Our First Five Presidents 1789-1825 When we last left the United States, the colonists had: 1) Declared independence from Britain 2) Defeated Britain, the strongest nation in the world at the time, in the Revolutionary War 3) Created The Constitution of the United States as a framework for just how the country was going to be run. George Washington Years in office: 1789-1797 Party: None Elected from: Virginia VP: John Adams ID Question • Remember: • What was the most important precedent set by President Washington? Looking at the Presidents • Domestic Policies • Economic Policies • Foreign Policies • Significant Events Government & Politics Setting Precedents: Creation of the Cabinet 5 executive positions to be in charge of various aspects of the government. They were Attorney General, Postmaster General, Secretary of State, Secretary of the Treasury, and Secretary of War. All five report directly to the President. His first order was to create 5 executive departments, and choose well-known leaders to head them. Together they are the Cabinet. Edmund Samuel Randolph Osgood Attorney General President Postmaster General George Washington Thomas Henry Jefferson Knox Alexander State Hamilton War/Defense Treasury Jefferson and Hamilton were the most influential members of the Cabinet. Thomas Jefferson Alexander Hamilton Secretary of State Secretary of the Treasury Social & Domestic Judiciary Act -Created court system (District Appellate Supreme) -John Jay named as first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court The biggest problem Alexander Hamilton faced as Secretary of the Treasury, was the large national debt. Amount of $ Amount of $ U.S. owed Total income U.S. it cost to run received U.S. Gov’t, 1789-1791 1789-1791 $4,269,000 $77,228,000 $4,419,000 Total debt = $81,497,000 Economic Policies National Debt repayment plan Hamilton’s plan called for the federal government to replace old bonds (a certificate which promises to repay the money loaned) with new ones, and as the economy improved, they could pay off the new bonds. Also wanted to pay off national and state debts. Disliked by southerners. Hamilton then asks Congress to set up a national bank. The Bank of the United States is created in 1791. The bank will: hold money from collected taxes issue paper money to pay the government’s bills issue loans, which encourage economic growth Hamilton also asks for a tax on foreign goods imported to the U.S. This tax, called a tariff, makes imported goods more expensive, which make people buy from domestic (U.S.) companies. North - supports because of its many factories South - does not support because they buy many foreign goods A tariff is passed, but it is not as high as Hamilton had wanted. In Congress, many southerners wanted the national capital to be located in the south. Hamilton agreed to this, as long as the southerners agreed go along with his plan for eliminating the debt. In 1790, it was determined that the new capital would not be part of any one state, but built on land along the Potomac River, between Maryland and Virginia. The area was called District of Columbia, known today as Washington D.C. Construction was to be finished by 1800. The temporary capital was moved from New York to Philadelphia. Foreign Policy Neutrality Proclamation /French Revolution Washington wanted to stay out of the fighting between the British and French, so he took neither side. He believed that by getting involved, it would only lead to trouble for the U.S. Jay’s Treaty Treaty, created by John Jay, between U.S. and British for: -repayment of damage to American ships -payment of overdue U.S. bills -British give up forts in the west -Avoided war with Britain Government & Politics Creation of Political Parties The first 2 political parties are created: - The Federalists, led by Alexander Hamilton - The Democratic Republicans, led by Thomas Jefferson Economic Policies Whiskey Tax Tax on all liquor made and sold in the U.S. This upset farmers who needed to convert corn to liquor for easier transport, and lead to the Whiskey Rebellion. The protest was put down quickly, but was almost America’s first civil war. Important Events Whiskey Rebellion Protest by Pennsylvania farmers over the new liquor tax. Was ended when Washington called the militia to combat the farmers. Farewell Address In his farewell address Washington said that the U.S. must not enter political alliances with other countries. U.S. must remain neutral to avoid problems. Steer Clear of Political Parties. They only cause fighting within the nation. 5 Presidents Umbrella Question (Exam Question) 1. George Washington warned Americans in his farewell address not to get involved with foreign affairs. What international situations faced the first five Presidents and how well did each president follow Washington’s advice? Warm-Up 2/4/2009- Put your answer on page 23 of your ISN. John Adams was very different from George Washington. Washington was tall and dignified. Adams was short and a bit pudgy. Washington spoke little and chose his words carefully. Adams was outspoken. He said what he believed, and he held strong beliefs. Jefferson recalled how Adams sometimes became so angry during an argument that he ended up “dashing and trampling his wig on the floor”. Despite his temper, Adams was an honest and able leader. As President, he tried to act in the best interest of the nation, even when he knew his actions could hurt him politically. More than once, Adams stood up to public opinion or the leaders of his party. Predict: Based on the description of Adams above, do you think he will have more or less trouble than Washington did in dealing with his opponents? John Adams Years in office: 1797-1801 Party: Federalist Elected from: Massachusetts VP: Thomas Jefferson Take out your packet for the 1st 5 presidents Economic Policies No significant economic policies Foreign Policy XYZ Affair In 1797, feeling that the Americans were favoring Britain with Jay’s Treaty, the French began capturing American ships. Talk of war soon came up, so Adams sent delegates to speak with the French. The French foreign minister sent three agents to speak for him. Before talks began, the agents said he wanted $250K for himself and a $10 million loan for France. When Adams heard about this insult, he told Congress, referring to the agents as X, Y and Z. This angered many Americans when they heard about it, but Adams refused to go over it. Like Washington, he wanted to stay out of European affairs. Frigates: fast sailing ships with many guns XYZ Affair • American Response to the XYZ Affair • “Millions for defense but not one cent for tribute” • Tribute: bribe Look at page 292 of your textbook. Turn to page 23 of your ISN and answer the questions on page 292. Social & Domestic Alien and Sedition Acts The Alien Act said that the President could kick out any alien, or foreign person, that was considered to be dangerous. An attached law also made it more difficult for people to become citizens. The Sedition Act stated that people could be fined or jailed for criticizing the government or government officials. Sedition means stirring up a rebellion against the government. The Alien and Sedition Acts would lead to the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. Government & Politics Kentucky (KY) and Virginia (VA) Resolutions Many people said that the Alien and Sedition Acts were a violation of people’s rights including Jefferson. Kentucky and Virginia created resolutions saying that each individual state “has an equal right to judge for itself” if a law is unconstitutional. If it was determined that a law was unconstitutional, it could nullify, or cancel, the law. Federalist Party Split After a difference of ideas, Alexander Hamilton and a number of other Federalists split away from the political party. Put questions on page 8 of your ISN. Leave States’ Rights space for answers • Do states have the right to declare a federal law unconstitutional? • If so, how would this affect the balance of power between the federal and state government? Who would have all the power in the government? • What have we learned about federalism from our 7 principles of the U.S. Constitution? Important Events Election of 1800 In the election of 1800, the Republican candidates were Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr, the Federalist was John Adams. There were not separate ballots for President and Vice President though. When all of the electoral votes were counted, it was a tie between Jefferson and Burr. In case of a tie, the decision goes to the House of Representatives. After four days, the House chose Jefferson as President and Burr as Vice President. This incident lead to the passage of the 12th Amendment, which says that the electors must vote for the President and Vice President separately. Since then, power has transferred peacefully during each election. The Federalist party began to fade away, and lost much of its power after its leader, Alexander Hamilton, was killed in a duel with Aaron Burr. Warm-Up 2/15/2010 Judicial Review Copy the following questions in your ISN. Answer the questions for your warm-up. You may use your textbook. • Which of the following is judicial review? 1. Supreme Court finds a man guilty of murder 2. Supreme Court rules that tobacco companies are responsible for lung cancer 3. Supreme Court nullifies the Alien and Sedition Acts because they are unconstitutional • How did judicial review increase the power of the U.S. Supreme Court? Thomas Jefferson Years in office: 1801-1809 Party: Democratic Republican Elected from: Virginia Vice President: 1) Aaron Burr 2) George Clinton Economic Policies- Economic Philosophy Laissez faire is a French term meaning “let alone”. What Jefferson meant by this term is that government should play a very small role in economic matters. •This was different than the Federalist idea that government should promote trade and manufacturing. •This idea also promoted a free market, where goods and ideas are exchanged with few restrictions. Government & Politics Smaller role for government Jefferson wanted the government to have a smaller role in the lives of the citizens. (This is evident from his idea of laissez faire.) He wanted to reduce the federal budget, meaning the amount the government is able to spend. This would help to keep the national debt low. He believed that governments primary role is to protect the rights of citizens, so he decreased the size of the government departments. Jefferson also decreased the size of the army and navy, and asked Congress to repeal the unpopular whiskey tax. Foreign Policy Impressment of U.S. sailors Britain and France go to war 1803. Refused to allow the U.S. to trade with the enemy. The British were capturing U.S. ships and impressing, or forcing, the sailors to work for the British navy. Because of this many Americans wanted to go to war. Embargo Act of 1807 An embargo, or ban, on trade with Britain and France designed to hurt both countries financially. This was punishment for the impressment of American sailors, as it cut off supplies to both countries. It backfired and hurt Americans, as supplies of popular import items (molasses, tea, sugar) were cut off. Smuggling: importing or exporting goods in violation of trade laws. Black market economy. Because it hurt Americans so much, it was replaced in 1809 with the Nonintercourse Act, which said Americans could trade with any country except Britain and France. Social & Domestic Marbury v. Madison This case increased the power of the Supreme Court. On the last night of John Adams’ (Federalist) presidency, he appointed William Marbury as one of the judges (not Supreme Court). The incoming Republicans said the Federalists were using unfair tactics to keep the courts in their control. Jefferson ordered Sec. of State James Madison not to deliver Marbury’s appointment. Marbury sued Madison and the case went to the Supreme Court. Chief Justice John Marshall ruled against Marbury, writing that the Judiciary Act was unconstitutional and that the Constitution did not give the Supreme Court the power to decide cases against federal officials. This case set a precedent for judicial review, or the power of the Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional. Important Events Louisiana (LA) Purchase In 1803, the U.S. purchased, from France, a territory that was 828,000 sq. mi./530,000,000 acres. In a surprise move, they were able to purchase all of this for about $15,000,000, or 2 cents/acre. There was a question of the constitutionality of the President being able to buy land, as the Constitution never mentions anything about it. The land purchase makes up about 23% of the total mass of the U.S., and would eventually give birth to 11 states. Important Events Lewis and Clark Expedition After the Louisiana Purchase was finished, Congress approved for money to be spent on an expedition to explore the new lands and open trade with the Native American groups that inhabited the land. The 50 man crew left in May 1804 and arrived at the Pacific Ocean on November 7, 1805. Along the way, they saw many new plants and animals. They also met Sacagawea, an Indian woman who agreed to join them on their trip as a guide and translator. Warm-Up 2/11/2011- The Star-Spangled Banner Put in your ISN Oh, say, can you see, by the dawn's early light, Copy down the What so proudly we hail'd at the twilight's last question and gleaming? the answer! At Whose broad stripes and bright stars, thro' the least 5 perilous fight, sentences. O'er the ramparts we watch'd, were so gallantly streaming? What does this And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in song mean to air, you as an Gave proof thro' the night that our flag was still American? there. O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave Extra Credit: O'er the land of the free and the home of the What event is brave? this song referring to? James Madison Years in office: 1809-1817 Party: Democratic Republican Elected from: Virginia Vice President: 1) George Clinton 2) Elbridge Gerry Economic Policies Native Americans Conflict: 900,000 white settlers moved west of the Appalachians between 1790-1810 Many white settlers had begun pushing past Ohio, even before it became a state in 1803. They were now pushing into the Indiana Territory, which was mostly controlled by Native Americans, who were growing more and more frustrated and promised to keep the settlers from going even further. This would lead to increased fighting between the Native American groups and Americans, leading to the Battle of Tippecanoe. Social & Domestic Westward Expansion/Conflicts with Indians Small fighting broke out- Treaty of Greenville- Ohio Tecumseh’s Confederation: Tecumseh and the Prophet -”White customs corrupted the Indian way of life” -1808 Prophet built a village at Tippecanoe Creek. Important Events The Battle of Tippecanoe A ferocious fight between American troops, led by William Henry Harrison, and Native Americans, led by a Shawnee leader called The Prophet. By the time fighting was over, both sides had suffered heavy losses. While the Americans would win that day, The Prophet’s brother, Tecumseh and his followers would continue to resist the settling of their lands. Preparing for the Essay Exam • Write down 1 event from 1. George Washington each of the following warned Americans in his presidencies that has to do farewell address not to with foreign affairs. Give a get involved with foreign short 2-3 sentences explanation of the event. affairs. What international situations • 1. Washington faced the first five • 2. Adams Presidents and how well • 3. Jefferson did each president follow • 4. Madison Washington’s advice? Government & Politics War Hawks The War Hawks were Congressmen from the West and South that strongly pushed for going to war with Britain. Britain was supplying guns to the Native Americans and encouraging them to attack U.S. settlements. These War Hawks were driven by a strong sense of nationalism, or devotion to one’s country. Henry Clay of Kentucky -Wants war with Britain -Wants to claim Canada -Wants to claim Florida from Spain, Britain’s Ally -Wants war to gain peace with Indians on the frontier Why would people from New England NOT want war with Britain? Think about economics! Foreign Policy War of 1812 Since Jefferson’s presidency, Britain had been interfering with American trading and impressing American sailors. Madison finally gave in to the War Hawks calls, and in June 1812, asked Congress to declare war on Britain. A British attack on Washington D.C. left the White House burned out, with only the exterior walls standing. 1st Lady Dolly Madison took a painting of George Washington before she fled Star-Spangled Banner • Baltimore, Maryland • Fort McHenry • Francis Scott Key • Overnight battle • “broad stripes and bright stars” The Battle of New Orleans Took place in late 1814, two weeks after the war had officially ended, and led to the deaths of over 2,000 British soldiers, and Andrew Jackson becoming a hero. Warm-Up Page 34 of your ISN • List 3 reasons why America went to war with Britain in 1812: James Monroe Years in office: 1817-1825 Party: Democratic Republican Elected from: Virginia Vice President: Daniel Tompkins Social & Domestic Era of Good Feelings The “Era of Good Feelings” was an idea of renewed sense of national unity that Monroe tried to bring about. The War of 1812 had been over for years and the nation was growing every year. As Monroe toured the country during his campaign, citizens were happy to see his old fashioned way of dress and acting. He was 60 years old when he took office, the last of the Revolutionary War officers, and still followed the fashions of the late 1700s, even though things had changed quite a bit. Economic Policies Protective Tariffs The Tariff of 1816 greatly raised tariffs on imported goods, making them more expensive than U.S. goods. This made Southerners mad because they purchased many foreign goods. They said that the tariff made northern manufacturers rich, while hurting people in the South. This is evidence of sectionalism, or loyalty to a smaller section, or state, instead of the whole country. Protective Tariff THE PRICE OF A DRESSER Protective Tariff $1.50 American Cost: $6 English Cost: $5 + protective English tariff $1.50 = $6.50 Cost: $5 Sectionalism • John C. Calhoun- South (Pro-War of 1812, pro-slavery and strong state governments) • Daniel Webster- North (Anti-War of 1812, anti-slavery, strong federal government) • Henry Clay- West (Pro-War of 1812, strong federal government) Sectionalism I’m a I’m a westerner! Northerner! I’m a Wait! I thought we Southerne were all Americans! r! Clay’s American System Plan to promote economic growth. Called for a new national bank and high import tariffs, to reduce dependency on foreign goods. Because of increased wealth, northerners would be able to buy farm products from the West and South. Pushed for internal improvements- improvements for roads, bridges, and canals to help connect the west to the rest of the country. Foreign Policy Monroe Doctrine In 1823, President Monroe announced the Monroe Doctrine, which said the U.S. would not get involved in European matters or with the colonies owned by European nations. He also warned European nations not to try to regain control of any Latin American countries that were newly independent. The U.S. would oppose any attempt by Europe to build new colonies in the Americas. This showed that Monroe was serious about keeping European powers out of the Western Hemisphere. Even though we could not enforce the doctrine because of our small military, Britain backed up the statement and would use its powerful navy to repel European nations. Europe STAY OUT of South America! Monroe Doctrine is still in use today! Government & Politics Federal power grows In McCulloch v. Maryland the Supreme Court said that a state does not have the right to interfere with federal institutions within the state, after Maryland tried to tax the Bank of the U.S. to drive it out of the state. Government & Politics In Gibbons v. Ogden the court maintained the idea that only the federal government has the power to regulate trade between states, or interstate commerce, while a state can only regulate trade inside its borders. This occurred when a New York law tried to control steamboat travel between New York and New Jersey. Federal Government Important Events Florida (FL) from Spain U.S. wanted to gain control over Spanish Florida because Spanish officials had protected runaway slaves. There were also several Indian tribes who lived in the area that were attacking southern farms. In 1818, Andrew Jackson headed to Florida, which was controlled by Spain at the time. This would be the second time Jackson entered Florida in the past few years. Because they were fighting rebels in Latin America and could not risk war with America, Spain did little to stop them. This led Spain to enter peace talks Adams-Onis Treaty After dealings with John Quincy Adams, Spain agreed to give Florida to the U.S. for $5 million. The Adams-Onis Treaty took effect in 1821.
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