1 THESIS PROPOSAL Name : ARIKA RAHMA N.S No : 0511201281 I. TITLE TEACHING VOCABULARY BY USING PICTURES (A CASE STUDY OF THE FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF SDIT AN NAJJAH JATINOM KLATEN IN 2009) II. THE BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Language is an important tool that helps people to communicate. One of the languages that allows people to communicate with people from another country is English, it is important to be learned. A very important part of learning English is mastering its vocabulary. It is an important element in using a language as a means of communication. Therefore, Indonesian students need to learn it well. Unfortunately, most students still have difficulties is speaking English, because their vocabulary mastery is still limited. Vocabulary is one of the language components, which has to be mastered by the students in learning a new language. It should be mastered as well as the language skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking). At elementary schools, the students begin to learn language skills so they had been taught about vocabulary. 1 2 Vocabulary is central to language and of critical importance to typical language learner. Without a sufficient vocabulary, one cannot communicate effectively or express his ideas in both oral and written form. Having a limited vocabulary is also a barrier that precludes learners from learning a foreign language. When they do not know how to enrich their vocabulary they often gradually lose interest and feel bored in learning. It is undeniable that most learners’ vocabulary grows through incidental learning such as through continuous exposure to comprehend language skills and exercises is less important for foreign language learners. Even though they read with different materials, they take a lot of benefits from direct vocabulary instruction. They can effectively expand their vocabulary knowledge. Thus, meaningful and interesting instruction should of course be organized to achieve successful learning, where the students’ vocabulary mastery improves. If vocabulary is so important in English to support four skills like reading, speaking, listening, and writing, the writer is interested in describing teaching and learning process of English vocabulary in an Elementary School, especially at the first year students of SDIT An Najjah Jatinom, Klaten. The writer would like to know the condition, situation, and the students’ responses of teaching using pictures. Certain kinds of ready-made picture can be used to develop and sustain motivation, to produce positive attitude toward English, and to teach or reinforce the language learning skills (reading, writing, listening and 3 speaking) including the items of vocabulary that the teacher can teach with it. The pictures can be cut from magazines, newspapers, etc and posted on a large sheet of poster board which are used instead of real object. In this study the writer wants to discuss about teaching vocabulary by using pictures. III. THE REASON FOR CHOOSING THE TOPIC The reasons for choosing the topic are as follows: 1. It is crucial to find out how to teach vocabulary effectively at elementary school to improve the students’ achievement in memorizing new vocabulary. 2. Most of the students do not have the list of difficult words. By using pictures there will be more interaction between the teacher and the students in the process of teaching and learning English vocabulary. IV. THE PROBLEM OF THE STUDY Based on the description above, the writer formulates the problem of the study as follows: “How is the process of teaching vocabulary by using pictures to the first year students of SDIT An-Najjah, Jatinom, Klaten in 2009?” V. THE LIMITATION OF THE STUDY Here, the writer wants to limit the study. The limitation of the study is as follows: 1. This study is limited to the first year students of SDIT An-Najjah Jatinom, Klaten in 2009. 4 2. This study focuses on teaching and learning vocabulary process by using pictures. VI. THE AIM OF THE STUDY In this study, the writer has two aims of the study as follows: 1. To know the process of teaching vocabulary by using pictures to the first year students of SDIT An-Najjah Jatinom, Klaten in 2009. 2. To give contribution in teaching learning vocabulary using pictures. VII. THE USE OF THE STUDY From the result of this study, the writer hopes that it will have significance in relation to the teaching and learning English. The findings of the study are expected to be useful for English teacher and students, those are: 1. For the writer, the thesis can improve the knowledge about vocabulary teaching. 2. For the English teacher at SDIT An-Najjah, it is expected that the result of the study can improve her method in teaching vocabulary. VIII. THE CLARIFICATION OF THE KEY TERM Teaching vocabulary by using pictures (a case study of the first year students of SDIT An-Najjah in 2009) is the title of this thesis. In order to make the title easy to understand, the writer clarifies the terms of the study as follows: 5 1. Pictures According to Brown et al (1964: 441) a picture can serve as an international language or medium of communication when foreign words cannot be understood, pictures may tell the story. 2. Teaching Brown (1994: 7) states that teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn, setting the condition for learning. 3. Vocabulary Vocabulary is very important in learning a new language. The students usually have difficulties in using the language if they are lacking of vocabulary. In addition, according to Oxford dictionary it is stated that vocabulary is all the words known to a person or used in particular books, subjects, etc ( Hornby, 1995: 1331). So, teaching vocabulary by using pictures is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn, setting the condition for learning a new language by using medium of communication. IX. THE OUTLINE OF THE THESIS In order to give a brief description to the readers and facilitate the thesis arrangement, the writer presents the outline of the study as follows: CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. The Background of the Study 6 B. The Reason for Choosing the Topic C. The Problem of the Study D. The Limitation of the Study E. The Limitation of the Study F. The Aim of the Study G. The Use of the Study H. The Clarification of the Key Terms I. The Organization of the Thesis CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATUR A. Teaching English in Elementary School B. A Brief View of Vocabulary C. Teaching Using pictures D. Advantages of Using Pictures in English Vocabulary Teaching CHAPTER III THE METHOD OF THE STUDY A. The Meaning of Research Method B. The Strategy of the Study C. The Subject of the Study D. The Data and the Source of Data E. The Technique of collecting the Data F. The Technique of Analyzing the Data 7 CHAPTER IV THE RESULT OF THE STUDY A. The Analysis of Data B. The Discussion of the Finding CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusion B. Suggestion X. THE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Teaching English in Elementary School English as the first foreign language is learned to be mastered for the purpose of absorption and science development and technology and art and culture, as well as to gain international relations with other nations. To the school year of 1993/1994 English is formally taught at junior and senior high school as mandatory subject. Formally English was not taught in elementary school. Nevertheless several elementary schools especially in the major cities and foreign tourist area gave English language as extra curricular (Harsono, 2005: 42). Started from 1994 Elementary education curriculum, since the school year of 1994/1995, English subject is officially given to elementary school as local content. There are several requires for English subject as local content at elementary school. Firstly, is that English is needed in the neighboring area, such as big cities and tourist area, secondly the availability 8 of the infrastructure, especially competence for English. English can be taught at fourth grade (decree of the minister of education and culture no. 60/U/1993). The conclusion from the description above is that English teaching can be given from fourth grade as local content. Several requiresare needed for English language as local content in elementary school such as: a. English is needed in the area b. The availability of the competent English teachers. Nowadays, there are many elementary schools carrying out English teaching program, particularly at elementary school in Klaten. Formally, English has been a subject in senior and junior high schools. For elementary school, English is considered as a local content subject aiming to introduce English as the first foreign language. The main objective is to motivate and support the students in order to make them ready and confident in learning English at higher level (Depdikbud 2006: 12). As in the 2004 education year, the curriculum has been changed, that is “Competence Based Curriculum” that English language teaching for elementary school competence based curriculum begins at the third grade. And then it has perfected with the new KTSP curriculum 2007 also applied in English language teaching for elementary school begin at the third grade. The learning of English can be carried out on many ways. People can learn the language in formal and non formal institution. 9 B. A Brief View of Vocabulary Vocabulary is the basis of language. It is not less important than grammar and phonology. It appears in every language skill, whether it is in listening, reading, speaking or writing. There are some definitions of vocabulary that have been offered by some experts. One of them is given by Hatch and Brown (1995: 1) who define vocabulary refers to a list or set of words for a particular language or a list or set of words that individual speakers of a language might use since vocabulary is a list of words that are usually arranged alphabetically in a dictionary, methods used in vocabulary selection and in teaching vocabulary is an important factor. Vocabulary is more than a list of words, and although the size of one’s vocabulary matters, it is known how to use it which matters most. Recent research shows that vocabulary growth is largely determined by parental practices, particularly before the age of seven, however, considerable differences in vocabulary size among children aged seven were reported. Vocabulary plays an important part in learning to read. Beginning readers must use the words they hear orally to make sense of the words they see in print. Consider, for example, what happens when a beginning reader cones to the word “dig” in a book. As the learner begins to figure out the sounds represented by the letter d, i, g, the reader recognizes that the sounds 10 make up a very familiar word that she has heard and said many times. It is harder for a beginning reader to figure out words that are not already part of their speaking (oral) vocabulary. Vocabulary is also important to reading compression. Readers can not understand what they are reading without knowing what most of the words mean. It is means that learning vocabulary is necessary for he students. One of the ways to learn about it is by using test. C. Teaching Using Pictures Harmer (1983: 3) explains that pictures are clearly indispensable for the language teacher since they can be used in so many ways. We can teach vocabulary, speaking and writing easily through pictures (they are blackboard drawing, wall pictures, charts, and flash cards). Drawings are pictures resembling the real objects drawn with their overall and smaller part. Cut-out pictures are pictures taken from magazines, newspaper, postcards, and advertisement, which represent the object as they are in reality. Picture is widely used in teaching and learning process. They can be obtained so readily and inexpensively that they occupy a prominent place in the group of materials and easily prepared by teachers. The extent pictures can provide clues that may help determine their usefulness in teaching. 11 According to Gerlach and Ely (1980: 273) a picture may be worth a thousand miles. Trough pictures, learner can be shown people, places, and things from far outside their own experiences. According to Brown Ey. Al (1964: 441) a picture can serve as an international language or medium of communication when foreign words can not be understood, pictures may tell the story. From definition above, it included that picture is one of the media of communication, which can be shown by people, places and things around us. Pictures are so helpful, so much used, so plentiful cheap and can be easily understood. Picture also can give us a lot of information that we need. They can show the things, places, and people that are far from us. As Gerlach and Ely (1980: 173) said that through pictures, learners can be shown people, places, and things from far outside their own experiences. Children learn to read meaning into the pictures. They regard the pictures as the real things. Although their interest may pass quickly to other things, they can concentrate for a few minutes on a picture as they would on a person or distinguish a thing without ever seeing the real thing. They also learn to read emotion into facial features of persons, learn to judge what action is taking place by the relation ship of object or persons, they learn to differentiate the background of the pictures, such as: distance and size. In teaching using pictures it is essential that the students see the picture so the teacher should: 12 1. make sure that appropriate details can be seen from the back of the classroom before the class. 2. hold it up so that everyone can see it. 3. ask one or two questions not related to the main aim to make sure the students are interpreting the pictures in the way that the teacher intends. 4. show the pictures around the class. 5. display the pictures by sticking it on the board, on the wall or on the notice board. All the procedures above are very crucial, therefore this research will use all the procedures above. D. Advantages of Using Pictures in English Vocabulary Teaching The success or failure of the English teaching is very much affected by the factors involved like the teacher, the students, time allotment, the use of visual aids, methodology, teaching materials and other facilities. It is clear, then that a teacher of English is demanded to make more use of visual aids and improve the methods of teaching when she wants to help the students to get satisfactory result. A teacher must be able to choose an appropriate aid and use the right method in the teaching process. This will lead to the conclusion that using pictures as media in the teaching learning 13 process is important. Gerlach and Ely (1980: 277) add some other advantages of using pictures in language teaching learning. They are: 1. Pictures are inexpensive and widely available. 2. They provide common experiences for an entire group. 3. The visual details make it possible to study subjects, which would otherwise be impossible. 4. Picture can help to prevent and correct misconception. 5. Pictures offer a stimulus for further study, reading and research. 6. Pictures help to focus attention and develop critical judgment. 7. Pictures are easily to manipulate. In addition, pictures can remind us of a real life experience or to suggest such an experience to us. Families have photograph albums to remind themselves of happy times in the past. Food advertisement in magazines can make us hungry because we can imagine how good that food would taste, especially if it is a food familiar to us. Story books for children have attractive illustrations and often before a child can read. He can tells or “reads” the story by looking at the illustrations. Furthermore, pictures in the classroom can represent situation that would be impossible to create in any other way. Many actions can be demonstrated in a classroom, such as closing the door, opening a window, or meeting a fried. But catching the bus, crossing the street, going to the 14 movies, riding a bicycle, walking in the park would be difficult situation to create. 1. Vocabulary Vocabulary is very important in learning a new language. The students usually have difficulties in using the language if they are lacking of vocabulary. The more someone knows about words, the greater his/her chances of enlarging his/her working vocabulary. In addition, according to Hornby (1995: 1331) that vocabulary is all the words known to a person or used in particular books, subjects, etc. 2. Teaching Vocabulary at Elementary School According to Fauziati (2005: 155) vocabulary is central to language and of critical importance to typical language learner. Without a sufficient vocabulary, a person can not communicate effectively or express his ideas in both oral or written form. By memorizing many vocabularies, a person easily in learning English. Without an extensive vocabulary, a person will be unable to use the structure and function the person may have learned for comprehensible communication and written. Before teaching vocabulary, the teachers have to identify which vocabulary to teach or which vocabulary that their students need to learn. It is obvious that they cannot teach all of words and expressions in the target language at the same time and not all of them may be urgent to 15 teach to students of a certain level. They have to select and prepare the vocabulary which can be called the planning stage of teaching vocabulary. Good teaching requires something more of communication process. It is not enough that the children can repeat correctly the spelling of the new words. The effect of the teacher’s concern is that the children will be able to recognize the words and understand it in later encounter and that the children will be able to use it appropriately. A good teaching depends on the technique of the teacher. Teacher needs procedure in teaching vocabulary since at the elementary school new vocabulary should always be introduced in familiar or known structures. Learning vocabulary is a progressive activity where a lot of repetition is needed. Therefore, this research will only use some of the procedures. They are: a. Select the important words when planning the lesson. b. Explain the words carefully through clear illustration or demonstration. c. Ask the students to repeat the words d. Give the students the meaning of the words e. Give some exercises, which are related to the words 16 All of the procedures above can be completed in the some lesson. XI. RESEARCH METHOD A. The meaning of Research Method Sutrisno Hadi (1987: 75) states that method is procedure in carrying out the data of the research dealing with the technique of collecting and analyzing the data. In this study, the term “method” means a procedure in a research consisting of technique of collecting data and technique of analyzing the data. Method is a very important factor that must be considered before carrying out a research. Research is a careful study or investigation, especially in order to discover new facts or information (Hornby, 1995: 996). Research method is the way chosen by the researcher to solve the research problem (Arikunto, 1998: 151). B. The Strategy of the Study The strategy of the research which is used in this study is qualitative. In qualitative research, where qualitative data have been collected by procedures such as unstructured observations, open interviews, examining records, diaries, and other document, the data are usually in the form of words in oral or written modes (Seliger and Shohamy, 1989: 204). Qualitative research is a useful approach wherever an investigator is 17 concerned with discovering or describing second language acquisition in its natural state or context and where there are no assumptions about what that activity consists of or what its role is in acquisition (Seliger and Shohamy, 1989: 124). C. The Subject of the Study In this research, the writer will take the first year students of SDIT An-Najjah Jatinom, Klaten and the teacher who teaches English in that class as the subject of the study. D. The Data and The Source of Data The data are the result of observation in the classroom and interview with the students and the English teacher about teaching vocabulary using picture. In this research, the writer will take the first year students of SDIT An-Najjah Jatinom, Klaten in 2009 as the source of data. The first year students of SDIT SDIT An-Najjah Jatinom Klaten in 2009. 18 E. The Technique of Data Collection In this study, the writer uses classroom observation, interview, and the document. They are: 1. Classroom observation This research is qualitative research. Qualitative research studies individual behavior in natural setting. Therefore the writer chooses observation for obtaining the valid data. According to Hornby (1995: 798) that observation is the action of watching somebody or something carefully so as to notice things. Observation means the research takes part in the process of observation. By observation a researcher observes a process of an activity that is done by a subject, and then fills a check list which is prepared before based on what happen in real condition. In this research, the writer will observe teaching learning activities using pictures. The objects of the observation are teacher’s activity, student’s activity, the difficult material, etc. 2. Interview According to Moleong (2000: 135) interview is discourse with certain purpose, which is done by two sides. They are interviewer who gives questions and a interviewee who gives answer. The fundamental of questions are arranged before the interview is done. 19 Based on its application, there are three kinds of interview, those are: a. unguided interview In this interview, the interviewer can ask about everything freely although he or she must not pay attention to the data which will be collected. b. guided interview Guided interview means that the interviewer can ask complete and detail questions. So, before the interview is done, the interviewer has made some questions about what will be interviewed. c. guided – unguided interview It is the combination between guided and unguided interview. In carrying out this method, the interviewer can ask freely but he or she has to prepare some questions before the interview is done. The interview that is used by the writer to find the data about the condition of the teaching and learning process of English language in classroom is guided-unguided interview. The writer will interview the teacher and students. 3. The document The writer uses the documents like syllabus, curriculum, and competence standard and basic competence for completing the data obtained from observation and interview. 20 The data have been dug in the study, collected and noted in the research activity, not only for depth and stability and validity. Therefore, a researcher must be able to choose and determine the appropriate ways to develop the data validity which has been obtained. In qualitative research there are many ways that can be chosen to develop the validity of research data. Those ways are such as many kinds of triangulation techniques, key informant review, and member check (Sutopo, 2006: 92). Triangulation is the most common way that is used in improving data validity in qualitative research. Related with this, Patton (1984) in Sutopo (2006: 92) states that there are four kinds of triangulation techniques, they are (1) data triangulation, (2) investigator triangulation, (3) method triangulation, and (4) theory triangulation. In this research, the writer uses source or data triangulation, data triangulation, and method triangulation. The source or data triangulation that is used in this research is the first year students of SDIT An Najjah Jatinom, Klaten in 2009 and their English teacher. While the method triangulation that used in this research is interview and observation. F. The technique of Data Analysis In this research data will be collected through interview and observation. The data obtained are words in oral and written form. The data 21 collected need to be processed in order to be systematic and brief, and then the data that had been processed need to be analyzed in order to be used. In analyzing data, the researcher uses flow model. As Miles and Huberman state, that analysis consists of three concurrent flows of activity: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing/verification (1985: 21). Data collection Data display Data reduction Conclusion: drawing/verifying Data reduction refers to the process of selecting, focusing, simplifying, abstracting, and transforming the “raw” data that appear in written-up field notes. As the writer sees it, data reduction occurs continuously through-out the life of any qualitatively oriented project. The writer defines a “display” as an organized and action taking. Looking at displays helps us to understand what is happening and to do something based on understanding. The third stream of analysis activity is conclusion drawing and verification. From that beginning of data collection the qualitative analysis is beginning to decide what things mean is noting regularities, patterns, 22 explanations, possible configurations, casual flows, and propositions. To analyze the data the writer employs the following steps: a. Carrying out the observation, documentation, and interview on teaching and learning process. b. Recording the result of the observation, documentation, and interview that has been implemented on teaching and learning process. c. Identifying and classifying the students’ and teacher’s activity d. Making conclusion about the result of the study. 23 BIBLIOGRAPHY Arikunto, Suharsimi. 1998. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Jakarta: Bina Aksara. Brown, J.W; Lewis, R.B; Harlerood, F.F. 1964. An Instruction Technology, Media and methods. New York: Mc Graw Hill Book Company. ___________,1994. An Instruction Technology, Media and methods. New York: Mc Graw Hill Book Company. Depdikbud. 2006. Laporan Penelitian Hasil Belajar Sekolah Tingkat Dasar. Depdikbud Republik Indonesia. Fauziati, Endang. 2005. Teaching of English As A Foreign Language (TEFL). Surakarta: Muhammadiyah University Press. Hadi, Sutrisno. 1987. Methodology Research I. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada university Press. Harmer, Jeremy. 19873. The Practice of English Language Teaching. New York. Harsono. 2005. Curriculum and Material Development. Jakarta: Pusat Penerbitan Universitas Terbuka. Hornby, A.S. 1995. Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary. New York: Oxford University Press. 24 Lado, Robert. 1971. Language Teaching A Scientific Approaches and Methods is Language Teaching. London: Cambridge University Press Miles, Mathew B.A. Michael Huberman. Analysis Data Kualitatif (Translated Edition) By Tjetjep Rohendi Rohidi. Jakarta: UI Press. Moleong, Lexy J. 2000. Methodology Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: Remaja Rosda Karya. Richard, Jack C and Theodore S. Rodgers. 1986. Approach and Methods in Language Teaching. London: Cambridge University Press. Seliger, Herbert W and Elana Shohamy. 1989. Second Language Research Method. New York: Oxford University Press. Sutopo, H.B. 2006. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Surakarta: Universitas Sebelas Maret.
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