Seminole Wars Document Carousel
for Oklahoma History
Assembled by Greg Oppel in 2006
Created by Tim Grantham, Greg Oppel, and Dan Pendergrass in 2010 for Edmond Memorial High School
Seminole Wars Carousel Document Set 1
Chronology of the 19th Century Seminole Wars
First Seminole War – Andrew Jackson's army destroys crops, steals livestock, and
destroys Negro forts in the Apalachicola and Suwannee River regions.
February 22, 1819
The United States Senate ratifies a treaty [Adams-Onis and Florida Purchase] with
Spain to take possession of Florida.
September 18, 1823 1822 Denmark Vessey Slave Revolt in South Carolina
Treaty of Moultrie Creek signed.
Fort Brooke established as one of the United States government forts charged with
watching over "problems" between Seminoles and white settlers.
United States government decides removal of all Indians in Florida to the Indian
Territory in the West (present day Oklahoma) was the best solution to continued
conflict between the Seminoles and white settlers. By 1834, 3,824 Indians had been
removed to the west.
1831 Nat Turner’s Slave Revolt in Virginia
December 28, 1835
Murder of Indian agent Wiley Thompson by Osceola. That same day, Major Francis
Dade and his troops are ambushed by 300 Seminole warriors near Fort King
(Ocala), starting the Second Seminole War – beginning of mass removal of the
Seminoles to the Indian Territory.
June or July, 1837
Capture of Osceola under false flag of truce.
January 30, 1838
Osceola dies at Fort Moultrie, South Carolina.
1839 Amistad Slave Ship Revolt
End of the Second Seminole War – By the end of the war, 4,420 Seminoles had
surrendered and been deported to the west.
Third Seminole War, also known as the Billy Bowlegs' War. Billy Bowlegs and his
family are removed to the Indian Territory west of Texas. Only about 300 Seminoles
remained in Florida, almost exclusively in the Everglades.
Seminole Wars Carousel Document Set 2
"General Scott was directed to allow no pacification with the
Indians while a living slave belonging to a white man remained in
Lewis Cass, U.S. Secretary of War
"This, you may be assured, is a negro, not an Indian war; and if
it be not speedily put down, the south will feel the effects of it on
their slave population before the end of the next season."
General Thomas Sydney Jesup December 8th, 1836
"The regaining of our slaves constitutes an
object of scarcely less moment than that of the
peace of the country."
St. Augustine Florida Herald, April 27, 1837
John" by N.
Orr published in
history, and a
engraving of the
Seminole Wars Carousel Document Set 3
"[N]egroes who have fled
from their masters, citizens
of the United States … and
the Seminole Indians … all
uniting, have raised the
tomahawk, and, in the
character of savage
warfare, have neither
regarded sex nor age.
Helpless women have been
massacred, and the cradle
crimsoned with the blood of
General Andrew Jackson,
letter to the Pensacola governor,
Detail from an 1828 broadside condemning Jackson's
actions in the First Seminole War. His conduct of the war
led to Congressional inquiries in 1818 and dogged Jackson
throughout his career. Florida State Archives
Seminole Wars Carousel Document Set 4
The citizens of Florida were jubilant at the capture of Osceola, but around
the country Jesup's methods caused an uproar. The popular Niles National
Register summed up the general feeling in its November 4, 1837 issue:
"We disclaim all participation in the 'glory' of this achievement of
American generalship, which, if practised toward a civilized foe,
would be characterized as a violation of all that is noble and
generous in war."
Under the leadership of Chief
Engraving depicting Osceola, the Seminole Indians
General Hernandez seizing refused to be forcibly moved to
Osceola as a prisoner, Oklahoma territory. Instead, they
retreated to the Florida
Everglades. The Seminoles
Florida Photographic continued to resist relocation for
Collection. seven years, until the backbone of
their resistance was broken when
their chief was captured under the
guise [XXX] of a flag of truce.
Apalachicola River Suwanee River
Seminole Wars Carousel Document Set 5
Seminole Wars Carousel Document Set 6
"Massacre of Major Dade and his Command,"
engraving depicting Hitchcock's discovery of the
Dade battleground, published in 1847 in Barber's
Incidents in American History.
"The above is intended to represent the horrid Massacre of the Whites in Florida, in December 1835, and
January, February, March and April 1836, when near Four Hundred (including women and children) fell
victim to the barbarity of the Negroes and Indians."
"The government is in the wrong, and this is the chief cause of the persevering opposition of the
Indians, who have nobly defended their country against our attempt to enforce a fraudulent treaty.
The natives used every means to avoid a war, but were forced into it by the tyranny of our
government." [Major Ethan Allen Hitchcock was among those who found the remains of the Dade
party in February. In his journal he wrote a haunting account of the discovery, then vented his bitter
discontent with the conflict]
Seminole Wars Carousel Document Set 7
Quotes from Seminole Chief Osceola
"You have guns and so have we ... you have powder and
lead, and so have we ... your men will fight, and so will
ours, till the last drop of the Seminole's blood has
moistened the dust of his hunting ground."
"I will make the white man red with blood; and then
blacken him in the sun and rain, where the wolf shall
smell of his bones and the buzzard live upon his
“The only treaty I will ever execute will be this!”
Seminole Wars Carousel Document Set 8
from "Sketch of Indian & Negro towns on
the Suwaney River." Map from the First
Seminole War showing the Black
Seminole towns attacked by General
Andrew Jackson in 1818. National
Seminole Wars Carousel Document Questions
Document Set One - Questions
1. How long was the First Seminole War? Who was it led by?
2. How long was the Second Seminole War? Who was it led by? Who was it caused by?
3. How long was the Third Seminole War? How many seminole were left at the end of the war and where were
4. How many slave revolts occurred from the 1817 – 1858?
Document Set Two - Questions
1. Whats was a major motivation for the Seminole War?
2. What will happen to the Southern slave population?
3. What was at stake according to the St. Augustine Herald Newspaper?
4. In what ways does African runaway slave Hopher John (Horse) look like a Seminole?
Document Set Three - Questions
1. What does General Jackson say the African runaway slaves and Seminole Indians did to the Americans?
2. What words does he use to describe the African runaway slaves and Seminole Indians?
3. What words does he use to describe the Americans?
4. State Samuel Perkins’s opinion of Andrew Jackson. Explain how he came to that conclusion.
Document Set Four – Questions
1. How did the Niles National Register describe General Jessup’s capture of Chief Osceola?
2. How did the Seminole respond when they were supposed to be removed to Oklahoma?
3. What led to to the end of Seminole resistance to relocation?
4. Describe what you see in the two illustrations of Osceola’s capture.
Document Set Five – Questions
1. Using the Seminole Wars map describe in general where the forts were located.
2. Using the Seminole Wars map describe in general where thebattle sites were located.
3. Describe what part of Florida the Apilachicola and Suwanee Rivers are located.
4. Hypothesize what the large features in the bottom half of the map of Flordia might be.
Document Set Six - Questions
1. What do the visuals portray? How do they use images and text to convey their meaning?
2. What was Major Ethan Hitchcock’s attitude about the massacre of the Dade party.
3. Compare and contrast Hitchcock’s narrative with the visual documets
4. Which do you believe and why?
Document Set Seven - Questions
1. Summarize Osceola’s first quote .
2. Summarize Osceola’s second quote .
3. Summarize Osceola’s third quote .
4. Based on what you know is Oceola’s attitude justified?
Document Set Eight – Questions
1. What is the title of the map? Wht does it portray?
2. Give the name of the the Seminole town on the map.
3. Where did the African runaway slaves live?
4. What physical and landscape features surround the towns?