As a result, the U.S. market and fishing      now, coastal areas have a geographic           well.
allocations are becoming very essential       subsidy because of greater availability
to Poland.                                    and consumption of fish there.
    Poland's chief fish imports are fresh        Poland catches a lot of squid but it is
and salted herring, carp at Christmas,        not eaten in Poland and the EEC has a
                                                                                             EEC Lowers Tariffs on
and mackerel. The biggest problem is          high tariff on squid. The price of squid is    Cod and Whiting Imports
money for imports. Money for imports          very low in Poland in order to make it            From 1 January to 31 December this
is allocated by the Ministry of Agriculture   economically attractive and there is a         year, the EEC will allow a total of 2,000
and the Ministry of Food Supplies. Until      small education program whose aim is           metric tons (t) of whiting, Merluccius
1980, there had been sufficient funds         to inform people how to cook squid and         bilinearis, whole, headless, or in pieces,
available. Starting in 1980 and continuing    other seafood not traditionally eaten.         to enter the EEC at the reduced tariff
into 1981 (and likely in the future as           Poland sells jack mackerel, blue            rate of 8 percent instead of the normal
well), insufficient monies were available     whiting, hake, and sardinella to African       import tariff rate of 15 percent. A com-
to complete requisite purchases. This         countries, but Rybex expressed concern         plicated share-out system was estab-
has caused an inability to buy fish when      about port congestion and unsureness           lished to determine each Member State's
the price is low and results in an even       of payment.                                    allocation, primarily using estimates of
greater foreign currency drain as higher         Cost of fuel, not wage increases, is the    the previous year's needs and usage.
prices must be paid for smaller amounts       most significant source of increased costs        Two installments were established:
of fish.                                      for the Polish fleet. Fuel must be paid for    The first installment of 1,310 t was im-
    Carp, the sine qua non of the Polish      in hard currency. Older ships with less        plemented 1 January 1981; a second
Christmas Eve dinner, is in short supply      powerful engines can fish off Norway or        installment of 690 t will constitute a
and is usually only available at Christmas.   Africa but those in the PacifIc or Ant-        reserve which will be drawn on by Mem-
12-13,000 t were needed for 1980 but          arctic need powerful engines which             ber States after they have used up their
Poland only produced 5,500 t and only         consume large amounts of fuel.                 initial share out.
planned on importing 3,500 t (which              The head of the Odra fishing company           The first installment of 1,310 t is as
had to be paid for in hard currency).         bemoaned the fact that Polish vessels          follows: Benelux (Belgium, Holland, and
Two 1 kg carp are considered necessary        were not permitted to offload or trans-        Luxembourg), 10 t; Denmark, 305 t;
for a family of four.                         ship in U.S. ports fish caught on the high     Germany, 552 t; Greece, 1 t; France,
    In 1980 there were shortages of carp      seas. He felt that the protection afforded     194 t; Ireland,S t; Italy, 9 t; and the
in southern Poland and in small villages.     to U.S. fIshermen by this law was no           United Kingdom, 234 t.
Carp is sold live starting about 10 days      longer applicable because of the exis-            In a similar decision, the EEC is
before Christmas and a separate retail        tence of the 200-mile limit and the pres-      allowing 10,000 t of frozen cod fillet
apparatus must be set up for this short       ent system of U.S. fish allocation. He         imports to enter the EEC at a reduced
period of time. Carp is sold whole,           stated that the law caused several prob-       tariff rate of 8 percent instead of the
sometimes gutted or headless, but fillets     lems for the Poles. First, it resulted in      normal import tariff rate of 18 percent.
are not suitable. In recent years, some       considerably higher transport costs as         In the first installment, 61 percent of the
frozen carp has been sold because it          fish usually had to be transported to a        quota is allocated to Member States
could be purchased abroad at a lower          Polish port. Second, the quality of the        according to historic usage with the
price.                                        fish suffered from excessive handling.         remaining 39 percent constituting the
    The prospect of U.S. carp sales to           Eight of Odra's 48 ships and 4 of Gryfs     reserve. As a Member State exhausts its
Poland does not look promising. Polish        27 ships fIsh in U.S. waters. In addition,     initial allocation, it will be allowed to
carp has no or few scales and the flesh is    Dalmor has boats in U.S. waters. These         draw on the reserve until the 10,000 t
white. U.S. carp is called wild carp          three fishing companies and Transocean         quota is exhausted.
 (sazan) instead of carp (kar). It is fully   (the company whose vessels supply the             The initial quota allocations for each
scaled, bonier, has darker flesh and a        fIshing fleet) use Vancouver, B.C., as their   Member State are: Belgium, Holland,
different taste.                              port for repairs, supplies, fuel, etc. The     and Luxembourg, 25 t; Denmark, 500 t;
    Poland in the past has exported fish      head of Odra, however, reportedly would        Germany, 1,800 t; Greece,S t; France,
fillets to other European countries. The      like to use Seattle, Wash., and/or other        1,000 t; Ireland,S t; Italy, 10 t; and the
Poles are now being underpriced by large      U.S. west coast ports for these services.       United Kingdom, 2,500 t.

24                                                                                                              Marine Fisheries Review
Uruguayan Fish Catch and Exports Climb                                                                                  Exports

   Uruguayan fishennen reported a                      fuel has to be imported and the country            The Uruguayan fishing industry is
record catch of 120,000 metric tons (t)                has serious balance of payments diffi-          dependent on foreign markets; from 85
in 1980 even though they have to pay                   culties. Industry trade associations are        to 90 percent of the catch is generally
some of the world's highest prices for                 extremely critical of the government's          exported. Export shipments have in-
diesel fuel. They were also expected to                failure to provide more relief from the         creased rapidly in recent years and may
set another catch record in 1981.                      high fuel prices. They especially com-          have hit $60 million last year (Table 1).
                                                       plain that the Argentine fishennen with         Uruguayan exporters were concerned
                     Catch                             whom they compete are able to buy fuel          that high interest rates in the United
   The Uruguayan fishing industry in                   at cheaper prices and receive higher            States were affecting export sales. United
1981, unlike the industry in neighboring               export subsidies. Even though the               States importers were having difficulty
Argentina, has had an excellent year                   Uruguayan Government had been re-               financing imports and turned to cheaper
despite some problems which developed                  bating 40 percent of fuel costs to the          domestically caught species. Uruguayan
in 1980. The weather in early 1980 was                 fishennen, they still complained of the         exporters were al!'o affected by higher
unusually wann and affected the annual                 extensive paperwork required.                   import duties placed on fishery imports
migration of hake, the most important                                                                  by Brazil. The latter was reportedly
                                                                   Domestic Market
species Uruguayan fishennen catch.                                                                     trying to protect its domestic poultry
When the hake finally reached the                         A very small part of the Uruguayan           industry. Brazilian consumers increased
coastal grounds, it appeared in record                 catch is marketed domestically. In 1979,        fish consumption beca.use of rising
quantities. This catch in 1980 was so                  about 13,500 t, or 12 percent of the            poultry prices. Even with these problems,
large that processing plants were unable               catch, was sold in Uruguay. A decline in        exporters continued to increase export
to handle the quantities landed. The hake              beef prices in 1980, however, adversely         shipments. Local observers reported in
catch in 1981 was also reported good.                  affected 1980 fishery sales, because many       early 1981 that Uruguayan exporters
The Uruguayan Government was con-                      consumers apparently increased pur-             were finding a ready market at higher
cerned, however, about sea trout stocks                chases of relatively cheaper beef.              prices. (Source: IFR-811122.)
and had reportedly closed that fishery
until 1982. Even so, most local observers
believed that fishennen would again set
new catch records, perhaps reaching as
much as 150,000 t (Table 1). The sig-                  France Helps Finance                             negotiating another substantial loan to
                                                       Salvadoran Tuna Port                             continue the expansion of the port.
                                                                                                        Infonnation on the current status of these
                                                           France is helping EI Salvador build a        negotiations is not yet available. The
Table 1.-Uruguay's fish catch and fishery exports.
                   1975·1981 '.                         modem tuna port at La Union, a port on          port was originally scheduled to open in
         Catch'                                         the Gulf of Fonseca. The French Gov-            1981, but various difficulties have re-
           in                    Exports
Year     1.0001     AmI.' (1,000 II   (US$1 million)
                                                        ernment in 1978 helped El Salvador              portedly delayed construction, and the
1975       262            8.0               3.4
                                                        finance the first stage of the project, con-    port will now probably not be opened
1976       33.6          11.0               5.2        structing a 250 m pier and 10,000 m)             until sometime later this year.
1977       48.3          17.7              103
1978       74.2          32.7              22.5        cold store at La Union and purchasing              Three French companies have been
1979      108.1          478               36.2        two tuna purse seiners.                          the primary contractors in the La Union
1980      120.0          670               50.0
1981'     1500           75.0              60.0            The French Government has now                project. Ornium Technique Urbanisme
'Source: FAO "Yearbook of Fishery Statistics," 1979    secured additional loans for El Salvador        et Infrastructure and SOFREMER have
(1975·79 data) and U.S. Embassy, Montevideo, for       from French Government agencies and
1980-81 data.
                                                                                                        planned the project. Morillon Corcol
'Live weight.                                          banks at preferential interest rates. The       Courlot Enterprise has supervised the
'Product weight.
                                                       Bank of Paris and other banks are loaning       construction. SOFREMER has also been
                                                       $38.8 million at 7.5 percent interest. The      responsible for ordering the 69 m purse
                                                       French National Credit Institution is           seiner lusticia from the French shipyard
nifIcant catch increase since 1975 has                 loaning $8.4 million at 3.5 percent             Ateliers et Chantiers de la Manche. The
made the Uruguayan fishing industry one                interest. The Bank of Paris is also loaning     lusticia is currently operating off El
of the most rapidly growing in the world.              $6.8 million at 1.75 percent interest.          Salvador with a French crew. Local
                                                       These funds have already been disbursed         sources estimate that it can catch over
                  Fuel Prices
                                                       to French and Salvadoran subcontractors         3,000 t of tuna annually. A second purse
   Uruguayan fishennen have to pay                     who have been awarded contracts for             seiner is still under construction in a
some of the highest prices in the world                both planning and construction.                 French shipyard.
for diesel fuel. Almost all of Uruguay's                  The Salvadoran Government is now                France is the only country involved in

February 1982, 44(2)                                                                                                                           25
the port construction project at La            mercial fIshing boats per country. The            wegian and Greenland fishing grounds
Union. The Canadians are training fIsh-        population parameter study, to be car-            contributed approximately $10 million
ermen at La Union, but as part of a            ried out along with the fIshing expedi-           each to the 1980 Faroese export earnings.
separate project. A U.S. tuna company          tions, will supplement the biomass fIgures           European Community (EC) countries
had signed a contract to buy tuna at           in the computation of accurate estimates          imported nearly 77 percent of the
$1,200 per ton for the remainder of 1981.      for the potential catch.                          Faroese fIshery exports in 1980 with a
The Salvadoran Government estimates               The Bank resources will finance the            value of $136 million. Denmark was the
that landings at La Umon (tuna and other       expenditures related to the research              largest EC importer and purchased
species) will total $16 million in the fIrst   expedition, rental of the two fIshing             nearly $39 million worth of Faroese
year of operation, and $19 million and         boats, the research on population                 fIshery products. The 29 percent increase
$21 million in each succeeding year.           dynamics in Ecuador and Peru and the              in the value of 1980 Faroese fIshery
(Source: IFR-811139.)                          acquisition of equipment, and related             exports to the EC is due to the increase
                                               features of the project. Bank funds will          in Faroese saithe (coalfIsh) production,
                                               also be used to contract a consultant to          for which there is a considerable market
                                               review the work program and other pre-            in the EC. The UK and the Federal
Fish Research Off Chile,                       liminary activities to hire institutions and      Republic of Germany imported $28.9
                                               obtain the services of a specialized fIrm         million and $23.8 million worth of fIsh
Peru, and Ecuador Funded                       to carry out supervisory functions of the         and fIshery products from the Faroe
    The Inter- American Development            project.                                          Islands, respectively.
 Bank (IADB) has announced the                    The total cost of the project is esti-            Faroese exports of fIshery products to
 approval of a $977 ,000 technical coop-       mated at $2,286,000, of which the Bank's          the United States decreased from 9,240
 eration grant to help carry out a research    technical cooperation will cover                  tin 1979 to 7,219 t in 1980, or by 22
 program to determine the availability         $977 ,000, Ecuador $653,000, and Peru             percent. Because of higher prices, how-
 and productivity of pelagic fIshes off the    the remaining $656,000.                           ever, the export value of Faroese fIshery
 coasts of Ecuador, Peru, and Chile. The                                                         products increased slightly (from $19.9
 technical cooperation was extended                                                              million in 1979 to $20.3 million in 1980).
 from the Fund for Special Operations.
    The southeastern PacifIc is one of the     FAROESE FISHERY
 more productive marine areas in the
 world, notes the IADB, producing pil-         EXPORTS LISTED
 chards, jack mackerels, Pacific mack-            The Faroe Islands, self-governing but
 erels, etc. Although existing data indicate   under Danish jurisdiction, are located in
 that fIshing potential of these three         the northeastern Atlantic between the                   1,000
 species is greater than current levels of     United Kingdom (UK) and Iceland. The

 exploitation, more complete information       Faroese economy is dependent on the               ~
 is needed to ensure that investments in       fIshing industry to provide the export
                                                                                                 "1     900
 future exploitation will avoid the risk of    earnings and employment for the Islands'          "-
 overfIshing.                                  population of 43,000. Nearly one-tenth            0      850
    The project is designed to determine       of the Faroese working force is employed          ~

                                                                                                 ut     800
 the availability and productivity of the      as fishermen.                                     (f)

 pelagic species in an area of approxi-           The export of fishery products                 2       750
 mately 100 n.mi. beyond the coasts of         accounted for approximately 92 percent             c:
 Ecuador, Peru, and Chile. It will consist     of the $192 million' worth of total ex-           ~
                                                                                                  e      700

 of two exploratory research expeditions       ports earned during 1980 (Fig. I). The            .c
 which will be carried out for periods of      value of fIsh and fIshery exports in-              '"
 30 days each during two different seasons     creased from $127 million in 1979 to              0'"
 of the year, as well as a research program    $176 million in 1980, or by 38 percent.           '0
 on population parameters.                     The quantity of such exports during                '"

    The objective of the expeditions is to      1980 was 176.000 metric tons (0, a 5.5           ~
 determine the biomass and maximum             percent increase over the quantity ex-
 sustainable yield of the pelagic species,      ported in 1979. One- half of the 1980 ex-
 the distribution and concentration of the      port value came from fIsh caught in
 shoals of these species, their biological      Faroese-claimed fishing grounds. or-                             '74   '75   '76   '77   '78   '79   '80
 characteristics, and their environment.                                                                                      Year
 The expeditions will be carried out
 simultaneously in the three countries by      'Throughout this report all values are given in           Figu re 1. - Faroe Islands fishery and
 a research ship supported by two com-         U.S. dollars unless otherwise indicated.                        total exports, 1973-1980.

 26                                                                                                                      Marine Fisheries Review
·Frozen fish fillets accounted for 99 per-      EEC Fish Processors Ask                         Two fishing companies buy and ship
                                                                                              the catch to the United States, Europe,
cent of the total U.S. fishery imports
from the Faroe Islands. (Source: IFR-
                                                for Unrestrained Imports                      and Japan, with the United States being
81/123.)                                          The EEC fish processors association         the major market. Almost all of the
                                                (AIPCEE) elected a new president, Dirk        albacore is transhipped to Puerto Rico,
                                                Ahler, at its annual meeting held last        canned there, and then exported to the
                                                November. Ahler, manager and partner          United States. Italy, Spain, and Japan
Bangladesh Sets New                             of F. Schottke and Co., Bremerhaven,          are the main markets for fish other than
5-Year Fishery Plan                             West Germany, declared that AIPCEE            albacore.
                                                would oppose all protectionist measures         Taiwan currently has a fleet of 651
   Bangladesh is reported planning to
                                                which would impede imports on which           tuna longliners with 594 of them active.
increase its fisheries catch fivefold by
                                                the European fIsh community was highly        In 1980, the Atlantic Ocean catch of
1985. The major goal of the 1981-85
                                                dependent. Protectionist methods such         29,671 t accounted for 25 percent of
plan is to substantially increase the num-
                                                as custom's duties and reference price        Taiwan's total tuna harvest. South Afri-
ber of vessels in the fleet in order to
                                                systems reportedly only increase con-         can waters provided half of the total
increase the fisheries catch. The largest
                                                sumer prices for fish products and dis-       harvest in the Atlantic Ocean. One hun-
increase is projected for the inland fish-
                                                courage increased consumption.                dred sixty-one ships operated in the
eries (from an estimated 0.6 million t to
2.6 million t). The marine fisheries catch                                                    Atlantic Ocean in 1980, representing 27
is expected to increase from an estimated                                                     percent of the tuna fishing fleet.
100,000 t in 1979 to 400,000 t in 1985.         Taiwan's Tuna Fishery                            Taiwan signed a bilateral fishery
(Source: IFR-81/138.)                                                                         agreement with South Africa on 20 Oc-
                                                off Southern Africa                           tober 1977, just before South Africa's
                                                   Taiwan's longliners caught 120,000         announcement to enforce its 200-mile
                                                metric tons (t) of fIsh, mostly tuna, in      economic zone. The highlights of the
                                                1980. Most of the catch was taken in the      agreement are as follows: 1) The 10-year
French Tuna                                     Pacific, but nearly 20 percent of Taiwan's    agreement will expire in 1987, but is
Canneries Close                                 longline catch comes from fIshing             renewable; 2) South Africa agrees that
   Twenty-four French tuna canneries            grounds off South Africa, one of the few      Taiwan's tuna longliners can fish within
have discontinued operations during the         countries with which Taiwan maintains         the 2oa-mile economic zone without any
last 30 years, resulting in over 2,000 lost     diplomatic relations. The waters off the      restriction; 3) Taiwan's Government
jobs. The closures were reportedly most-        western coast of South Africa also            must supply statistics concerning its fIsh-
ly caused by the transfer of canning op-        account for half of Taiwan's catch of         ing off South Africa to the Goverment
erations to the Ivory Coast and Senegal         29,671 t in the Atlantic Ocean.               of South Africa; 4) Taiwanese trawlers
where labor is cheaper and the fishing             Because of South African restrictions      must apply for prior permission to fish in
grounds are closer to processing centers.       on cod, Taiwan has only tuna longliners       South Africa's territorial waters; 5) Every
Low prices of tuna imports from Japan           in this area. Of a fleet of 54 ships in the   ship operating in waters off South Africa
have also contributed to the closings.          area, about 30 are permanently stationed      should pay US$324 per year for a license;
(Source: IFR-81/138.)                           there while the others follow the migra-      and 6) There is no limitation on catches,
                                                tory species. In almost all cases, however,   except for cod; the cod quota for Tai-
                                                because of the almost 7,000 n.mi. be-         wanese fishing boats is 2,000 t per year.
                                                tween Cape Town and Kaohsiung, the            (Source: IFR-81/83.)
                                                crew live on the ships and are rotated
                                                                                              Egypt Plans To
                                                   In 1980, total landings in South Africa
                                                by Taiwanese fIshing boats amounted to        Develop Fisheries
   Note: Unless otherwise credited, material    14,300 t, about 80 percent of which was          Egypt is planning to further develop
   in this section is from either the Foreign   albacore. With the price of albacore          its fisheries and harvest as much as
   Fishery Information Releases (FFIR) com-
   piled by Sunee C. Sonu, Foreign Rep<?rting   being over US$2,OOO per ton (compared         700,000 t of fishery products annually.
   Branch, Fishery Development Division,        with an average over US$1 ,000 per ton        A long-term plan to develop Mediterra-
   Southwest Region, National Marine fish-      for other fIsh), one fIshing trip could
   eries Service, NOAA, Terminal Island, CA                                                   nean and Red Sea fisheries has been
   90731, or the International Fishery Re-      realize from USS180,000 to US$400,OOO         prepared. The Egyptian fisheries catch
   leases (lFR) or Language Services Biweek-    in total revenues with a net profit of        was 137,000 t in 1979, of which 75
   ly (LSB) reports produced by the Office of
   International Fisheries Affairs, National    about one- third of the revenue. Reasons      percent came from freshwater fisheries.
   Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Wash-        for this high rate of profits include high    The United States of America exported
   ington, DC 20235.                            fish prices caused by the increase in oil     1,990 t of fishery products, worth
                                                prices and cessation of South Africa's        $5,347,000 to Egypt in 1980. (Source:
                                                surcharges on fuel oil.                       IFR-81/138.)

February 1982, 44(2)                                                                                                                  27

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