Observatory University of Helsinki Annual Report 2008

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					                  Observatory
              University of Helsinki
              Annual Report 2008




Observatory P.O. Box 14, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
                     http://www.astro.helsinki.fi/
   Foreword
    The vision in the operational plan of the Observatory has
been that we are the most efficient Finnish institute in re-
searcher training in Astronomy during the period 2005–2010.
We can reach this vision only by maintaining an exception-
ally high level of both research and teaching. Our long-term
plan for the period 2005–2015 has consisted of ten opera-
tional measures, which have been systematically executed,
followed and analysed in close collaboration with our three
research groups, as well as with all students majoring in As-
tronomy. Now in June 2009, we have already reached our
vision, because 12 PhD theses have been completed after Jan-
uary 2005. This is a fine achievement, considering that 9 PhD
degrees were completed during the past ten years before Jan-
uary 2005. The past year 2008 was exceptional: 3 PhD de-
grees, 1 Ph Lic degree and 11 M.Sc. degrees were completed.
The number of degrees completed between 1995 and 2008
has been as follows:
                      M.Sc.    Ph.Lic.   Ph.D.                       But success and hard work did not shield us. All small de-
              1995     1          –        2                     partments in Helsinki University will be merged with bigger
              1996     –          1        –                     departments (e.g. Astronomy with Physics). The reasons for
              1997     2          –        1                     this manoeuvre did not originate from the needs of research
              1998     –          –        1                     or education. Some said the reasons were financial and ad-
              1999     4          –        2                     ministrational, following from changes in the law of Finnish
              2000     –          –        1                     universities. Others invented other reasons. What would hap-
              2001     1          –        1                     pen, if Korkeasaari Zoo was ordered to put all animals into
              2002     –          –        –                     30 cages? The last ones alive would probably be scavengers.
              2003     5          –        1                     Would it not be interesting to see tigers and lions in the same
              2004     2          –        –                     cage?
              2005     2          –        2                         It has been frustrating to experience how little we could
              2006     6          –        3                     actually control the course of events. Soon we shall no longer
              2007     5          –        –                     decide as an independent department what is best for Astron-
              2008     11         1        3                     omy in the University of Helsinki. Perhaps a faint glimmer of
                                                                 hope can be seen in the work of the group planning the future
    We have also been able to maintain the high levels of the    of Astronomy in the “new” Department of Physics. But it also
number of refereed articles published and external funding re-   now seems that all of us have to leave the 175 year old Ob-
ceived. This volume and the funding of our research between      servatory building designed by Engel. I sincerely hope that
1995 and 2008 is illustrated in the attached figure. where the    such a mistake could be avoided. The ongoing year 2009 was
following notations have been used:                              nominated as the international year of Astronomy by United
                                                                 Nations. This completes the irony.
  Number of articles in refereed journals (scale on the right)       I wish to acknowledge the support of the Board of the Ob-
  Budget funding from the University of Helsinki (scale on       servatory and the student association Meridian, and the work
the left) ke.                                                    by faculty, staff and students in maintaining the high level of
• Project funding for Observatory (scale on the left) ke.        research and teaching at the Department of Astronomy.
◦ Project funding for Observatory including industrial sub-
contracts (scale on the left) ke.                                                       Lauri Jetsu
                                                                                        Director of the Observatory
                                                                                        Helsinki, June 6th, 2009
Photo: Leith Arar
Contents
1   Interstellar medium, star formation and magnetic activity of stars                                                                                                                                                  4
    1.1 Research activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    4
    1.2 Progress and highlights of scientific results in 2008 . . . . . . .                 .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    4
         1.2.1 Star formation in cometary globule GC 12 . . . . . . . .                    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    4
         1.2.2 Prestellar and protostellar cores in Ori B9 . . . . . . . .                 .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    5
         1.2.3 Near-infrared radiation as a tracer of cloud mass . . . .                   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    5
         1.2.4 MHD phenomena: observations and modelling . . . . .                         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    6
         1.2.5 Magnetic fields in interstellar clouds . . . . . . . . . . .                 .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    7
         1.2.6 The Planck and Herschel satellite projects . . . . . . . .                  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    7
         1.2.7 Extragalactic background light . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    7
    1.3 External financing and resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    7
    1.4 Tests of learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    8
    1.5 Visits abroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    8
    1.6 Papers read at scientific conferences, symposia, meetings etc. . .                  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    9
    1.7 Visiting academics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   10
    1.8 Membership in scientific and scholarly societies . . . . . . . . .                  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   11
    1.9 Refereeing and Other Publishing Activities . . . . . . . . . . .                   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   11

2   High Energy Astrophysics                                                                                                                                                                                           12
    2.1 General approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   12
    2.2 Science topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   12
         2.2.1 The solar corona . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   12
         2.2.2 Clusters of galaxies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   13
    2.3 Development of data analysis software . . . . . . . . . . . .              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   14
    2.4 External financing and resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   14
    2.5 Tests of learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   14
    2.6 Visits abroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   14
    2.7 Papers read at scientific conferences, symposia, meetings etc.              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   15
    2.8 Visiting academics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   15
    2.9 Membership in scientific and scholarly societies . . . . . . .              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   15
    2.10 Refereeing and Other Publishing Activities . . . . . . . . .              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   15

3   Planetary System Research                                                                                                                                                                                          19
    3.1 Research activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   19
    3.2 External financing and resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   22
    3.3 Tests of learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   22
    3.4 Visits abroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   22
    3.5 Papers read at scientific conferences, symposia, meetings etc.              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   23
    3.6 Visiting academics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   25
    3.7 Membership in scientific and scholarly societies . . . . . . .              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   25
    3.8 Refereeing and Other Publishing Activities . . . . . . . . .               .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   25

4   Lectures in 2008                                                                                                                                                                                                   26

5   Library                                                                                                                                                                                                            27
    5.1 The Observatory Museum and Historical Documents            .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   27
    5.2 Accessibility Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   27
    5.3 LISA VI Conference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   27
    5.4 Membership in scientific and scholarly societies . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   27

6   Publications                                                                                                                                                                                                       28
    6.1 Articles in refereed journals (B1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                             28
    6.2 Papers in conference publications and compilations (B2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                  29

7   Observatory Board 2007–2009                                                                                                                                                                                        31

8   Academic degrees after 1995                                                                                                                                                                                        32
1 Interstellar medium, star formation                                     Shimariji (NRO/NAOJ).
                                                                              In recent years the ESO facilities have been of growing
  and magnetic activity of stars                                          importance. The group has successfully performed several
      Staff with a Ph.D.       Lauri Haikala, Docent                       ESO/VLT observing programs and special attention is paid to
                              Jorma Harju, Docent                         the 12-m Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) and to the
                              Thomas Hackman, Ph.D.
                              Mika Juvela, Docent                         Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA). APEX became
                              Maarit Korpi, Docent                        publicly available in 2006 and ALMA will start its operation
                                      a a
                              Petri K¨ pyl¨ , Ph.D.
                              Kimmo Lehtinen, Docent                      in 2010. The group has been well informed about available
                              Kalevi Mattila, Prof.                       ESO telescopes and facilities: Mattila is since 2004 Finland’s
                              Ilkka Tuominen, Prof.emer.
      Ph.D. students          Jouni Kainulainen, M.Sc                     representative in the ESO Council. Haikala is since 2007 (af-
                                             o
                              Anne Liljestr¨ m, M.Sc                      ter Tuominen) Finland’s representative in the Scientific Tech-
                              Tuomas Lunttila, M.Sc.
                              Johanna Malinen, M.Sc.                      nical Committee. Harju is since 2004 member of the ALMA
                                        a a
                              Minja M¨ kel¨ , M.Sc.                       European Scientific Advisory Committee. In 2008, Juvela
                              Oskari Miettinen, M.Sc.
                              Jan Snellman, M.Sc.                         served a member and Harju an Expert Advisor in the ESO
                              Veli-Matti Pelkonen, M. Sc.                 Observing Programmes Committee.
                              Marianna Ridderstad, M.Sc.
                              Ky¨ sti Ryyn¨ nen, M.Sc.
                                  o         a                                 During the past several years ESA’s Infrared Space Ob-
                                        a
                              Olli Sipil¨ , M.Sc.                         servatory (ISO) has been important for the group. The ex-
      Associated scientists   Axel Brandenburg, Ph.D., Prof.
                                 (Nordita, Stockholm, Sweden),            ploitation of the ISO data has continued intensively, often in
                              Thorsten Carroll, Ph.D.                     combination with near-IR and (sub)mm data from ESO and
                                 (Astroph. Inst. Potsdam, Germany)
                              Stephan Hotzel, Ph.D.                       other ground based telescopes such as the Australian Tele-
                                 (Stuttgart, Germany)                     scope Compact Array, the Effelsberg 100-m and the Onsala
                              Ilya Ilyin, Ph.D.
                                 (Astroph. Inst. Potsdam, Germany),       20-m radiotelescopes, and the 2.5-m Nordic Optical Tele-
                              Peter Johansson, Ph.D.                      scope.
                                 (University Observatory, Munich)
                              Oleg Kochukhov, Ph. D.                          Based on its ISO experience, the group has been par-
                                 Uppsala University, Sweden),             ticipating in the relevant Planck Surveyor science projects.
                              Heidi Korhonen, Ph.D.
                                 (ESO, Garching, Germany)                 Among the other future ESA missions the group is particu-
                              Jaan Pelt, Ph.D.                            larly well-prepared to make use of the Herschel Space Obser-
                              (Tartu Observatory, Estonia)
                              Peter Petrov, Ph.D.                         vatory mission and already participates in two Herschel open
                                 (Crimean Astroph. Obs., Ukraine),        time key programmes. Our plans also include expanding and
                              Nikolai Piskunov, Ph.D., Prof.
                                 (Uppsala University, Sweden),            emphasizing our theoretical research of star formation and in-
                              Mark Rawlings, Ph.D.                        terstellar cloud physics.
                                 (JAC, Hawaii)
                              Petri V¨ is¨ nen, Ph.D.
                                      a a                                     Spectropolarimetric observations of active late-type stars
                                 (SALT, South Africa)                     using the high resolution Echelle spectrograph SOFIN at the
                                                                          Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, Spain, have continued
1.1     Research activities                                               successfully. The time series of spectroscopic observations
                                                                          for surface temperature maps already extend over 17 years.
The activities of the research group are directed to the fol-
                                                                          Simultaneous local and global MHD modelling and model
lowing fields: (1) the formation of protostars in dense molec-
                                                                          development has been actively carried out, applications rang-
ular cloud cores; (2) the properties and evolution of dust
                                                                          ing from the solar dynamo activity to the active rapid rotators
and molecular gas in interstellar clouds; (3) radiative transfer
                                                                          followed up by the observational programme, also including
and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modelling of interstellar
                                                                          MHD turbulence in accretion disks around pre- or protostel-
clouds and protostellar accretion discs; (4) MHD-modelling
                                                                          lar cores, and molecular clouds and star-forming regions in
of solar and active late-type star convection and turbulent dy-
                                                                          galaxies.
namos and related optical spectropolarimetric observations
using inversion methods; (5) the optical and infrared extra-
galactic background radiation.                                            1.2     Progress and highlights of scientific results
    The group uses ground-based and space-borne opti-                             in 2008
cal/infrared, (sub)millimetre, and radio telescopes. The stud-
                                                                          (for references see the list of publications)
ies often are conducted in collaboration with research groups
from other countries. As an example of the international as-
pect, a Japanese-Finnish workshop ‘Interstellar matter and                1.2.1   Star formation in cometary globule GC 12
star formation in the Southern sky” took place at the Ob-                 Low and intermediate mass star formation takes mostly place
servatory Aug. 5th to 7th. The Japanese participants were                 in isolated clusters and in low mass star forming regions. As
Prof. R. Kawabe (NRO/NAOJ), Prof. M. Momose (Ibaraki                      the stars form in dense gas and dust clouds, which are tightly
University), Dr. M. Hiramatsu (ASIAA, Taiwan) and Mr. Y.


                                                                      4
                                                                       1.2.2   Prestellar and protostellar cores in Ori B9
                                                                       Most stars form in clusters and smaller groups in the densest
                                                                       parts of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). By studying their
                                                                       physical and chemical characteristics, we hope to learn the
                                                                       conditions leading to protostellar collapse and the timescale
                                                                       related to this process.
                                                                           We have carried out studies of the Ori B9 cloud. The 870
                                                                       µm dust continuum was observed with the APEX telescope
                                                                       and data on the N2 H+ (1 − 0) and N2 D+ (2 − 1) lines were
                                                                       obtained with the IRAM telescope (see Figs. 2 and 3). To-
                                                                       gether with our previous H 2 D+ data (Harju et al. 2006), these
                                                                       were used to derive the degree of deuteration and other chem-
                                                                       ical characteristics. Using additional information from far-
                                                                       infrared Spitzer/MIPS maps, prestellar and protostellar cores
                                                                       were identified, and the evolutionary stages of the protostars
                                                                       were estimated. Two of the new submm cores are previously
                                                                       unknown class 0 protostellar candidates. The equal number
                                                                       of prestellar and protostellar cores found implies that the du-
Figure 1: Colour coded SOFI image of CG12. The J, H and K              ration of the prestellar phase is comparable with the free-fall
bands are coded in blue, green and red, respectively. Square           time. However, this interpretation can be questioned on the
root scaling has been used to better bring out the faint surface       basis of chemical data. In some sources, depletion has lead
brightness structures.                                                 to the disappearance of gas phase N2 H+ and the most abun-
                                                                       dant ionic species are probably H+ and HCO+ . The ionization
                                                                       degree was found to be x(e) ∼ 10−7 . The estimated ambipo-
concentrated in the plane, star formation far out of the plane         lar diffusion timescales are ∼ 70 − 100 times longer than the
is not a likely event. The well known nearby star forming              free-fall time.
regions have been studied in great detail from visual to radio             The mass of the clump associated with IRAS 05405-0117
wavelengths but less is known of star formation regions off             was found to be ∼ 14 solar masses. It has an elongated struc-
the Galactic plane.                                                    ture and, according to our data, consists of multiple low- to
     Despite being classified as a cometary globule, together           intermediate-mass dense cores. This suggest that it will even-
with those in the Gum nebula, the high latitude globule CG             tually form a small stellar group.
12 is actually a high latitude low and intermediate mass star
formation region. With a galactic latitude of 21 degrees and           1.2.3   Near-infrared radiation as a tracer of cloud mass
at the distance of ∼550 pc CG 12 lies more than 200 pc above
the plane. The structure of the globule in molecular line emis-        Near-infrared scattered light was observed towards several
sion has been extensively studied by us at SEST (Haikala and           interstellar clouds using ESO/NTT and UKIRT telescopes.
Olberg 2007) and at APEX (Haikala et al. 2006). CG12 is                In Corona Australis, in accordance with previous theoreti-
an active site formation site but only the brightest stars in          cal predictions (Juvela et al. 2006), the observed surface
the associated stellar cluster are known. We have conducted            brightness could be explained by pure light scattering. The
NIR JHK imaging of the globule with SOFI at the NTT tele-              near-infrared surface brightness was found to be an accurate
scope at La Silla. The imaging reveals several new deeply              tracer of cloud mass. This means that observations of scat-
embedded member stars. The visual extinction towards the               tered light could become an important new method in studies
cluster members ranges from a few magnitudes up to about               of dense, quiescent clouds (Juvela et al. 2008; ESO press
40 magnitudes. Besides the two bright NIR reflection nebu-              release 06/08).
lae surrounding already known member stars, the SOFI imag-                 Near-infrared observations and the role of dust scatter-
ing reveals an hour glass shaped nebulosity with a stellar like        ing was investigated also in connection with external galax-
source at the “waist”. The hour glass lies at the centre of            ies. We performed a radiative transfer simulation study where
a highly collimated molecular outflow and is projected on               the near-infrared reddening signatures of extragalactic dust
a compact high density molecular core. The NIR imaging                 clouds were examined in a simple plane-parallel model mim-
shows that active star formation is still going on in this low         icking a face-on spiral galaxy (Kainulainen et al. 2008).
and intermediate mass star formation region high above the             Based on the simulations, we described the expected wave-
Galactic plane.                                                        length dependency of the reddening signatures for different
                                                                       scale heights of the dust distribution and thereby showed that
                                                                       the observed wavelength dependency can be used as an indi-


                                                                   5
                                                                   cator of the dust scale height. We also investigated the corre-
                                                                   lation between near-infrared reddening and total column den-
                                                                   sity in the models, and concluded that only about 10-20%
                                                                   of the total mass of dust clouds is recovered by their near-
                                                                   infrared reddening signature.
                                                                        One question of great current interest in star formation is
                                                                   the possible connection between the mass function of dense
                                                                   cores in molecular clouds and the initial mass function of
                                                                   stars. Recently, dust column density data derived from near-
                                                                   infrared extinction maps were used to derive the core mass
                                                                   function for the nearby Pipe Nebula. Collaborating with the
                                                                   research group responsible for the observational work, we
                                                                   performed a simulation study where we examined the fea-
                                                                   sibility of the method employed in composing the mass func-
                                                                   tion (Kainulainen et al. 2009). Using simulations, we de-
                                                                   scribed the accuracy at which the mass function can be de-
                                                                   rived from dust column density data, and how the essential
                                                                   parameters of the core population affect the accuracy. In par-
                                                                   ticular, we showed that the core mass function can be derived
                                                                   quite reliably for relatively sparse clouds like the Pipe Neb-
Figure 2: The IRAS 05405-0117 clump region. The large              ula.
plus signs mark the positions of our molecular-line observa-
tions. Also shown are the 24 µm peak positions of SMM 1.2.4 MHD phenomena: observations and modelling
4 and IRAS 05405-0117, and the 24 µm peak near SMM 5
(small green plus signs). The beam size is shown in the bot- We have succesfully continued the investigation of the mag-
tom left.                                                     netic field structure, especially the polarity of the field in spots
                                                              of two active longitudes, in active late-type stars (detected
                                                              earlier on by the group using surface temperature maps and
                                                              named as ”active star Hale rule”). Spectroscopic observa-
                                                              tions, based on which surface temperature maps have been
                                                              inverted, were started in 1991 with the high resolution spec-
                                                              trograph SOFIN at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma.
                                                              The time series collected since is one of the few most exten-
                                                              sive and complete existing data sets to study long-term vari-
                                                              ability (cycles) in active late-type stars. An important devel-
                                                              opment is the magnetic inversions based on new spectropo-
                                                              larimetic data with upgraded spectropolarimeter and reduc-
                                                              tion software, giving the first observational proof for the the-
                                                              oretical prediction of the magnetic field polarity. The work is
                                                              done in collaboration with astronomers in Uppsala, Sweden,
                                                              and Potsdam, Germany, most of the collaborators originally
                                                              having worked in Helsinki Observatory and/or Oulu Univer-
                                                              sity.
                                                                   Simultaneously to the observations, local and global
                                                              MHD models (PENCIL-CODE, MEFISTO; Korpi, K¨ pyl¨ ,          a a
                                                                      o
                                                              Liljestr¨ m, Lindborg, Snellman) have been developed and
                                                              utilized, to be able to investigate the transformation from
                                                              solar-like dynamo activity to the activity seen in the active
                                                              rapid rotators. This includes participation in a solar dynamo
                                                              benchmark project which is likely to be helpful in the devel-
                                                              opement and validation dynamo codes (Jouve et al. 2008).
                                                              Numerical modeling has yielded new results in a variety
Figure 3: N2 H+ (1 − 0) and N2 D+ (2 − 1) spectra toward IRAS of systems: local turbulence models have been utilized to
05405-0117.                                                   study the turbulent transport of angular momentum (K¨ pyl¨   a a



                                                               6
                                 ¨
& Brandenburg 2008; Liljestrom et al. 2009) and turbu-                Herschel satellite for follow-up observations of a number of
lent transport coefficients relevant for dynamo action (Bran-           cold cloud cores detected in the Planck survey. Herschel
                                            a a
denburg et al. 2008; Mitra et al. 2009; K¨ pyl¨ & Branden-            will observe wavelengths close to the peak of dust emission,
burg 2009). Numerical studies of convection have, for the             λ ∼ 100 − 500 µm, and, compared to Planck, will have much
                                             a a
first time, revealed a large-scale dynamo (K¨ pyl¨ et al. 2008,        higher spatial resolution. Therefore, we will be able to study
2009a,b, in press). The latter project was accepted to the            the internal structure of the selected cores, determine their
CSC grand challenge programme (DYNAMO08 PId by Ko-                    evolutionary stages and their relation to future star formation.
rpi), wherefrom 1 660 000 CPU hours of computing time was             We also participate in the Herschel key programme HiGal that
granted and used during the year 2008. Furthermore, a hydro-          will map a large fraction of the plane of our Galaxy.
dynamic instability discovered earlier in isotropically forced
                                                  a a
turbulence was studied in detail numerically (K¨ pyl¨ et al.          1.2.7   Extragalactic background light
2009c).
                                                                      Using our understanding of the light scattering in dense in-
                                                                      terstellar clouds of dust, we have been developing a method
1.2.5   Magnetic fields in interstellar clouds
                                                                      for the detection of the optical extragalactic background light.
Studies were carried out of the polarized sub-millimeter emis-        This is the so-called ‘shadow of a dark cloud method”. Based
sion from dust grains in interstellar clouds. In a magnetic           on our previous photometric EBL observing program we have
field, dust grains remain aligned as long as their rotation            developed a spectroscopic analogy for it. This new tech-
speed is significantly larger than their thermal rotation speed.       nique utilizes the difference between the spectra of the dif-
The grains are believed to be spinned up mainly by radiative          fuse galactic scattered light (absorption line spectrum) and
torques. The efficiency of radiative torques was investigated           the EBL (pure continuum spectrum with possible discontinu-
using magnetohydrodynamic cloud simulations and detailed              ities). For the spectroscopic observing program we (Mattila,
radiative transfer modelling (Pelkonen et al. 2009). Results          Lehtinen, Vaisanen) have received earlier 20 hours observing
indicate large spatial variations in the polarization efficiency.       time at ESO VLT telescope and FORS instrument . For the
In particular, in dense clouds, the dust emission is not likely       ESO Period 82 18.5 hours were again allocated but only a
to probe magnetic fields deeper than a few magnitudes in AV .          few hours were realised in 2008/09. The reductions and anal-
    Through Zeeman effect, magnetic fields cause splitting of           ysis of these data are currently being performed by Mattila
some radio lines. Because the split components have oppocite          and Lehtinen. The modelling of the FORS spectra requires
circular polarization, the line-of-sight component of the mag-        knowledge of the spectrum of the Local Interstellar Radia-
netic field can be estimated from the Stokes I and V spectra.          tion Field (ISRF). A new synthetic spectral model is being
With radiative transfer modelling, three-dimensional magne-           developed along the lines of an earlier model by Mattila (1980
tohydrodynamic simulations could be compared with existing            A&AS 39, 53) based on the high-resolution stellar spectrum
measurements of the Zeeman effect in cloud cores (Lunttila             library STELIB (Borgne et al. 2003, A&A 4002, 433).
et al. 2008). Good agreement was found between models of                   Using data from the ISOPHOT instrument of the ISO
            e
super-Alfv´ nic turbulence, combined with self-gravity, and           satellite, we have completed a study of the extragalactic far-
available observations of OH molecule lines. This suggests            infrared background light (Juvela et al. 2009). The signal
that the average magentic field of molecular clouds may be             represents a significant fraction of the cosmic energy output
low and supports the idea of turbulence as a central factor           from stars that has been reprocessed by interstellar dust and
behind the formation of self-gravitating cloud cores.                 is redshifted to far-infrared wavelengths. Our study is the first
                                                                      independent test of the results obtained with the COBE satel-
1.2.6   The Planck and Herschel satellite projects                    lite some ten years earlier. Our values are in agreement with
                                                                      the published COBE results, confirming the intensity of this
We participate in several science projects within the Planck          extragalactic component at a level of ∼1 MJy sr−1 at wave-
Surveyor satellite consortium. Our emphasis is on studies of          lengths ∼150–180 µm.
dense interstellar clouds. Preparations were made to study
Galactic cold and compact cloud cores using Planck data.
The population of cold cores (T dust < 12 K) is still poorly 1.3 External financing and resources
known and Planck will be the first space borne mission that       2008: Person-months of work: 177
will be sensitive to their radiation. Methods were developed
                                                                     Academy of Finland: 472 000 e
for the detection of cold cores and for the analysis of their
dust emission. We also participate in some other Planck sci-         Ministry of Education: 100 000 e
ence projects, including the study of nearby galaxies.               University of Helsinki: 32 000 e
    We coordinated a successful open time key program pro-
                                                                     Foundations: 24 300 e
posal which was awarded ∼151 hours of observing time on
the Herschel satellite. The aim of this project is to use


                                                                  7
1.4   Tests of learning                                            Juvela, Mika
      M¨ kel¨ , Minja
       a a                                                             Nordita, Stockholm (Turbulence and Dynamos
                                                                   meeting), Sweden, 17.–20.3.2008
          M.Sc. thesis: High-latitude clouds in H-alpha;
      2008, University of Helsinki, Department of Astron-              IAS, Orsay (Planck workgroup 7 meeting),
      omy                                                          France, 5.–7.5.2008
                                                                        ESO, Garching (OPC meeting), Germany, 26.–
      Eronen, Mikko
                                                                   30.5.2008
                                         a
          M.Sc. thesis: Chamaeleon I -t¨ htiensyntyalueen
                                                                       ESTEC, Noordwijk (Herschel KP workshop), The
      kaukoinfrapunakartoitus; 2008, University of Helsinki,
                                                                   Netherlands, 1.–2.6.2008
      Department of Astronomy
                                                                                                            u
                                                                        Institute for Theoretical Physics (Z¨ rich), As-
      Schultz, Minerva                                             troSim conference in Ascona, Switzerland, 14.–
           M.Sc. thesis: Rikin kemian mallintamisesta              18.7.2008
                 a
      raskaiden t¨ htien syntyalueilla; 2008, University of            MPIA, Heidelberg (Cosmic dust near and far,
      Helsinki, Department of Astronomy                            meeting), Germany, 8.–12.2008
      Yl¨ sm¨ ki, Maija
        o a                                                             MPIA, Heidelberg (Cosmic dust and radiative
                                                                   transfer, workshop), Germany, 15.–17.9.2008
          M.Sc. thesis: Chemistry of a dark cloud core;
      2008, University of Helsinki, Department of Astron-              Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Planck Science
      omy                                                          Team meeting), Denmark, 23.9.2008
                                                                        ESO, Garching (OPC meeting), Germany, 17.–
1.5   Visits abroad                                                21.11.2008
                                                                       ESTEC, Noordwijk (Herschel KP workshop), The
      Haikala, Lauri
                                                                   Netherlands, 4.–5.12.2008
           European Southern Observatory, Chile, 29.2.–
      12.3.2008                                                    Mattila, Kalevi
           Onsala   Space   Observatory,    Sweden,    15.–             ESO Committee of Council, Stockholm, Sweden,
      19.3.2008                                                    3.–4.3.2008
           European Southern Observatory, Germany, 10.–                 ESO Council, Prague, Czech Republic, 2.–
      15.10.2008                                                   4.6.2008
           ESO STC meeting; Garching, Germany, 20.–                     Cosmic Dust Conference, Heidelberg, Germany,
      22.10.2008                                                   9.–10.9.2008
           ESO STC meeting; Garching, Germany, 15.–                    ESO Committee of Council, Copenhagen, Den-
      18.4.2008                                                    mark, 6.–7.10.2008
                                                                       ESO Council, Garching, Germany, 1.–3.12.2008
      Harju, Jorma
          Universit¨ t zu K¨ ln, I. Physikalisches Institut,
                   a       o                                       Pelkonen, Veli–Matti
      Germany, 6.2.–9.2.2008                                          CSI/ERCSC workshop at IPAC, Pasadena, CA,
           European Southern Observatory, Germany, 14.–            USA, 31.1.–9.2.2008
      15.1.2008                                                        ESO observatory La Silla, Chile, 6.–18.4.2008
           European Southern Observatory, Germany, 14.–                 CMB Component Separation and The Physics of
      15.4.2008                                                    Foregrounds conference, Pasadena, CA, USA, 10.–
           European Southern Observatory, Germany, 26.–            22.7.2008
      29.5.2008                                                        CESR, Toulouse, France, 8.–13.12.2008
           European Southern Observatory, Germany, 14.–
                                                                   Miettinen, Oskari
      15.9.2008
                                                                                             u
                                                                        Max-Planck-Institut f¨ r Radioastronomie, Heidel-
           European Southern Observatory, Germany, 17.–
                                                                   berg, Germany, 5.–14.3.2008
      20.11.2008
                                                                       Observations with the NRA VLA radiointerfer-
                                                                   ometer, New Mexico, USA, 5.–18.6.2008


                                                               8
      Korpi, Maarit                                                  ESO scientists and students, 23.–24.10.2008, Tuorla
           NORDITA, Stockholm, Sweden, 17.3.–11.4.2008               Observatory, Finland
           NORDITA, Stockholm, Sweden, 6.–11.10.2008                 Harju, Jorma
                                                                          ”H2 D+ as a probe of physical conditions in
       a a
      K¨ pyl¨ , Petri
                                                                     prestellar cores”, H 2 D+ meeting, 7.–8.2.2008, .
           NORDITA, Stockholm, Sweden, 16.3.–11.4.2008                                                 a       o
                                                                     Physikalisches Institut, Universit¨ t zu K¨ ln, Germany,
           Queen Mary College, University of London, U.K.,           invited talk
      12.–17.5.2008                                                      ”Studies of prestellar and protostellar cores – from
           NORDITA, Stockholm, Sweden, 28.5.–6.6.2008                APEX to ALMA”, National meeting of the Finnish
                                                                     ESO scientists and students, 23.–24.10.2008, Tuorla
           University of Leiden, The Netherlands, 18.–
                                                                     Observatory, Finland
      22.8.2008
           NORDITA, Stockholm, Sweden, 8.–12.9.2008                  Juvela, Mika
           NORDITA,       Stockholm,      Sweden,      30.9.–             ”Scattered Near-Infrared Radiation – a New View
      15.10.2008                                                     of Interstellar Clouds”, XLII Annual Conference of the
                                                                     Finnish Physical Society, 27.–29.3.2008, Turku, Fin-
           NORDITA, Stockholm, Sweden, 1.–7.12.2008
                                                                     land
              o
      Liljestr¨ m, Anne                                                   ”Simulated observations of turbulent interstel-
         Turbulence and Oscillations in Accretion Discs,             lar medium”, Turbulence and Dynamos, 19.3.2008,
      NORDITA, Stockholm, Sweden, 8.–10.10.2008                      Nordita, Stockholm, Sweden, invited talk
           Observations with VLA; Albuquerque, USA, 4.–                   ”Cold Cores”, Planck WG7 meeting, 6.5.2008,
      18.6.2008                                                      IAS, Orsay, France, invited talk
                                                                          ”Radiative transfer in the study of molecu-
      Tuominen, Ilkka                                                lar clouds”, Frontiers in computational astrophysics,
          Turbulence and Dynamos meeting; Stockholm,                 14.7.2008, Ascona, Switzerland, invited talk
      Sweden, 16.–20.3.2008                                               ”Modelling and observations of scattered light and
           Cool Star workshop; St. Andrews, U.K., 20.–               thermal emission by dust ”, Cosmic dust near and far,
      27.7.2008                                                      8.–12.9.2008, Heidelberg, Germany, poster
           IAU symposium, Tenerife, Spain, 2.–9.11.2008,                 ”Radiative transfer of AMR grids”, Cosmic dust
                                                                     and radiative transfer, 17.9.2008, Heidelberg, Ger-
1.6   Papers read at scientific conferences, sym-                     many, invited talk
      posia, meetings etc.                                                ”High Resolution Mapping of Interstellar Clouds
                                                                     with NIR Scattered Light”, National meeting of the
      Hackman, Thomas                                                Finnish ESO scientists and students, 23.–24.10.2008,
           ”Correlating magnetic field strength and starspots         Tuorla Observatory, Finland, invited talk
      on FK Com” (Korhonen, S.; Hubrig,; Th. Granzer;
                                                                     Korpi, Maarit
      T. Hackman; M. Schoeller; K.G. Strassmeier; M. We-
      ber)”, 15th Cambridge Workshop Cool stars, stellar                  ”Suppression of MRI by supernova explosions
      systems and the Sun, 21.–25.7.2008, St Andrews, Scot-          in galactic disks”, Turbulence and dynamos, 17.–
      land, U.K., poster                                             20.3.2008, Nordita, Stockholm, Sweden, invited talk
                                                                           ”MRI in forced turbulence”, Turbulence and os-
      Haikala, Lauri                                                 cillations in accretion disks, 1.–15.10.2008, Nordita,
            ”Cometary Globule 12, a star-forming region 200          Stockholm, Sweden
      pc above the Galactic plane ”, Milky Way Star Forma-                ”Stellar nonlinear dynamos: observations and
      tion, 3.–6.3.2008, Santiago, Chile, poster                     modelling”, Cosmic Magnetic Fields, IAU Symposio
           ”Atacama Path Finder Experiment APEX, the                 259, 3.–7.11.2008, Puerto Santiago, Tenerife, Spain,
      ESO submm telescope”, National meeting of the                  poster
      Finnish ESO scientists and students, 23.–24.10.2008,                ”Dynamically dominant magnetic fields in the dif-
      Tuorla Observatory, Finland, invited talk                      fuse interstellar medium”, Cosmic Magnetic Fields,
            ”Cometary Globule 12, a high latitude low mass           IAU Symposio 259, 3.–7.11.2008, Puerto Santiago,
      star formation region.”, National meeting of the Finnish       Tenerife, Spain, poster


                                                                 9
 a a
K¨ pyl¨ , Petri                                                        Ridderstad, Marianna
     ”Turbulent diffusivity quenching due to large-                          ”The orientation of the northern gate of the
scale magnetic fields”, Turbulence and Dynamos,                         Goseck solar observatory”, Cosmology Across Cul-
16.3.–11.4.2008, Nordita, Stockholm, Sweden                            tures – SEAC 2008, 7.–14.9.2008, Granada, Spain,
     ”Large-scale dynamos in turbulent convection                      poster
with shear”, Pencil Code Workshop 2006, University                     Tuominen, Ilkka
of Leiden, The Netherlands
                                                                           ”Stellar nonlinear dynamos: observations and
     ”Convective angular momentum transport in ac-                     modelling”, Turbulence and dynamos, 17.–20.3.2008,
cretion discs”, Turbulence and oscillation in accretion                Nordita, Stockholm, Sweden
discs, Nordita, Stockholm, Sweden
                                                                             ”Stellar nonlinear dynamos: observations and
Lehtinen, Kimmo K.                                                     modelling”, 15th Cambridge Workshop Cool stars,
     ”Optical and nearIR observations of surface                       stellar systems and the Sun, 21.–25.7.2008, St An-
brightness of dark clouds”, National meeting of the                    drews, Scotland, U.K., poster
Finnish ESO scientists and students, 23.–24.10.2008,                        ”Magnetic Doppler imaging of II Peg”, IAU Sym-
Tuorla Observatory, Finland                                            posium 259: Cosmic magnetic fields: from planets
                                                                       to stars and galaxies, 3.–7.11.2008, Tenerife, Spain,
Mattila, Kalevi                                                        poster
          a              a        a
     ”Nelj¨ vuotta ESO-j¨ senyytt¨ ”, National meet-                        ”Stellar nonlinear dynamos: observations and
ing of the Finnish ESO scientists and students, 23.–                   modelling”, IAU Symposium 259: Cosmic magnetic
24.10.2008, Tuorla Observatory, Finland, invited talk                  fields: from planets to stars and galaxies, 3.–7.11.2008,
                               a
     ”Avaruuden pilvet ja t¨ htien synty” (Clouds of                   Tenerife, Spain, poster
space and the birth of stars), From the Core of the Earth                   ”The surface magnetic field evolution of II Peg
to the Space symposium, Finnish Academy of Science                     – A Zeeman-Doppler imaging approach”, IAU Sym-
and Letters 10 years, 11.1.2008, Helsinki, Finland, in-                posium 259: Cosmic magnetic fields: from planets
vited talk                                                             to stars and galaxies, 3.–7.11.2008, Tenerife, Spain,
     ”E-ELT, Preparing for the Construction of the Eu-                 poster
ropean Extremely Large Telescope”, Finland and the
European research infrastructure projects, 6.2.2008,             1.7   Visiting academics
Helsinki, Finland, invited talk
     ”The spectrum of the ISRF as observed via the                     Haikala, Lauri
scattered light from a dust cloud”, Cosmic Dust Con-                        Kawabe, Ryohei, PhD, Prof, National Radio Ob-
ference, 8.–12.9.2008, Heidelberg, Germany, poster                     servatory, Japan, 4.–8.8.2008

Miettinen, Oskari                                                            Momose, Munetake PhD, Prof, Ibaraki Univer-
                                                                       sity, Japan, 4.–8.8.2008
     ”The initial conditions of star formation in Ori B9
– N2 H+ , N2 D+ , and dust emission”, National meet-                       Hiramatsu, Masaaki, PhD, Researher, ASIAA,
ing of the Finnish ESO scientists and students, 23.–                   Japan, 4.–8.8.2008
24.10.2008, Tuorla Observatory, Finland                                    Shimariji, Yoshito, PhD Student, National Radio
                                                                       Observatory, Japan, 4.–8.8.2008
Pelkonen, Veli–Matti
     ”The Polarization of Dust Emission by Radiative                   Harju, Jorma
Torque Alignment”, XLII Annual Conference of the                            Ristorcelli, Isabelle, PhD, researcher, Centre
Finnish Physical Society, 27.–29.3.2008, Turku, Fin-                   d’Etude Spatial des Rayonnements (CESR), Toulouse,
land                                                                   France, 20.–23.1.2008
    ”Observing a Corona Australis cloud filament in                          Klotz, Alain, PhD, Senior Lecturer, Centre
NIR scattered light”, National meeting of the Finnish                  d’Etude Spatial des Rayonnements (CESR) & Paul
ESO scientists and students, 23.–24.10.2008, Tuorla                    Sabatier University, Toulouse, France, 20.–23.1.2008
Observatory, Finland




                                                            10
      Juvela, Mika                                                   Mattila, Kalevi
          Montier, Ludovic, PhD, CESR/CNRS-UPS,                          Odin Science Team, 1991–
      Toulouse, France, 21.–23.4.2008                                    ISO/ISOPHOT Consortium, 1991–
           Forero, Jaime, PhD, IAP, Potsdam, Germany, 17.–               Planck LFI, 1998–
      20.6.2008
                                                                         Finnish National Committee for Astronomy
          Rao, Srinivasa, PhD, Indian Institute of Astro-            (IAU), Finland, chair
      physics, Bangalore, Intia, 8.–15.10.2008
                                                                         European Southern Observatory, Council
                                    o o
          Marton, Gabor, MSc, E¨ tv¨ s University, Bu-
      dapest, Hungary, 13.–17.10.2008                                     Tuorla Observatory of University of Turku, advi-
                                                                     sory board, Chair
      Mattila, Kalevi
                                                                     Ridderstad, Marianna
            Alves, Joao, Ph.D., Director, Calar Alto Observa-
      tory, Spain, 10.–13.11.2008                                        Finnish Astrobiology Network, 2006–
          Oliver Krause, Ph.D., Head of IR Space Astron-             Tuominen, Ilkka
      omy, MPIA, Germany, 25.–29.8.2008                                   Finnish National Committee for Astronomy
            a a
          V¨ is¨ nen, Petri, FT, South African Astronomical          (IAU), representative for Finnish Academy of Science
      Observatory, South Africa, 22.–25.10.2008                      and Letters
                                                                         Deutsche Forschunggemeinschaft, expert
1.8   Membership in scientific and scholarly so-
      cieties                                   1.9                  Refereeing and Other Publishing Activities
      Hackman, Thomas                                                Harju, Jorma
           Nordic Optical Telescope, Observing                           Astronomy and Astrophysics, referee (twice)
           Nordic Optical Telescope, Instrument User Group
                                                                     Juvela, Mika
      for High Resolution Optical Spectroscopy, Chair
                                                                         Publications of the Astronomical Society of
      Haikala, Lauri                                                 Japan, Japan, referee
           Europen Southern Observatory/ Scientific Techni-               Nature, U.K., referee
      cal Committee, expert
                                                                         Astrophysical Journal Supplement, USA, referee
      Harju, Jorma
                                                                     Mattila, Kalevi
         European Southern Observatory, time allotment
                                                                         Astronomy and Astrophysics, France, referee
      committee, 16.4.–5.6.2008, 13.10.–28.11.2008, expert
                                                                         Astrophysical Journal, USA, referee
          European ALMA Science Advisory Committee,
      expert                                                             Monthly Notices of the R.A.S., U.K., referee
           Finnish National Committee of URSI, Finland               Pelkonen, Veli–Matti
      Juvela, Mika                                                       Monthly Notices of the R.A.S., referee
            The organizing committee of IAU Division VI, In-         Tuominen, Ilkka
      terstellar Matter, France
                                                                          Astronomy and Astrophysics, member of board of
          Steering committee of the project ASTROSIM,                directors
      European Science Foundation, France
          European Southern Observatory, Observing Pro-
      grammes Committee, Germany, expert




                                                                11
2 High Energy Astrophysics                                        lar corona, (2) almost full sky field-of-view in X-rays with
                                                                  moderate spectral resolution (Lobster)) giving a freedom to
  Project number           91525005
  Research agreements      Academy of Finland
                                                                  select targets of interest and study their temporal and spectral
                           Tekes                                  behaviour in all time scales from seconds to months.
                           ESA, ESO
  Type of research         Basic research, share: 50 %
                                                                      The systems under development are: (1) The SIXS in-
                           Development work, share: 50 %          strument for BepiColombo (2) common DPU and onboard
  Director of research     Docent Huovelin, Juhani
  Telephone                19122948
                                                                  software of SIXS and MIXS instruments for BepiColombo,
  Fax                      19122952                               and (3) SQUID readout electronics for the X-ray Spectrome-
  E-mail                   Juhani.Huovelin@Helsinki.Fi
  Senior (Ph.D. or higher) Juhani Huovelin, Docent
                                                                  ter (XRS) for IXO. The activities of HESA have resulted in
                           Jukka Nevalainen, docent               the completion of three space science instruments, and a suc-
                           Thomas Hackman, Ph.D.
                           Linnea Hjalmarsdotter, Ph.D.
                                                                  cessful launch of INTEGRAL, SMART-1 and Chandrayaan-1
  Ph.D. student(s)         Lauri Alha, Ph.Lic.                    missions with our working hardware onboard. The scientific
                           Karri Koljonen, M.Sc.
                           Tuomas Lehto, M.Sc.
                                                                  use of INTEGRAL resulted in a number of scientific papers
                           Sami Maisala, M.Sc.                    published in 2003-8. SMART-1/XSM made effective obser-
                           Tero Oittinen, M.Sc.
                           Otto Solin, M.Sc.(Tech.)
                                                                  vations of the Sun from March 2004 to August 2006. Sev-
                           Auni Somero, M.Sc.                     eral refereed papers on the instruments have already been
                           Tuure Takala, M.Sc.
                                    a¨ a
                           Mikko V¨ an¨ nen. M.Sc.
                                                                  published, and several papers on solar coronal science with
  Students                 Jussi Ahoranta                         very high quality data from XSM/SMART-1 are in prepara-
                           Eero Esko
                           Jasmin Haikonen
                                                                  tion, and one PhD thesis is just under submission. At present,
  Associated scientists    Pasi Hakala, docent (Turku)            the scientific utilization of INTEGRAL and SMART-1 con-
                           Diana Hannikainen, Docent
                             (Helsinki Univ. of Technology)
                                                                  tinues. Observation programs with other satellites (RXTE,
                                                                  XMM-Newton, Chandra, Suzaku) were continued.
                                                                      The activities have also evolved, and grown to a higher
                                                                  level of collaboration with new plans for instruments and
2.1 General approach                                              satellites, which combine the expertise and experience of the
                                                                  group and its collaborators. The wide scientific and techno-
The activities of high energy astrophysics research of HESA logical expertise within this framework have made it possible
(High Energy Space Astronomy) are divided into three areas: to start planning bigger contributions in international space
(1) fundamental science, (2) developing of new instruments science programs, e.g. participation at PI level in the next
for space research, and (3) developing of data analysis soft- ESA cornerstone mission to Mercury (BepiColombo). We
ware.                                                             are also involved at Co-PI level in the India-ESA collabora-
     The first part consists of scientific return (guaranteed tive Moon mission Chandaryaan-1 (launched in 2008) with an
time) from the instrument projects (INTEGRAL, SMART-1, XSM similar to that of SMART-1. The in-kind contribution
Chandrayaan-1), complemented by data from other satellites of Finland’s entrance fee to ESO was completed successfully
(e.g. XMM-Newton, HST, RXTE, Chandra, Suzaku). The by the Finnish Sampo project, and ESO continued to support
second part is a continuation to the ongoing hardware projects the development of ESO Reflex by our team with one and a
including research also in detector physics. The science top- half year’s extension with ESO funding.
ics addressed include coronae and flaring in active stars and
the Sun, and studies of clusters of galaxies and related ques-
                                                                  2.2 Science topics
tions in cosmology. In particular, the very broad spectral cov-
erage (INTEGRAL) and the possibility for a very long mon- 2.2.1 The solar corona
itoring (SMART-1, Chandrayaan-1), coupled to the sophisti-
                                                                  The aim of this research is to disentangle the properties of the
cated modelling, are the key ingredients of the science.
                                                                  hot solar corona by analysing the X-ray spectra obtained with
     Development of new instruments is a natural continua-
                                                                  our own instruments flying on-board space missions, like
tion to the ongoing projects, providing valuable access to the
                                                                  XSM/SMART-1 and XSM/Chandrayaan-1. The hot corona
guaranteed time also in the future. The aim is to utilise the ad-
                                                                  of the Sun radiates strongly in X-rays. The solar corona ex-
vances in instrument performances carried along with bigger
                                                                  hibits in apparently random intervals very strong eruptions,
telescopes, larger field-of-view and decreased noise of new
                                                                  which are called flares. Big flares are associated with strong
systems in the future plans of ESA, NASA and JAXA (IXO,
                                                                  enhancement of electromagnetic emission at all wavelengths,
International X-ray Observatory, and Lobster). The specific
                                                                  and large amounts of accelerated energetic particles. The
improvements which are meaningful are: (1) the huge en-
                                                                  eruptions occur most frequently and they are strongest on av-
hancement of sensitivity and spectral resolution with IXO,
                                                                  erage during Sunspot maximum.
which enables studies of X-ray spectra of Galactic sources
                                                                      In solar flares and also generally in the solar corona the
with the same quality we nowadays can investigate the so-
                                                                  radiation in X-rays dominates, which is due to the high tem-


                                                               12
perature of the ionized gas (plasma).                              2.2.2   Clusters of galaxies
    Our research aims at clarifying the physical mechanism of
                                                                   Our research aims in characterising the thermal and non-
the eruptions by examining the X-ray spectrum and its vari-
                                                                   thermal processes in clusters of galaxies. We use this infor-
ation during flares, and by comparing different flares. Also
                                                                   mation to derive the distribution of baryonic and dark matter
time behaviour over longer time span is studied with the aim
                                                                   in clusters and to constrain the cosmological parameters. We
of studying the changes of the properties of solar corona dur-
                                                                   also derive properties of the relativistic electron populations
ing the Sunspot (11 years) cycle. The methods include devel-
                                                                   and magnetic fields in clusters.
oping improved theoretical models based on extensive new
very high quality spectroscopic X-ray data.
    The observations of the Sun are made with X-ray instru-
ments on-board satellites. The most important of the instru-
ments is the Finnish XSM X-ray spectrometer on the ESA’s
SMART-1 satellite. In addition, data from the RHESSI and
the GOES satellites are used as complementary sources of in-
formation. After the end of SMART-1 operations (September
2006), more similar data has already been received from a
Finnish solar monitor on the Indian Chandrayaan-1 mission
(launch in September 2008), and later, especially, with the
Finnish solar monitor SIXS on ESA’s BepiColombo (launch
scheduled in August 2014), which all are projects lead by the
HESA group.
    The data will enable obtaining a thorough new insight in
electromagnetic processes and X-ray emission mechanisms
in hot coronal plasma of the Sun, and will also form a basis
in producing a realistic model database for modelling the X-
ray spectra of other stars, with the aim of understanding their
coronae.


                                                                   Figure 5: The distribution of non-thermal emission in Coma
                                                                   cluster as seen by XMM-Newton (color pixels). The blue
                                                                   contours show the 1.4 GHz radio halo (Deiss et al., 1997,
                                                                   A&A, 321, 55).

                                                                  The main analysis tools utilized by us are high resolution
                                                              imaging and spatially resolved spectroscopy of the hot intra-
                                                              cluter gas. For this work we use X-ray and gamma-ray data of
                                                              clusters of galaxies obtained with XMM-Newton, Suzaku and
                                                              INTEGRAL satellites. We have obtained observation time
                                                              via our own proposals which we combine with the available
                                                              archival data.
                                                                  Since clusters of galaxies are massive and hot, they inter-
                                                              act with the Cosmic Microwave background via the Sunyaev-
                                                              Zeldovich effect. In a working group of Planck satellite, we
                                                              are planning the usage of this effect based on the Planck data.
                                                                  We are participating in a international project IACHEC
                                                              which aims at studying the cross-calibration of high energy
                                                              satellites. JN is leading the cluster working croup of the
Figure 4: The X-ray brightness of Ophiuchus cluster of galax- project. Comparison of X-ray measurements of clusters of
ies obtained with XMM-Newton PN instrument. The white galaxies allows us to estimate the calibration accuracy of dif-
contours show the radio brightness obtained with VLA (Gov- ferent instruments. We are currently developing cluster-based
oni et al., 2009).                                            calibration tools for the future X-ray missions.




                                                              13
2.3   Development of data analysis software                          Raja-Halli, Arttu
ESO-connected data analysis activities have also grown sig-            M.Sc. thesis: Mass function of clusters of galax-
nificantly since the beginning of Finland’s membership in         ies – a study on systematic uncertainties on cosmologi-
2004. The project, called ESO-Sampo, conducts develop-           cal parameters due to the mass-observable relation, De-
ment of science data analysis environment for ESO. Four IT       partment of Astronomy
professionals worked full time for the in-kind contribution in
the period 1.1.2005- 31.1.2008 in a Tekes-funded project at 2.6 Visits abroad
the Observatory, University of Helsinki, and has continued
the same work with partial funding from ESO since then. The      Alha, Lauri
main result of the project is the ESO Reflex workflow engine,            Chandrayaan-1 C1XS science team meeting;
an advanced science analysis environment which ESO plans         UCL, London, U.K., 7.–8.2.2008
to implement as standard ESO software for the reduction of
VLT and other ESO data.                                          Esko, Eero
    HESA team has also participated actively in the prepa-             CIXS Science Team Meeting; Aberystwyth Uni-
ration of national technology return from ESO. These have        versity, U.K., 15.–18.10.2008
already lead to a request from ESO to continue ESO Reflex
                                                                 Huovelin, Juhani
development by partial ESO funding, and a parallel devel-
opment of an application for other sciences and also com-              Chandrayaan-1 CIXS science team meeting;
mercial use with Tekes funding, which are still an ongoing       UCL, London, U.K., 7.2.2008
activities. Further, future activities from this are (1) a Tekes       BepiColombo SWG meeting ESTEC; Noordwijk,
project for developing a Situation Awareness System using        The Netherlands, 26.–27.3.2008
Multidimensional Information (MIFSAS), and (2) a proposal
                                                                       ESO Reflex project meeting, Munich, Germany,
to the Academy of Finland for Development and Applica-
                                                                 2.4.2008
tion of New Computational Methods and Analysis for Re-
mote Sensing Data of Planets and the Earth (CorePlane).                ESO-Reflex project meeting; Munich, Germany,
                                                                 8.9.2008
                                                                          BepiColombo SWG meeting; Sendai, Japan, 14.–
                                                                     19.9.2008
2.4   External financing and resources
      2008: Man-months of work: 108                                  Maisala, Sami

           Academy of Finland: 109 320 e                                  Sampo team meeting; ESO Garching, Germany,
                                                                     16.–18.1.2008
           National Technology Agency: 2 500 000 e
                                                                        SPIE Defence + security conference; Orlando,
           European Space Agency: 165 000 e                          USA, 13.–22.3.2008
           European Southern Observatory: 100 000 e                       Sampo2 Kick-off meeting; ESO, Garching, USA,
                                                                     2.–3.4.2008
                                                                          Sampo2 meeting; ESO,Garching, Germany, 8.–
                                                                     9.9.2008
2.5   Tests of learning                                                  Interactive Tools/ESO-reflex meeting;        ESO,
      Alha, Lauri                                                    Garching, Germany, 16.–18.12.2008
            Licentiate’s thesis: The performance of X-ray So-        Nevalainen, Jukka
      lar Monitor (XSM) and the first results; 2008, Univer-
                                                                         Universite Paris-Sud, France, 4.–7.5.2008
      sity of Helsinki, Department of Astronomy
                                                                         Granada conference center, Spain, 24.–31.5.2008
      Takala, Tuure
                                                                     Oittinen, Tero
           M.Sc. thesis: Study of GOMOS instrumental age-
      ing and applicability for stellar spectroscopy; 2008,             SPIE Defence + security conference; Orlando,
      University of Helsinki, Department of Astronomy                USA, 13.–22.3.2008
                                                                         Sampo2 Kick-off meeting; ESO, Garching, Ger-
      Ahoranta, Jussi                                                many, 2.–3.4.2008
          M.Sc. thesis: Measuring dark energy with super-                 IBM Boeblingen Lab, application platform train-
      novae Ia, Department of Astronomy                              ing; Stuttgart, Germany, 12.–13.6.2008


                                                                14
           Sampo2 meeting; ESO,Garching, Germany, 8.–           2.9   Membership in scientific and scholarly so-
      9.9.2008                                                        cieties
          Interactive Tools/ESO-reflex meeting;      ESO,              Huovelin, Juhani
      Garching, Germany, 16.–18.12.2008
                                                                             Finnish COSPAR committee, Finland
       a¨ a
      V¨ an¨ nen, Mikko                                                    Research school for astronomy and space physics,
         7th International IGPP Conference,        Kauai,             Finland, board
      Hawaii, USA, 6.–19.3.2008                                            Tuorla Observatory of University of Turku, advi-
                                                                      sory board
2.7   Papers read at scientific conferences, sym-                             Academy of Finland assessor pool, Finland, ex-
      posia, meetings etc.                                            pert
      Esko, Eero                                                             Finnish Space Committee (ANK), permanent ex-
           ”Chandrayaan-1 XSM”, C1XS Science Team                     pert
      Meeting, 16.10.2008, Aberystwyth University, U.K.,              Nevalainen, Jukka
      invited talk
                                                                           XMM-Newton AO8 Time Allocation Committee,
      Nevalainen, Jukka                                               23.–26.1. 2008, U.K.
           ”Mapping the non-thermal component in Coma                        Planck Working Group 5, 30.3.2007–, expert
      cluster”, The X-ray Universe 2008, 28.5.2008,                       International Astronomical Consortium for High
      Granada, Spain, invited talk                                    Energy Calibration, 9.5.2007–, expert
       a¨ a
      V¨ an¨ nen, Mikko
           ”Time evolution of the size of solar flare plasma 2.10 Refereeing and Other Publishing Activi-
      loops along the main sequence”, 7th International IGPP     ties
      Conference, 8.3.2008, Kauai, Hawaii, USA                  Huovelin, Juhani
                                                                             Earth and Planetary Science, Japan, referee
2.8   Visiting academics
                                                                      Nevalainen, Jukka
      Nevalainen, Jukka
                                                                             Astrophysical Journal, referee
           Bonamente, Massimiliano, PhD, assistant profes-
      sor, University of Alabama in Huntsville, USA, 18.–
      22.5.2008




                                                           15
A group of Observatory faculty, students and staff March 26, 2008. (Photo: Anu Palo)
Photo: Leith Arar
3 Planetary System Research
 Project number               02525008
 Research agreements          Academy of Finland
 Type of research             Basic research
 Director of research         Docent Muinonen, Karri
 Telephone                    19122941
 Fax                          19122952
 E-mail                       Karri.Muinonen@Helsinki.Fi
 Research staff with a Ph.D.   Karri Muinonen, Docent
                              Kari Lumme, Prof. emer.
                              Serge Mouret, Ph.D.
                              Mikael Granvik, Ph.D.
                              Johanna Torppa, Ph.D.
 Phd students                       aa
                              Jyri N¨ r¨ nen, M.Sc.
                              Dagmara Oszkiewicz , M.Sc.
                              Hannu Parviainen, M.Sc.
                                            a
                              Antti Penttil¨ , M.Sc.
                                           a
                              Jani Tyynel¨ , M.Sc.
                              Hannakaisa Lindqvist, M.Sc.         Figure 6: Linear polarimetry of nine TNOs as a function of
 Students                     Jarkko Niemel¨   a                  phase angle. Two distinctly different populations are distin-
 Associated scientists        Markku Poutanen, Prof.
                              Lauri Pesonen, Prof.                guished: on the left, the large TNOs show rather shallow de-
                              Jouni Peltoniemi, Docent            pendences; whereas, on the right, the small TNOs show steep
                              Timo Nousiainen, Docent
                              Jenni Virtanen, Ph.D.               dependences. The difference can be explained by the differing
                                                                  physical properties of the surfaces of large and small TNOs.

3.1     Research activities                                       face properties of Kuiper-Belt objects and centaurs from pho-
Research within the Planetary-System Research -group              tometry and polarimetry. The first polarimetric observations
(PSR) at the University of Helsinki Observatory entails theo-     of a cometary nucleus, concerning comet 2P/Encke, were re-
retical, observational, and experimental studies on key top-      ported by Boehnhardt et al. (2008B1, 2008B2).
ics of solar-system exploration. In fundamental planetary             The single-scattering polarization and intensity mecha-
physics, PSR theoretical research is focused on light scatter-
ing by single small particles, on multiple scattering by com-
plex media of small particles, and the celestial mechanics of
the few-body problem. Experiments have been carried out
to measure backscattering characteristics of particulate media
(scatterometer at the Observatory), to assess the X-ray fluo-
rescence by planetary-regolith analog samples (at the Depart-
ment of Physical Sciences), and to measure meteorite spec-
tra in visible and near-infrared wavelengths (at the Geologi-
cal Survey of Finland and at the Finnish Geodetic Institute).
Observations have been made using both space-based and
ground-based telescopes.
     The numerical method for computing coherent backscat-
tering by complex particulate media developed at UHO has
been successfully applied to polarimetric observations of
transneptunian objects (TNOs). At ESO/VLT, PSR has con-
tinued to participate in polarimetric observations of TNOs,
for example, through participation in the Large Program on
the physical properties of TNOs. Furthermore, PSR has taken
part in polarimetric observations of cometary nuclei at VLT:
these observations are the first-ever systematic polarimetric      Figure 7: All dipoles of the Gaussian-random-sphere parti-
observations of cometary nuclei.                                  cle which have the intensity of the longitudinal component at
     Among the highlights of the TNO studies was the dis-         least 30% from the maximum. The volume-equivalent-sphere
covery of two distinct polarimetric behaviours of transneptu-     size parameter x = 8, the refractive index m = 1.55, the rel-
nian objects by Bagnulo et al. (2008B1). Polarimetric obser-      ative standard deviation of radius σ = 0.245, and the power-
vations of the dwarf planet (136199) Eris were reported by        law index of the covariance function ν = 4. The incident
Belskaya et al. (2008B1). Belskaya et al. (2008abB2) re-          polarization (blue color) and the wave vector (gray color) are
viewed the polarimetric VLT observations, assessing the sur-      shown on the lower left.


                                                             19
                                                                      nisms deriving from the internal electric fields of Gaussian-
                                                                      random-sphere particles were studied by Tyynel¨ et al.  a
                                                                      (2008B1), similar to the study previously carried out for
                                                                      spherical particles. The study was further continued for ori-
                                                                                                    a
                                                                      ented spheroids by Tyynel¨ et al. (2008B2). Tyynel¨ et al.a
                                                                      (2008abB2) carried out radar-scattering computations from
                                                                      spherical and spheroidal particles, as well as clusters of spher-
                                                                      ical particles in the C-band using the discrete-dipole approx-
                                                                      imation method (DDA). The results were compared to those
                                                                      from exact methods.
                                                                          Parviainen and Lumme (2008B1) investigated scat-
                                                                      tering from rough thin films using DDA. Erkkil¨ and         a
                                                                      Muinonen (2008B2) studied light scattering by inhomoge-
                                                                      neous concave-hull-transformed clusters of spheres. Nousi-
                                                                      ainen et al. (2008B2) focused on optical modeling of thin
                                                                      calcite flakes using DDA. Zubko et al. (2008abcB2) studied
                                                                      light scattering by highly absorbing irregularly shaped parti-
                                                                      cles, light scattering by agglomerated debris particles com-
                                                                      posed of highly absorbing material, and the applicability of
                                                                      DDA to conductive particles. Muinonen et al. (2008aB2) in-
                                                                      troduced diffuse scatterers in the ray-optics treatment for light
                                                                      scattering by particles large compared to wavelength.
                                                                          In studies of orbit computation, Granvik and Muinonen
                                                                      (2008B1) presented a new method for the previously un-
                                                                      solved problem of linking scarce sets of astrometry of solar-
                                                                      system objects over apparitions. The new method is based
                                                                      on statistical orbital inversion, typically Ranging, and results
                                                                      from tests with simulated data were presented by Granvik and
                                                                      Muinonen (2008aB2). Granvik et al. (2008bB2) published
                                                                      an open-source orbit-computation package called OpenOrb
                                                                      which includes, for example, the statistical ranging method.
                                                                      Virtanen et al. (2008B2) reviewed transneptunian orbit com-
                                                                      putation.




                                                                      Figure 9: Al/Si elemental ratios on the Moon as measured
                                                                      with X-ray fluorescence spectrometers onboard the Apollo 15
Figure 8: An aggregate of 100 spheres and its concave-hull
                                                                      and 16 missions. Red and blue imply high and low ratios, re-
transformations. The concave-hull transformation provides a
                                                                      spectively. As the lunar silicon abundance as determined by
method for generating nonspherical particle shapes and inho-
                                                                      these missions is relatively constant, this map depicts effec-
mogeneous internal compositions, which are essential quali-
                                                                      tively the aluminium abundance. Picture courtesy of NASA.
ties in modeling light scattering by small solar-system parti-
cles.




                                                                 20
Figure 10: Collapse of orbital-element p.d.f.s with improving accuracy of the observations. Sets of distributions each com-
posed of 5000 possible orbit solutions for (4) Vesta obtained from simulated Gaia data for the epoch of 2010 Aug 5.0 TDT.
The distributions were obtained using four observations from a single scan (0.32 days observational time interval). Different
colors correspond to different assumptions about the observational astrometric error in Right Ascension and Declination (red
color implies σα,δ = 1.0 arcsec, green σα,δ = 0.1 arcsec, blue σα,δ = 0.01 arcsec, and black σα,δ = 0.001 arcsec). The yellow
asterisk indicates the end-of-mission least-squares solution. The distributions were obtained using MCMC ranging.




Figure 11: Comparison of reflectance spectra from a variety of meteorite subgroups. All of these, except one, are Chondrites
that are primitive form of meterorite. The Eucrite is an HED that is from a differentiated body. The legend shows chart
labels that consist of a letter and a number. The letter denotes the amount of free iron in the meteorite (High or Low) and
the number denotes the amount of thermal alteration with 3 being the lowest and 6 the highest amount. Numbers below 3
refer to aqueous alteration. All groups have similar spectral characteristics with broad absorption bands (band I and band II)
due to the presence of olivine and pyroxene. The bands are superimposed on a continuum that may increase or decrease with
wavelength. Analyzing the features in the spectra can make a quantitive comparison between spectra.




                                                             21
     Oszkiewicz et al. (2008B2) reported preliminary results         lights, lunar science planning, and the coverage and pointing
of novel Markov-chain Monte-Carlo methods (MCMC) for                 accuracy of SMART-1/AMIE images. PSR launched an in-
asteroid orbit computation. The methods are to be applied,           depth study on the interpretation of the AMIE photometry:
in particular, in the data analysis and processing chain for         the results of these investigations were submitted for publica-
the ESA Gaia mission. Lindegren et al. (2008B2) described            tion.
the training of the next generation of space astrometrists in            Preparations continued for the Marco Polo near-Earth-
the context of the ELSA project supporting the Gaia mis-             object sample return mission, with PSR represented in the
sion. Hildebrand et al. (2008B2) showed that the Near-               ESA Science Study Team of the mission. The Marco Polo
Earth-Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat) Mission will           mission was described by Koschny et al. (2008B2) and Dotto
conduct an efficient space-based asteroid survey at low solar          et al. (2008B2).
elongations. Grundy et al. (2008B1) developed a statisti-
cal ranging method for instrinsic orbit computation in binary        3.2   External financing and resources
systems such as those involving two asteroids or two TNOs.
They scheduled astrometric observations for (42355) Typhon                 2008: Man-months of work: 100
Echidna based on the new method.                                                Academy of Finland, ’Mercury, Lunar and Solar
     In studies of asteroid phase curves and lightcurves,                  Science with BepiColombo and SMART-1: X-ray flu-
Muinonen et al. (2008bB2) presented methods for the deriva-                orescence from small-particle media’:
tion of empirical magnitude and polarization systems for as-               20 000 e
teroid phase curves. Their goal is to develop a new magnitude
system for asteroids, revising the two-parameter H, G magni-                   European Commission, ’European Leadership in
tude system. Torppa et al. (2008B1) provided asteroid shape                Space Astrometry’ (ELSA)’: 64 000 e
and spin statistics from convex models. They showed that                        Finnish Cultural Foundation 16 000 e
the resulting convex shape models can be fitted by ellipsoids                   Tekes project Nanopap (Improvement of Optical
at the 5% level but that the convex method is a key element                Properties of Paper by Increasing Refractive Indices of
in obtaining such ellipsoid models. Muinonen (2008B2) and                  Materials): 21 000 e
Muinonen and Oszkiewicz (2008B2) provided preliminary
results for lightcurve inversion using Markov-Chain Monte-                      Tekes forest cluster project Re-engineering paper:
Carlo methods.                                                             30 448 e
     Laboratory measurements on the effect that the physical
properties of the regolith (primarily surface roughness) have        3.3   Tests of learning
on soft X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of planetary surfaces
                                                                           Granvik, Mikael
were performed both at the University of Helsinki (in collab-
oration with the Department of Physics) and at the University                    Ph.D. Thesis: Asteroid identification using sta-
of Leicester (UK) Space Research Centre. Preliminary results               tistical orbital inversion methods; 2008, University of
from these studies were published by N¨ r¨ nen et al. 2008B1.
                                           aa                              Helsinki, Department of Astronomy
They confirmed that a hardening of the spectrum occurs as
                                                                           Torppa, Johanna
a function of growing phase angle and that the hardening is
also larger for rougher surfaces. This effect will be important                  Ph.D. Thesis: Lightcurve inversion for asteroid
for the analyses of present and future X-ray spectrometer data             spins and shapes; 2008, University of Helsinki, Depart-
from orbiting platforms (e.g., BepiColombo at Mercury and                  ment of Astronomy
Chandrayaan-1 at Moon).
                                                                                 a
                                                                           Erkkil¨ , Hannakaisa M.Sc. thesis: Light scattering
     PSR has been collaborating with the Finnish Geodetic In-
                                                                           by small inhomogeneous solar-system particles; 2008,
stitute during the past years in laboratory and field studies of
                                                                           University of Helsinki, Department of Astronomy
multiangular light-scattering properties of terrestrial surfaces
(such as understory vegetation of boreal forests). Peltoniemi
et al. (2008B1) described parts of the equipment used in these       3.4   Visits abroad
studies and presented the highlights of the studies.
                                                                           Muinonen, Karri
     Parviainen and Muinonen (2008abB2) studied volume
and surface shadowing in particulate random media, provid-                     International Space Science Institute (ISSI),
ing a realistic light-scattering model for rough particulate sur-          Switzerland, 6.–12.1.2008
faces. Muinonen et al. (2008B2) assessed the scalar approxi-                    Observatoire de Paris, France, 29.–30.1.2008
mation to coherent backscattering by spherical media. Foing
                                                                                ESA/EST, The Netherlands, 18.–19.3.2008
et al. (2008B2), Koschny et al. (2008B2), and Grieger et al.
(2008B2) described the ESA SMART-1 mission lunar high-                          ESA/ESTEC, The Netherlands, 26.–27.3.2008



                                                                22
           ESA/ESTEC, The Netherlands, 13.–14.4.2008                 Muinonen, Karri
           Li` ge Observatory, Belgia, 14.–17.5.2008
             e                                                             ”Light scattering by solar-system small parti-
           Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, France, 5.–               cles”, Visit at the Physics Department, University of
      7.6.2008                                                           a    a                a     a
                                                                     Jyv¨ skyl¨ , 7.3.2008, Jyv¨ skyl¨ , Finland, invited talk

           AOGS meeting, Busan, South Korea, 12.–                         ”Polarimetry of transneptunian objects and
      20.6.2008                                                      cometary nuclei with VLT”, National meeting of the
                                                                     Finnish ESO scientists and students, 23.–24.10.2008,
           ACM’2008 meeting, Baltimore, USA, 13.–                    Tuorla Observatory, Finland
      18.6.2006
                                                                          ”Planetary-System Research at UH/Obs”, Visit at
           ELSA meeting, Barcelona, Spain, 31.8.–6.9.2008            the Finnish Geodetic Institute, 11.11.2008, Helsinki,
           ELS meeting, Hatfield, U.K., 7.–12.9.2008                  Finland, invited talk
           ESA/ESTEC, The Netherlands, 29.–30.10.2008                     ”Marco Polo: a near Earth object sample return
           Observatoire   de   Bordeaux,     France,     19.–        mission”, Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX, 10.–
      22.11.2008                                                     14.3.2008, League City, TX, USA
                                                                          ”SMART-1 lunar highlights”, Lunar and Plane-
          International Space Science Institute (ISSI),
                                                                     tary Science XXXIX, 10.–14.3.2008, League City, TX,
      Switzerland, 30.11.–5.12.2008
                                                                     USA
      Mouret, Serge                                                      ”Coverage and pointing accuracy of SMART-
           IMCCE – Paris observatory, France, 80 days                1/AMIE images”, Lunar and Planetary Science
                                                                     XXXIX, 10.–14.3.2008, League City, TX, USA
      Oszkiewicz, Dagmara
                                                                          ”Marco Polo: Near-Earth object sample return
           ESAC, Spain, 15.–19.1.2008
                                                                     mission”, European Geosciences Union, General As-
           ESAC, Spain, 15.–20.6.2008                                sembly, 13.–18.4.2008, Vienna, Austria, invited talk
           GAIA DPAC, Belgia, 14.–17.5.2008                               ”Physical properties of cosmic dust particles from
           Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Labo-            light scattering”, Asia Oceania Geosciences Society,
      ratory, USA, 12.–19.7.2008                                     16.–20.6.2008, Busan, South Korea, invited talk
           Li` ge University, Belgia, 24.–29.8.2008
             e                                                            ”Marco Polo: NEO sample return mission”, Asia
                                                                     Oceania Geosciences Society, Annual Meeting, 16.–
           Barcelona University, Spain, 29.8.–7.9.2008
                                                                     20.6.2008, Busan, South Korea
      Parviainen, Hannu                                                  ”Polarimetry of transneptunian objects”, Astro-
           SMART-1 meeting; Madrid, Spain, 9.–12.4.2008              nomical Polarimetry 2008, 6.–11.7.2008, La Malbaie,
                                                                     Quebec, Canada
           ELS XI meeting, U.K., 7.–12.9.2008
                                                                          ”First phase-angle resolved polarimetry of a bare
           DPS 2008, USA, 9.–20.10.2008
                                                                     comet nucleus: comet 2P/Encke”, Astronomical Po-
           MIXS IPDR; London, U.K., 10.–13.11.2008                   larimetry 2008, 13.–20.7.2008, La Malbaie, Quebec,
      Penttil¨ , Antti
             a                                                       Canada, poster
          ISSI – International Space Science Institute,                    ”Science of Marco Polo: Near-Earth object sam-
      Switzerland, 1.–5.12.2008                                      ple return mission”, 37th COSPAR Scientific Assem-
                                                                     bly, 13.–20.7.2008, Montreal, Canada, invited talk
                                                                         ”Effect of regolith on planetary X-ray fluores-
                                                                     cence spectroscopy: laboratory and numerical studies”,
3.5   Papers read at scientific conferences, sym-                     37th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, 13.–20.7.2008,
                                                                     Montreal, Canada, poster
      posia, meetings etc.
                                                                          ”Photometric study of the Moon with SMART-
      Mouret, Serge                                                  1/AMIE”, 37th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, 13.–
          ”Asteroid mass determination with Gaia mission”,           20.7.2008, Montreal, Canada
      The 10th Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, Baltimore, MD,                 ”Planetary protection issues for the Marco Polo
      USA                                                            NEO sample return mission”, 37th COSPAR Scientific
                                                                     Assembly, 13.–18.6.2008, Montreal, Canada, invited
                                                                     talk


                                                                23
     ”TNO ESO-VLT Large Program (2006–2008):                         ”Optical modeling of thin calcite flakes using
Results and implications”, Asteroids, Comets, Mete-             DDA”, Electromagnetic and Light Scattering by Non-
ors 2008, 13.–18.6.2008, Baltimore, MD, USA, invited            spherical Particles, 7.–12.9.2008, University of Hert-
talk                                                            fordshire, Hatfield, Gibraltar, poster
     ”Polarimetry of transneptunian objects and cen-                 ”Light scattering by agglomerated debris parti-
taurs with VLT”, Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2008,               cles composed of highly absorbing material”, Electro-
13.–18.6.2008, Baltimore, MD, USA, poster                       magnetic and Light Scattering by Nonspherical Parti-
     ”Imaging and polarimetry of the nucleus of Comet           cles, 7.–12.9.2008, University of Hertfordshire, Hat-
2P/Encke”, Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2008, 13.–                field, U.K.
18.6.2008, Baltimore, MD, USA                                        ”Angular-scattering, negative-polarization, and
     ”OpenOrb:         Open-source    asteroid-orbit-           intensity-enhancement studies of spheroids”, Electro-
computation software including statistical orbital              magnetic and Light Scattering by Nonspherical Parti-
ranging”, Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2008, 13.–                 cles, 7.–12.9.2008, University of Hertfordshire, Hat-
18.6.2008, Baltimore, MD, USA, poster                           field, U.K., poster
     ”New method for identifying asteroids between                   ”Ray-optics radiative-transfer method for scatter-
apparitions among a wealth of scarce astrometry”, As-           ing by inhomogeneous Gaussian random particles”,
teroids, Comets, Meteors 2008, 13.–18.6.2008, Balti-            Electromagnetic and Light Scattering by Nonspherical
more, MD, USA                                                   Particles, 7.–12.9.2008, University of Hertfordshire,
                                                                Hatfield, U.K.
     ”Marco Polo – a mission to return a sample from a
near-Earth object”, Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2008,                 ”DDA applicability for conductive particles”,
13.–18.6.2008, Baltimore, MD, USA                               Electromagnetic and Light Scattering by Nonspherical
                                                                Particles, 7.–12.9.2008, University of Hertfordshire,
    ”Lightcurve inversion using Markov-Chain                    Hatfield, U.K.
Monte-Carlo methods”, Asteroids, Comets, Meteors
2008, 13.–18.6.2008, Baltimore, MD, USA, poster                      ”Modeling polarization radar echoes of hydrom-
                                                                eteors using discrete-dipoles approximation”, Electro-
    ”Inversion of asteroid phase curves for empiri-             magnetic and Light Scattering by Nonspherical Parti-
cal magnitude and polarization systems”, Asteroids,             cles, 7.–12.9.2008, University of Hertfordshire, Hat-
Comets, Meteors 2008, 13.–18.6.2008, Baltimore,                 field, U.K.
MD, USA
                                                                     ”Scalar approximation to coherent backscattering
     ”Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo methods for aster-               by spherical media”, Electromagnetic and Light Scat-
oid orbit computation”, Asteroids, Comets, Meteors              tering by Nonspherical Particles, 10.–15.10.2008, Uni-
2008, 13.–18.6.2008, Baltimore, MD, USA, poster                 versity of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, U.K., poster
      ”A realistic light-scattering model for rough par-             ”Effects of regolith properties on soft X-ray flu-
ticulate surfaces”, Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2008,            orescence”, Division for Planetary Sciences, 40th
1.–5.9.2008, Baltimore, MD, USA, poster                         Annual Meeting, 10.–15.10.2008, Ithaca, NY, USA,
     ”Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo methods”, ELSA                   poster
Workshop on Software Engineering and Numerics, 7.–                   ”Marco Polo: Near-Earth object sample return
12.9.2008, Barcelona, Spain, invited talk                       mission”, Division for Planetary Sciences, 40th Annual
     ”Light scattering by inhomogeneous concave-                Meeting, 10.–15.10.2008, Ithaca, NY, USA, poster
hull-transformed clusters of spheres”, Electromagnetic               ”Polarimetric properties of transneptunian objects
and Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles, 7.–             and centaurs”, Division for Planetary Sciences, 40th
12.9.2008, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, U.K.           Annual Meeting, 30.6.–4.7.2008, Ithaca, NY, USA,
     ”Volume and surface shadowing in particulate               poster
random media”, Electromagnetic and Light Scattering                  ”Modeling polarization radar echoes of hydrome-
by Nonspherical Particles, 7.–12.9.2008, University of          teors using Discrete Dipole approximation”, Fifth Eu-
Hertfordshire, Hatfield, U.K.                                    ropean Conference on Radar in Meteorology and Hy-
     ”Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo inversion of aster-              drology, 8.–12.9.2008, Helsinki, Finland
oid photometric lightcurves”, Electromagnetic and                     ”The Marco Polo study mission: a European op-
Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles, 7.–                 portunity to return samples from a Near Earth Ob-
12.9.2008, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, U.K.,          ject for laboratory studies”, Future Ground based So-
poster                                                          lar System Research: Synergies with Space Probes


                                                           24
      and Space Telescope, 8.–12.9.2008, Portoferraio, Isola        3.7   Membership in scientific and scholarly so-
      d’Elba, Italy                                                       cieties
            ”Polarimetry in planetary science – A step for-               Muinonen, Karri
      ward with the VLT”, Future Ground based Solar Sys-
      tem Research: Synergies with Space Probes and Space                     International Astronomical Union, Commission
      Telescope, 4.–8.5.2008, Portoferraio, Isola d’Elba,                 20 Organizing Committee, 2006–, France
      Italy                                                                    ELSA Steering Committee (European Leadership
          ”Marco Polo: Near-Earth Object Sample Return                    in Space Astrometry), 1.10.2006–, Sweden
      Mission”, SAIt, 29.9.–3.10.2008, Teramo, Italy                           International Astronomical Union, Task Group on
           ”Probing the origin of the solar system – Marco                Asteroid Magnitudes, 2006–, France
      Polo, a Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mis-                            International Astronomical Union, Task Group
      sion”, 59th International Astronautical Congress, 13.–              on Asteroid Polarimetric Albedo Calibration, 2006–,
      16.1.2008, Glasgow, U.K.                                            France
           ”MARCO POLO : Near Earth Object Sample Re-                         Marco Polo Science Study Team, ESA, 2007–,
      turn Mission”, The First Meeting of The International               France
      Primitive Body Exploration Working Group (IPEWG),                       International Astronomical Union, Task Group on
      31.3.–3.4.2008, Okinawa, Japan                                      Geophysical and Geological Properties of Asteroids
           ”Marco Polo: Near-Earth Object Sample Re-                      and Cometary Nuclei, 2008–, France, chair
      turn Mission”, The RAS National Astronomy Meeting,
      Belfast, U.K.
                                                                    3.8   Refereeing and Other Publishing Activities
      Oszkiewicz, Dagmara                                                 Muinonen, Karri
          ”Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo methods for aster-                         Icarus, USA, referee
      oid orbits computation”, Asteroid Comets Meteors
      meeting, 12.–19.7.2008, Baltimore, MD, USA, poster                       Planetary and Space Science, The Netherlands,
                                                                          referee
           ”Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo methods for aster-
      oid orbits computation”, ELSA workshops on software                        a
                                                                          Penttil¨ , Antti
      engineering and numerics, 2.9.2008, Barcelona, Spain                      Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radia-
           ”Asteroid orbital ranging with Markov-Chain                    tive Transfer, The Netherlands, referee
      Monte-Carlo”, Institute seminar, Astronomical Obser-
      vatory, A. Mickiewicz University, 8.1.2008, Poznan,
      Poland, invited talk

3.6   Visiting academics
      Muinonen, Karri
          Mouret, Serge, Ph.D., Observatoire de Paris,
      France, 1.1.–31.12.2008




                                                               25
4 Lectures in 2008
  Course (English)                                   Course (Finnish)
spring term
basic studies                                        perusopinnot
  Universe now                                          Maailmankaikkeus nyt (lectured in English)
  Universe now                                          Maailmankaikkeus nyt (lectured in Finnish)
  Universe now                                          Maailmankaikkeus nyt (lectured in Swedish)
  Basics of observational astronomy I                                   a
                                                        Havaitsevan t¨ htitieteen peruskurssi I
  Basic astronomy                                        a
                                                        T¨ htitieteen perusteet
  Practical methods in astronomy                         a              a a o
                                                        T¨ htitieteen k¨ yt¨ nn¨ n menetelmi¨a
subject studies                                      aineopinnot
  Physics of the Solar System                           Aurinkokunnan fysiikka
advanced studies                                            a a
                                                     syvent¨ v¨ t opinnot
  Interferometry of radio and infrared frequencies     Radio- ja infrapuna-alueen interferometria
  Multiple scattering of light on small particles       Valon monisironta pienhiukkasista
  Advanced course in astrophysics                       Astrofysiikan jatkokurssi
  Irregularly spaced data analysis in                      a a¨ o                          a           a
                                                       Ep¨ s¨ ann¨ llisen datan analyysi t¨ htitieteess¨
     astronomy and related sciences                            a          a
                                                          ja l¨ hitieteiss¨
  Magnetic activity of stars                             a
                                                        T¨ htien magneettinen aktiivisuus
  Inversion methods in astronomy                         a
                                                        T¨ htitieteen inversiomenetelm¨ ta
  Physical cosmology                                    Fysikaalinen kosmologia
other                                                muut
  Introduction to astrobiology                          Johdatus astrobiologiaan
  Climate changes of planet Earth                       Planeetta Maan ilmastonvaihtelut
  Telling about astronomy – a course on                          a           a
                                                        Kerro t¨ htitieteest¨ – populaarikirjoittamisen
     popularization                                       kurssi
seminars                                             seminaarit
  Astrophysics seminar                                  Astrofysiikan seminaari
  Planetary system research seminar                    Planeettakunnan tutkimusseminaari
  High energy astrophysics and cosmology                Suurenergia-astrofysiikan ja kosmologian
     seminar                                              seminaari
autumn term
basic studies                                        perusopinnot
  Universe now                                          Maailmankaikkeus nyt (lectured in Finnish)
  Basics of observational astronomy II                                 a
                                                        Havaitsevan t¨ htitieteen peruskurssi II
  Basic astronomy                                        a
                                                        T¨ htitieteen perusteet
subject studies                                      aineopinnot
  Mathematical methods in astronomy I                    a                                     a
                                                        T¨ htitieteen matemaattiset menetelm¨ t I
  Structure and evolution of stars                       a
                                                       T¨ htien rakenne ja kehitys
  Basic course in astrophysics                          Astrofysiikan peruskurssi
  Physics of the Solar system                           Aurinkokunnan fysiikka
advanced studies                                            a a
                                                     syvent¨ v¨ t opinnot
  X ray analysis of galaxy clusters                                          ¨
                                                        Galaksijoukkojen rontgenanalyysi
  Scattering of light on small particles I              Valonsironta pienhiukkasista I
other                                                muut
  Introduction to astrobiology                          Johdatus astrobiologiaan
  Cosmic collisions and climate changes –                           o a
                                                        Kosmiset t¨ rm¨ ykset ja ilmastomuutokset
     lecture course on astrobiology                       – astrobiologian luentosarja
seminars                                             seminaarit
  Astrophysics seminar                                  Astrofysiikan seminaari
  Planetary system research seminar                    Planeettakunnan tutkimusseminaari




                                                           26
5 Library
 Librarian   Eva Isaksson, M.Sc.
 E-mail      astro-library@helsinki.fi




5.1     The Observatory Museum and Historical
        Documents
The librarian has worked with a team consisting of Tapio
Markkanen and others to put together webpages of the Ob-
servatory museum with photographs and information about
the Observatory, and its history, with details about old astro-
nomical instruments. The pages are located at
http://www.astro.helsinki.fi/museo/index2.shtml
    The ongoing investigation into the Carte du Ciel collec-
tion, held by the University of Helsinki Observatory as a re-
sult of its participation in the Carte du Ciel in 1890–1937 was
started in 2007. Various aspects as to the preservation of these
valuable materials have been under consideration, but not ac-
tively pursued in 2008 because of lack of workforce.

5.2     Accessibility Issues
Making both printed and online resources more accessible for
physically challenged library users is a topic deserving in-
formed attention. The librarian has been involved with a uni-
versity of Helsinki wide project to further accessibility. She
has also acted as an expert member in an advisory workgroup             Figure 12: One can get the feel of history at the Observatory
of campus and faculty libraries. A survey of of astronomical            museum. Photo: Leith Arar
library resources as to how compliant those are with accessi-
bility standards is underway.
                                                                        5.4   Membership in scientific and scholarly so-
5.3     LISA VI Conference                                                    cieties
The Library and Information Services in Astronomy (LISA)                      Isaksson, Eva
conferences, arranged every 4th year, bring together astron-                      Library and Information Services in Astronomy
omy librarians, publishers and information specialists from                   (LISA) VI SOC, co-chair
all over the world.
     The librarian acts as co-chair of the Scientific Organizing
Committee of the next LISA conference to be held in Pune,
India in February 14-17, 2010.




                                                                   27
6 Publications                                                              13. Harju, Jorma; Juvela, Mika; Schlemmer, S.; Haikala,
                                                                                Lauri; Lehtinen, Kimmo K.; Mattila, Kalevi: Detection
6.1   Articles in refereed journals (B1)                                        of 6 K gas in Ophiuchus D. Astron. Astrophys. 482 (2008):
                                                                                535–539
  1. Alha, Lauri; Huovelin, Juhani; Hackman, Thomas; An-
                                                                            14. Hjalmarsdotter, Linnea; Zdziarski, A. A.; Larsson, S.;
                                              a¨ a
     dersson, H.; Howe, C.J.; Esko, Eero; V¨ an¨ nen, Mikko:
                                                                                Beckmann, V.; McCollough, M.; Hannikainen, Diana; Vil-
     The in-flight performance of the X-ray Solar Monitor (XSM)
                                                                                hu, Osmi: The nature of the hard state of Cygnus X-3.
     on-board SMART-1. Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics
                                                                                Monthly Notices R.A.S. 384 (2008): 278–290.
     Research A 596 (2008): 317–326.
                                                                            15. Jouve, L.; Brun, A. S.; Arlt, R.; Brandenburg, A.; Dikpati,
  2. Antyufeyev, A.; Toriseva, Mikko; Shulga, V.: Large-scale
                                                                                                     a a
                                                                                M.; Bonanno, A.; K¨ pyl¨ , Petri; Moss, D.; Rempel, M.;
     mapping of the IRAS 0042 + 5530 region in the 12CO (J =
                                                                                Gilman, P.; Korpi, Maarit; Kosovichev, A. G.: A solar mean
     1–0) and 13CO (J = 1–0) molecular lines. Kinematics and
                                                                                field dynamo benchmark. Astron. Astrophys. 483 (2008):
     Physics of Celestial Bodies 24 (2008): 229–235.
                                                                                949–960
  3. Axelsson, M.; Hjalmarsdotter, Linnea.; Borgonovo, L.;
                                                                            16. Juvela, Mika; Pelkonen, Veli–Matti; Padoan, P.; Matti-
     Larsson, S.: Vanishing hardness-flux correlation in Cygnus
                                                                                la, Kalevi: A Corona Australis cloud filament seen in NIR
     X-1: signs of the disc moving out. Astron. Astrophys. 490
                                                                                scattered light. I. Comparison with extinction of background
     (2008): 253–258.
                                                                                stars. Astron. Astrophys. 480 (2008): 445–458
  4. Bagnulo, S.; Belskaya, I.; Muinonen, Karri; Tozzi, G. P.;
                                                                                 a
                                                                            17. J¨ rvinen, S. P.; Korhonen, H.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Ilyin, I.;
     Barucci, M. A.; Kolokolova, L.; Fornasier, S.: Discovery of
                                                                                Strassmeier, K. G.; Weber, M.; Savanov, I.; Tuominen, Ilk-
     two distinct polarimetric behaviours of trans-Neptunian ob-
                                                                                ka: Magnetic activity on V889 Herculis. Combining pho-
     jects. Astron. Astroph. 491 (2008): L33–L36.
                                                                                tometry and spectroscopy. Astron. Astrophys. 488 (2008):
  5. Belskaya, I.; Bagnulo, S.; Muinonen, Karri; Barucci, M. A.;                1047–1055.
     Tozzi, G. P.; Fornasier, S.; Kolokolova, L.: Polarimetry of the
                                                                            18. Kaastra, J. S.; Bykov, A. M.; Schindler, S.; Bleeker, J. A.
     dwarf planet (136199) Eris. Astron. Astrophys. 479 (2008):
                                                                                M.; Borgani, S.; Diaferio, A.; Dolag, K.; Durret, F.; Neva-
     265–269
                                                                                lainen, Jukka; Ohashi, T.; Paerels, F. B. S.; Petrosian, V.;
  6. Boehnhardt, H.; Tozzi, G. P.; Bagnulo, S.; Muinonen, Kar-                  Rephaeli, Y.; Richter, P.; Schaye, J.; Werner, N.: Clusters of
     ri; Nathues, A.; Kolokolova, L.: Photometry and polarimetry                Galaxies: Beyond the Thermal View. Space Science Reviews
     of the nucleus of comet 2P/Encke. Astron. Astrophys. 489                   134 (2008): 1–6
     (2008): 1337–1343.
                                                                            19. Kainulainen, Jouni; Juvela, Mika; Alves, J.: Near-infrared
                         a                                a a
  7. Brandenburg, A.; R¨ dler, K.-H.; Rheinhardt, M.; K¨ pyl¨ ,                 reddening of extra-galactic giant molecular clouds in a face-
     Petri: Magnetic Diffusivity Tensor and Dynamo Effects in                     on geometry. Astron. Astrophys. 482 (2008): 229–236
     Rotating and Shearing Turbulence. Astrophys. J. 676 (2008):
                                                                            20. Ketola, R.; Tarkiainen, V.; Kiuru, J.; Savolahti, P.; Kotiaho,
     740–751.
                                                                                        a
                                                                                T.; Juuj¨ rvi, J.; Ridderstad, Marianna; Heikkonen, J.: Eval-
  8. Durret, F.; Kaastra, J. S.; Nevalainen, Jukka; Ohashi, T.;                 uation of mathematical algorithm for solving of Fourier trans-
     Werner, N.: Soft X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Excess                      form infrared spectroscopic and mass spectra. Industrial &
     Emission from Clusters of Galaxies. Space Science Reviews                  Engineering Chemistry Research 47 (2008): 8101–8106.
     134 (2008): 51–70
                                                                            21. Klotz, J.; Harju, Jorma; Ristorcelli, I.; Juvela, Mika;
  9. Foing, B. H.; Racca, G. D.; Josset, J. L.; Koschny, D.; Frew,              Boudet, N.; Haikala, Lauri: An upper limit of gaseous water
     D.; Almeida, M.; Zender, J.; Heather, D.; Peters, S.; Marini,              abundance in Chamaeleon-MMS1 as observed with ODIN.
     A.; Stagnaro, L.; Beauvivre, S.; Grande, M.; Kellett, B.;                  Astron. Astrophys. 488 (2008): 559–564.
     Huovelin, Juhani; Nathues, A.; Mall, U.; Ehrenfreund, P.;
                                                                                  a a
                                                                            22. K¨ pyl¨ , Petri; Brandenburg, A.: Lambda effect from forced
     McCannon, P.: SMART-1 highlights and relevant studies on
                                                                                turbulence simulations. Astron. Astrophys. 488 (2008): 9–
     early bombardment and geological processes on rocky plan-
                                                                                23.
     ets. Physica Scripta T130 (2008): 014026.
                                                                                  a a
                                                                            23. K¨ pyl¨ , Petri; Korpi, Maarit; Brandenburg, A.: Large-
                        a
 10. Gandolfi, D-; Alcal´ , J. M.; Leccia, S.; Frasca, A.; Spezzi, L.;
                                                                                scale dynamos in turbulent convection with shear. Astron.
     Covino, E.; Testi, L.; Marilli, E.; Kainulainen, Jouni: The
                                                                                Astrophys. 491 (2008): 353–362.
     Star Formation in the L1615/L1616 Cometary Cloud. The
     Astrophys. J. 687 (2008): 1303–1322.                                   24. Lunttila, Tuomas; Padoan, P.; Juvela, Mika; Nordlund, Å.:
                                                                                              e
                                                                                The Super-Alfv´ nic Model of Molecular Clouds: Predictions
 11. Granvik, Mikael; Muinonen, Karri: Asteroid identification
                                                                                for Zeeman Splitting Measurements. The Astrophys. J. 686
     over apparitions. Icarus 198 (2008): 130–137.
                                                                                (2008): L91–L94.
 12. Grundy, W. M.; Noll, K. S.; Virtanen, J.; Muinonen, Karri;
                                                                            25. Miettinen, Oskari; Kontinen, Samu; Harju, Jorma; Hig-
     Kern, S. D.; Stephens, D. C.; Stansberry, J. A.; Levison, H.
                                                                                don, J. L.: Radio continuum imaging of the R Coronae Aus-
     F.; Spencer, J. R.: (42355) Typhon Echidna: Scheduling ob-
                                                                                trinae star-forming region with the ATCA. Astron. Astro-
     servations for binary orbit determination Icarus 197 (2008):
                                                                                phys. 486 (2008): 799–806
     260–268.



                                                                       28
      a a
26. N¨ r¨ nen, Jyri; Parviainen, Hannu; Muinonen, Karri;                  38. Wilson, C. D.; Petitpas, G. R.; Iono, D.; Baker, A. J.; Peck, A.
    Carpenter, J.; Nygård, K.; Peura, M.: Laboratory studies into             B.; Krips, M.; Warren, B.; Golding, J.; Atkinson, A.; Armus,
    the effect of regolith on planetary X-ray fluorescence spec-                L.; Cox, T. J.; Ho, P.; Juvela, Mika; Matsushita, S.; Mihos, J.
    troscopy. Icarus198 (2008): 408–419.                                      C.; Pihlstrom, Y.; Yun, Min S.: Luminous Infrared Galaxies
27. Paerels, F.; Kaastra, J.; Ohashi, T.; Richter, P.; Bykov, A.;             with the Submillimeter Array. I. Survey Overview and the
    Nevalainen, Jukka: Future Instrumentation for the Study of                Central Gas to Dust Ratio. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 178 (2008):
    the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium. Space Science Reviews                  189–224.
    134 (2008): 405–418
28. Parviainen, Hannu; Lumme, Kari: Scattering from rough                6.2   Papers in conference publications and
    thin films: discrete-dipole-approximation simulations. JOSA                 compilations (B2)
    A 25 (2008): 90–97.
                                                                           1. Belskaya, I. N.; Bagnulo, S.; Barucci, M. A.; Muinonen,
                                                       a a
29. Peltoniemi, J. I.; Suomalainen, J.; Puttonen, E.; N¨ r¨ nen,              Karri; Tozzi, G. P.; Fornasier, S.; Kolokolova, L.: Polarime-
    Jyri; Rautiainen, M.: Reflectance properties of selected                   try of Transneptunian Objects and Centaurs with VLT. Aster-
    arctic-boreal land cover types: field measurements and their               oids, Comets, Meteors 2008 held July 14–18, 2008 in Balti-
    application in remote sensing. Biogeosciences Discussions 5               more, Maryland. LPI Contribution No. 1405, paper id. 8172.
    (2008): 1069–1095.
                                                                           2. Belskaya, I. N.; Levasseur-Regourd, A.-C.; Shkuratov, Y. G.;
30. Prat, L.; Rodriguez, J.; Hannikainen, Diana; Shaw, S. E.:                 Muinonen, Karri: Surface Properties of Kuiper Belt Objects
    Peering through the stellar wind of IGR J19140+0951 with                  and Centaurs from Photometry and Polarimetry. The Solar
    simultaneous INTEGRAL/RXTE observations. Monthly No-                      System Beyond Neptune, M. A. Barucci, H. Boehnhardt, D.
    tices of the R, A. S. 389 (2008): 301–310.                                P. Cruikshank, and A. Morbidelli (eds.), University of Ari-
31. Porceddu, Sebastian; Jetsu, Lauri; Markkanen, Tapio;                      zona Press, Tucson, pp. 115–127
    and Toivari-Viitala, J.: Evidence of Periodicity in Ancient            3. Boehnhardt, H.; Tozzi, G. P.; Bagnulo, S.; Muinonen, Kar-
    Egyptian Calendars of Lucky and Unlucky Days.Cambridge                    ri; Nathues, A.; Kolokolova, L.: Imaging and Polarimetry of
    Archaeological Journal 18 (2008): 327–339.                                the Nucleus of Comet 2P/Encke. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors
32. Rephaeli, Y.; Nevalainen, Jukka; Ohashi, T.; Bykov, A. M.:                2008 held July 14–18, 2008 in Baltimore, Maryland. LPI
    Nonthermal Phenomena in Clusters of Galaxies Space Sci-                   Contribution No. 1405, paper id. 8005.
    ence Reviews 134 (2008): 71–92                                         4. Dieball, A.; Knigge, C.; Zurek, D. R.; Shara, M. M.; Long,
33. Rodriguez, J.; Hannikainen, Diana; Shaw, S. E.; Pooley, G.;               K. S.; Charles, P. A.; Hannikainen, Diana: Unveiling the
    Corbel, S.; Tagger, M.; Mirabel, I. F.; Belloni, T.; Cabanac,             Core of M 15 in the Far-Ultraviolet. Dynamical Evolution
    C.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Chenevez, J.; Kretschmar, P.; Lehto, H.              of Dense Stellar Systems, Proceedings of the International
                        ı´
    J.; Paizis, A.; Varn`ere, P.; Vilhu, Osmi: 2 years of INTE-               Astronomical Union. IAU Symp. 246 (2008): 361–362.
    GRAL Monitoring of GRS 1915+105. I. Multiwavelength                    5. Dotto, E.; Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Koschny, D.;
    Coverage with INTEGRAL, RXTE, and the Ryle Radio Tele-                    Boehnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, M.; Franchi, I. A.;
    scope. Astrophys. J. 675 (2008): 1436–1448.                               Green, S. F.; Josset, J. L.; Kawaguchi, J.; Michel, P.; Muino-
34. Rodriguez, J.; Shaw, S. E.; Hannikainen, Diana; Belloni,                  nen, Karri; Oberst, J.; Yano, H.; Binzel, R. P.: Marco Polo:
    T.; Corbel, S.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Chenevez, J.; Prat, L.;                  Near Earth Object sample return mission. Memorie della So-
    Kretschmar, P.; Lehto, H. J.; Mirabel, I. F.; Paizis, A.; Poo-            cieta Astronomica Italiana Supplement 12 (2008): 102–109.
                             ı´
    ley, G.; Tagger, M.; Varn`ere, P.; Cabanac, C.; Vilhu, Osmi:                     a
                                                                           6. Erkkil¨ , Hannakaisa; Muinonen, Karri: Light scatter-
    2 Years of INTEGRAL Monitoring of GRS 1915+105. II. X-                    ing by inhomogeneous concave-hulltransformed clusters of
    Ray Spectro-Temporal Analysis. Astrophys. J. 675 (2008):                  spheres. 11th Electromagnetic and Light Scattering Confer-
    1449–1458.                                                                ence, Extended Abstracts (September 7–12, 2008, University
                                         a¨ o
35. Torppa, Johanna; Hentunen, V.-P.; P¨ akk¨ nen, P.; Kehus-                 of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, U.K.) 9–12.
    maa, P.; Muinonen, Karri: Asteroid shape and spin statistics           7. Foing, B. H.; Koschny, D.; Grieger, B.; Josset, J.-L.; Beau-
    from convex models. Icarus 198 (2008): 91–107.                            vivre, S.; Grande, M.; Huovelin, Juhani; Keller, H. U.; Mall,
            a
36. Tyynel¨ , Jani; Muinonen, Karri; Zubko, E.; Videen, G.: In-               U.; Nathues, A.; Malkki, A.; Noci, G.; Sodnik, Z.; Kel-
    terrelating scattering characteristics to internal electric fields         lett, B.; Pinet, P.; Chevrel, S.; Cerroni, P.; de Sanctis, M.
    for Gaussian-random-sphere particles. Journal of Quantita-                C.; Barucci, M. A.; Erard, S.; Despan, D.; Muinonen, Kar-
    tive Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer 109 (2008): 2207–                  ri; Shevchenko, V.; Shkuratov, Y.; Ellouzi, M.; Peters, S.;
    2218.                                                                     Almeida, M.; Frew, D.; Volp, J.; Heather, D.; McMannamon,
37. Wilson, C. D.; Petitpas, G. R.; Iono, D.; Peck, A.; Krips, M.;            P.; Camino, O.; Racca, G.: SMART-1 Lunar Highlights. 39th
    Warren, B. E.; Baker, A. J.; Yun, M. S.; Pihlstrom, Y.; Mihos,            Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, (Lunar and Plan-
    C.; Matsushita, S.; Juvela, Mika; Ho, P. T. P.; Cox, T. J.; Ar-           etary Science XXXIX), held March 10–14, 2008 in League
    mus, L.: Luminous infrared galaxies with the submillimeter                City, Texas. LPI Contribution No. 1391, 1987.
    array: probing the extremes of star formation. Astrophysics            8. Grande, M.; Maddison, B.; Sreekumar, P.; Huovelin, Juha-
    and Space Science 313 (2008): 297–302                                     ni; Kellett, B.; Howe, C. J.; Crawford, I. A.; Holland, A.:



                                                                    29
    The C1XS X-Ray Spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1. 39th Lu-                 held March 10–14, 2008 in League City, Texas. LPI Con-
    nar and Planetary Science Conference, (Lunar and Planetary             tribution No. 1391, 2282.
    Science XXXIX), held March 10–14, 2008 in League City,             17. Lindegren, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Brown, A. G. A.; Drimmel, R.;
    Texas. LPI Contribution No. 1391, 1620.                                Eyer, L.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; van Leeuwen, F.; Muino-
 9. Granvik, Mikael; Muinonen, Karri: New Method for Iden-                 nen, Karri; Pourbaix, D.; Torra, J.; Turon, C.; de Vries, J.;
    tifying Asteroids over Apparitions Among a Wealth of Scarce            Zwitter, T.: ELSA training the next generation of space as-
    Astrometry. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2008 held July 14–              trometrists. A Giant Step: from Milli- to Micro-arcsecond
    18, 2008 in Baltimore, Maryland. LPI Contribution No.                  Astrometry, Proceedings of the International Astronomical
    1405, 8205.                                                            Union. IAU Symp. 248 (2008): 529–530.
10. Granvik, Mikael; Virtanen, Jenni; Muinonen, Karri:                                       u
                                                                       18. Lindfors, E. J.; T¨ rler, M.; Hannikainen, Diana: Syn-
    OpenOrb: Open-Source Asterod-Orbit-Computation Soft-                   chrotron Flaring Behaviour of Cygnus X-3. A population
    ware Including Statistical Orbital Ranging. Asteroids,                 explosion: The Nature & Evolution of X-ray Binaries in Di-
    Comets, Meteors 2008 held July 14–18, 2008 in Baltimore,               verse Environments, AIP Conf. Proc.1010 (2008): 91–93.
    Maryland. LPI Contribution No. 1405, paper id. 8206.               19. Muinonen, Karri: Lightcurve Inversion Using Markov-
11. Grieger, B.; Foing, B. H.; Koschny, D.; Josset, J. L.; Beau-           Chain Monte-Carlo Methods. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors
    vivre, S.; Frew, D.; Almeida, M.; Sarkarati, M.; Volp,                 2008 held July 14–18, 2008 in Baltimore, Maryland. LPI
    J.; Pinet, P.; Chevrel, S.; Cerroni, P.; de Sanctis, M. C.;            Contribution No. 1405, paper id. 8315.
    Barucci, M. A.; Erard, S.; Despan, D.; Muinonen, Kar-              20. Muinonen, Karri; Cellino, A.; Belskaya, I.; Delbo, M.;
    ri; Shevchenko, V.; Shkuratov, Y.; El-louzi, M.; Peters, S.;           Levasseur-Regourd, A.-C.; Tedesco, E. F.: Inversion of As-
    Grande, M.; Huovelin, Juhani; Nathues, A.; Malkki, A.;                 teroid Phase Curves for Empirical Magnitude and Polariza-
    Noci, G.; Kellett, B.; Cook, A. C.: Heather, D.; Zender,               tion Systems. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2008 held July
    J.; McMannamon, P.; Schwehm, G.; Camino, O.; Blake,                    14–18, 2008 in Baltimore, Maryland. LPI Contribution No.
    R.: Coverage and Pointing Accuracy of SMART-1/AMIE Im-                 1405, paper id. 8263.
    ages. 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, (Lunar          21. Muinonen, Karri; Nousiainen, T.; Munoz, O.; Erkki-
    and Planetary Science XXXIX), held March 10–14, 2008 in                 a
                                                                           l¨ , Hannakaisa; Videen, G.: Ray-optics radiative-transfer
    League City, Texas. LPI Contribution No. 1391, 2221.                   method for scattering by inhomogeneous Gaussian random
12. Hannikainen, Diana; Rodriguez, J.: GRS 1915+105: A                     particles 11th Electromagnetic and Light Scattering Confer-
    Snapshot with INTEGRAL. A population explosion: The Na-                ence, Extended Abstracts (September 7–12, 2008, University
    ture & Evolution of X-ray Binaries in Diverse Environments,            of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, U.K.) 133–136.
    AIP Conf. Proc.1010 (2008): 85–87.                                 22. Muinonen, Karri; Oszkiewicz, Dagmara: Markov-Chain
13. Hildebrand, A. R.; Tedesco, E. F.; Carroll, K. A.; Cardinal,           Monte-Carlo inversion of asteroid photometric lightcurves.
    R. D.; Matthews, J. M.; Gladman, B.; Kaiser, N. R.; Brown,             11th Electromagnetic and Light Scattering Conference, Ex-
    P. G.; Wiegert, P.; Larson, S. M.; Worden, S. P.; Wallace,             tended Abstracts (September 7–12, 2008, University of Hert-
    B. J.; Chodas, P. W.; Granvik, Mikael; Gural, P.: The Near             fordshire, Hatfield, U.K.) 181–184.
    Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat) Mission Will                                                           a a
                                                                       23. Muinonen, Karri; Parviainen, Hannu; N¨ r¨ nen, Jyri;
    Conduct an Efficient Space-Based Asteroid Survey at Low                  Videen, G.: Scalar approximation to coherent backscattering
    Solar Elongations. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2008 held                by spherical media. 11th Electromagnetic and Light Scatter-
    July 14–18, 2008 in Baltimore, Maryland. LPI Contribution              ing Conference, Extended Abstracts (September 7–12, 2008,
    No. 1405, paper id. 8293.                                              University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, U.K.) 185–188.
14. Juvela, Mika; Goncalves, J.; Pelkonen, Veli–Matti; Luntti-         24. Nousiainen, T.; Zubko, E.; Niemi, J.; Kupiainen, K.; Lehti-
    la, Tuomas: Modelling polarized radiation from interstellar            nen, M.; Muinonen, Karri; and Videen, G.: Optical mod-
    clouds. EAS Publications Ser. 31 (2008): 179–180.                      eling of thin calcite flakes using DDA. 11th Electromag-
15. Koschny, D.; Barucci, A.; Yoshikawa, M.; B¨ hnhardt, H.;
                                                   o                       netic and Light Scattering Conference, Extended Abstracts
    Brucato, J.; Coradini, M.; Dotto, E.; Franchi, I.; Green, S.;          (September 7–12, 2008, University of Hertfordshire, Hat-
    Josset, J.-L.; Kawaguchi, J.; Michel, P.; Muinonen, Karri;             field, U.K.) 137–140.
    Oberst, J.; Yano, H.; Binzel, R.; Agnolon, D.; Romstedt, J.:       25. Oszkiewicz, Dagmara; Muinonen, Karri; Mouret, Serge;
    Marco Polo – A Mission to Return a Sample from a Near-                 Granvik, Mikael; Virtanen, Jenni: Markov-chain Monte-
    Earth Object. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2008 held July                Carlo methods for asteroid orbit computation. Asteroids,
    14–18, 2008 in Baltimore, Maryland. LPI Contribution No.               Comets, Meteors 2008 held July 14–18, 2008 in Baltimore,
    1405, paper id. 8227.                                                  Maryland. LPI Contribution No. 1405, 8221.
16. Koschny, D.; Foing, B. H.; Frew, D.; Grieger, B.; Almeida,         26. Parviainen, Hannu; Muinonen, Karri: A Realistic Light-
    M.; Sarkarati, M.; Volp, J.; Josset, J.-L.; Beauvivre, S.;             Scattering Model for Rough Particulate Surfaces. Asteroids,
    Grande, M.; Huovelin, Juhani; Nathues, A.; Malkki, A.;                 Comets, Meteors 2008 held July 14–18, 2008 in Baltimore,
    Noci, G.; Kellett, B.; Heather, D. J.; Zender, J.; McMan-              Maryland. LPI Contribution No. 1405, paper id. 8317.
    namon, P.; Schwehm, G.; Camino, O.; Blake, R.: SMART-              27. Parviainen, Hannu; Muinonen, Karri: Volume and surface
    1 Lunar Science Planning. 39th Lunar and Planetary Sci-                shadowing in particulate random media. 11th Electromag-
    ence Conference, (Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX),                  netic and Light Scattering Conference, Extended Abstracts


                                                                  30
    (September 7–12, 2008, University of Hertfordshire, Hat-             7 Observatory Board 2007–2009
    field, U.K.) 73–76.
28. Prat, L.; Rodriguez, J.; Hannikainen, Diana: RXTE and IN-             Director
    TEGRAL Observations of IGR J19140+0951. A population                  Doc. Lauri Jetsu
    explosion: The Nature & Evolution of X-ray Binaries in Di-
    verse Environments, AIP Conf. Proc.1010 (2008): 266–268.              Professors
29. Tyynel¨ , Jani; Nousiainen, T.; G¨ ke, S.; Muinonen, Karri:
           a                         o                                    Prof. Kalevi Mattila
    Modeling polarization radar echoes of hydrometeors using
    discrete-dipoles approximation. 11th Electromagnetic and              Staff
    Light Scattering Conference, Extended Abstracts (Septem-              Doc. Mika Juvela               (Doc. Diana Hannikainen)
    ber 7–12, 2008, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, U.K.)           Doc. Karri Muinonen            (Doc. Juhani Huovelin)
    267–270.
30. Tyynel¨ , Jani; Zubko, E.; Videen, G.; Muinonen, Kar-
           a                                                              Students
    ri: Angular-scattering, negative-polarization, and intensity-         Karri Koljonen                 (Mikko Eronen
    enhancement studies of spheroids. 11th Electromagnetic and                                              until 18.11.2008, replaced
    Light Scattering Conference, Extended Abstracts (September                                              by Jussi Aaltonen)
    7–12, 2008, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, U.K.) 97–           Suvi Jentze                    (Johanna Mynttinen
    100.                                                                                                    until 22.5.2008,
31. Virtanen, Jenni; Tancredi, G.; Bernstein, G. M.; Spahr, T.;                                             replaced by Merli Lahtinen,
    Muinonen, Karri: Transneptunian Orbit Computation. The                  replaced by Merli Lahtinen      replaced by Petri Huhtanen)
    Solar System Beyond Neptune, M. A. Barucci, H. Boehn-                   from 26.8.2008
    hardt, D. P. Cruikshank, and A. Morbidelli (eds.), University
    of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 25–40
      a¨ a
32. V¨ an¨ nen, Mikko: Time evolution of the size of solar flare
    plasma loops along the main sequence. Particle acceleration
    and transport in the heliosphere and beyond, 7th Annual In-
    ternational Astrophysics Conference. AIP Conference Proc.
    1039 (2008): 40–45.
33. Zubko, E.; Kimura, H.; Shkuratov, Yu.; Muinonen, Karri;
    Yamamoto, T.; Videen, G.: Light Scattering by Highly Ab-
    sorbing Irregularly Shaped Particles. 71st Annual Meeting of
    the Meteoritical Society, held July 28–August 1, 2008 in Mat-
    sue, Japan. Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement 43
    (2008): paper id. 5173.
34. Zubko, E.; Kimura, H.; Shkuratov, Y.; Muinonen, Karri;
    Yamamoto, T.; Videen, G.: Light scattering by agglomer-
    ated debris particles composed of highly absorbing material.
    11th Electromagnetic and Light Scattering Conference, Ex-
    tended Abstracts (September 7–12, 2008, University of Hert-
    fordshire, Hatfield, U.K.) 213–216.
35. Zubko, E.; Petrov, D.; Shkuratov, Y.; Okamoto, H.; Muino-
    nen, Karri; Kimura, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Videen, G.: Appli-
    cability of discrete-dipole approximation to conductive par-
    ticles. 11th Electromagnetic and Light Scattering Confer-
    ence, Extended Abstracts (September 7–12, 2008, University
    of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, U.K.) 117–120.                            Figure 13: Observatory faculty and staff at the Observatory
                                                                         biannual planning day.




                                                                    31
8 Academic degrees after 1995
               Year   Degree                            Supervisor(s)
               1995   Ph.D.     Pasi Hakala             O. Vilhu
               1995   Ph.D.     Juri Poutanen           D.I. Nagirner, O. Vilhu
               1995   M.Sc.     Diana Hannikainen       O. Vilhu
               1996   Ph.Lic.   P¨ ivi Harjunp¨ a
                                 a               a¨                o
                                                        T. Liljestr¨ m, K. Mattila
               1997   Ph.D.     Mika Juvela             K. Mattila
               1997   M.Sc .    Thomas Hackman          I. Tuominen
               1997   M.Sc.     Asko Palviainen         J. Harju, K. Mattila
               1998   Ph.D.     Kimmo Lehtinen          J. Harju, K. Mattila
               1999   Ph.D.     Diana Hannikainen       O. Vilhu
               1999   Ph.D.     Jukka Piironen          K. Muinonen
               1999   M.Sc.     Jere Kahanp¨ aa¨        M. Juvela, K. Mattila
               1999   M.Sc.     Juho Schultz            P. Hakala
               1999   M.Sc.     Johanna Torppa          M. Kaasalainen
               1999   M.Sc.     Jenni Virtanen          K. Muinonen
               2000   Ph.D.     Jukka Nevalainen        O. Vilhu
               2001   Ph.D.             a
                                Petri V¨ isanen         K. Mattila
               2001   M.Sc.     Peter Johansson                            a a
                                                        K.J. Donner, P. V¨ is¨ nen
               2003   Ph.D.     Sanna Kaasalainen       K. Muinonen, J. Piironen
               2003   M.Sc.     Mikael Granvik          K. Muinonen
               2003   M.Sc.            aa
                                Jyri N¨ r¨ nen          J. Peltoniemi, J. Piironen
               2003   M.Sc.     Cajus Pomr´ ne          J. Harju
               2003   M.Sc.         o          a
                                Ky¨ sti Ryyn¨ nen       M. Kaasalainen, J. Piironen
               2003   M.Sc.     Jani Tyynel¨ a          K. Lumme
               2004   M.Sc.     Jouni Kainulainen       J. Harju, K. Lehtinen, K. Mattila
               2004   M.Sc.     Jari Rantala            M. Kaasalainen
               2005   Ph.D.     Thomas Hackman          L. Jetsu, I. Tuominen
               2005   Ph.D.     Jenni Virtanen          K. Muinonen
               2005   M.Sc.     Kristiina Byckling      P. Hakala
               2005   M.Sc.     Oskari Miettinen        J. Harju, L. Haikala
               2006   Ph.D.     P¨ ivi Harjunp¨ a
                                 a               a¨     J. Harju, K. Mattila
               2006   Ph.D.             a a
                                Petri K¨ pyl¨           M. Korpi, I. Tuominen
               2006   Ph.D.     Juho Schultz            D. Hannikainen, O. Vilhu
               2006   M.Sc.            a
                                Onni J¨ rvinen          K. Muinonen, J. Piironen
               2006   M.Sc.     Tuomas Lehto                    a a
                                                        P. Hein¨ m¨ ki, P. Teerikorpi
               2006   M.Sc.     Anne Liljestr¨ mo       J. Harju, M. Korpi
               2006   M.Sc.     Tuomas Lunttila         M. Juvela
               2006   M.Sc.     Hannu Parviainen        K. Muinonen
               2006   M.Sc.     Auni Somero             P. Hakala
               2007   M.Sc.     Karri Koljonen          D. Hannikainen
               2007   M.Sc.     Johanna Mynttinen       D. Hannikainen
               2007   M.Sc.     Sebastian Porceddu      L. Jetsu, T. Markkanen
               2007   M.Sc.     Petri Savolainen        D. Hannikainen
               2007   M.Sc.     Minttu Uunila           J. Huovelin, R. Vainio
               2008   Ph.D.     Mikael Granvik          K. Muinonen
               2008   Ph.D.     Linnea Hjalmarsdotter   D. Hannikainen
               2008   Ph.D.     Johanna Torppa          M. Kaasalainen, K. Muinonen
               2008   Ph.Lic.   Lauri Alha              J. Huovelin
               2008   M.Sc.     Hannakaisa Erkkil¨  a   K. Muinonen
               2008   M.Sc.     Mikko Eronen            L. Haikala
               2008   M.Sc.     Perttu Kajatkari        D. Hannikainen
               2008   M.Sc.     Mari Kolehmainen        D. Hannikainen
               2008   M.Sc.     Marjaana Lindborg                       a a
                                                        M. Korpi, P. K¨ pyl¨ , I. Tuominen
               2008   M.Sc      Joonas Lyytinen         L. Jetsu
               2008   M.Sc.               a a
                                Minja M¨ kel¨           M. Juvela, K. Lehtinen, K. Mattila
               2008   M.Sc.     Arttu Raja-Halli        J. Nevalainen
               2008   M.Sc.     Minerva Schultz         J. Harju, M. Juvela
               2008   M.Sc.     Tuure Takala                                 oa
                                                        J. Huovelin, E. Kyr¨ l¨
               2008   M.Sc.               o a
                                Maija Yl¨ sm¨ ki        J. Harju, M. Juvela



                                                  32

				
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