Berkeley by panniuniu

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									Berkeley: Department of Earth and Planetary Science

  The field of Earth and Planetary Science offers a rich variety of research targets and
educational opportunities for students. The research carried out in the department, and the
courses offered, treat topics encompassing the structure and composition of the earth's
solid and fluid cores, the constitution of the earth's crust, the workings of the earth's
oceans and atmosphere, and the evolution of the earth and other planets over billions of
years. Researchers and students in this field are driven by fundamental curiosity about the
past and present states of the earth and planets, seek to understand the origin of
earthquakes and mineral resources, the workings of volcanoes, changes in the earth's
climate and environment, and the impacts of global changes on society. The tools of
Earth and Planetary Science are basic concepts of physics, chemistry, biology,
applied mathematics and statistics, and advanced instruments that can be used to
characterize geologic processes and materials. These instruments include remotely
operated probes of the oceans and atmosphere, spacecraft, seismometers, GPS stations,
mass spectrometers, synchrotrons, electron microscopes, and even the traditional hand
lens, compass, pick and hammer.

   Work in Earth and Planetary Science attracts theoreticians eager to apply their
conceptual knowledge to "real life" problems, as well as enthusiasts of field work in
remote areas of the globe, talented physical, chemical or biological sensor
developers, and wizards of computer modeling.

   The Department of Earth and Planetary Science has a long tradition of posing and
answering intellectually fascinating questions about the Earth-asking whether the
continents stay fixed or move around, what the history of life has been and why, how the
landscape we know has come to be, and why there are earthquakes and volcanoes.
Berkeley's Department of Earth and Planetary Science was the first major center of
academic geology in the western United States and has been involved in many of these
scientific developments. Berkeley geologists made the first detailed study of a major
earthquake, developed potassium-argon dating — the most important method for finding
the ages of rocks, brought the rigor of thermodynamics into geology, and discovered the
evidence that a comet impact killed the dinosaurs.

   As concern has grown in recent years over environmental deterioration and
depletion of resources, our focus has broadened to include matters of urgent social
relevance. Many departments at Berkeley are concerned with environmental
questions, focusing on policy, management, economics, engineering, and social
concerns, but all depend for the validity of their conclusions upon a correct scientific
understanding of Planet Earth. It is up to geologists, geochemists, and geophysicists
to provide that understanding, and at Berkeley these practical concerns now stand
alongside the more academic questions in a double focus of the Department of Earth
and Planetary Science.

   The interests of the faculty cover a broad range of earth sciences. The traditional fields
of petrology, mineralogy, mineral resources and structural geology are represented. Solid
earth geophysics includes a unique combination of expertise in seismology, mineral
physics and geodynamics. Our earthquake and tectonics program benefits from the
resources made available through the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory. A vigorous
program in geomorphology and surface processes attracts many students.

   Recently we have added a marine geophysics program, an atmospheric science
program and most recently a planetary science program, with links to programs in
the Departments of Chemistry, Astronomy, Geography and Environmental Science
and Policy Management. Additional resources for research are available through
the Center for Atmospheric Science and the Center for Integrated Planetary Science.
We are making progress in bringing geology and geophysics closer by making the former
program more quantitative and the latter more based in geological observations.
Resources for Geochemists include the Center for Isotope Geochemistry and the
Berkeley Geochronology Center. Some of our faculty have strong collaborations with the
Earth Science Division at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

   The Department of Earth and Planetary Science offers a Ph.D. program as well
as a Master of Arts and a Master of Science option, with the possibility of
specializing in any of the areas of expertise of our faculty. The department offers the
graduate student the opportunity to develop skills in theoretical and experimental
analysis, and to blend these skills with careful description in the field and in the
laboratory. The central objective of the graduate program is to encourage creative
thinking and to develop the capacity for independent and original research.

Barbara Romanowicz
Professor of Geophysics, Chair, Department of Earth & Planetary Science
Director, Berkeley Seismological Laboratory

***** BASC offers fellowships for research in the atmospheric sciences—awards of
up to $10,000
deadline: probably July of 2005…

Research Centers that interest me

I) Atmospheric Sciences Center

In the coming decades, the challenge of the atmospheric sciences will be driven by the
theme of global change, whether they be future changes driven by anthropogenic causes,
or past changes driven by intrinsic or extrinsic mechanisms. At these timescales, the
study of Earth's atmosphere encompass interactions with the biosphere, and how one
species, humans, alter the natural cycles and long-term trajectory of the planet.

Atmospheric science is therefore intrinsically interdisciplinary, with chemistry, physics,
mathematics, biology, geology, and ecology all core disciplines. The Berkeley
Atmospheric Sciences Center is a multi-college unit at UC Berkeley, with the goal to
broaden the atmospheric sciences beyond its traditional boundaries to embrace the
biogeochemical frontier and the human dimension. The Center facilitates
communication and integration across these traditional boundaries. In doing so, we aim to
define a new paradigm for investigating changes in the atmosphere by integrating the
microscopic mechanisms of chemical, physical, and biological processes with large-scale
ecological and geological interactions between the geosphere, biosphere, and oceans, and
how these interactions alter atmospheric composition.

Our core and affiliate faculty members are drawn from the various core disciplines, but
with a common interest in the atmospheric sciences.

      Biogeochemical Cycles: Dennis Baldocchi, Kristie Boering, Ron Cohen, Inez
       Fung, Allen Goldstein, John Harte, Rob Rhew
      Climate Dynamics and Climate Change: John Chiang, Kurt Cuffey, Inez Fung,
       John Harte
      Glaciology: Kurt Cuffey

Inquiries: study@atmos.berkeley.edu

1) Inez Fung
Department of Earth & Planetary Science
Enviromental Science and Policy Management

Director: Berkeley Atmospheric Sciences Center

Went to MIT…undergrad in applied math and grad in meteorologoy.

Research interests: Climate and biogeochemical cycles. Geophysical fluid dynamics.
Large scale numerical modeling. Remote sensing of earth systems. Atmosphere-ocean
interactions, and atmosphere-biosphere interactions.

2) Dennis Baldocchi
Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Managements

Research interests: interaction between the biosphere and the atmosphere: climate
variable affect the phylogeny of vegetation and vegetation affects atmospheric gasses.

Currrent projects:
-carbon cycle research—how carbon sinks/sources vary annually and variation of
atmospheric gasses.

Studying a specific forest in CA, also efforts with NASA in a global flux network

3) John C.H. Chiang
Department of Geography

Research Interests:
I study the dynamics of climate, with a focus on the tropical atmosphere and
oceans where I think the most interesting recent advances in the field have
originated. Much of my work is motivated in trying to understand the nature of
variations in the regional and global climate on seasonal and longer
timescales. I am very much interested in developing a theory for how El
Nino influences climate over the remote tropics; discovering mechanisms of
middle and high latitude influence on the tropical climate; and understanding the
coupled interactions of the marine Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and
cold tongue. Recently I have become intrigued with the problem of climate
changes during the Holocene and the last glacial period, and in particular on how
the tropical climate and the ITCZ may be involved. I have also worked on the
climate-society interface, in proposing a linkage between an ancient indigenous
Andean climate forecasting method to El Nino. I use a variety of research tools,
from statistical analysis of climate data, to developing simple models, to using
more complex models of the atmosphere and ocean.

4) Kurt M. Cuffey---this guy has a good webpage…very eloquent and well
thought out description of what he does…

Department of Geography and Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences

Research Interests:
The global physical environment is a vast and complex machine composed of numerous
interconnected systems capable of dramatic change over brief intervals of time. A solid
understanding of the character and dynamics of this machine can explain a diversity of
engaging geographical phenomena, from the aesthetically stunning views on a high Sierra
Nevada mountain summit to the devastating loss of life and property resulting from land-
slides and floods. The purpose of my scholarship is to design, improve, evaluate, and
enjoy such explanations. Two complementary approaches in this pursuit are (1) to
achieve a rigorous physically-based understanding of environmental processes and
sys-tem dynamics, and (2) to reconstruct the remarkable "natural experiments" of
Earth's en-vironmental history. I use both approaches.

Constraints on time, technology, and brainpower have forced me, like most scholars, to
the bittersweet reality of specialization; my research efforts emphasize environmental
change of polar regions, with a focus on glaciologic problems. The choice of polar
glaciology reflects the unique and powerful contributions that this subdiscipline
makes to en-vironmental change research. Ice core reconstructions of
environmental history offer the most comprehensive, varied, and high-resolution
view yet achieved of past environments. The ice sheets themselves are a major
control on global sea level and albedo, and on high-latitude atmospheric and oceanic
circulations, and on physical landscape characteristics. No other topographic
features of this size and importance are changeable on such short time scales.

I use a quantitatively rigorous and novel blend of geophysical and geochemical
techniques to address questions that are important in this context: How have climatic
temperature and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations covaried in the past? What is
the tempo and magnitude of climate changes in polar regions? What determines the
isotopic composition of precipitation? How have the great ice sheets changed in the past,
and how will they change in the future? How do they flow? How are microphysical
processes in ice manifest at the scale of whole glaciers and ice sheets?

In addition to these major research themes, I also do some work on biogeography and
temperate geomorphology. I very much enjoy the breadth and diversity of scholarship in
the Berkeley Geography Department (my home department) and also am affiliated with
the Department of Earth and Planetary Science.

5) John Harte
Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management

Research Interests: My areas of research include causes and consequences of climate
change with an emphasis on the study of climate-ecosystem feedback processes,
theoretical ecology with an emphasis on elucidating relationships between community
structure and functional integrity of ecosystems, causes and consequences of declining
biodiversity, biogeochemical processes and their disruption, and the role of ecological
integrity in human society.

Currect project: warming an area of subalpine meadow…measuring changes…positive
feedback mechanisms.


6) Robert Rhew

Department of Geography

Interests: terrestrial-atmosphere exchange of trace gases, atmospheric chemistry and composition, halogen
biogeochemistry, stratospheric ozone depletion issues

Humans have modified the chemical composition of the earth’s atmosphere through emissions of
radiatively and environmentally active compounds. Consequently, our society faces a triumvirate of
interrelated global atmospheric chemistry issues: stratospheric ozone depletion, the enhanced greenhouse
effect, and the changing capacity of the atmosphere to oxidize pollutants. The primary players in these
atmospheric chemistry problems are the trace gases, which account for only a fraction of a percent of the
total atmospheric composition. My field of research is trace gas biogeochemistry, which involves
elucidating the interactions between the atmosphere, biosphere, pedosphere, and hydrosphere.

My work involves laboratory and field-based measurements in different terrestrial ecosystems, such as
coastal salt marsh, chaparral, desert, tundra, boreal forest, grassland, and temperate forest. My research
seeks to identify natural terrestrial sources and sinks of important trace gases, to quantify their fluxes, and
to determine the environmental and biological controls on those fluxes. Recent innovations in measurement
technology and analytical design have allowed for the precise and accurate analysis of gases at the parts-
per-trillion concentration levels, opening up a wealth of research opportunity to study their biogeochemical
cycles.

Major questions remain in the global budgets of many trace gases, including the methyl halides (CH 3Br,
CH3Cl, CH3I), chloroform (CHCl3), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), carbonyl sulfide (OCS), and
methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3). Understanding their interaction with the biosphere will require controlled
laboratory studies, extensive field work, and novel techniques using stable isotope tracers.

If you are interested in conducting graduate or post-doctoral research in atmospheric biogeochemistry,
please contact me at: rrhew@atmos.berkeley.edu.

7) Ronald G. Amundson
Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management

Our current research focuses on the general themes of (1) the effect of climate on the long-
term biogeochemical development of soils and landform evolution, (2) the processes of
ecosystem carbon and nitrogen cycling, and (3) ways of developing improved means of dating
soils and landscapes, using a combination of stable and radioactive isotope geochemistry
8) Philip Marcus
Departmnt of mechanical engineering

                Algorithms, atmospheric flows, convection, fluid
Research interests:
mechanics, nonlinear dynamics, ocean flows, numerical analysis,
turbulence.

								
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