Our First Five Presidents (PowerPoint)

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					Our First Five Presidents
         1789-1825
When we last left the United States, the
 colonists had:
1) Declared independence from Britain
2) Defeated Britain, the strongest nation in
   the world at the time, in the Revolutionary
   War
3) Created The Constitution of the United
   States as a framework for just how the
   country was going to be run.
          George Washington

Years in office: 1789-1797
Party: None
Elected from: Virginia
VP: John Adams
              ID Question
• Remember:

• What was the most important precedent set
  by President Washington?
       Looking at the Presidents
•   Domestic Policies
•   Economic Policies
•   Foreign Policies
•   Significant Events
           Government & Politics
           Setting Precedents: Creation of the Cabinet

5 executive positions to be in charge of various aspects of the
government. They were Attorney General, Postmaster General,
Secretary of State, Secretary of the Treasury, and Secretary of War.
All five report directly to the President.
His first order was to create 5 executive departments, and choose
well-known leaders to head them. Together they are the Cabinet.

   Edmund                                             Samuel
   Randolph                                           Osgood

Attorney General           President           Postmaster General
                           George
                          Washington



    Thomas                                            Henry
   Jefferson                                          Knox
                          Alexander
     State                Hamilton                 War/Defense

                            Treasury
Jefferson and Hamilton were the most influential members
of the Cabinet.




   Thomas Jefferson            Alexander Hamilton
   Secretary of State          Secretary of the Treasury
              Social & Domestic
                      Judiciary Act

-Created court system (District         Appellate        Supreme)




                                  -John Jay named as first Chief
                                  Justice of the Supreme Court
 The biggest problem Alexander Hamilton faced as Secretary of
 the Treasury, was the large national debt.

Amount of $      Amount of $ U.S. owed     Total income U.S.
it cost to run                             received
U.S. Gov’t,                                1789-1791
1789-1791




$4,269,000            $77,228,000           $4,419,000

      Total debt = $81,497,000
               Economic Policies
                 National Debt repayment plan
Hamilton’s plan called for the federal government to replace old
bonds (a certificate which promises to repay the money loaned)
with new ones, and as the economy improved, they could pay off
the new bonds. Also wanted to pay off national and state debts.
Disliked by southerners.
Hamilton then asks Congress to set up a national bank. The
Bank of the United States is created in 1791. The bank will:
 hold money from collected taxes
 issue paper money to pay the government’s bills
 issue loans, which encourage economic growth
Hamilton also asks for a tax on foreign goods imported to the U.S.
This tax, called a tariff, makes imported goods more expensive,
which make people buy from domestic (U.S.) companies.

 North  - supports because of its many
factories
 South - does not support because they buy
many foreign goods

A tariff is passed, but it is not as high as Hamilton had wanted.
In Congress, many southerners wanted the national capital to be
located in the south. Hamilton agreed to this, as long as the
southerners agreed go along with his plan for eliminating the
debt.
In 1790, it was determined that
the new capital would not be
part of any one state, but built
on land along the Potomac
River, between Maryland and
Virginia. The area was called
District of Columbia, known
today as Washington D.C.
Construction was to be finished
by 1800.
The temporary capital was moved from New York to Philadelphia.
                  Foreign Policy
            Neutrality Proclamation /French Revolution
Washington wanted to stay out of the fighting between the British
and French, so he took neither side. He believed that by getting
involved, it would only lead to trouble for the U.S.


                         Jay’s Treaty
Treaty, created by John Jay, between U.S. and British for:
-repayment of damage to American ships
-payment of overdue U.S. bills
-British give up forts in the west
-Avoided war with Britain
           Government & Politics
               Creation of Political Parties



The first 2 political parties are created:
- The Federalists, led by Alexander Hamilton
- The Democratic Republicans, led by Thomas Jefferson
                Economic Policies

                          Whiskey Tax


Tax on all liquor made and sold in the U.S. This upset farmers who
needed to convert corn to liquor for easier transport, and lead to the
Whiskey Rebellion. The protest was put down quickly, but was
almost America’s first civil war.
                 Important Events
                       Whiskey Rebellion

Protest by Pennsylvania farmers over the new liquor tax. Was
ended when Washington called the militia to combat the farmers.


                        Farewell Address

In his farewell address Washington said that the U.S. must not enter
political alliances with other countries. U.S. must remain neutral to
avoid problems.

Steer Clear of Political Parties. They only cause fighting within the
nation.
   5 Presidents Umbrella Question
          (Exam Question)
1. George Washington warned Americans in
   his farewell address not to get involved
   with foreign affairs. What international
   situations faced the first five Presidents
   and how well did each president follow
   Washington’s advice?
    Warm-Up 2/4/2009- Put your answer on page
                23 of your ISN.
John Adams was very different from George Washington.
  Washington was tall and dignified. Adams was short and a bit
  pudgy. Washington spoke little and chose his words carefully.
  Adams was outspoken. He said what he believed, and he held
  strong beliefs. Jefferson recalled how Adams sometimes became
  so angry during an argument that he ended up “dashing and
  trampling his wig on the floor”.
Despite his temper, Adams was an honest and able leader. As
  President, he tried to act in the best interest of the nation, even
  when he knew his actions could hurt him politically. More than
  once, Adams stood up to public opinion or the leaders of his
  party.

Predict: Based on the description of Adams above, do you think he
  will have more or less trouble than Washington did in dealing
  with his opponents?
                     John Adams
Years in office: 1797-1801
Party: Federalist
Elected from: Massachusetts
VP: Thomas Jefferson
      Take out your packet
     for the 1st 5 presidents
Economic Policies


No significant economic policies
                   Foreign Policy
                          XYZ Affair

In 1797, feeling that the Americans were favoring Britain with
Jay’s Treaty, the French began capturing American ships. Talk of
war soon came up, so Adams sent delegates to speak with the
French. The French foreign minister sent three agents to speak for
him. Before talks began, the agents said he wanted $250K for
himself and a $10 million loan for France. When Adams heard
about this insult, he told Congress, referring to the agents as X, Y
and Z.
This angered many Americans when they heard about it, but Adams
refused to go over it. Like Washington, he wanted to stay out of
European affairs.

Frigates: fast sailing ships with many guns
               XYZ Affair
• American Response to the XYZ Affair
• “Millions for defense but not one cent for
  tribute”
• Tribute: bribe
Look at page 292 of your textbook. Turn to page 23 of your
        ISN and answer the questions on page 292.
               Social & Domestic
                    Alien and Sedition Acts
The Alien Act said that the President could kick out any alien, or
foreign person, that was considered to be dangerous. An attached
law also made it more difficult for people to become citizens.

The Sedition Act stated that people could be fined or jailed for
criticizing the government or government officials. Sedition means
stirring up a rebellion against the government.

The Alien and Sedition Acts would lead to the Kentucky and
Virginia Resolutions.
            Government & Politics
        Kentucky (KY) and Virginia (VA) Resolutions
Many people said that the Alien and Sedition Acts were a violation
of people’s rights including Jefferson. Kentucky and Virginia
created resolutions saying that each individual state “has an
equal right to judge for itself” if a law is unconstitutional. If it
was determined that a law was unconstitutional, it could nullify, or
cancel, the law.


                     Federalist Party Split

After a difference of ideas, Alexander Hamilton and a number of
other Federalists split away from the political party.
                                 Put questions on page
                                 8 of your ISN. Leave
             States’ Rights        space for answers

• Do states have the right to declare a federal
  law unconstitutional?
• If so, how would this affect the balance of
  power between the federal and state
  government? Who would have all the power
  in the government?
• What have we learned about federalism
  from our 7 principles of the U.S.
  Constitution?
                  Important Events
                           Election of 1800
In the election of 1800, the Republican candidates were Thomas
Jefferson and Aaron Burr, the Federalist was John Adams. There were
not separate ballots for President and Vice President though. When all of
the electoral votes were counted, it was a tie between Jefferson and
Burr. In case of a tie, the decision goes to the House of Representatives.
After four days, the House chose Jefferson as President and Burr as Vice
President.

This incident lead to the passage of the 12th Amendment, which says
that the electors must vote for the President and Vice President
separately. Since then, power has transferred peacefully during each
election.

The Federalist party began to fade away, and lost much of its power
after its leader, Alexander Hamilton, was killed in a duel with Aaron
Burr.
                  Warm-Up 2/15/2010
                   Judicial Review
    Copy the following questions in your ISN. Answer the
    questions for your warm-up. You may use your textbook.
•    Which of the following is judicial review?
    1.   Supreme Court finds a man guilty of murder
    2.   Supreme Court rules that tobacco companies are responsible
         for lung cancer
    3.   Supreme Court nullifies the Alien and Sedition Acts because
         they are unconstitutional
•    How did judicial review increase the power of the U.S.
     Supreme Court?
           Thomas Jefferson
Years in office: 1801-1809
Party: Democratic
           Republican
Elected from: Virginia
Vice President:
     1) Aaron Burr
     2) George Clinton
  Economic Policies- Economic Philosophy
Laissez faire is a French term
meaning “let alone”. What Jefferson
meant by this term is that
government should play a very
small role in economic matters.

•This was different than the
Federalist idea that government
should promote trade and
manufacturing.

•This idea also promoted a free
market, where goods and ideas are
exchanged with few restrictions.
           Government & Politics
                  Smaller role for government

Jefferson wanted the government to have a smaller role in the lives
of the citizens. (This is evident from his idea of laissez faire.)

He wanted to reduce the federal budget, meaning the amount the
government is able to spend. This would help to keep the national
debt low.

He believed that governments primary role is to protect the
rights of citizens, so he decreased the size of the government
departments.

Jefferson also decreased the size of the army and navy, and asked
Congress to repeal the unpopular whiskey tax.
                   Foreign Policy
                  Impressment of U.S. sailors

Britain and France go to war 1803. Refused to allow the U.S. to
trade with the enemy.

The British were capturing U.S. ships and impressing, or forcing,
the sailors to work for the British navy. Because of this many
Americans wanted to go to war.
             Embargo Act of 1807
An embargo, or ban, on trade with Britain and France designed to
hurt both countries financially. This was punishment for the
impressment of American sailors, as it cut off supplies to both
countries. It backfired and hurt Americans, as supplies of popular
import items (molasses, tea, sugar) were cut off.
Smuggling: importing or exporting goods in violation of trade laws.
Black market economy.
Because it hurt Americans so much, it was replaced in 1809 with
the Nonintercourse Act, which said Americans could trade with any
country except Britain and France.
               Social & Domestic
                        Marbury v. Madison
This case increased the power of the Supreme Court.
On the last night of John Adams’ (Federalist) presidency, he
appointed William Marbury as one of the judges (not Supreme
Court). The incoming Republicans said the Federalists were using
unfair tactics to keep the courts in their control. Jefferson ordered
Sec. of State James Madison not to deliver Marbury’s
appointment. Marbury sued Madison and the case went to the
Supreme Court.
Chief Justice John Marshall ruled against Marbury, writing that
the Judiciary Act was unconstitutional and that the Constitution
did not give the Supreme Court the power to decide cases against
federal officials.
This case set a precedent for judicial review, or the power of the
Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional.
               Important Events
                  Louisiana (LA) Purchase

In 1803, the U.S. purchased, from France, a territory that was
828,000 sq. mi./530,000,000 acres. In a surprise move, they
were able to purchase all of this for about $15,000,000, or 2
cents/acre.

There was a question of the constitutionality of the President
being able to buy land, as the Constitution never mentions
anything about it.

The land purchase makes up about 23% of the total mass of
the U.S., and would eventually give birth to 11 states.
                Important Events
                 Lewis and Clark Expedition
After the Louisiana Purchase was finished, Congress
approved for money to be spent on an expedition to
explore the new lands and open trade with the Native American
groups that inhabited the land. The 50 man crew left in May 1804
and arrived at the Pacific Ocean on November 7, 1805.
                                   Along the way, they saw many
                                   new plants and animals. They
                                   also met Sacagawea, an Indian
                                   woman who agreed to join
                                   them on their trip as a guide
                                   and translator.
 Warm-Up 2/11/2011- The Star-Spangled Banner Put in your ISN
Oh, say, can you see, by the dawn's early light,     Copy down the
What so proudly we hail'd at the twilight's last     question and
gleaming?                                            the answer! At
Whose broad stripes and bright stars, thro' the      least 5
perilous fight,                                      sentences.
O'er the ramparts we watch'd, were so gallantly
streaming?                                           What does this
And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in    song mean to
air,                                                 you as an
Gave proof thro' the night that our flag was still   American?
there.
O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave       Extra Credit:
O'er the land of the free and the home of the        What event is
brave?                                               this song
                                                     referring to?
            James Madison
Years in office: 1809-1817
Party: Democratic
           Republican
Elected from: Virginia
Vice President:
     1) George Clinton
     2) Elbridge Gerry
               Economic Policies
Native Americans Conflict:
900,000 white settlers moved west of the Appalachians between
1790-1810

Many white settlers had begun pushing past Ohio, even before it
became a state in 1803. They were now pushing into the Indiana
Territory, which was mostly controlled by Native Americans, who
were growing more and more frustrated and promised to keep the
settlers from going even further. This would lead to increased
fighting between the Native American groups and Americans,
leading to the Battle of Tippecanoe.
              Social & Domestic
         Westward Expansion/Conflicts with Indians


Small fighting broke out- Treaty of Greenville-
Ohio

Tecumseh’s Confederation: Tecumseh and the
Prophet
-”White customs corrupted the Indian way of life”
-1808 Prophet built a village at Tippecanoe Creek.
                Important Events
                      The Battle of Tippecanoe
A ferocious fight between American troops, led by William Henry
Harrison, and Native Americans, led by a Shawnee leader called
 The Prophet. By the time
 fighting was over, both
 sides had suffered heavy
 losses.
 While the Americans
 would win that day, The
 Prophet’s brother,
 Tecumseh and his
 followers would continue
 to resist the settling of
 their lands.
   Preparing for the Essay Exam
• Write down 1 event from 1. George Washington
  each of the following        warned Americans in his
  presidencies that has to do  farewell address not to
  with foreign affairs. Give a
                               get involved with foreign
  short 2-3 sentences
  explanation of the event.    affairs. What
                               international situations
• 1. Washington                faced the first five
• 2. Adams                     Presidents and how well
• 3. Jefferson                 did each president follow
• 4. Madison                   Washington’s advice?
           Government & Politics
                          War Hawks

The War Hawks were Congressmen from the West and South that
strongly pushed for going to war with Britain. Britain was
supplying guns to the Native Americans and encouraging them to
attack U.S. settlements. These War Hawks were driven by a strong
sense of nationalism, or devotion to one’s country.

Henry Clay of Kentucky
-Wants war with Britain
-Wants to claim Canada
-Wants to claim Florida from Spain, Britain’s Ally
-Wants war to gain peace with Indians on the frontier
 Why would people from New
 England NOT want war with
Britain? Think about economics!
                  Foreign Policy
                           War of 1812
Since Jefferson’s presidency, Britain had been interfering with
American trading and impressing American sailors. Madison
finally gave in to the War Hawks calls, and in June 1812, asked
Congress to declare war on Britain.
A British attack on Washington
D.C. left the White House
burned out, with only the
exterior walls standing.

1st Lady Dolly Madison took a
painting of George Washington
before she fled
          Star-Spangled Banner
•   Baltimore, Maryland
•   Fort McHenry
•   Francis Scott Key
•   Overnight battle
•   “broad stripes and bright stars”
The Battle of New Orleans
         Took place in late 1814,
          two weeks after the war
          had officially ended, and
          led to the deaths of over
          2,000 British soldiers,
          and Andrew Jackson
          becoming a hero.
 Warm-Up Page 34 of your ISN
• List 3 reasons why America went to war
  with Britain in 1812:
             James Monroe
Years in office: 1817-1825
Party: Democratic
           Republican
Elected from: Virginia
Vice President: Daniel
                  Tompkins
               Social & Domestic
                      Era of Good Feelings

The “Era of Good Feelings” was an idea of renewed sense of
national unity that Monroe tried to bring about.

The War of 1812 had been over for years and the nation was
growing every year. As Monroe toured the country during his
campaign, citizens were happy to see his old fashioned way of
dress and acting. He was 60 years old when he took office, the last
of the Revolutionary War officers, and still followed the fashions of
the late 1700s, even though things had changed quite a bit.
                Economic Policies
                      Protective Tariffs


The Tariff of 1816 greatly raised tariffs on imported goods, making
them more expensive than U.S. goods. This made Southerners
mad because they purchased many foreign goods. They said that
the tariff made northern manufacturers rich, while hurting
people in the South. This is evidence of sectionalism, or loyalty to
a smaller section, or state, instead of the whole country.
        Protective Tariff
     THE PRICE OF A DRESSER

                         Protective
                           Tariff
                           $1.50

American
Cost: $6
   English Cost: $5 + protective      English
       tariff $1.50 = $6.50           Cost: $5
             Sectionalism
• John C. Calhoun- South (Pro-War of
  1812, pro-slavery and strong state
  governments)
• Daniel Webster- North (Anti-War of 1812,
  anti-slavery, strong federal government)
• Henry Clay- West (Pro-War of 1812,
  strong federal government)
                 Sectionalism
I’m a                                I’m a
westerner!                         Northerner!




                                    I’m a
             Wait! I thought we     Southerne
             were all Americans!    r!
      Clay’s American System
Plan to promote economic growth. Called for a new
  national bank and high import tariffs, to reduce
  dependency on foreign goods. Because of
  increased wealth, northerners would be able to buy
  farm products from the West and South.
Pushed for internal improvements- improvements for
  roads, bridges, and canals to help connect the west
  to the rest of the country.
                   Foreign Policy
                       Monroe Doctrine

In 1823, President Monroe announced the Monroe Doctrine, which
said the U.S. would not get involved in European matters or with
the colonies owned by European nations. He also warned
European nations not to try to regain control of any Latin
American countries that were newly independent.

The U.S. would oppose any attempt by Europe to build new
colonies in the Americas. This showed that Monroe was serious
about keeping European powers out of the Western Hemisphere.
Even though we could not enforce the doctrine because of our
small military, Britain backed up the statement and would use its
powerful navy to repel European nations.
                  Europe STAY
                  OUT of South
                  America!




Monroe Doctrine is
 still in use today!
            Government & Politics
                       Federal power grows

In McCulloch v. Maryland the Supreme Court said that a state does
not have the right to interfere with federal institutions within the
state, after Maryland tried to tax the Bank of the U.S. to drive it out
of the state.
           Government & Politics
In Gibbons v. Ogden the court maintained the idea that only the
federal government has the power to regulate trade between states,
or interstate commerce, while a state can only regulate trade inside
its borders. This occurred when a New York law tried to control
steamboat travel between New York and New Jersey.




       Federal Government
                Important Events
                    Florida (FL) from Spain


        U.S. wanted to gain control over Spanish Florida because
Spanish officials had protected runaway slaves. There were also
several Indian tribes who lived in the area that were attacking
southern farms.
        In 1818, Andrew Jackson headed to Florida, which was
controlled by Spain at the time. This would be the second time
Jackson entered Florida in the past few years. Because they were
fighting rebels in Latin America and could not risk war with
America, Spain did little to stop them. This led Spain to enter
peace talks
         Adams-Onis Treaty
After dealings with John Quincy Adams, Spain agreed to give
Florida to the U.S. for $5 million. The Adams-Onis Treaty took
effect in 1821.

				
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