Chapter II is review of related literature by miminx123

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									                                     CHAPTER II

                      THE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

       The review of related literature is intended to find out the theoretical frame work

related to the study. Dealing with the study it is done in order that the researcher‟s study

possesses theoretical bases. Therefore, the following section will elaborate a) the status of

English Lesson in elementary school; b) English curriculum in Elementary school; c) the

teaching and learning English in elementary school; and d) case study.

A. The Status of English Lesson in Elementary School

           English as the first foreign language is learned to be mastered for the purpose

   of absorption and science development and technology and art and culture, as well as

   of gaining international relations with other nations. English can be taught in

   Elementary School if needed by the society in the relevant area and supported by the

   teacher that has a certain ability to teach English well. Therefore, teaching English is

   given as local content, not as a must lesson.

          Based on Kurikulum Pendidikan Dasar (1993: 11) that mata pelajaran Bahasa
   Inggris dapat diajarkan di SD bilamana dianggap perlu oleh masyarakat di daerah
   bersangkutan dan didukung oleh adanya guru yang berkemampuan untuk
   mengajarkan mata pelajaran tersebut. Oleh sebab itu, pengajaran Bahasa Inggris
   tidak wajib dilaksanakan di SD melainkan diselenggarakan sebagai muatan local.
   Pengajaran bahasa Inggris dapat dimulai di kelas IV.

           The conclusion from the description above is that English teaching can be

   given from the fourth grade as „a local content‟.

           In this case, the definition of "local" can mean at the province, district and city,

   district and even school level. Lesson of the local content policy is actually determined

   by the school to watch some things, such as the involvement of local government,

   education experts, and authors of teaching materials, and other materials of society

   members. The local government should also consider the natural environment, social

   life, and culture as well as availability of the competent English teachers. the policy

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made by Ministry of Education and Culture Number 22 dated February 23,

2006, Local content is a curricular activity to develop competencies tailored to the

characteristics and the potency of the region, including regional advantage in that the

material cannot be classified into existing lesson. According to this policy, the

substance of local content is determined by the educational unit. In addition, it is also

stated that the lesson is allocated two hours of local content, namely 2x35 minutes. In

addition, the clear lesson in the ministerial regulations that local content is

programmed in grades fourth, fifth, and sixth of elementary school. In addition to a

national policy as mentioned above, there are also policies that are regional or

institutional. Such policies are usually taken by the leader or head of school after

sealing with a staff of teachers or the school committee. Local content such as English

in primary school / MI is a school authority to determine whether the English lesson

should be given at school.

       Nowadays, there are many elementary schools carrying out English teaching

program. English which has been established as the first language is put into

compulsory subject. At the beginning, English is started to be taught in junior high

school. However, after seeing the result and realizing the developing of age demand,

the Indonesian goverment establish that English is also started to be taught in

elementary school.

       The objective of teaching English as foreign language in elementary school is

that the students could have skill of listening, speaking, reading, and writing in simple

English with the stress on communicative skill through chosen theme based on

environment need, such as industry and tourism. Other objectives are to develop and to

receive the knowledge of technology, art and culture and to develop the relation with

the other countries. In Elementary schools, English lessonis considered as a „local

content‟ subject aiming to introduce English as the first foreign language. The main
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   objective is to motivate and support the students in order to make them ready and

   confident in learning English at higher level.

B. The English Curriculum in Elementary School

              English is a tool to communicate by oral or written. Communicating is to

   understand and express information, thoughts, feelings and develop science,

   technology and culture. In a full understanding, the ability to communicate is the

   ability of discourse, which is ability to comprehend or produce spoken or written text

   that is realized in the four language skills, namely listening, speaking, reading and

   writing. They are used to respond or to create a discourse in public life. Therefore, the

   English subject is directed to develop English language skills so that graduates are able

   to communicate and to discourse in English at a certain level of literacy (KTSP, 2007:

   429).

           Level of literacy includes performative, functional, informational, and

   epistemic. On the permormative level, people are able to read, to write, to listen, and.

   to speak with the symbols used. On the functional level, people are able to use

   language to fulfill the needs of everyday life such as reading newspaper, manuals or

   instructions. On the informational level, people are able to access knowledge with

   language skills, while at the epistemic level people are able to express their knowledge

   into the target language (Wells in KTSP, 2007: 429).

           Concerning with the statement above, it is important to set the standard of

   English competence for elementary school which organizes English as local content.

   Competency of elementary school graduates should be the useful ability in order to

   prepare them to learn English at the level of Junior High School. The kind of ability is

   to interact in English to support classroom and school activities.

           English in elementary school is intended to develop language skills that are

   used to accompany the action or language accompanying action. English is used for
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interaction and it is "here and now ". The topic of conversation is around the context

of situation. To achieve this competency, learners need to be familiarized with various

partners (adjacency pairs), that is a base of reaching the more complex interaction.

       English subject in elementary school is intended that learners have the

following capabilities:

       1. To develop competence in a limited verbal communication for going along

with the language accompanying action in the school context.

       2. To have awareness of the nature and the importance of English to enhance

the nation competitiveness in a global society.

       Based on Minister of National Education Regulation No. 23 of 2006, about the

competency standards for elementary and secondary education unit, School-based

Graduates Competency Standard (Standar Kompetensi Lulusan Satuan Pendidikan)

was developed based on the objectives of each educational unit. For the English

subject as content in primary schools as follows:

1. Listening

       Understanding      the   instructions,     information   and very   simple   story

presented orally in the context of the classroom, school, and the environment.

2. Speaking

       Expressing meaning orally in interpersonal and transactional discourse in the

form of very simple instructions and information in the context of the classroom,

school, and the environment.

3. Reading

       Reading aloud and understand the meaning of the instruction, information,

short functional text, and descriptive text with the very simple picture presented in

writing within the context of the classroom, school and the environment.

4. Writing
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          Writing down the words, phrases, and the very simple short functional texts

   with spelling and the correct punctuation.

          So, from the English Curriculum in Elementary School above, the teacher can

   teach English based on it, for each education level. Writing skill and reading skill is

   directed to support the learning oral communication. Certainly, all skills above can be

   developed based on their purpose.


C. Teaching and Learning English in Elementary School

          The teaching and learning English in Elementary school is one of the processes

   to make successful in the students‟ achievements. The achievement is studentsare able

   to comprehend the certain lesson. The suitable strategy of teaching and learning is very

   much needed to make a good learning atmosphere.

          One important goal in learning English is to cultivate children's interests in

   learning English. To get a goal, it is important to understand the characteristics of the

   child so the teacher can choose the method and appropriate learning materials for

   elementary school students. The ability and skills of children of different ages in

   English language learning course is also different. Therefore, it is necessary to

   understand the character of young learners.

   1. The Characteristics of Young Learners

              According to Suyanto (2007: 15-20), below are the characteristics of young

      learners in general. In this case it does not rule out the existence of other

      characteristics possessed by a particular group of children and individuals who can

      influence the success or failure in learning English.

      a. In general, children aged 5-7 years have egocentric attitude, there is a trend

          they like to connect what they learn or they do with themselves. They like the

          subject matter that relates to their daily lives and surroundings. When the child
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   gets older, the age of 10 years (fourth grade) they are in the changes that have

   egocentric towards reciprocity. His attention is no longer centered on himself,

   but has already started to notice other people.

b. Young learners are still difficult to distinguish between things that are concrete

   and the abstract. So at the time of introducing English language to children, it

   should be preceded concrete things before heading to the things that are

   abstract. Activities for children also have to involve the cognitive aspects and

   body movements. Many objects that can be used to provide information on the

   environment with objects that exist around them, for example, chairs, desks,

   blackboards, doors, and stationery.

c. Children also tend to be imaginative, and active. They like learning through

   games, stories and songs so that they will be more motivated to learn English.

   In the game there is a need to communicate and it encourages children to talk.

d. Easily bored also is characteristic of children. They have short of concentration

   level and short attention. To overcome the boredom, the activities should be

   varied.

e. Children's life is colorful and fun. Activities and tasks which are accompanied

   by attractive and colorful pictures will make children happier. Various media in

   the form of flash cards and Puppets with cheerful colors will greatly help to

   expedite the process of learning and teaching English. Joy is also able to cast in

   the song, without realizing that they can learn vocabulary and phrases, the

   children are quicker to memorize a song which is simple, cheerful, and easy to

   pronounce, especially if the song is sung in rhythm with the appropriate

   motion.

f. Children love stories as they like the game. Through the story, students can be

   trained to better focus on the overall context than the stated word for word. In
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       the ordinary story, children can learn language by listening to or receiving

       messages contained in the story.

   g. Naturally beginner learners, prefer to do the task alone. They have not been

       able to share and very self-centered to limit the age of 7 years. At the age of 8-

       9 years, they've been able to work together and learn from others.

   h. Learners aged 8-10 years have enough awareness and readiness of language.

       Children can understand the context of a conversation without having to

       understand word for word. Actually, intonation, gestures, facial expressions,

       and various motions will help them to understand a word or phrase that they do

       not know.

   i. Basically, the kids like the conversation to interact and talk about what they

       own. The only effective way for children to learn to use language, including a

       foreign language is by using the language itself.

   j. Elementary school students in general are active thinkers. They like to learn

       something, including learning the language by doing things (learning by

       doing), for example playing or singing with body movement to give meaning to

       the spoken phrase. Teaching orally is not enough. Many activities that can use

       an example, movement, expression, and the use of objects or images can

       facilitate children learn language.

     The main characteristic of children‟s language learning is their way of practicing

the use of language. They usually learn by doing and imitating. In the case of learning

a foreign language, there will be very little experience of using the language outside

the classroom, and encounters with the language will be through several hours in a

week. Children will come into foreign language learning at the earliest stages bringing

with themselves differently developed skills and learning abilities in their first

language.
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     According to Paul (2003:18), the more deeply children think while they are

learning, the more the will commit to memory and later be able to recall what they

have learned. But there are other factors involved in improving the children‟s retention

of words and patterns. Here are some of the key factors;

1) Organization; if children learn the principles and patterns behind knowledge, rather

   than just the knowledge itself, they will retain the knowledge more deeply and will

   be more likely to recall it and use it flexibly in novel situations.

2) Ownership; if children feel they are constructing their own personal model of how

   English fits together, they will remember more of what they learn.

3) Repetition; children need a lot of practice, repeating new words and patterns in

   ways that feel meaningful to them.

4) Association; children are more likely to remember words and patterns they

   associate with a fun game, and interesting picture, a mime or action, a song, or an

   absurd situation.

5) Emotional involvement; children will remember words and patterns more readily if

   they are emotionally immersed in a lesson.

6) Action; if children learn words or patterns while doing action, they are more likely

   to remember the pattern. The teacher just needs to make sure children also have

   space to think and reflect. It is probably best to start a course with quieter

   activities, and once we are sure the class is really thinking and focused on learning,

   we can make the lessons more physically active.

7) Beginning and end; children best remember thing s from the beginning or end of a

   period of learning. This means it is effective to practice new target words or

   patterns for a while, then go away and come back to them a number of times later

   in the lesson.
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8) Rest; short periods of rest during lessons aid memory. Nonstop drilling and

   practice is less effective.

9) Warm-up; children remember more after warming up. This means it helps to have

   some kind of review warm-up activity at the beginning of a lesson. It is best if the

   review logically leads into the new target language.

10) Recycling; words and patterns need to be recycled, both for homework shortly

   after a lesson, and in future lessons.

11) Peripheral language; children remember many things they do not even appear to be

   focusing on. They may fail to remember the target pattern we want them to learn,

   but remember other words or patterns they encountered in the lesson.

2. The role of a teacher

           According to Paul (2003: 137-138) the role of the English teacher in most

   Asian classrooms has been evolving more rapidly than often appears. This has

   been due to changes in government or school policies, increased training, parents‟

   desire for their children to learn more communicate English, and sometimes in

   direct response to developments in educational theory and practice. Here are two

   roles of teacher:

    a. Controlling; teacher who use teacher-centered methods generally consider that

        children will not learn successfully unless the teacher is in control both of

        what they learn and of their behavior. Children will learn because the teacher

        imparts knowledge and will not learn if they do not do what the teacher

        requires. Here are some good points of teacher centered method; (1) teacher

        can plan a lesson carefully, (2) teacher can use time efficiently, (3) teacher can

        teach clearly and logically, and (4) the children behave well and do not chat so

        much.
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    b. Facilitating; many teacher see themselves as “facilitators.” Facilitators tend to

       look at children as natural learners who 
								
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