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Carrell-Carson1997ExtensiveIntensiveReadingin an EAP Setting

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					Extensive and Intensive Reading
in an EAP Setting
Patricia L. Carrell and Joan G. Carson


         By Gemma Artieda
         MA in SLA & Applied Linguistics
         Content & Language Integrated Learning & Teaching
         Instructor: Teresa Navés – tnaves@ub.edu
         University of Barcelona 2008-2009
Abstract

The article argues for:
 The need for intensive and extensive reading
  in English for Academic Purposes (EAP)
  reading curriculum.
 A principled curricular approach to combining
  both is through Task-Based Language
  Teaching (TBLT).
Introduction: the Meaning of Literacy in
EAP Settings

   Academic purposes are different from any other.

   As Anderson et al (1990:11) noted, “there is not one
    single image of academic literacy”.

   Reading & writing activities are rather described as
    “academic literacies” by Chiseri-Strater (1991).
Introduction: the Meaning of Literacy in
EAP Settings

How do we maximize then the instructional effectiveness of
  EAP reading programs?

   Research in L1 suggests that underprepared students benefit
    most from instruction in reading & writing tasks that
    resemble the actual literacy demands of university work
    (Feathers&Smith 1983; Nist&Kirby 91986).

   Therefore, this seems to indicate that work needs to be done
    focusing on teaching literacy skills that are transferable to
    academic contexts. Research so far supports this approach.
Learning to Read by Receiving Strategy Instruction: the
Case for Intensive Reading in an EAP Setting

   The importance of a reading strategic repertoire has led
    pedagogy to emphasize instruction as the means for L2
    students to obtain the necessary reading strategies for EAP
    settings.
   Research has shown the important role played by various
    strategies in successful and unsuccessful L2 learning.
   In 1985 Carrel (1985) demonstrated the efficacy of teaching a
    text structure strategy for expository texts. Hamp-Lyong (1985)
    also showed the positive effects of this approach, and Sarig &
    Folman (1987) conducted a successful coherence training
    study.
   Carrell, Pharis and Liberto (1989) reported two meta
    cognitively-based strategy training techniques, with
    differential effects on students with different learning styles.
   Kern (1989), Raymond (1993), and Talbot (1996) have further
    researched and demonstrated the validity of this aproach.
Learning to Read by Receiving Strategy Instruction: the
Case for Intensive Reading in an EAP Setting

   An important component of reading strategy training has been
    its focus on metacognition. See Anderson (1991:19):
    “Successful L2 reading comprehension is not simply a matter
    of knowing what strategy to use, but the reader must also
    know how to use it successfully and orchestrate its use with
    other strategies”.

   Carrel (1996) then identified the range of metacognitive
    elements used: declarative (information that we have and
    that we know we have), procedural (how to- knowledge
    underlying automatic performance) and conditional (knowing
    when to use or not to use a skill).

   All students in these intervention studies were at university
    level.
Learning to Read by Reading: the Case for
Extensive Reading in an EAP Context
   There has been a resurgence of interest in extensive
    reading as part of L2 language development programs.
    Krashen (1989, 1993) continues to call for a major role
    for free voluntary reading in ESL acquisition.

   Challenges:
       Involves rapid reading of large quantities of material
       Focus is on meaning rather than on structures or form
       Involves a variety of skills or strategies
Learning to Read by Reading: the Case for
Extensive Reading in an EAP Context
At the Reading Research Colloquium of the 1995
  TESOL Convention, two major figures articulated
  the need for extensive reading while acknowledging
  the challenges:

   Swaffar (1995) reported enthusiastic responses from
    students exposed to narrow reading as a form of
    extensive reading, and suggests that ER can
    “address the current gulf between learning a
    language and using a language to learn”.
Learning to Read by Reading: the Case for
Extensive Reading in an EAP Context
   Grabe (1995) reviewed what ER can do for effective
    reading:
       Develops automatic word recognition, and a large
        recognition vocabulary.
       Builds student motivation, students get “hooked”.
       Has a positive influence on students’ general background
        knowledge.
       Has a positive influence on reading comprehension
        proficiency.
       Helps students become strategic readers, as well as
        developing their ability to “read to learn”.
       It is a key means for students to continue learning an L2 on
        their own when after they complete instruction.
Learning to Read by Reading: the Case for
Extensive Reading in an EAP Context
He also identified several challenges for ER to become
   the focus of instruction:

  1.   The assumption that reading can easily be done at home,
       without teacher’s help.
  2.   The need to find lots of interesting material.
  3.   The need to accommodate different students’
       backgrounds.
  4.   The vagueness of the definition of extensive reading.
Learning to Read by Reading: the Case for
Extensive Reading in an EAP Context
   Day & Bamford are publishing a book: Developing
    Lifelong Readers: Extensive Reading in the FL
    Clasroom, and they struggle with the definition of ER
    too:
     “reading in quantity” (Longman Dictionary of

       Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics)
     “to gain an understanding of what is read” (id)

     Also “a way of teaching reading and the foreign
       language itself” (Day&Bamford).
The Need for Both Intensive and Extensive
Reading in an EAP Setting
   Nutall (1982) reminded us that “intensive and
    extensive reading are complementary and both are
    necessary”.
   According to Nutall, these are not two contrasting
    ways of reading, but that there are an infinitive
    variety of interrelated and overlapping techniques.
   She suggests how an extensive reading program
    might be organized to turn the vicyous cycle of the
    weak reader into the vicious cycle of the good
    reader.
Combining Intensive and Extensive Reading:
A Curricular Approach

   One response has been
    Content-Based Instruction (CBI): in this model it is
     implied the use of a single subject-specific text
     that is by nature appropriate for both intensive and
     extensive reading.


   Limitations:
       It has been used more with the K-12 population.
Combining Intensive and Extensive Reading:
A Curricular Approach
Why not use it then in post-secondary settings?
 Criteria for content selection are problematic: an EAP
  program content is not easy to specify, and not all will be
  shared in an EAP classroom.
 The CBI goal of content mastery will be difficult to
  transmit to an EAP student, since his/her needs are so
  variable.
CBI does not provide a principled basis for deciding on
  course focus in case where content mastery is
  unnecessary or inappropriate.
Combining Intensive and Extensive Reading:
A Curricular Approach

The answer can be in
Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT):
 As in CBI, it is based on the idea that
  communicative purposes are essential in real
  language learning.
 But the organizing principle is task, not
  content. Language is acquired on the
  completion of a task.
Combining Intensive and Extensive Reading:
A Curricular Approach
Why will TBLT work in EAP settings?
   Academic tasks involve evaluated products, such as exams,
    reports, papers and quizzes.
   By focusing TBLT on evaluated products, the student acquires all
    types of relevant subtasks and study skills.
   EAP students recognize the evaluated products as real academic
    demands: tasks have validity, and also transferability of skills and
    strategies.
   Content is secondary, becoming the context in which the student
    manages tasks and subtasks.
   Because the tasks are tailored to fit the learner’s needs, it does
    maintain a clear connection with genuine language in genuine
    communicative interactions.
Combining Intensive and Extensive Reading:
A Curricular Approach


    What is needed then in this approach is
   extensive reading of academic text in any
      content area, combined with strategy
  instruction for dealing with specific academic
                       tasks.
Conclusion

   TBLT is a principled way of integrating
    intensive reading and strategy instruction with
    appropriate extensive reading in post-
    secondary EAP settings.
   Both intensive and extensive reading will
    provide students to manage the reading
    demands of actual academic classes.

				
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posted:12/17/2011
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