Federalism Enumerated Powers to Concurrent Reserved powers for national Powers to state governments: government: national and 1. Establish schools state 1. Coin money governments: 2. Marriage/divorce 2. Regulate interstate laws 1. Raise taxes and foreign trade 3. Regulate trade 2. Borrow money 3. Armed forces within the state (declaring war) 3. Provide for All powers not public welfare 4. Creation of federal specifically granted courts 4. Administer to the federal govt criminal justice are reserved for the states The Legislative Branch Congress House of Representatives Senate 435 members 100 members Represent portions of Two from each state the state Represent the whole Apportionment state – No state can gain rep unless one loses one Speaker of the House = Elected by other members House of Representatives 25+ years old US Citizen for 7 years Resident of the state Serve 2 year terms Can be elected unlimited times Senate 30+ years old US citizen for 9 years Resident of the state Serve 6 year terms – Terms are staggered so seats are up for election every 2 years Can be elected unlimited times What can Congress do Make nation’s laws Control federal spending Ratifies treaties Confirm presidential appointments Can override veto Monitors Executive Branch House of Reps can impeach – Senate acts as court The Judicial Branch Judicial Branch District Courts – Lowest level of federal court system – Criminal and civil cases – 91 districts courts (1 in every state) Appellate Courts (appeal courts) – Losing side of district court hearing can appeal – 14 appeals courts in US The Supreme Court – Final authority in the federal court system – Most of Supreme Court cases are from appeals of lower courts – Only cases involving foreign ambassadors or disputes between states can begin in Supreme Court Supreme Court 9 total Judges Appointed for life = retires or passes away Not influenced by political parties No requirements = although every judge has been attorney What can Judicial Branch do Not described in much detail in Constitution Declare acts unconstitutional Declare executive actions unconstitutional Judicial review = gives Supreme Court the ultimate authority to interpret the meaning of constitutional provisions. Explain how words of Constitution apply today The Executive Branch Who is in the Executive Branch? President Vice President Cabinet Members – Department Secretaries The President 35+ years old Born in The United States U.S. resident for at least 14 years Americans vote every four years for President and Vice President 2 term limit VP takes over for President – Dies – Impeached – Resigns What a President can do Veto laws Executive orders – Command that has power of law Pardons – Freedom from punishment Arranging treaties Foreign relations Chooses department heads (Cabinet members) – Congress must approve Lyndon B. Johnson Quote “What a President says and thinks is not worth five cents unless he has the people and Congress behind him. Without the Congress I’m just a six-foot-four Texan. With Congress I’m President of the United States in the fullest sense.” What does Lyndon B. Johnson mean by this quote?
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