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República Portuguesa
Basic information
         Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic
             (Portuguese: República Portuguesa). It is
             located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian
             Peninsula, and is the westernmost country of
             mainland Europe. Portugal is bordered by
             Spain to the north and east and by the Atlantic
             Ocean to the west and south. The Atlantic
             archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, are
             also part of Portugal.
         Portugal has witnessed a constant flow of different
             civilizations during the past 3,100 years,
             including Greek, Roman, Germanic and
             others, who all made an imprint on the
             country's culture, history, language. During the
             15th and 16th centuries, its vast
             transcontinental empire made Portugal one of
             the world's major economic, political, and
             cultural powers. Nowadays, Portugal is a
             developed country, a member of the European
             Union since 1986 and a Eurozone founding
             member that launched the single currency in
Portugal as an independent nation started on June
    24, 1128, when the Count of Portugal,
    Afonso Henriques proclaimed himself as
    king. In October 5, 1143, Alfonso VII, King
    of León and Castile, recognized the
    independence of the County of Portugal, with
    Afonso I as its King. Afonso and his
    successors, pushed southwards to wrest more
    land from the Moors, as Portugal started with
    about half its present area. In 1249 the
    Portuguese Reconquista ended when it
    reached the southern coast of the Algarve.
In 1373 Portugal made an alliance with England,
    which is the longest-standing alliance in the
    world. In the following decades, Portugal
    spearheaded the exploration of the world and
    started the Age of Discovery. Prince Henry
    the Navigator, son of King John I, took on
    the role of main sponsor and patron of this
    endeavour.                                      First portuguese flag.
In 1383, the King of Castile claimed the
    right to the throne of Portugal, as he
    was married to the daughter of the King
    of Portugal who had died with no male
    heir. The ensuing popular revolt led to
    the 1383-1385 Crisis. A faction of petty
    noblemen and common folk, led by
    John of Aviz (later John I) defeated the
    Castilians on the Battle of Aljubarrota,
    the most celebrated battle in Portuguese
    history and still a symbol of the
    struggle for independence from
    neighbour Spain.
In 1415, the Portuguese Empire began when
    a Portuguese fleet conquered Ceuta, a
    rich Islamic trade centre in North
                                               Padrão dos Descobrimentos, Lisbon
    Africa. There followed the first
    discoveries in the Atlantic: Madeira and
    the Azores, which led to the first
    colonization movements.
Throughout the 15th century, the
    Portuguese Explorers sailed down the
    coast of Africa, establishing trading
    posts along the way, while they were
    looking for the route to India, land of
    the spices, which were very precious in
    Europe. In 1498, Vasco da Gama
    finally arrived in India by sea.
In 1500, Pedro Álvares Cabral landed on
    Brazil and claimed it for the Portuguese
    Crown. Thus, the Portuguese Empire
    had the dominion of the commerce in
    the Indian Ocean and in the South

                                               Vasco da Gama
The independence of Portugal was interrupted from 1580 to 1640. As King Sebastian died in
    a battle in Morocco leaving no heir, Philip II of Spain claimed the throne and got it,
    becoming Philip I of Portugal. Although Portugal did not lose its formal indepence as a
    kingdom, the fact is that it was governed by the same king that governed Spain, forming
    a Union of Kingdoms; but not for long: In 1640, John IV spearheaded a rebellious
    uprising backed by disgruntled Portuguese nobles, and was acclaimed King, starting the
    long-lasting dynasty of Braganza. By this time, however, the Portuguese Empire was
    already under severe attack from the ambitions of other countries, specifically Britain
    and the Netherlands, and Portugal began a slow but inexorable decline until the 20th
    century. This decline was hastened by the independence in 1822 of the country's largest
    colonial possession, Brazil which contributed to a period of political chaos and civil
In 1910, a republican revolution deposed the Portuguese monarchy. But the chaos continued
    and considerable economic problems aggravated by a disastrous military intervention in
    the First World War led to a military coup d'état in 1926. This led to the establishment
    of the right-wing dictatorship of António de Oliveira Salazar. In the early 1960s,
    independence movements in the colonies of Angola, Mozambique and Portuguese
    Guinea resulted in the Portuguese Colonial War, weakening the regime. In 1974, a
    bloodless left-wing military coup led the way for the democratic regime of today.
    Membership in the European Union was achieved in 1986 and since then Portugal has
    been engaged in a process of convergence with its EU counterparts.
        Government and Politics

Portugal is a democratic republic ruled by the Constitution of 1976.
The four main organs of Portuguese politics are the President of the
   Republic, the Assembly of the Republic, the Government, and the
The President of the Republic, which is elected to a five year term by
   universal suffrage, has a supervising, non-executive role. The
   Assembly of the Republic is composed of 230 deputies elected by
   universal suffrage for four year terms.
The Government is headed by the Prime Minister, who chooses his
   Council of Ministers, made of Ministers and their assistants, the
   Secretaries of State. The national and regional governments are
   dominated by two political parties, the Socialist Party and the Social
   Democratic Party.
Foreign Relations and Military
               Portugal is a member of NATO since
                  1949, of the European Union since
                  1986. There is a friendship alliance
                  and dual citizenship treaty with
                  Brazil. Portugal also has very good
                  relations with the USA, UK, China,
                  as well as the other European
                  Union countries, and centuries-old
                  diplomatic ties with Morocco.
               The Portuguese Armed Forces are
                  divided into three branches: Army,
                  Navy, and Air Force. In the 20th
                  century, Portugal engaged in two
                  major military interventions: the
                  First Great War and the Colonial
                  war (1961-1974). Portugal has
                  participated in several
                  peacekeeping missions abroad,
                  namely East Timor, Bosnia,
                  Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq.
         Geography and Climate

Continental Portugal is split in two by its main river, the Tagus (Tejo). Northern
   landscape is mountainous in the interior areas. The South area between the
   Tejo and the Algarve (the Alentejo) features mostly rolling plains with a
   climate somewhat warmer and drier than the cooler and rainier north. The
   Algarve, separated from the Alentejo by mountains, enjoys a Mediterranean
   climate comparable with Morocco or Southern Spain.
The islands of the Azores and Madeira are located in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
   Some of these islands have had recent volcanic activity, as recently as 1957.
   Portugal's highest point is Mount Pico in Pico Island, an ancient volcano, at
   2,351 metres.
Portugal's climate can be classified as Mediterranean. One of the warmest
   European countries, yearly temperature averages in Mainland Portugal are 15
   °C in the north and 18 °C in the south. Madeira and Azores have a narrower
   temperature range. Spring and summer months are sunny, autumns and winters
   are rainy and windy.

Portugal joined the European Union in 1986 and started a process of
   modernization in a very stable environment. It achieved a healthy level
   of growth in terms of modernization. Portugal was one of the founding
   countries of the euro in 1999.
Major industries include oil refineries, automotive, cement production,
   pulp and paper industry, textile, footwear, furniture, and cork (the
   world’s leading producer). Agriculture no longer represents most of
   the economy but the Portuguese wines, namely Port Wine and Madeira
   Wine are still exported worldwide.
Tourism is also an important activity, specially in the Algarve (south) and
   Madeira Islands regions.

The education system of Portugal is divided into Pre-schooling (children
   until the age of six), Basic Education (nine years in three stages and
   compulsory), Secondary Education (three years) and Higher Education
   (University and Polytechnic).
Portuguese Universities exist since 1290. They are divided into faculties.
   The Bologna process is being adopted to become effective before

The Portuguese legal system is part of the continental family of legal
   systems based on civil law. Up to the end of the 19th century French
   law was the main influence, but since then the major influence has
   been German law.
Portuguese law applied in the former colonies and territories and
   continues to be the major influence. This includes for example the
   legal system of Macau.

    Religion in Portugal is profoundly
       Roman Catholic. According to
       common saying, "to be
       Portuguese is to be Catholic,"
       and approximately 97 percent
       of the population consider
       themselves Roman Catholic -
       the highest percentage in
       Western Europe.

Portugal has developed a specific culture while being influenced by the various
   civilizations that crossed the Mediterranean and those that were discovered
   during the Age of Discovery.
Portuguese literature is one of the earliest Western literatures, developed through
   texts and songs. Until 1350, the Portuguese-Galician troubadours spread their
   literary influence to most of the Iberian Peninsula . Gil Vicente (c.1465 -
   c.1536) was one of the founders of both Portuguese and Spanish dramatic
   traditions. Adventurer and poet Luís de Camões (c.1524 - 1580) wrote the epic
   poem The Lusiads, with Virgil's Aeneid as main model. Modern Portuguese
   poetry is essentially rooted in neo-classic and contemporary styles, as
   execplified by Fernando Pessoa (1888 – 1935). Modern literature became
   internationally known through the works of, among others, Almeida Garrett,
   Camilo Castelo Branco, Eça de Queirós, Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen,
   António Lobo Antunes, and 1998 Nobel prize winner, José Saramago.
                 Music & Architecture
Portuguese music encompasses a wide variety of genres. The most renowned is Fado, a
    melancholic urban music, usually associated to the Portuguese guitar and to saudade,
    the feeling of missing someone. Some of its most internationally notable performers are
    Amália Rodrigues, Mariza, Mísia, and Madredeus. Apart from these acts, one of the
    most notable Portuguese acts outside, specially in Germany, is the gothic-metal band
    Moonspell, even though the genre is not very common in Portugal as it is on other
    European countries. Despite fado and folk, Portuguese youngsters seem to enjoy rock,
    pop and other modern types of music. The Portuguese organize every year several
    festivals like Zambujeira do Mar, Paredes de Coura, Rock in Rio Lisboa, MTV Europe
    Music Awards in 2005 among many others.
Portuguese traditional architecture is distinct due to the variety of influences that it features.
    Modern Portugal has given the world renowned architects Eduardo Souto de Moura and
    Álvaro Siza Vieira. Prominent international figures in visual arts include painters Vieira
    da Silva and Paula Rego.
Since the 1990s, Portugal has increased the number of public cultural facitilies, in addition
    to the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation established in 1956. These include the Belém
    Cultural Center in Lisbon, Serralves Foundation and the House of Music, both in
          Festivals and Holidays

Festivals play a major role in Portugal's summers. Almost every city, town
   and village has its own festivals. The summer festivities are very
   popular. Among these festivities are the June festivities dedicated to
   three saints known as Santos Populares (popular saints) that take place
   all over Portugal. Why the population associated the saints with these
   pagan festivities is not known. The practice is possibly related to
   Roman or local deities before Christianity spread into the region. The
   three saints are Saint Anthony, Saint John and Saint Peter. A common
   denominator in these festivities generally includes the wine and água-
   pé (a watered kind of wine), traditional bread along with grilled
   sardines, pimba music, traditional street dances, fireworks, religious
   processions and celebration.

Portuguese cuisine is particularly diverse; various recipes of rice, potatoes, bread,
   meat, sea-food, and fish are the staple foods in the country. The Portuguese
   have a reputation for loving cod dishes (bacalhau in Portuguese), for which it
   is said that there are 365 ways (one for each day of the year) of cooking it:
   Pastéis de Bacalhau, Bacalhau à Brás and Bacalhau à Gomes de Sá are some
   of the most popular ones. Other fish recipes are popular like the grilled
   sardines and Caldeirada. The art of pastry, having its origins in old and rich
   conventual pastry recipes, is very popular across the entire country. Desserts
   and cakes, such as Lisbon's Pastéis de Nata (best eaten with a strong coffee),
   Aveiro's Ovos-Moles, and many other, are very appreciated. Portugal has its
   own adaptation of fast-food; one of the most popular is Porto's Francesinha.
   Other recipes include the Feijoada, made with pieces of meat, sausages and
   beans served with white and dry rice, the Cozido à Portuguesa, made with
   various kinds of meat, rice, potatoes and other vegetables, all boiled, and the
Portuguese wines have been exported since
    Roman times. The Romans associated
    Portugal with Bacchus, their god of
    Winery and Feast. Today the country is
    known by wine lovers, and its wines
    have won several international prizes.
    Many famous Portuguese wines are
    known as some of the world's best:
    Vinho Verde, Vinho Alvarinho, Vinho
    do Douro, Vinho do Alentejo, Vinho do
    Dão, Vinho da Bairrada and the sweet:
    Port Wine, Madeira wine and the
    Moscatels of Setúbal and Favaios
    (Douro). Porto Wine is widely
    exported, followed by Vinho Verde.
    Exports of Vinho Verde are increasing
    rapidly, in response to the growing
    international demand.
Sports and games

        Football is the most known, loved and
            practiced sport in Portugal. Luís Figo
            was one of the world's top players, but
            the legendary Eusébio is still a major
            symbol of Portuguese football.
        The Portuguese national team, or Selecção
            Nacional, has won two FIFA World
            Youth Championships and several other
            UEFA youth championships. After a
            third place in the 1966 FIFA World
            Cup, they finished in fourth place at the
            2006 FIFA World Cup, losing to
            Germany in the third-place match. In
            addition, they finished second in Euro
            2004, their best ever result in this
                Portuguese Football
FC Porto, SL Benfica and Sporting Clube de Portugal are the main clubs, often
   known as "os três grandes" ("the big three"). While Benfica has played in the
   UEFA Champions League final (then the UEFA Champions Cup) seven times
   and has two titles, FC Porto has two titles from two finals (1987 and 2004) in
   that competition alongside two Intercontinental Cups, a UEFA Super Cup
   (1987), and is the only Portuguese team to have won a UEFA Cup (2003).
   Although Benfica was the most popular and successful Portuguese club in
   Europe in the past, FC Porto's success in the European competitions has put
   them in the Top 10 World Clubs. By dominating the national competition
   since the late 1980s, FC Porto is the only Portuguese team to ever achieve five
   Portuguese Football Championship titles in a row (1995-1999). Sporting Clube
   de Portugal has won a European Cup Winners' Cup.
Portugal is probably best known for its rink hockey team, with 15 world titles. The
   most important Portuguese hockey clubs in the European championships are
   SL Benfica, FC Porto, UD Oliveirense and Óquei de Barcelos.
Quiz time
1. Which is the correct ensign of Portugal?

2. Which is the correct national anthem of
2. Which is the correct national anthem of
2. Which is the correct national anthem of

3. Where is Portugal located?

4. Who was the first to arrive in Indie by sea?
• Ferdynand Magellan
• Christopher Columbus
• Vasco da Gama              correct
5. Name the number of Portugese Political
• 3
• 5
• 4               correct

 Thank you

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