ec 201 lecture 22 by huanghengdong


									Lecture 34
Some IC circuits

    Amit Kumar Mishra
       ECE, IIT G
A/D Conversion Techniques

 If vX > vREF, output voltage is high corresponding to logic 1.
 If vX < vREF, output voltage is high corresponding to logic 0.
   vREF is time-dependent reference voltage, varied till unknown input is
   determined within quantization error of converter.
Ideally ADC logic chooses bi so that
                                   v V
                                               b 2
                                                     i  VFS
                                     X FS i 1 i          2n 1
Counting ADC
           n-bit DAC used to generate any one of 2n
           outputs by applying appropriate digital input
           word. vX determined by sequentially
           comparing it to each possible DAC output.

           • Maximum conversion time occurs for full-
           scale input signal requiring 2n clock periods.
           • Binary value in counter is smallest DAC
           voltage larger than unknown input, not the
           DAC output closest to unknown input.
           • If input varies, binary output is accurate
           representation of input signal value at the
           instant the comparator changes state.
           • Requires minimum amount of hardware,
           inexpensive to implement.
Successive Approximation ADC
          •Binary search used by SAL to determine vX.
          •n-bit conversion needs n clock periods. Speed limited
          by time taken by DAC output to settle within a
          fraction of an LSB of VFS and by comparator to
          respond to input signals differing by small amounts.
          •Slowly varying input signals not changing by more
          than 0.5 LSB (VFS /2n+1 ) during conversion time (TT =
          nTC) are acceptable.
          •For a sinusoidal input signal with p-p amplitude=
          VFS, f  f c
                   o n2
                      2    n

          •To avoid this frequency limitation, high speed
          sample-and-hold circuit is used ahead of the
          successive approximation ADC.
          •Very popular ADC with fast conversion times, used
          in 8- to 16- bit converters
Single-Ramp (Single-Slope) ADC
             •Reference voltage varies linearly with a well-
             defines slope from slightly below 0 to above VFS
                               v      N
               v  KNT  X  n                 if K= VFS / 2nTC.
                 X        C V         2
             •Maximum conversion time occurs for full-
             scale input signal requiring 2 n clock periods.
             •Counter output is value of vX at the time end-
             of-conversion signal occurs.
             •Ramp voltage can be generated using an
             integrator connected to a constant reference
             •Dependence of ramp’s slope on RC product
             which is susceptible to changes due to
             temperature variations or aging is a limitation of
             this ADC.
Dual-Ramp (Dual-Slope) ADC
              T  2nT        T  NT
               1     C        2    C
                 T                  T T
               1  1               1 1 2
                   v x (t )dt       VREF (t )dt
              RC 0               RC T
                      vx       T      1
                             2 n
                   V            T 2
                     REF         1
            •Absolute values of R and C don’t affect
            •Digital output word gives average value of
            vX during first integration phase.
            •Conversion time is given by:
                    T  (2n  N )T  2n1T
                      T            C         C
            •Can be used to get resolutions exceeding 20
            bits but at lower conversion rates.
Parallel or Flash ADC
              Unknown input simultaneously compared
               to 7 different reference voltages (3-bit
               converter). Logic network encodes
               comparator outputs into 3-bit binary
               output representing quantized value of
               input voltage.
              Very fast speed ( up to 108-109
               conversions/sec), limited only by delays of
               comparators and logic network.
              Output continuously reflects input delayed
               by comparator and logic network.
              Requires 2n-1 comparators and reference
               voltages for n-bit conversion. Used for
               resolutions up to 10 bits.
    Delta Sigma ADCs
                                             Feedback loop attempts to force
                                             integrator output to zero.
                                              MT            NT            (M
                                                                                     N )T 
                                      V        C    V       C    V                 C 0
                                           X  RC
                                                    
                                                        REF  RC
                                                                    
                                                                        REF 
                                                                                   RC      
                                                                                      
                                              V    
                                      V      REF (2m  2 N )        If M=2m
                                           X  2m 
                                                   
                                           N/M is average value of binary bit
                                           stream at output.LSB is VREF= 2m
                                           Effective resolution is determined by
                                           the time for which the output is
Called oversampled because internal
ADC samples integrator output at 16        Converter operation is considerably
to 512 times Nyquist rate.Digital          complex for time-varying input
filter produces higher resolution.         signals.
Many Thanks

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