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THESIS PROPOSAL

Name      : ARIKA RAHMA N.S

No        : 0511201281



I.   TITLE

     TEACHING VOCABULARY BY USING PICTURES (A CASE STUDY OF

     THE FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF SDIT AN NAJJAH JATINOM KLATEN

     IN 2009)


II. THE BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

                Language is an important tool that helps people to communicate. One

     of the languages that allows people to communicate with people from another

     country is English, it is important to be learned. A very important part of

     learning English is mastering its vocabulary. It is an important element in using

     a language as a means of communication. Therefore, Indonesian students need to

     learn it well. Unfortunately, most students still have difficulties is speaking

     English, because their vocabulary mastery is still limited.

                Vocabulary is one of the language components, which has to be

     mastered by the students in learning a new language. It should be mastered as

     well as the language skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking). At

     elementary schools, the students begin to learn language skills so they had been

     taught about vocabulary.


                                            1
                                                                                 2




          Vocabulary is central to language and of critical importance to typical

language learner. Without a sufficient vocabulary, one cannot communicate

effectively or express his ideas in both oral and written form. Having a limited

vocabulary is also a barrier that precludes learners from learning a foreign

language. When they do not know how to enrich their vocabulary they often

gradually lose interest and feel bored in learning.

          It is undeniable that most learners’ vocabulary grows through

incidental learning such as through continuous exposure to comprehend

language skills and exercises is less important for foreign language learners.

Even though they read with different materials, they take a lot of benefits from

direct vocabulary instruction. They can effectively expand their vocabulary

knowledge. Thus, meaningful and interesting instruction should of course be

organized to achieve successful learning, where the students’ vocabulary

mastery improves.

          If vocabulary is so important in English to support four skills like

reading, speaking, listening, and writing, the writer is interested in describing

teaching and learning process of English vocabulary in an Elementary School,

especially at the first year students of SDIT An Najjah Jatinom, Klaten. The

writer would like to know the condition, situation, and the students’ responses of

teaching using pictures. Certain kinds of ready-made picture can be used to

develop and sustain motivation, to produce positive attitude toward English, and

to teach or reinforce the language learning skills (reading, writing, listening and
                                                                                      3




     speaking) including the items of vocabulary that the teacher can teach with it.

     The pictures can be cut from magazines, newspapers, etc and posted on a large

     sheet of poster board which are used instead of real object. In this study the

     writer wants to discuss about teaching vocabulary by using pictures.


III. THE REASON FOR CHOOSING THE TOPIC

               The reasons for choosing the topic are as follows:

     1. It is crucial to find out how to teach vocabulary effectively at elementary

        school to improve the students’ achievement in memorizing new vocabulary.

     2. Most of the students do not have the list of difficult words. By using pictures

        there will be more interaction between the teacher and the students in the

        process of teaching and learning English vocabulary.


IV. THE PROBLEM OF THE STUDY

               Based on the description above, the writer formulates the problem of

     the study as follows: “How is the process of teaching vocabulary by using

     pictures to the first year students of SDIT An-Najjah, Jatinom, Klaten in 2009?”


V.   THE LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

               Here, the writer wants to limit the study. The limitation of the study is

     as follows:

     1. This study is limited to the first year students of SDIT An-Najjah Jatinom,

        Klaten in 2009.
                                                                                    4




   2. This study focuses on teaching and learning vocabulary process by using

      pictures.


VI. THE AIM OF THE STUDY

             In this study, the writer has two aims of the study as follows:

   1. To know the process of teaching vocabulary by using pictures to the first

      year students of SDIT An-Najjah Jatinom, Klaten in 2009.

   2. To give contribution in teaching learning vocabulary using pictures.


VII. THE USE OF THE STUDY

             From the result of this study, the writer hopes that it will have

   significance in relation to the teaching and learning English. The findings of the

   study are expected to be useful for English teacher and students, those are:

   1. For the writer, the thesis can improve the knowledge about vocabulary

      teaching.

   2. For the English teacher at SDIT An-Najjah, it is expected that the result of

      the study can improve her method in teaching vocabulary.


VIII. THE CLARIFICATION OF THE KEY TERM

                Teaching vocabulary by using pictures (a case study of the first year

     students of SDIT An-Najjah in 2009) is the title of this thesis. In order to

     make the title easy to understand, the writer clarifies the terms of the study as

     follows:
                                                                                         5




     1. Pictures

                 According to Brown et al (1964: 441) a picture can serve as an

         international language or medium of communication when foreign words

         cannot be understood, pictures may tell the story.

      2. Teaching

                    Brown (1994: 7) states that teaching is guiding and facilitating

          learning, enabling the learner to learn, setting the condition for learning.

      3. Vocabulary

                    Vocabulary is very important in learning a new language. The

          students usually have difficulties in using the language if they are lacking

          of vocabulary. In addition, according to Oxford dictionary it is stated that

          vocabulary is all the words known to a person or used in particular

          books, subjects, etc ( Hornby, 1995: 1331). So, teaching vocabulary by

          using pictures is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learner to

          learn, setting the condition for learning a new language by using medium

          of communication.


IX. THE OUTLINE OF THE THESIS

           In order to give a brief description to the readers and facilitate the thesis

   arrangement, the writer presents the outline of the study as follows:

   CHAPTER I        INTRODUCTION

                    A. The Background of the Study
                                                                 6




              B. The Reason for Choosing the Topic

              C. The Problem of the Study

              D. The Limitation of the Study

              E. The Limitation of the Study

              F. The Aim of the Study

              G. The Use of the Study

              H. The Clarification of the Key Terms

              I. The Organization of the Thesis

CHAPTER II    REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATUR

              A. Teaching English in Elementary School

              B. A Brief View of Vocabulary

              C. Teaching Using pictures

              D. Advantages of Using Pictures in English Vocabulary

                 Teaching

CHAPTER III   THE METHOD OF THE STUDY

              A. The Meaning of Research Method

              B. The Strategy of the Study

              C. The Subject of the Study

              D. The Data and the Source of Data

              E. The Technique of collecting the Data

              F. The Technique of Analyzing the Data
                                                                                      7




     CHAPTER IV       THE RESULT OF THE STUDY

                      A. The Analysis of Data

                      B. The Discussion of the Finding

     CHAPTER V        CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

                      A. Conclusion

                      B. Suggestion



X.   THE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

     A. Teaching English in Elementary School

                 English as the first foreign language is learned to be mastered for

        the purpose of absorption and science development and technology and art

        and culture, as well as to gain international relations with other nations. To

        the school year of 1993/1994 English is formally taught at junior and senior

        high school as mandatory subject. Formally English was not taught in

        elementary school. Nevertheless several elementary schools especially in the

        major cities and foreign tourist area gave English language as extra

        curricular (Harsono, 2005: 42).

                 Started from 1994 Elementary education curriculum, since the

        school year of 1994/1995, English subject is officially given to elementary

        school as local content. There are several requires for English subject as

        local content at elementary school. Firstly, is that English is needed in the

        neighboring area, such as big cities and tourist area, secondly the availability
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of the infrastructure, especially competence for English. English can be

taught at fourth grade (decree of the minister of education and culture no.

60/U/1993). The conclusion from the description above is that English

teaching can be given from fourth grade as local content. Several requiresare

needed for English language as local content in elementary school such as:

a. English is needed in the area

b. The availability of the competent English teachers.

        Nowadays, there are many elementary schools carrying out English

teaching program, particularly at elementary school in Klaten. Formally,

English has been a subject in senior and junior high schools. For elementary

school, English is considered as a local content subject aiming to introduce

English as the first foreign language. The main objective is to motivate and

support the students in order to make them ready and confident in learning

English at higher level (Depdikbud 2006: 12).

        As in the 2004 education year, the curriculum has been changed,

that is “Competence Based Curriculum” that English language teaching for

elementary school competence based curriculum begins at the third grade.

And then it has perfected with the new KTSP curriculum 2007 also applied

in English language teaching for elementary school begin at the third grade.

        The learning of English can be carried out on many ways. People

can learn the language in formal and non formal institution.
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B. A Brief View of Vocabulary

            Vocabulary is the basis of language. It is not less important than

   grammar and phonology. It appears in every language skill, whether it is in

   listening, reading, speaking or writing.

            There are some definitions of vocabulary that have been offered by

   some experts. One of them is given by Hatch and Brown (1995: 1) who

   define vocabulary refers to a list or set of words for a particular language or a

   list or set of words that individual speakers of a language might use since

   vocabulary is a list of words that are usually arranged alphabetically in a

   dictionary, methods used in vocabulary selection and in teaching vocabulary

   is an important factor.

            Vocabulary is more than a list of words, and although the size of

   one’s vocabulary matters, it is known how to use it which matters most.

   Recent research shows that vocabulary growth is largely determined by

   parental practices, particularly before the age of seven, however,

   considerable differences in vocabulary size among children aged seven were

   reported.

            Vocabulary plays an important part in learning to read. Beginning

   readers must use the words they hear orally to make sense of the words they

   see in print. Consider, for example, what happens when a beginning reader

   cones to the word “dig” in a book. As the learner begins to figure out the

   sounds represented by the letter d, i, g, the reader recognizes that the sounds
                                                                              10




   make up a very familiar word that she has heard and said many times. It is

   harder for a beginning reader to figure out words that are not already part of

   their speaking (oral) vocabulary.

            Vocabulary is also important to reading compression. Readers can

   not understand what they are reading without knowing what most of the

   words mean. It is means that learning vocabulary is necessary for he

   students. One of the ways to learn about it is by using test.



C. Teaching Using Pictures

            Harmer (1983: 3) explains that pictures are clearly indispensable for

   the language teacher since they can be used in so many ways. We can teach

   vocabulary, speaking and writing easily through pictures (they are

   blackboard drawing, wall pictures, charts, and flash cards).

            Drawings are pictures resembling the real objects drawn with their

   overall and smaller part. Cut-out pictures are pictures taken from magazines,

   newspaper, postcards, and advertisement, which represent the object as they

   are in reality.

            Picture is widely used in teaching and learning process. They can be

   obtained so readily and inexpensively that they occupy a prominent place in

   the group of materials and easily prepared by teachers. The extent pictures

   can provide clues that may help determine their usefulness in teaching.
                                                                            11




         According to Gerlach and Ely (1980: 273) a picture may be worth a

thousand miles. Trough pictures, learner can be shown people, places, and

things from far outside their own experiences.

         According to Brown Ey. Al (1964: 441) a picture can serve as an

international language or medium of communication when foreign words

can not be understood, pictures may tell the story.

         From definition above, it included that picture is one of the media of

communication, which can be shown by people, places and things around us.

          Pictures are so helpful, so much used, so plentiful cheap and can

be easily understood. Picture also can give us a lot of information that we

need. They can show the things, places, and people that are far from us. As

Gerlach and Ely (1980: 173) said that through pictures, learners can be

shown people, places, and things from far outside their own experiences.

         Children learn to read meaning into the pictures. They regard the

pictures as the real things. Although their interest may pass quickly to other

things, they can concentrate for a few minutes on a picture as they would on

a person or distinguish a thing without ever seeing the real thing. They also

learn to read emotion into facial features of persons, learn to judge what

action is taking place by the relation ship of object or persons, they learn to

differentiate the background of the pictures, such as: distance and size.

         In teaching using pictures it is essential that the students see the

picture so the teacher should:
                                                                                12




   1. make sure that appropriate details can be seen from the back of the

      classroom before the class.

   2. hold it up so that everyone can see it.

   3. ask one or two questions not related to the main aim to make sure the

      students are interpreting the pictures in the way that the teacher intends.

   4. show the pictures around the class.

   5. display the pictures by sticking it on the board, on the wall or on the

      notice board.

           All the procedures above are very crucial, therefore this research

   will use all the procedures above.



D. Advantages of Using Pictures in English Vocabulary Teaching

          The success or failure of the English teaching is very much affected

   by the factors involved like the teacher, the students, time allotment, the use

   of visual aids, methodology, teaching materials and other facilities. It is

   clear, then that a teacher of English is demanded to make more use of visual

   aids and improve the methods of teaching when she wants to help the

   students to get satisfactory result. A teacher must be able to choose an

   appropriate aid and use the right method in the teaching process. This will

   lead to the conclusion that using pictures as media in the teaching learning
                                                                             13




process is important. Gerlach and Ely (1980: 277) add some other

advantages of using pictures in language teaching learning. They are:

1. Pictures are inexpensive and widely available.

2. They provide common experiences for an entire group.

3. The visual details make it possible to study subjects, which would

   otherwise be impossible.

4. Picture can help to prevent and correct misconception.

5. Pictures offer a stimulus for further study, reading and research.

6. Pictures help to focus attention and develop critical judgment.

7. Pictures are easily to manipulate.

         In addition, pictures can remind us of a real life experience or to

suggest such an experience to us. Families have photograph albums to

remind themselves of happy times in the past. Food advertisement in

magazines can make us hungry because we can imagine how good that food

would taste, especially if it is a food familiar to us. Story books for children

have attractive illustrations and often before a child can read. He can tells or

“reads” the story by looking at the illustrations.

         Furthermore, pictures in the classroom can represent situation that

would be impossible to create in any other way. Many actions can be

demonstrated in a classroom, such as closing the door, opening a window, or

meeting a fried. But catching the bus, crossing the street, going to the
                                                                            14




movies, riding a bicycle, walking in the park would be difficult situation to

create.

1. Vocabulary

           Vocabulary is very important in learning a new language. The

   students usually have difficulties in using the language if they are lacking

   of vocabulary. The more someone knows about words, the greater his/her

   chances of enlarging his/her working vocabulary. In addition, according

   to Hornby (1995: 1331) that vocabulary is all the words known to a

   person or used in particular books, subjects, etc.

2. Teaching Vocabulary at Elementary School

           According to Fauziati (2005: 155) vocabulary is central to

   language and of critical importance to typical language learner. Without

   a sufficient vocabulary, a person can not communicate effectively or

   express his ideas in both oral or written form.

           By memorizing many vocabularies, a person easily in learning

   English. Without an extensive vocabulary, a person will be unable to use

   the structure and function the person may have learned for

   comprehensible communication and written.

           Before teaching vocabulary, the teachers have to identify which

   vocabulary to teach or which vocabulary that their students need to learn.

   It is obvious that they cannot teach all of words and expressions in the

   target language at the same time and not all of them may be urgent to
                                                                           15




teach to students of a certain level. They have to select and prepare the

vocabulary which can be called the planning stage of teaching

vocabulary.

       Good teaching requires something more of communication

process. It is not enough that the children can repeat correctly the

spelling of the new words. The effect of the teacher’s concern is that the

children will be able to recognize the words and understand it in later

encounter and that the children will be able to use it appropriately. A

good teaching depends on the technique of the teacher.

       Teacher needs procedure in teaching vocabulary since at the

elementary school new vocabulary should always be introduced in

familiar or known structures. Learning vocabulary is a progressive

activity where a lot of repetition is needed. Therefore, this research will

only use some of the procedures. They are:

a. Select the important words when planning the lesson.

b. Explain    the   words    carefully    through   clear   illustration   or

   demonstration.

c. Ask the students to repeat the words

d. Give the students the meaning of the words

e. Give some exercises, which are related to the words
                                                                                16




                   All of the procedures above can be completed in the some

         lesson.



XI. RESEARCH METHOD

   A. The meaning of Research Method

              Sutrisno Hadi (1987: 75) states that method is procedure in carrying

      out the data of the research dealing with the technique of collecting and

      analyzing the data. In this study, the term “method” means a procedure in a

      research consisting of technique of collecting data and technique of

      analyzing the data. Method is a very important factor that must be considered

      before carrying out a research. Research is a careful study or investigation,

      especially in order to discover new facts or information (Hornby, 1995: 996).

      Research method is the way chosen by the researcher to solve the research

      problem (Arikunto, 1998: 151).



   B. The Strategy of the Study

              The strategy of the research which is used in this study is

      qualitative. In qualitative research, where qualitative data have been

      collected by procedures such as unstructured observations, open interviews,

      examining records, diaries, and other document, the data are usually in the

      form of words in oral or written modes (Seliger and Shohamy, 1989: 204).

      Qualitative research is a useful approach wherever an investigator is
                                                                                 17




   concerned with discovering or describing second language acquisition in its

   natural state or context and where there are no assumptions about what that

   activity consists of or what its role is in acquisition (Seliger and Shohamy,

   1989: 124).



C. The Subject of the Study

              In this research, the writer will take the first year students of SDIT

   An-Najjah Jatinom, Klaten and the teacher who teaches English in that class

   as the subject of the study.



D. The Data and The Source of Data

              The data are the result of observation in the classroom and interview

   with the students and the English teacher about teaching vocabulary using

   picture.

              In this research, the writer will take the first year students of SDIT

   An-Najjah Jatinom, Klaten in 2009 as the source of data. The first year

   students of SDIT SDIT An-Najjah Jatinom Klaten in 2009.
                                                                                18




E. The Technique of Data Collection

           In this study, the writer uses classroom observation, interview, and

   the document. They are:

   1. Classroom observation

              This research is qualitative research. Qualitative research studies

      individual behavior in natural setting. Therefore the writer chooses

      observation for obtaining the valid data. According to Hornby (1995:

      798) that observation is the action of watching somebody or something

      carefully so as to notice things. Observation means the research takes

      part in the process of observation. By observation a researcher observes a

      process of an activity that is done by a subject, and then fills a check list

      which is prepared before based on what happen in real condition. In this

      research, the writer will observe teaching learning activities using

      pictures. The objects of the observation are teacher’s activity, student’s

      activity, the difficult material, etc.

   2. Interview

              According to Moleong (2000: 135) interview is discourse with

      certain purpose, which is done by two sides. They are interviewer who

      gives questions and a interviewee who gives answer. The fundamental of

      questions are arranged before the interview is done.
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             Based on its application, there are three kinds of interview, those

   are:

   a. unguided interview

                In this interview, the interviewer can ask about everything

          freely although he or she must not pay attention to the data which

          will be collected.

   b. guided interview

                Guided interview means that the interviewer can ask complete

          and detail questions. So, before the interview is done, the interviewer

          has made some questions about what will be interviewed.

   c. guided – unguided interview

                It is the combination between guided and unguided interview.

          In carrying out this method, the interviewer can ask freely but he or

          she has to prepare some questions before the interview is done.

                The interview that is used by the writer to find the data about

 the condition of the teaching and learning process of English language in

 classroom is guided-unguided interview. The writer will interview the

 teacher and students.

3. The document

             The writer uses the documents like syllabus, curriculum, and

   competence standard and basic competence for completing the data

   obtained from observation and interview.
                                                                               20




             The data have been dug in the study, collected and noted in the

      research activity, not only for depth and stability and validity. Therefore,

      a researcher must be able to choose and determine the appropriate ways

      to develop the data validity which has been obtained.

             In qualitative research there are many ways that can be chosen to

      develop the validity of research data. Those ways are such as many kinds

      of triangulation techniques, key informant review, and member check

      (Sutopo, 2006: 92).

             Triangulation is the most common way that is used in improving

      data validity in qualitative research. Related with this, Patton (1984) in

      Sutopo (2006: 92) states that there are four kinds of triangulation

      techniques, they are (1) data triangulation, (2) investigator triangulation,

      (3) method triangulation, and (4) theory triangulation.

             In this research, the writer uses source or data triangulation, data

      triangulation, and method triangulation.

             The source or data triangulation that is used in this research is the

      first year students of SDIT An Najjah Jatinom, Klaten in 2009 and their

      English teacher. While the method triangulation that used in this research

      is interview and observation.


F. The technique of Data Analysis

           In this research data will be collected through interview and

   observation. The data obtained are words in oral and written form. The data
                                                                             21




collected need to be processed in order to be systematic and brief, and then

the data that had been processed need to be analyzed in order to be used.

         In analyzing data, the researcher uses flow model. As Miles and

Huberman state, that analysis consists of three concurrent flows of activity:

data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing/verification (1985: 21).




          Data collection                             Data display




           Data reduction                              Conclusion:
                                                    drawing/verifying




         Data reduction refers to the process of selecting, focusing,

simplifying, abstracting, and transforming the “raw” data that appear in

written-up field notes. As the writer sees it, data reduction occurs

continuously through-out the life of any qualitatively oriented project.

         The writer defines a “display” as an organized and action taking.

Looking at displays helps us to understand what is happening and to do

something based on understanding.

         The third stream of analysis activity is conclusion drawing and

verification. From that beginning of data collection the qualitative analysis is

beginning to decide what things mean is noting regularities, patterns,
                                                                      22




explanations, possible configurations, casual flows, and propositions. To

analyze the data the writer employs the following steps:

a. Carrying out the observation, documentation, and interview on teaching

   and learning process.

b. Recording the result of the observation, documentation, and interview

   that has been implemented on teaching and learning process.

c. Identifying and classifying the students’ and teacher’s activity

d. Making conclusion about the result of the study.
                                                                              23




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