Unit 3, Latin American Wars of Independence
Marshall C. Eakin, The History of Latin America: Collision of Cultures (2007)
Chapter 12, “The Onset of the Wars for Independence,” Pages 163-175
Before you begin reading, review Chapter 11. What were the causes of political and
social unrest in Latin America?
Answer these questions as you read:
1. Describe the larger context of the Latin American revolts.
CREOLES AND PENINSULARES
2. Identify: Alexander von Humboldt. Note his observation about peninsulares and
3. Describe the regional elites/capitals of Spanish America.
4. Note characteristics of the Spanish American empire compared to the Portuguese,
British, French, and Dutch empires. Note population figures and characteristics.
5. Identify: castas.
THE HAITIAN REVOLUTION
6. Describe the Haitian Revolution.
7. In what way would the Haitian Revolution be a positive example to Hispanic creoles?
8. In what way would the Haitian Revolution be a negative example to Hispanic creoles?
9. Identify: buccaneers
10. Describe the pre-revolutionary French colony of Saint-Domingue.
a) grand blancs
b) petits blancs
c) gens de couleur
d) Toussaint L’Ouverture
e) Jean-Jacques Dessalines
f) Henri Christophe
THE SEEDS OF REBELLION
12. Note the Spanish version of the Enlightenment.
13. How did the Bourbon policies shift the relationship of the people to their king from
the older, Hapsburg, model?
14. Note the important, but differing, influences of the United States and France on Latin
15. Note the particular economic grievances of the Spanish colonies relative to trade.
16. Note the effects of the Napoleonic Wars on Latin America.
17. Note the different reactions of the Spanish and Portuguese monarchies to the French
invasion of the Iberian peninsula in 1807-8.
18. Identify: Manuel Godoy.
19. How did the people of Spain respond to the French invasion and the abdications of
Carlos IV and Fernando VII?
c) Constitution of 1812
21. How did events in Spain pose problems for Spanish America?