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Gym Instruction

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									          THE OFFICIAL

T H E AU T H O R I T Y O N F I T N E S S S I N C E 1 9 6 5

Copyright © 2005 by Mountain Lion, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America.
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DOI: 10.1036/0071458549
To my parents,
who have supported me in everything I’ve done,
and my son,
who has brought me indescribable joy
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                                  For more information about this title, click here


           Acknowledgments                                                             vii
           Introduction                                                                 ix
     1:    Getting Started                                                               1
     2:    Your First Routines                                                         11
     3:    Nutrition                                                                   35
     4:    Intermediate Chest Exercises                                                45
     5:    Intermediate Shoulder Exercises                                             61
     6:    Intermediate Back and Neck Exercises                                        77
     7:    Intermediate Arm Exercises                                                  93
     8:    Intermediate Leg Exercises                                                 117
     9:    Intermediate Abdominal Exercises                                           131
    10:    The Role of Cardiovascular Exercise                                        145
    11:    Mental Aspects of Bodybuilding                                             149
    12:    Preparing for Contests                                                     153
           Bibliography                                                               159
           Index                                                                      160

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                                                          ™ Randy      and      Bonnie      Vey,     owners
This        book      was       developed        and        and operators of the spectacular and award-
produced        by     Mountain       Lion,     Inc.,       winning             Princeton             Gold’s
                                                            Gym facility, and their staff
a book producer specializing in fitness, sports,
                                                          ™ John    Monteleone        and    Vicki    Russo
and          general        reference        books.         at Mountain Lion, Inc., who shepherded the
A book producer relies on the special skills of             project              from               concept
many people. The following contributed to                   to finished manuscript and completed photo-
producing                  this               book;         graphs
to all of them we say “thanks.”                           ™ Ed      Housewright,        who      researched
                                                            and wrote the text
™ Mark Weinstein, editor at McGraw-Hill Trade,
   whose guidance and suggestions were instru-            ™ Barry Havens, photographer, who expertly
                                                            handled all the photography
   in      moving      this     project     through       ™ Avery Stephenson and Mike Martin, our Gold’s
                                                            Stars, who ably demonstrated the exercises in
   its various stages
                                                            all of the beginner bodybuilding workout
™ Ed       Powderly,    Senior    Vice    President
   of Product Licensing of Gold’s Gym Interna-
   tional, who contributed significantly to formu-
   lating the book’s overall content, including
   the editorial scope and photographic treat-
™ Maureen Babcock of Gold’s Gym, who gath-
   ered and sent us the appropriate Gold’s Gym
   for our fitness demonstrators
™ Ken Strickland, former U.S. Marine Corps
   Sergeant        Major         and        manager
   of the Gold’s Gym located on the outskirts of
   Princeton, New Jersey, who arranged and coor-
   dinated our photography sessions (Ken runs
   his gym facility with an exemplary esprit de
   corps, pursuing his fitness mission with an
   infectious enthusiasm.)


                               Copyright © 2005 by Mountain Lion, Inc. Click here for terms of use.
This page intentionally left blank.

Bodybuilding has come a long way.                        for the world’s top bodybuilders in the 1960s
Just look at photos of champion bodybuilders in          and ’70s. It provided the backdrop for the 1976
the 1940s or ’50s and compare them to today’s            movie Pumping Iron, which opened up the world
champs.                                                  of bodybuilding to the public. Today, Gold’s has
There       is      no     comparison.      Today’s      more than 500 gyms worldwide. There’s probably
top     bodybuilders      boast     muscles     that     one near your home.
are far bigger, better defined, and more symmet-          Let’s be clear. We don’t promise overnight mira-
rical than those of their counterparts just a few        cles. The Official Gold’s Gym Guide to Getting
decades ago.                                             Started in Bodybuilding won’t turn a 98-pound
In many ways, this is the golden age of body-            weakling or a flabby couch potato into
building. Advances in training techniques and            a world champion bodybuilder in 30 days, as
nutrition                 have                made       some books and products seem to promise. We’ll
it possible for more people to achieve                   leave the grandiose, unrealistic claims to others.
a rock-hard physique that once seemed out of             Instead, The Official Gold’s Gym Guide
reach. Granted, building a great body isn’t              to Getting Started in Bodybuilding offers
simple. It still takes dedication, persistence, and      a sound, systematic, and safe approach to
patience,                                                reaching your muscle potential through proper
but today there’s a road map—a set                       weight lifting.
of proven training principles—to help you on your        There’s been a fitness revolution in our country—
journey.                                                 and around the world—in recent decades. Count-
Bodybuilding stars of the past, including the            less                                       millions
famous Arnold Schwarzenegger, often had to rely          of people jog, bike, swim, take aerobics classes,
on trial and error to make gains. They experi-           lift         weights—you           name            it.
mented with a range of training methods and              We applaud all the different ways people choose
nutritional       approaches,       never     quite      to get in shape.
sure what would work for them. Today, beginning          Bodybuilding, however, is unique and needs to
bodybuilders can benefit from the lessons of              be defined. Someone who goes to the gym occa-
their predecessors and make far greater gains in         sionally                 and                    lifts
far less time.                                           a few weights for overall fitness is
The Official Gold’s Gym Guide to Getting Started          not a bodybuilder. Massive men with enormous
in Bodybuilding will teach you to awaken your            bellies who compete in international weightlifting
dormant muscles and transform your physique,             competitions are not bodybuilders.
using the latest knowledge and most advanced             Bodybuilding is all about developing and
techniques. Gold’s Gym has been the undisputed           shaping your muscles—from the largest to the
leader                 in             bodybuilding       smallest, from your head to your toes. The goal is
for almost 40 years, dating back to                      to sculpt your body little by little and eliminate
the opening of the original Gold’s Gym in Venice,        any glaring deficiencies. Bodybuilders achieve
California, in 1965. That now-famous gym                 impressive strength, but they probably wouldn’t
became                    the                mecca       win                  a                   weightlift-

                              Copyright © 2005 by Mountain Lion, Inc. Click here for terms of use.
x   I NTR O D U C TI O N

    ing contest against top-notch competitors. Body-       strengthen your bones, and improve the function
    builders are concerned with their overall look.        of your heart and lungs. Lifting weights is as
    They want to achieve the most muscular, propor-        close
    tional physique they can, not necessarily perform      to a fountain of youth as we’ve found.
    acts of great strength.                                One of the appeals of bodybuilding is that you
    When some people think of bodybuilding, they           can pursue it as far as you would like. You may
    recall competitions they’ve seen on TV, where          begin training, start to look better in a t-shirt and
    contestants oil up their bodies to highlight their     shorts,     and    decide     you     don’t      want
    muscles, then flex and pose for judges who              to develop bigger and bigger muscles. Your goal
    inspect their physique for the tiniest flaws. It’s      then becomes to maintain the gains you’ve
    like a beauty contest—the best body wins.              made—and that’s great.
    Today, there are countless professional and            Or you may experience an unparalleled rush from
    amateur bodybuilding contests for men and              bodybuilding that drives you to pursue greater
    women around the world. Some people get into           and greater results. You want larger muscles,
    bodybuilding with the intention of competing in        better definition, more symmetry—more, more,
    contests and winning coveted titles. Others,           more! Many of the world’s best bodybuilders
    however, have no interest in showing off their         never imagined that they would become
    bodies onstage. They are drawn to the other            consumed with training and reach the pinnacle
    rewards                                                of their sport. Who knows—you could too!
    of bodybuilding—and there are many. For                This book is for anyone starting out in body-
    instance, bodybuilding can help you lose fat           building—no           matter        what           his
    where it doesn’t belong (stomach and thighs)           or her aspirations are. The truth is, everyone
    while                                          pack-   needs to learn the same training fundamentals,
    ing on muscles where they do belong (shoulders,        such as the proper lifting form, the right exer-
    chest, and arms). You can literally reshape your       cises to choose, and the optimum number
    body.                                                  of repetitions and sets. Without a good founda-
    Before long, your clothes fit better. You have          tion, you’re far more likely to suffer an injury or
    more energy. You notice fewer aches and pains.         see mediocre results. Then it’s easy to become
    You’re more confident in your appearance. Your          discouraged and abandon bodybuilding. One of
    sex life may even improve!                             our goals is to get you motivated and keep you
    As we age, we steadily lose muscle mass;               motivated. That’s done by encouraging you to
    starting at age 25, most people lose about a half-     follow an intelligent approach to training.
    pound                     of                 muscle    Good luck as you begin your bodybuilding
    a year. Bodybuilding can reverse this process. It      mission. Keep in mind that The Official Gold’s
    can actually help you gain muscle as you grow          Gym Guide to Getting Started in Bodybuilding
    older. That’s a pretty attractive proposition.         isn’t                                       intended
    It’s never too late to start strengthening and         to be read once and put on the shelf. Think of it
    shaping your muscles. Many top bodybuilders            as a reference book, a guide to lead you from
    began weight training in their early teens. That’s     beginning bodybuilding to the intermediate
    perhaps the best time, because it allows you to        stage.
    develop a muscular foundation as your body             Don’t be surprised if your progress seems slow,
    matures. However, there are many famous body-          or even stagnant, at times. All top bodybuilders
    builders who didn’t start serious weight lifting       have                    low                    points
    until their late teens or early twenties.              in their training—when they question their
    In fact, you can start bodybuilding in your thirties   methods, and even their desire. But the great
    or forties and make great gains. For that matter,      ones press ahead and make adjustments in their
    some seniors—in their sixties, seventies, and          workouts until gains resume and their enthu-
    beyond—pick up weights for the first time and           siasm returns.
    discover renewed vigor and vitality. Weight            The Official Gold’s Gym Guide to Getting Started
    training can boost your immune system,                 in Bodybuilding will give you the knowledge and
                                                    I NTR O D U C TI O N   xi

to analyze your training and make necessary
changes        from      time       to     time.
As top bodybuilders learn, training should
become instinctive over time. You should be able
to feel what works for you, as well as what
doesn’t. There’s no one perfect regimen for
Listen to your body. Bodybuilding, done properly,
should be as individual as you are.
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                    Getting Started
                    “I’m not exactly sure why I chose bodybuilding, except that I loved it. I loved it
                    from the first moment my fingers closed around a barbell and I felt the challenge
                    and exhilaration of hoisting the heavy steel plates above my head.”
                           —Arnold Schwarzenegger, seven-time Mr. Olympia

Before we proceed, let’s clear up a                  must be so muscle-bound that they
misconception about bodybuilding that                can’t even reach down to tie their
has existed for years. The truth is:                 shoes. Wrong! They ought to watch
   Bodybuilding, done properly, does                 Flex Wheeler, one of today’s top body-
not make you stiff or muscle-bound.                  builders, as he does full splits onstage.
   In years past, coaches often dis-                 That’s right—full splits, with one leg
couraged athletes from lifting weights.              extended straight in front and the other
They feared that large muscles would                 straight behind as he lowers himself
make the athletes bulky and slow                     to the floor.
instead of nimble and quick. Some                       We usually associate splits with
players recognized the value of weight               tiny, pre-teen gymnasts blessed with
training, but often had to lift weights              incredible flexibility. Wheeler, by
without their coach’s knowledge.                     contrast, stands over six feet tall and
   Gradually, the benefits of muscle                  weighs about 250 pounds in contest
development have won coaches over in                 shape. His flexibility matches up with
virtually every sport. Take baseball, for            anybody’s. So, to those who say “I don’t
instance. Many of today’s best hitters               want to start lifting weights because
have physiques that rival those of many              I might get too big,” we say “Find
bodybuilders. Decades ago, by contrast,              another excuse.”
the best players often had thin, un-                    Women, in particular, often fear
impressive builds. The word gradually                that they’ll become big and masculine-
spread in baseball, as well as in other              looking if they begin serious weight
sports, that proper weight lifting can               training. They don’t want to look like
improve—instead of inhibit—flexibility                a female version of Arnold Schwarze-
and speed. In addition, greater strength             negger. In fact, there is very little
can increase stamina and durability.                 chance that a woman would ever
   Among non-athletes, however,                      resemble a male bodybuilder, even if
there remain some people who think                   she tried. Some women, it is true, have
that bodybuilders, with all their mass,              exceeded the bounds of femininity with


                         Copyright © 2005 by Mountain Lion, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

    their massive development, but these                                   free weights, can be dangerous if used
    are the exception, not the rule, and                                   improperly.
    many of them have relied on poten-                                         Here’s the best advice: start slowly.
    tially dangerous drugs to boost their                                  Use light weight at first until you
    development. Women simply lack the                                     master the correct lifting technique.
    genetic makeup to achieve the extreme                                  Never bend from the waist and lift with
    muscularity of men.                                                    your back. If you do, you risk back
        Most women embrace bodybuilding                                    strain and perhaps chronic back trou-
    in order to tone, shape, and firm their                                 ble. Instead, bend at your knees and
    bodies—not to see how big they can                                     slowly lower yourself to the floor,
    make their muscles. Women often get                                    keeping your back straight. Then grab
    just as much satisfaction from body-                                   the weight and gradually stand up.
    building as men, but for different                                     Now you’re ready to begin your
    reasons. They find that it helps them                                   exercise.
    manage their weight far better than                                        Always lift in a smooth, controlled,
    yo-yo dieting does, and it helps them                                  rhythmic manner. Once you start,
    achieve a lean, graceful physique.                                     never make quick, jerky movements
        Women who lift weights are taken                                   with a barbell or dumbbell. For
    seriously today and are no longer                                      instance, don’t rock your body back
    viewed as oddities. Like men, they                                     and forth to try to lift heavy weight.
    compete in prestigious bodybuilding                                        Don’t try to impress others in the
    contests around the world. Many                                        gym by showing how much weight you
    famous actresses have trained with                                     can lift. Form is far more important.
    weights to prepare for demanding roles,                                If you try to lift too much weight,
    thereby increasing the acceptance of                                   your form will suffer, and so will your
    female bodybuilding. As a result,                                      results. Think of bodybuilding as
    women can now train in almost any                                      a marathon, not a sprint. Look for
    gym without feeling uncomfortable.                                     gradual progress, not overnight
    In fact, some of the world’s top male                                  miracles.
    bodybuilders now train side by side                                        The key to successful bodybuild-
    with their female counterparts. Equality                               ing is isolating specific muscles and
    has come to the weight room.                                           working them to exhaustion. The
        For both men and women, it’s                                       muscles then recover and, over time,
    critical to get the proper start in body-                              become stronger and larger. Different
    building. Many people fail to appreciate                               weightlifting exercises are designed to
    the demands and subtleties of weight                                   target different muscles. If you use your
    lifting. They want to grab a barbell                                   whole body during an exercise instead,
    and start working out furiously in                                     you spread out the effort and fail to
    an attempt to reverse years of inactivity                              pinpoint one particular muscle. As
    and get in shape—now!                                                  a result, that muscle gets very little
        There are right ways and wrong ways                                benefit.
    to begin bodybuilding. If you don’t                                        It is far better to have several short
    learn the proper weightlifting form,                                   workouts a week than one killer session
    you can seriously injure your back,                                    that lasts hours and hours. A long
    knees, or shoulders—virtually any part                                 workout might leave you so sore and
    of your body. It takes time to become                                  exhausted that you would have to take
    comfortable handling barbells and                                      time off to recover. If so, you could lose
    dumbbells (free weights). The sophisti-                                most of the gains you’d achieved.
    cated weight machines found in today’s                                     Be patient. Be smart. To develop
    gyms can be easier to use, but they, like                              a systematic training regimen, follow
                                                                                                  G E T TI N G STARTE D                             3

the advice in The Gold’s Gym Guide                         yet they achieve far greater results.
to Getting Started in Bodybuilding. If you                 You need to realistically assess your
learn good habits from the start, they’ll                  body before you begin serious training.
always stay with you.                                      You don’t have to be naturally athletic
   Here’s another important point to                       in order to achieve bodybuilding
consider as you begin bodybuilding:                        success, but it helps.
Genetics plays a key role in your ability                     Experts have identified three basic
to build a muscular physique. Anyone                       body types. Everyone fits more or less
who trains properly over time can make                     into one of these categories. Try to
impressive gains—but not everyone                          determine which body type best
can become a champion bodybuilder.                         describes your frame.
   It may seem unfair, but some people
are born with a genetic makeup that                           Ectomorphs naturally have a thin,
lends itself to great muscularity. These                      wiry build with little body fat.
people often train less than others,                          They tend to have small muscles.

                                                    you want by inserting a metal pin in a
  BASIC EQUIPMENT                                   specific position in the weight stack.             all their exercises. Others prefer to use
                                                  Bench: a basic piece of equipment used              a belt only when lifting maximum weight.
  Free weights: barbells and dumbbells,             for many lifting exercises. Flat benches,       Wraps: cloth or elastic bands that you place
    the most basic weightlifting equipment.         for instance, are used in one of the most         around your elbows or knees during
    A barbell is a straight bar about 60 inches     common chest exercises, Bench Press.              heavy lifting. Wraps support the joints
    long. Dumbbells are much shorter, about         Some exercises call for incline benches,          and help you avoid injury.
    14 inches long. Weights are placed on           in which the top of the bench is higher         Log book: a journal used to record workout
    the ends of both types of bars for              than the bottom. There are also decline           regimen and progress. You write down
    resistance.                                     benches, in which the bottom is higher            which exercises you performed, the
  Plates: thin, circular weights that go on         than the top. Finally, there is a special         amount of weight used, the number of
    barbells and dumbbells. The lightest plates     bench called a preacher bench that                repetitions, etc. Logs can be very useful
    usually weigh 2.5 pounds, and plates in-        is designed for Curls, a common biceps            in planning workouts.
    crease in weight incrementally—5 pounds,        exercise.                                       Tape measure, scale, and camera: tools
    10 pounds, etc.—up to about 50 pounds         Gloves: gloves, usually made of leather,            used to document your weight and the
    each. You place a combination of                that help you grip the bar better. They can       size of your muscles before you begin
    different-sized plates on barbells and          also help reduce calluses, which are              bodybuilding so that you have a baseline
    dumbbells to create the weight you want         common among weight lifters. Often the            by which to gauge your progress. Body
    for an exercise.                                palms of gloves are padded slightly to            weight can be deceiving because muscle
  Collars: metal devices of varying styles          make lifting more comfortable. The fingers         weighs more than fat. It’s possible to
    that are fastened on the ends of barbells       of a glove usually stop at the middle             increase your weight at the same time that
    and dumbbells to keep the plates in place.      knuckle, allowing you to get your finger-          you’re losing fat. Still, it’s important to
  Machines: the other type of equipment             tips on the barbell, dumbbell, or machine         know your body weight as you begin.
    (besides barbells and dumbbells) that is        for greater sensitivity and control.              After weighing yourself, take measure-
    used in weight lifting. Machines differ       Weightlifting belt: a wide, heavy belt,             ments at your chest, shoulders, biceps,
    in size, shape, and complexity, using           often made of leather or reinforced nylon.        waist, thighs, and calves. Finally, get
    a combination of weights, pulleys, and          It helps stabilize your back and prevent          someone to take photos of you wearing
    cables. Typically, you sit on a bench, grab     injuries during heavy lifting. Some body-         shorts in several relaxed and flexed poses.
    a handle, and push or pull a stack of           builders wear a belt while performing             As you make progress, you can compare
    weights. You select the amount of weight                                                          yourself to the photos.

       Endomorphs are large and “doughy”                                   week, month after month, year after
       by nature, with plenty of fat. They are                             year, to achieve greatness.
       stronger than ectomorphs, but their                                    It’s impossible to overemphasize
       muscles aren’t developed or defined.                                 the role of dedication and intensity in
       Mesomorphs are neither skinny nor                                   bodybuilding. These qualities are just as
       fat. They have an attractive natural                                important—if not more so—than your
       physique, and their muscles respond                                 body type. In any endeavor, people
       quickly to training. Most outstanding                               with enough “want to” can surpass
       bodybuilders fit into this category.                                 people with more natural ability. The
                                                                           same is true for bodybuilding.
        Keep in mind that no one is                                           If you commit to a regular workout
    entirely an ectomorph, an endomorph,                                   regimen—and train hard—you’re
    or a mesomorph. Most of us have                                        assured of achieving respectable results.
    characteristics of all three, although                                 Intensity is critical. Some people love
    one type is dominant. Why is this                                      to go to the gym, but they don’t really
    important? Your body type dictates                                     work out hard. They like to talk, look
    the type of training you should do—                                    in the mirror, or stand by the water
    and often predicts the results you’ll                                  fountain. If they spend an hour in the
    achieve.                                                               gym, they think they’ve had a great
        For instance, an ectomorph doesn’t                                 workout. Not true.
    need to worry about losing fat to build                                   Time in the gym doesn’t necessarily
    a great physique, but he or she may                                    equal results. Yes, some elite body-
    struggle to develop and maintain large                                 builders are known for spending four
    muscles. Don’t get discouraged if you’re                               or five hours at a time working out,
    an ectomorph. Some great bodybuilders                                  but that’s generally not necessary. There
    have had this body type. Just under-                                   are more great bodybuilders who spend
    stand that you may have to work                                        only an hour or two at a time in the
    harder to achieve your goals if you’re                                 gym, but they know how to maximize
    thin by nature.                                                        every minute. They don’t waste time
        Endomorphs, on the other hand,                                     with nonsense. Top bodybuilder Mike
    may always fight a weight problem.                                      Matarazzo says, “When I train, it’s like
    However, their natural bulk can be                                     responding to a bell in boxing. Do your
    an asset, too. If they train properly,                                 work and get out. Otherwise, you lose
    they can awaken the muscles hidden                                     motivation and energy. I’m not a nice
    beneath the fat and develop these                                      person in the gym.”
    muscles to great size. Many outstanding                                   One of the top female bodybuilders,
    bodybuilders have been endomorphs.                                     Meryl Ertunc, agrees. “When I walk
        Mesomorphs are the lucky ones.                                     through the gym door, I start right in
    They typically don’t have to fight the                                  on my workout,” she says. “I speak
    battle of the bulge or work out furiously                              to nobody except my trainer. My sole
    to maintain their muscular develop-                                    objective is to focus on the workout
    ment. They’re capable of making rapid,                                 and complete it effectively.”
    impressive gains as soon as they begin                                    Because of differences in training
    serious training. Some top bodybuilders                                intensity, it’s hard to say how long
    who are mesomorphs have won major                                      you should work out. Thirty minutes?
    titles within a few years of taking up                                 Forty-five minutes? An hour? As a gen-
    the sport. However, don’t get the idea                                 eral rule, if you start with a 45-minute
    that mesomorphs get a free ride. Just                                  workout three times a week, you’ll
    like ectomorphs and endomorphs, they                                   make good progress. That will let you
    have to work out intensely week after                                  work all the major muscle groups and
                                                                                                 G E T TI N G STARTE D                        5

help you determine if you’re an “easy
                                                          A BRIEF HISTORY
gainer” or a “hard gainer.” Some
                                                          OF BODYBUILDING
people, often because of their body
type, see results far more quickly than                   A century ago, the term “bodybuilder”
others. They’re “easy gainers.”                           didn’t exist. Instead, men who showed
    By starting with shorter workouts,                    off their muscles in public were called
you’ll also find out if you enjoy weight                   “strongmen.”
lifting. You won’t become a great                            Strongmen, popular in the late
bodybuilder if you constantly have to                     1800s, specialized in performing acts
force yourself to go to the gym. It may                   of great strength—not developing
seem obvious, but you’ve got to like—                     picture-perfect bodies. Traveling carni-
or even love—weight training in order                     vals often featured strongmen who
to sculpt a fantastic physique.                           performed a variety of stunts to the
    Bodybuilders who have left their                      amazement of the carnival-goers.
mark in the sport couldn’t stay away                      Their feats were impressive, but their
from the gym. For them, the problem                       physiques certainly were not. Many
was often overtraining—working out                        were bloated and overweight, with big
so often that they didn’t give their                      guts and undefined muscles. In short,
bodies time to recover. We’ll discuss                     they would never be mistaken for
overtraining later in the book, but it’s                  today’s bodybuilders.
a major problem for some people.                             A man named Eugen Sandow began
You need to remember that proper rest                     to change the perception of strongmen.
and recovery are critical to making                       He, too, could perform acts of amaz-
progress.                                                 ing strength, but he had a chiseled
    For now, don’t worry about over-                      physique with little body fat—unlike
training. Focus on learning to lift prop-                 other strongmen of the day. During the
erly and becoming comfortable with                        height of his popularity in the 1890s,
weights. If overtraining ever becomes                     Sandow traveled the country and posed
an issue, you can deal with it then.                      for onlookers, often wearing only a fig

                                                   definition. Bodybuilders try to become             rep or two after your muscles become
  TRAINING TERMS                                   “ripped”—that is, develop muscles that            fatigued. Or a spotter can take a barbell
                                                   stand out from others. Another term for           from you if you’ve tried to lift too much.
  Burn: the slightly painful, but also exhila-     ripped is “cut.”                                Training partner: a person you work out
    rating, sensation that you get in a muscle   Routine: the sequence of exercises that             with on a regular basis. Many bodybuild-
    at the end of a strenuous exercise.            make up a workout. Your routine, or               ers have regular training partners. They
  Muscle failure: condition in which your          regimen, will vary over time as you make          find that partners help motivate them to
    muscles become so exhausted that you           progress and concentrate on different             achieve greater intensity during workouts.
    can’t perform another repetition.              muscles.                                          Partners can also serve as spotters.
  Pump: the dramatic muscle expansion after      Set: a group of repetitions. For instance,        Vascularity: the prominence of veins on
    an intense exercise, before the muscles        if you do eight reps of an exercise, that’s       a bodybuilder’s well-developed physique.
    return to their normal size.                   one set. If you follow it up with another         As a person becomes more “ripped,” veins
  Rep: short for “repetitions.” The number of      eight reps, that’s two sets of eight reps.        in the arms, chest, legs, and other areas
    reps is the number of times you complete     Spotter: a person who stands beside you             begin to stand out.
    an exercise movement.                          during an exercise to assist if necessary.
  Ripped: a term to describe extreme muscle        A spotter can help you perform a final

    leaf. People were intrigued by his                                     developed the largest biceps anyone
    unusual, impressive physique. When                                     had seen in competition—close to 20
    word spread that he trained with                                       inches in circumference. Scott realized
    weights, sales of barbells took off for                                that nothing is more impressive on a
    the first time.                                                         bodybuilder than a huge set of “guns,”
        Once Sandow achieved celebrity,                                    or biceps. He developed a special
    other strongmen tried to build their                                   incline bench to perform Curls, the
    bodies. In 1903, the first bodybuilding                                 standard biceps exercise. Today that
    contest, called America’s Most Perfectly                               piece of equipment is referred to as
    Developed Man, was held at New York’s                                  a “Scott bench” or “preacher bench.”
    Madison Square Garden. The winner                                          Scott ushered in a wave of body-
    took home the staggering sum (back                                     builders who grabbed the public’s
    then) of $1,000. The contest became                                    attention. One of the biggest names
    an annual event, and the quality                                       was Dave Draper, known as the Blond
    of contestants steadily improved.                                      Bomber. Like Scott, he hailed from
        In 1921, the winner was Angelo                                     California and had movie star looks.
    Siciliano, an Italian immigrant who                                    By this time, muscle magazines had be-
    afterwards changed his name to Charles                                 come popular, and Draper graced more
    Atlas. He was a marketing genius who                                   covers than any other bodybuilder.
    developed a workout program called                                     He won the prestigious Mr. America
    “dynamic tension”—aimed primarily                                      title in 1965 and followed it up with
    at teenagers and young adults—and                                      Mr. Universe in 1966.
    sold it in magazines and comic books.                                      The next bodybuilding superstar
        In the now-famous Charles Atlas ads,                               was Sergio Oliva, a native of Cuba who
    a muscular bully kicks sand in the face                                defected to the United States during a
    of a skinny, pathetic-looking guy on                                   bodybuilding competition. He was
    the beach and then takes the guy’s girl-                               labeled The Myth for his awesome
    friend. Angry, the “98-pound weakling”                                 physique. He dominated bodybuilding
    orders Atlas’s dynamic tension program.                                in the mid- to late 1960s, winning the
    He quickly builds rippling muscles                                     Mr. Olympia title from 1967 through
    and returns to the beach to beat up                                    1969. Oliva had enormous shoulders,
    the bully and win back his girl. Sounds                                a chest that measured almost 60 inches
    corny, but the pitch worked! Atlas made                                (outstanding even today), and a waist
    millions.                                                              that was only about 30 inches. To top it
        Ironically, Atlas built his own                                    off, Olivia sported a mean, intimidating
    physique using traditional weightlifting                               look that helped him “psych out”
    methods, whereas the program sold to                                   opponents in competition.
    the “98-pound weakling” relied on                                          Oliva became the standard for body-
    isometrics. There was some merit to this                               builders—that is, until Arnold Schwar-
    approach, which involves flexing your                                   zenegger came on the scene in the late
    muscles by pressing against stationary                                 1960s. Schwarzenegger, who emigrated
    objects, but isometrics isn’t nearly as                                from Austria, raised the bar. He had
    effective as weight lifting. Still, Charles                            the most perfectly developed physique
    Atlas helped popularize bodybuilding.                                  anyone had seen—and the charisma
        The modern era of the sport began                                  to match his body. More than any
    in the 1960s. Larry Scott, a handsome                                  other bodybuilder, Arnold exposed the
    Californian, won the first two Mr.                                      sport to the public and helped turn top
    Olympia contests, held in 1965 and                                     bodybuilders into celebrities.
    1966. He wasn’t particularly tall or                                       Arnold was featured in a highly
    massive by today’s standards, but he                                   acclaimed documentary about body-
                                                                      G E T TI N G STARTE D   7

building called Pumping Iron, released     is critical. If you have to drive 45 min-
in 1976. The film followed Schwarze-        utes to get there, you probably won’t go
negger and several competitors as they     very often—and your progress will
prepared for the previous year’s Mr.       suffer. On the other hand, if the gym
Olympia contest.                           is just around the corner, you’re much
   Schwarzenegger helped inspire Lou       more likely to work out regularly.
Ferrigno, the next great bodybuilder.          Gyms, like people, have personali-
He was even bigger than Schwarze-          ties. Some attract those who are inter-
negger, standing 6 5 tall and weighing     ested in overall fitness. People who
260 pounds. Ferrigno won all three         go to these gyms might want to take
major titles in the late 1970s—Mr.         aerobics classes, do yoga, swim, or jog—
America, Mr. Olympia, and Mr. Uni-         but not necessarily lift weight. You can
verse—before following Arnold into         certainly pursue bodybuilding in a gym
show business.                             like this, as long as it has free weights
   After Ferrigno, top bodybuilders        and machines available. If you’re the
got even bigger and better. Today, their   only bodybuilder in the gym, however,
physiques are more defined and sym-         you may feel uncomfortable over time.
metrical than ever, thanks to ongoing      As a result, your intensity—and the
advances in training techniques and        frequency of your workouts—may
diet. It’s virtually impossible for the    wane.
average observer to spot any weakness          If you really intend to be a serious
in today’s top bodybuilders. Contests,     bodybuilder, you’re probably better
as a result, are extremely competitive.    off joining a gym that’s geared toward
   Where will the advances stop?           “ironheads,” fellow hard-core lifters.
Once, top bodybuilders weighed about       These folks normally don’t care about
200 pounds. Today, they’re pushing 300     fancy dressing areas, saunas, or aerobics
pounds. You probably wouldn’t want         classes. They’re only interested in rows
to get that big, even if you could—but     and rows of barbells and machines.
you can benefit from the knowledge          Does that describe you? If you’re an
of world-class bodybuilders to craft the   ironhead, you’ll thrive in an environ-
physique you’ve always wanted.             ment like this. You’ll be more likely
   Evaluate your desire, set your goals,   to train with intensity because others
then go for it! Don’t compare yourself     are training hard, too.
to other bodybuilders. You are com-            These days, some people choose to
peting against yourself more than          train at home instead of joining a gym.
against anyone else.                       It’s now possible to buy first-class, gym-
                                           quality workout equipment for your
                                           home, because it has come down
BEGINNING BODYBUILDING                     enough in both price and size that it’s
                                           practical to keep in a spare bedroom.
When you begin weight lifting, you         However, before you shell out thou-
need to address two basic questions:       sands of dollars for equipment, buy an
                                           inexpensive barbell set, which can cost
   1. Where should I train?
                                           $50 to $100. A basic barbell set will
   2. Should I train alone or with
                                           allow you to learn the proper lifting
      a partner?
                                           form, get used to handling weights,
   Today, good gyms are nearly every-      and find out if you really enjoy weight
where. Finding a place to train is not     training—and if you like working out
nearly as difficult as it used to be. In    at home. If so, you can steadily add
shopping for a gym, however, location      to and upgrade your equipment.
8                            TH E O F F I C IAL G O LD’S GYM G U I D E TO G E T TI N G STARTE D I N B O DYB U I LD I N G

                                                    Napoleon were names I knew and remem-
BODYBUILDING BIO:                                   bered. . . . I saw bodybuilding as the vehicle          finished, like a piece of sculpture ready to
Arnold Schwarzenegger                               that would take me to the top, and I put all            be put on display.”
                                                    my energy into it.”                                        Arnold didn’t despair. He began training
Schwarzenegger is one of the few body-                 Before he could dedicate himself solely              harder than ever and won the next Mr.
building celebrities identified by first name         to bodybuilding, however, Arnold had to                 Universe contest in 1967. His period of
alone.                                              serve a year in the Austrian army. From age             dominance had begun. Starting in 1970,
    Mention “Arnold” and the subject of             18 to 19 he was stationed at an army camp,              Arnold won bodybuilding’s top prize—
bodybuilding, and there’s no doubt who you          yet he still found time to train intensely.             Mr. Olympia—for six straight years.
mean. He’s the most dominant and influ-                 He went AWOL to compete in the 1965                     Then he turned to a new challenge—
ential bodybuilder in history. Even today—          Junior Mr. Europe competition in Stuttgart,             acting. His first film, Conan the Barbarian
20 years after he retired from competition—         Germany. “The contest meant so much                     in 1980, was a moderate success, but he
Arnold towers over current bodybuilding             to me that I didn’t care what consequences              used it as a springboard to eventually
champions in terms of public awareness.             I’d have to suffer,” Arnold wrote. “I crawled           become a top box-office draw.
    His rise to stardom epitomizes the              over the wall, taking only the clothes I was               Over the years, Arnold has never strayed
American dream. Born and raised in a small          wearing. I had barely enough money to                   far from bodybuilding. After completing
Austrian village, he was exposed to weight          buy a third-class train ticket.”                        Conan the Barbarian, he returned from a
lifting for the first time when he was 14 years         He borrowed an outfit to compete in,                  five-year retirement from the sport to win his
old. He was mesmerized.                             and he won the title. When he returned to               seventh and final Mr. Olympia title in 1980.
    “I still remember the first visit to the         the army camp, the officers weren’t im-                  A few competitors groused that Arnold won
bodybuilding gym,” he writes in his 1977            pressed with his trophy. They confined him               on his name alone, that his physique was
autobiography, Arnold: The Education of             in a military jail for a week with little               no longer the best. No matter. Arnold took
a Bodybuilder. “Those guys were huge and            food.                                                   home the title—and further cemented his
brutal. I found myself walking around them,            Slowly, however, others at the camp                  role as bodybuilding’s ruler.
staring at muscles I couldn’t even name,            recognized Arnold’s extraordinary talent and               In 1994, he began sponsoring a body-
muscles I’d never even seen before.                 desire. Superiors encouraged him to train               building competition that has become an
    “The weightlifters shone with sweat; they       and relieved him of some normal responsi-               annual event. The Arnold Classic Weekend
were powerful looking, Herculean. And there         bilities. They held him up as an example for            features contests for men and women and
it was before me—my life, the answer I’d            other young men to follow. “I became a                  always draws a large field. Arnold says
been seeking.”                                      hero, even though I had defied their rules               he’s encouraged by today’s bodybuilders
    Even at a young age, he knew that he            to get what I wanted,” he wrote.                        and optimistic about the sport’s future.
wanted to be a bodybuilder—the best ever.              The next year, with his confidence buoyed,               “Bodybuilding is so specialized and so
He didn’t speak English at the time, yet            Arnold entered the 1966 Mr. Universe                    difficult that only a small percentage of
he imagined coming to America, achieving            contest. The competition was much fiercer.               people will ever want to do what it takes
bodybuilding fame, and using it to achieve          “I had assumed that after almost five years              to become an international champion,”
success in other fields. He didn’t let the           of training, I knew all there was to know               he wrote in The New Encyclopedia of Body-
skepticism of other people discourage               about bodybuilding,” he wrote. “As it turned            building, published in 1998. “But athletes
him.                                                out, I knew next to nothing.”                           who once would have been drawn to other
    “With my desire and my drive, I definitely          He said he took one look at the eventual             sports are now beginning to consider a
wasn’t normal,” Arnold wrote. “Normal peo-          winner, Chet Yorton, and realized how far               career in bodybuilding.
ple can be happy with a regular life. I felt        he had to go. “He had all the qualities it took            “This is one of the things that will ensure
there was more to life than just plodding           to be Mr. Universe—the muscularity, the                 that the sport will continue to grow, that the
through an average existence.                       separation, the definition, the skin color, the          level of competition will remain high, and
    “I’d always been impressed with stories of      glow of confidence,” Arnold wrote. “He was               that the public’s interest will continue to
greatness and power. Caesar, Charlemagne,                                                                   increase.”
                                                                       G E T TI N G STARTE D   9

    Virtually all serious bodybuilders,        If you’re undisciplined in your
however, eventually train at a gym.         eating—and if you have no desire to
The reasons are obvious. Good gyms          change—you severely limit your
have a far more extensive assortment        chances for success. You don’t have
of weights and machines than you            to become a food fanatic or take lots
could probably afford to buy for your       of expensive, exotic supplements, but
home. At a gym, you also have plenty        you do need to pay attention to your
of people to “spot” you—that is, lend       food intake. Without an awareness
a hand if you’ve grabbed too much           of what you eat, as well as when and
weight.                                     how much you eat, you won’t be able
    This leads to the question of a         to make the dietary adjustments nec-
training partner. Do you need one?          essary for peak muscle development.
There’s no answer that’s right for every-      Many bodybuilders swear by dietary
one. Perhaps you thrive on the rapport      supplements, but the best supplements
that develops between regular training      in the world can’t take the place of
buddies. If you know someone is             intense, regular training. There’s no
waiting for you at the gym, you may         such thing as a magic elixir or a “work-
be more likely to show up; you may          out in a jar,” so beware of products that
also be likely to train harder. In addi-    promise unbelievable results. Like the
tion, some exercises are difficult (and      saying goes, “If it sounds too good to
may even be dangerous) to perform           be true, it probably is.”
alone.                                         Besides being ineffective, supple-
    Still, there are valid reasons not to   ments may contain unproven and even
have a training partner. Perhaps you’re     dangerous ingredients. For advanced
self-motivated and don’t need anyone        bodybuilders with a thorough knowl-
else to fuel your intensity. Working        edge of nutrition, supplements can
with a partner might slow your work-        be useful and provide an extra edge
outs and impede your progress. Body-        in competition. Just don’t begin body-
building, after all, is fundamentally       building with the idea that a pill or a
an individual sport.                        powder can take the place of dedication
    Give it some thought. You probably      and sweat. There are no shortcuts.
already have an idea whether you’d             Finally, before you start serious
benefit from a training partner—or           weight training, be sure to get a thor-
not.                                        ough physical exam. Even young
    Another critical element in body-       people can have potentially serious
building is diet. We’ll devote an entire    health problems that are undiagnosed.
chapter to nutrition and diet later,        A checkup is usually quick, easy, and
but keep in mind that what you eat          inexpensive. When it’s over, you’ll have
has a huge effect on your muscle            the peace of mind to let you train your
development.                                hardest.
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                    Your First Routines
                    “The name of the game in bodybuilding is intensity. There’s absolutely
                    no question that increased training intensity develops more massive muscles
                    and better muscle quality.”
                          —Tom Platz, former Mr. Universe

All top bodybuilders learn to tailor                they hope will take them to the next
their workouts to what’s effective for              level, but they never stray far from the
them and what helps them achieve                    core exercises that they mastered as
their goals.                                        beginners.
   Because no two people are alike,                     Take a lesson from the pros. Learn
exercises that work great for one body-             these basic exercises by heart. And keep
builder may produce poor results for                this in mind: Look for steady, consis-
another. As you gain experience, you’ll             tent progress, not overnight miracles.
learn which exercises are best for you              Many budding bodybuilders, unfortu-
and how to structure your workouts.                 nately, have unrealistic expectations
   Still, when starting out, everyone               and underestimate the time it will
should become familiar with some                    take to reshape their physiques. Many
well-established, basic weightlifting               people, sadly, become discouraged and
exercises. These cover all the major                give up bodybuilding before they ever
muscle groups: shoulder, chest, arm,                discover their potential. The prize in
leg, and abdomen. Once you become                   bodybuilding—as in most endeavors—
comfortable with these—and notice                   usually goes to the turtle, not the hare.
how your muscles respond—you’ll be                      With that said, let’s recap some of
in a position to customize your                     the appeals of bodybuilding to energize
routines.                                           you as you begin.
   These 19 basic exercises provide the                 While none of us can control our
foundation on which you can develop                 genes—nature has predetermined our
your bodybuilder’s physique. Tried-                 height and body shape to a large ex-
and-true exercises such as Bench Press,             tent—each of us can improve the body
Curls, and Squats are so effective that             we were born with, and there’s no
even champion bodybuilders never                    better way to do this than weight
abandon them entirely. Top com-                     lifting.
petitors constantly tinker with their                   Most bodybuilders choose the sport
regimen, trying different exercises that            because they feel they are too skinny


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12                            TH E O F F I C IAL G O LD’S GYM G U I D E TO G E T TI N G STARTE D I N B O DYB U I LD I N G

                              or too fat, or they may simply feel that                               or weeks, significantly slowing down
                              they have a mediocre build. Weight                                     your progress.
                              lifting lets you sculpt and reshape your                                   Weight training, even when done
                              body. By choosing the right exercises                                  properly, places tremendous stress on
                              and performing them properly, you can                                  your body. While the stress of resistance
                              add muscle here, lose fat there, and                                   to weight is what leads to muscle
                              tone up from head to toe.                                              growth, lifting heavy weights can dam-
                                                                                                     age your body if you haven’t prepared
                                                                                                     it properly.
                              STRETCHING AND WARMING UP                                                  That’s where warming up and
                                                                                                     stretching come in. They are actually
                              Top athletes in all sports know the                                    two different steps, although they’re
                              importance of stretching and preparing                                 often lumped together.
                              their bodies for a strenuous workout.                                      Warming up involves motion.
                              If you don’t stretch, you’re far more                                  The best example is light aerobic activ-
                              likely to strain a muscle, ligament,                                   ity, such as riding a stationary bike or
                              or tendon. Even a mild injury can keep                                 walking on a treadmill. The purpose
                              you out of the gym for several days                                    is to elevate your heart rate, boost your

                                                     to 1991. That’s bodybuilding’s top prize, akin          nance in bodybuilding had begun.
 BODYBUILDER BIO: Lee Haney                          to the Super Bowl in pro football. Lee even                Throughout his career, he was known for
                                                     bettered the previous record of seven Mr.               his intense workouts and the incredible size
 Lee Haney turned disappointment in one              Olympia wins by the incomparable Arnold                 he achieved. He was especially known for his
 sport into a record-setting career in another.      Schwarzenegger. Many people had thought                 massive back, which seemed to dwarf the
    Lee began bodybuilding after he broke            Arnold’s record would never be broken.                  backs of other competitors. Standing just
 a leg playing high school football in South             Lee started serious weight training when            under 6 feet tall, he carried 250 pounds
 Carolina. Like many teens, Lee had aspi-            he was 16 years old and soon began winning              of rippling muscle in contest shape.
 rations of playing professional football—and        youth bodybuilding contests. A photo of                    Today Lee is retired and lives outside
 he had the talent to make that dream come           him at age 17 shows what an extraordinary               Atlanta, Georgia. He owns a 40-acre ranch
 true. But while rehabilitating his injured leg      physique he had already developed.                      that he calls “Haney’s Harvest House,” and
 in the weight room he discovered that he                Lee began accumulating national body-               he works with inner-city youth. He’s one
 liked lifting weights more than playing             building titles in 1979 when he won Teen                of the leading promoters of bodybuilding:
 football.                                           Mr. America. He followed it up with victories           He saw what it did for him, and he knows
    “They sent me into the weight room to            in the 1982 Junior Nationals bodybuilding               what it can do for others, in terms of
 rehabilitate my atrophied leg muscles, and          contest and the World Amateur Champion-                 both physique and self-esteem.
 I never came out again,” Lee said. “Once            ships later that year.                                     “Every bodybuilder wants to develop
 I had experienced the thrill of being able              In 1983, he entered his first Mr. Olympia            huge, powerful muscles,” says Lee, now 43.
 to add muscle mass to my frame, I was an            contest and shocked people by finishing                  “In fact, that’s usually the main reason why
 ex-footballer and a lifetime bodybuilder.”          third—much higher than most competitors                 most of us started working out with weights
    Lee found that his body quickly responded        do on their first attempt. Still, he wasn’t              in the first place—to build up a skinny
 to weight training, and he liked his new mus-       content. The judges’ comments noted                     frame so we could look huge and powerful.
 cle mass. He could quickly envision success         that his arms and calves were too small,                No matter how massive a bodybuilder gets,
 as a bodybuilder.                                   and he set out to correct those flaws in                 he still wants to add a little more muscle
    It turns out that he was right.                  his physique.                                           to certain parts of his physique.”
    “Large Lee,” as he became known, won                 The next year, he won the Mr. Olympia
 eight straight Mr. Olympia titles from 1984         title—blowing away the field. Lee’s domi-
                                                                    YO U R F I R ST R O UTI N E S   13

breathing, and get your blood pumping       seconds to reach the fully stretched
harder. You’re literally “warming up”       position, and if you rush it you won’t
your body for a full workout.               get the full benefit.
    Stretching, on the other hand, is          Stretching is a good pre-workout
static—that is, you stand or sit in place   activity, but many bodybuilders also
as you slowly extend your muscles to        stretch during and after workouts.
make them more limber. The more you         Muscles can become tense and tight
can stretch your muscles, the larger        during intense lifting, and stretching
they can become.                            during a workout can help make them
    Most experts recommend that you         limber and ready to lift some more.
warm up before you stretch. Why?               After a workout, stretching is an
If you stretch when your body is cold,      excellent way to cool down. For one
you’re far more likely to pull a muscle.    thing, it’s much easier on your body
A good warm-up should take about            to bring your heart and breathing rates
10 minutes—long enough to work up           down gradually than to stop exercising
a light sweat but not so long that you      suddenly. In addition, stretching after
become fatigued and have less energy        a workout helps prevent muscle sore-
for your upcoming weight training.          ness and promotes faster muscle recov-
    Once you’ve warmed up, it’s time        ery. It’s after a workout, as your muscles
to stretch. Stretching is intended to       recover, that most muscle growth
increase your flexibility and reduce         actually occurs.
injuries during lifting.
    It’s tempting to bypass stretching      Names of Muscles
if you’re in a hurry and want to start      Upper Body
lifting immediately, but that’s a mis-        Pectorals (“pecs”—chest muscles)
take. “I stretch out a lot,” says top         Deltoids (“delts”—rounded muscles
bodybuilder Mike Matarazzo. “You’ve           at the top of the shoulders)
got to stay loose. Whatever muscles           Latissimus dorsi muscles (“lats”—
you’re working, find a way to stretch          muscles extending from under the
them.” Particularly as we get older, we       armpits across the back to the spine)
need to properly prepare our bodies for       Trapezius muscles (“traps”—muscles
demanding workouts to avoid injury            extending from the neck to the
and to get the most benefit. Don’t             middle of the back)
shortchange yourself.                         Spinal erectors (horizontal muscles
    Stretching has other benefits besides      extending down the back to just
cutting down on injuries. It helps to         above the waist)
relieve tension and focuses your mind         Obliques (muscles on the side of the
on your approaching workout. Stretch-         torso, next to the abdominals)
ing also lengthens your muscles and           Intercostals (diagonal muscles across
gives you a leaner, more toned appear-        the ribs, just above the abdominals)
ance—a huge asset for competition.            Serratus muscles (diagonal muscles
“Many people don’t realize the value          slightly above the intercostals, near
of stretching to strengthen and elon-         the pectorals)
gate the muscle and help it grow,” said       Abdominals (“abs”—vertical mus-
Lee Labrada, two-time Mr. Olympia             cles extending the length of the
runner-up.                                    abdomen)
    Stretching, however, must be done
properly. It should always be gradual       Arms
and gentle, with no bouncing or jerking       Biceps
movements. It may take up to 30               Triceps

        Forearm flexors (muscles of the inside
                                                                            STRETCHING EXERCISES
        of the forearm)
        Forearm extensors (muscles of the                                   The following basic stretching exercises
        outside of the forearm)                                             cover all the major muscle groups.
                                                                            Standing Torso Bend
       Quadriceps (“quads”—muscles at
                                                                                Area worked: Obliques
       the front of the thigh)
                                                                                Instructions: Stand with your feet
       Hamstrings (muscles that extend
                                                                            slightly more than shoulder-width apart
       from the back of the thigh to the
                                                                            and your arms at your sides. Raise your
       lower leg)
                                                                            right arm overhead, bent at the elbow.
       Gastrocnemius muscles (upper calf
                                                                            Keep your arm there and lean your
                                                                            torso to the left as far as possible while
       Soleus muscles (lower calf muscles)
                                                                            keeping your feet stable. To lean farther,
     Buttocks                                                               slide your left arm down the outside
       Gluteus maximus muscles (“glutes”—                                   of your left leg. Hold this position for
       muscles of the buttocks)                                             about 15 seconds, then return to start-

                                         Standing Torso Bend
                                                                    YO U R F I R ST R O UTI N E S   15

ing position. Repeat with your left arm      Forward Bend
overhead and lean to the right. You             Areas worked: Lower back,
may also do the exercise with both           hamstrings
arms raised overhead at the same time.          Instructions: Stand upright, with
                                             your feet together. Bend forward gradu-
                                             ally and grab the backs of your calves.
                                             Slowly try to reach down farther. See if
                                             you can touch the backs of your ankles,
                                             but don’t strain. Lower your head
                                             toward your shins to let you reach far-
                                             ther down. When you’re at the lowest
                                             point you can comfortably maintain,
                                             hold the position for 30 seconds.

                                             Seated Torso Bend
                                                 Areas worked: Obliques, lower back,
                                                 Instructions: Sit on the floor with
                                             your legs extended in front of you.
                                             Bend your right leg up so your knee
                                             is chest high, keeping your left leg on
                                             the floor. Twist your torso to the right
                                             as far as possible while keeping your
                                             buttocks on the floor. Extend your right
                                             arm behind you for support. To help
                                             you twist, place your left elbow on the
                                             outside of your right knee. When
              Forward Bend                   you’ve twisted as far as possible, hold

                                   Seated Torso Bend


     the position for 30 seconds. Then
     repeat with your left leg bent at the
     knee, and twist to the left.

         Areas worked: Hamstrings, lower
         Instructions: Sit on the floor with
     your knees locked and legs extended
     in a wide V. Bend forward and extend
     your arms in front of you as far as
     possible. With your fingers touching
     the floor, hold the position for 10
     seconds. Then gradually turn to your
     right and grab your right ankle. Hold
     for 10 seconds. Return to the starting
     position. Then turn and grab your
     left ankle, holding for 10 seconds.
                                                                                                   Groin Stretch
        Areas worked: Inner thighs, glutes
        Instructions: Crouch on the floor                                    Groin Stretch
     with your left leg extended behind you                                    Areas worked: Groin muscles, inner
     and your right leg bent so the thigh is                                thighs
     parallel to the floor. Lean forward until                                  Instructions: Sit on the floor with
     your torso touches your right thigh.                                   your knees bent and turned outward.
     Place the fingers of both hands on                                      Pull your feet as close to your buttocks
     the floor, directly below your shoulders.                               as possible. Grab the outer front edges
     Hold your head up and look straight                                    of your feet, and rest your elbows on
     ahead. Hold for 15 seconds, stretching                                 your thighs. Slowly press down on your
     your torso forward and down. Stand,                                    legs, lowering them closer to the floor.
     returning to the starting position.                                    (Don’t press too far. Your knees should
     Repeat with your right leg behind you                                  stop about a foot from the floor.) At the
     and your left leg bent.                                                lowest point, hold for 15 seconds.
                                                      YO U R F I R ST R O UTI N E S   17

                                      Leg Crossover

Leg Crossover
   Areas worked: Lower back, hips,
   Instructions: Lie on your back with
your legs together and straight. Extend
your arms to the side at a 90-degree
angle to your torso. While keeping
your arms stationary, lift your right leg
straight up, then cross it over your left
leg. Touch your right toes to the floor,
even with your knee. (It is important
to keep your arms and left leg station-
ary for maximum benefit.) Hold for 15
seconds. Repeat, lifting your left leg and
crossing it over your right leg.

Back Roll
    Area worked: Mid-back
    Instructions: Lie on your back with
your knees pulled against your chest.
Grab the upper part of your shins and
gradually press your legs toward your
chest. Hold for 15 seconds. Then, gradu-
ally rock backward until your weight
rests on your shoulder blades. Be sure
to keep your balance. Keep your hands
on your legs. (Caution: If this is un-
comfortable, don’t do it. Roll forward
until your weight is on your back
again.) Hold for 15 seconds.                                 Back Roll

                                                                            Calf Stretch
                                                                               Area worked: Calves
                                                                               Instructions: Stand about an arm’s
                                                                            length from a wall. Lean forward and
                                                                            place both palms on the wall. Keep
                                                                            your legs straight and together. Slowly
                                                                            lean your head forward until it touches
                                                                            the wall. Keep your feet flat on the floor
                                                                            and feel your calf muscles stretch. Hold
                                                                            for 15 seconds. Then rise up on your
                                                                            toes to stretch farther. Hold for another
                                                                            15 seconds.

                                                                            Triceps Stretch
                                                                                Area worked: Triceps
                                                                                Instructions: Stand with your feet
                                                                            about shoulder-width apart. Raise your
                                                                            left arm and bend it at the elbow. Place
                                                                            your left hand behind your head on
                                                                            your right shoulder blade. Your left
                                                                            forearm should be against your head.
                                                                            With your right hand, gently press
                                                                            down on your left elbow. Your left
                                                                            hand should move down slightly.
                                                                            At the lowest point you can comfort-
                                                                            ably maintain, hold for 15 seconds.
                                                                            Repeat with your right arm behind
                                                                            your head, pressing down with your
                                                                            left hand.

                       Calf Stretch                                         Crunches
                                                                               Area worked: Abs
                                                                               Instructions: Lie on your back on
                                                                            the floor in front of a flat bench. Bend
                                                                            your knees and place the backs of your
                                                                            calves on top of the bench. Clasp your
                                                                            hands behind your head. Exhale and
                                                                            raise your head and shoulders toward
                                                                            your knees, keeping your back on
                                                                            the floor. Inhale and lower yourself
                                                                            to the floor. Repeat. (This is a very short
                                                                            movement. It’s not a full sit-up, in
                                                                            which you touch your elbows to your
                                                                            knees. It’s critical to do it slowly and
                                                                            deliberately in order to get the full

                                                                            Neck Roll
                                                                               Area worked: Neck
                                                                               Instructions: Stand with your feet
                     Triceps Stretch                                        about shoulder-width apart. Place your
                                                                     YO U R F I R ST R O UTI N E S   19


                                                   Neck Roll

                                             LIFTING BASICS
palms on either side of your waist or let
your arms hang straight down. Bend           Before we present the basic
your head forward until your chin            weightlifting exercises, we need to
almost touches your chest. Hold for 15       address several issues about training.
seconds. Then slowly rotate your head        These include the correct number of
to the right, making a complete circle       repetitions and sets to do, correct
around your body. Do this 3 times,           breathing, the length and frequency
slowly. Then reverse and rotate your         of your workouts, warm-up sets, and
head to the left, making a circle 3          what to do about soreness.

     Repetitions                                                            sets. For now, limit yourself to two,
     Select a weight that allows you to                                     resting about one minute between
     comfortably do 8 to 10 repetitions,                                    sets.
     or reps, regardless of the exercise.                                       The number of sets you do is less
     As you become stronger, work up to                                     important than your intensity while
     12 to 15 reps. At that point, it’s time to                             lifting. “More [sets] aren’t better,” says
     add more weight (5 or 10 pounds) and                                   Paul DeMayo, a top bodybuilder. “It’s
     drop the number of reps back to 8 to                                   what you do in the amount of time.
     10. Then work up to 12 to 15 reps at                                   I don’t hang around. People are amazed
     the heavier weight. That’s the cycle                                   that I make progress because they’re
     to follow as you progress in weight                                    convinced you have to be in there four,
     training—increase reps, then add                                       five, six hours a day.”
         As a general rule, work out with                                   Breathing
     about 75% of the weight that you could                                 Many beginning weight lifters don’t
     lift one time. For instance, if you can                                breathe properly. There’s a natural
     bench press 100 pounds once, you                                       tendency to hold your breath as you
     should work out with about 75 pounds                                   perform an exercise, but that can be
     and do 8 to 10 reps.                                                   dangerous. You can become so weak
         However, there’s no need to repeat-                                and dizzy that you pass out.
     edly find out how much weight you                                           Instead, inhale and exhale in a
     can lift one time. After all, you’re not                               smooth, steady manner. Inhale during
     training to be a power lifter, where                                   the easier part of an exercise (when
     lifting maximum weight is the goal.                                    you’re lowering the weight) and exhale
     You’re interested in being a body-                                     during the harder part (lifting). Your
     builder, where muscle development                                      breathing should work in harmony
     is the objective. This is achieved by                                  with your lifting. Proper breathing will
     doing multiple reps in a smooth,                                       quickly become second nature, and
     rhythmic manner with a weight you                                      then you won’t have to think about
     can handle.                                                            it anymore.

     Sets                                                                   Workout Duration and Frequency
     Some people confuse sets and                                           There are two main ways to schedule
     repetitions. The number of reps is                                     your workouts. You can train all your
     the number of times you lift a weight.                                 muscles three times a week—such as
     The number of sets is the number of                                    on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday—
     times you complete an exercise. For                                    or you can train only some of your
     instance, if you do 10 reps of Bench                                   muscles at a time and work out six days
     Press, that’s one set. If you follow up                                a week. The choice is yours. Just be sure
     with 10 more reps, that’s two sets—                                    not to train seven days a week. Your
     and so on.                                                             muscles need at least one day to recover
        As a beginner, you should start with                                and grow.
     two sets per exercise, although it would                                  Some people like the sensation of
     be fine to do just one set until you                                    working all their muscles at once, then
     become comfortable with lifting.                                       taking a day off before doing a full-
     Experienced bodybuilders may do 10                                     body workout again. Others, however,
     or more sets of an exercise, but some                                  like to concentrate on certain muscles—
     experts believe that doing so many                                     such as the shoulders, chest, and back—
     sets becomes counterproductive. Once                                   one day, then concentrate on other
     you gain experience, you can do more                                   muscles the next day. They think
                                                                                             YO U R F I R ST R O UTI N E S                         21

it helps their intensity to work only                      whether you use free weights—
certain muscles at a time.                                 barbells and dumbbells—or machines.
    If you choose to train six days a                      It usually takes longer to lift with free
week, be sure to keep your workouts                        weights because you have to add
short. If you lift for too long, you can                   and remove weight plates between
become so tired that your form suffers.                    exercises. With machines, you simply
    As a beginner, you can do an ex-                       place a pin in the weight stack and
cellent workout in 45 minutes if you’re                    start lifting.
focused. That allows enough time to                            Many elite bodybuilders train almost
do exercises that cover all the major                      exclusively with free weights because
muscle groups. Once you become more                        they believe that barbells and dumb-
experienced, you can extend your work-                     bells allow them more variety in their
outs by increasing the number of sets                      workouts. For instance, machines gener-
and exercises.                                             ally limit the lifting motion; that is,
    The length of your workouts may                        the weights travel only along a certain
vary to some degree, depending on                          path. With free weights, you can vary

                                                  training, nutrition, and anything else that            Yates says intensity is far more important
  BODYBUILDER BIO: Dorian Yates                   would help me succeed as a bodybuilder.            than the number of sets you do. “Most
                                                  Once I found the things that interested me,        bodybuilders are overtrained in sets and
  After Lee Haney retired with a record eight     I’d give them a try in the gym.”                   undertrained in intensity,” he says.
  straight Mr. Olympia titles, Dorian Yates          Early on, Yates showed the intelligence         “My advice is to cut the number of exer-
  of England started a streak of his own.         that it takes to excel in bodybuilding. He         cises and sets you are doing by 50% and
  Beginning in 1992, Yates won the Mr. Olym-      paid attention to which exercises worked           double your intensity. Then watch what
  pia title six consecutive times.                best for him, and he set his routines accord-      happens.”
     Many believe that he displayed an even       ingly. “Through a lot of trial and error,              He says beginners shouldn’t try to lift too
  better physique than Haney. Lee weighed         I found the training system and diet that          much weight, but should use a weight that
  about 250 pounds, but Yates topped the          worked for me,” Yates says.                        they can handle and still maintain good
  scales at 265 to 270—with a body fat               Some people are surprised to learn that         lifting form. “Training is not just about
  percentage in the single digits.                Yates, despite his enormous size, never            heavy weights,” Yates says. “It’s also about
     Yates’ granite-like build is even more       spent hours and hours at a time in the gym.        really clean form, full mental involvement
  impressive considering that he didn’t begin     He found that fewer sets worked better for         and taking the muscles to the point of
  bodybuilding until he was almost 20 years       him. For example, he limited himself to 6          failure.”
  old. By his own admission, he was a trouble-    to 8 sets per body part. Granted, that’s a lot         He says he became a bodybuilder because
  maker during his childhood in a small vil-      for a beginner—more than you should try.           he enjoyed it, not to impress others with his
  lage outside Birmingham, England. He often      But it’s far fewer sets than some top body-        massive physique. “The general public
  hung around in clubs with groups of skin-       builders do.                                       perception of bodybuilding is that it is an
  heads, he says.                                    “The most common mistake made by                egotistical, narcissistic sport,” Yates says.
     But a short stint in jail for disorderly     eager bodybuilders is overtraining,” Yates         “Maybe it is, but I never approached it from
  conduct turned Yates’ life around. He           says. “I regularly see beginners doing 15          that point of view. I was never into trying
  began weight lifting and, like many body-       to 20 sets of chest work and wondering             to get people’s adulation.
  building champs, became instantly addicted      why their pecs aren’t growing. It’s only by            “I never walked around in a tank top and
  to it.                                          avoiding the pitfalls of constant overtraining     never wanted people to notice me or adore
     “When I first began bodybuilding, I imme-     that I have been able to make good gains           me. I didn’t ever build my body for that
  diately knew that it was for me,” says Yates,   in the chest area.”                                reason. I did it for myself.”
  now 41. “I read as much as I could about

     the lifting motion almost infinitely                                    such as riding a stationary bike or using
     to achieve your goals.                                                 a stair machine. This prepares your
        Machines, however, do have ad-                                      body for lifting.
     vantages. You can perform some very                                        There’s another kind of warm-up
     effective exercises on machines that                                   that’s just as critical: warm-up sets.
     are difficult to do with free weights.                                  This involves doing sets with light
     In addition, using machines is often                                   weight before you perform the same
     safer because you don’t have to support                                exercise with your regular training
     the full weight as you do with a barbell.                              weight. For warm-up sets, use about
        Regardless of how you plan your                                     half the weight and do about twice
     workout, or whether you use free                                       as many reps. If you normally do 8 reps
     weights or machines, it’s important to                                 of Bench Press with 150 pounds, warm
     determine what time of day is best for                                 up by doing 15 reps with 75 pounds.
     you to train and then to establish a                                       With the lighter weight and higher
     regular routine.                                                       reps, you can concentrate on proper
        Some people have more energy in                                     lifting form and prepare your muscles
     the morning and like to work out then.                                 for the heavier weight.
     Others are more alert later in the day                                     As you become more advanced,
     or at night. It’s not the time of day that                             warm-up sets are even more critical.
     matters. Intensity matters. If you can                                 Some competitive bodybuilders who
     work out harder at 7 A.M., that’s the                                  use extremely heavy weight do several
     time to do it. If you can train harder                                 warm-up sets for each exercise. This
     at 7 P.M., that’s the time to do it. Either                            helps them avoid injury.
     way, establish a routine. Don’t work out
     at 6 A.M. one day, at 10 P.M. the next,                                Soreness vs. Pain
     and at noon the following day. Your                                    Muscle soreness is a natural part of
     body needs a regular schedule.                                         bodybuilding. In fact, moderate sore-
        As you do your workouts, remember                                   ness is an indicator that you’re doing
     that progress in bodybuilding rarely                                   exercises correctly and making progress.
     occurs on a straight-line continuum.                                   There’s an exhilarating, satisfying feel
     Instead, you’ll probably make gains in                                 to an intense workout that leaves your
     spurts. You may go weeks or even                                       muscles pumped and sore. The soreness
     months without any noticeable im-                                      will go away in a day or two and won’t
     provement. If you keep training,                                       interfere with your next workout.
     however, the gains will return.                                            However, pain isn’t a good sign, so
        Just be consistent and don’t make                                   it’s important to learn to tell the differ-
     excuses to skip workouts. “Unless you                                  ence between soreness and pain. For
     are so ill that you must remain in bed,                                example, if your back hurts so much
     you should never miss a scheduled                                      that you can barely stand up, that pain
     workout,” says Boyer Coe, a former Mr.                                 is the result of improper lifting. Pain
     Universe. “One missed workout can set                                  is a warning sign that you might be
     your progress back by as much as a                                     causing an injury that could sideline
     week, because you actually experience                                  you for weeks. If you feel a sharp,
     negative results from missing a training                               sudden pain during lifting, stop imme-
     session.”                                                              diately. By doing so, you’re not being
                                                                            a wimp—you’re being smart. If the pain
     Warm-Up Sets                                                           persists, seek medical attention.
     Earlier we discussed warming up before                                     “No pain, no gain” is a popular term
     a workout. Ideally, you should do 5 to                                 in sports. We might amend it for body-
     10 minutes of light aerobic activity,                                  building to “No soreness, no gain.”
                                                                              YO U R F I R ST R O UTI N E S   23

Upper Body                                    WORDS TO TRAIN BY
Bench Press
    Primary muscles used: Chest               “To make a muscle grow, you must force it to
    Technique: Lie on a flat bench that        go beyond its capabilities. The most potent way
has uprights to hold a barbell. Place         to apply that force is to train to failure. Training
your feet on the floor at the end of the       to failure means . . . the muscles are forced to
bench. Grab the bar above your head           grow stronger and bigger.”
with an overhand grip (palms down,                —Nasser El Sonbaty, an international
thumbs in) and with your hands placed              bodybuilding star
slightly more than shoulder-width
apart. Lift the bar straight up off the

                                    Bench Press

     supports, locking your elbows. Exhale                                  bell in each hand, with your arms
     as you lift. Then inhale and slowly                                    extended and even with the top of
     lower the bar until it touches the                                     the bench. Bend your elbows slightly.
     highest point of your chest. Let the bar                               Then raise the dumbbells in front of
     rest there for a second, then exhale and                               you, in line with your chest, until they
     push the bar straight up, locking your                                 touch. Make sure you have a secure
     elbows again. Repeat.                                                  grip, then exhale and lower the dumb-
                                                                            bells to your sides (along the same
     Dumbbell Flye                                                          path) until they are even with the top
       Primary muscles used: Chest                                          of the bench. Hold for a second, then
       Technique: Lie on a flat bench with                                   exhale and lift the dumbbells again
     no supports for a barbell. Grab a dumb-                                until they touch. Repeat.

                                                                Dumbbell Flye
                                                                   YO U R F I R ST R O UTI N E S   25

   NOTE: This exercise can also be done    provides all the resistance. Find a set
on a common machine, often called          of “dip bars”—free-standing, parallel
a “pec deck.” Sit on a bench and bend      bars that are slightly wider than your
your arms at the elbow in front of you,    shoulders and about chest high. Stand
with your forearms in a vertical posi-     between the bars, rise up on your toes,
tion. Place your forearms against pads     and place your palms on top of the
in front of your shoulders. Exhale and     bars. Gently jump up and straighten
press against the pads together until      your arms until your elbows lock. Your
they touch in front of your chest. Hold,   feet will be about a foot off the floor
then inhale and let the pads return to     and your waist a few inches above the
the starting position. Repeat.             bars. Inhale and lower yourself gradu-
                                           ally until your chest is in line with the
Dips                                       bars. Bend your knees to keep your feet
   Primary muscles used: Chest             from touching the floor. Hold for a
   Technique: This exercises does          second, then exhale and push yourself
not use weights—your body weight           back up until your elbows lock. Repeat.


     Upright Row                                                            head that’s attached to a stack of
         Primary muscles used: Lats (back)                                  weights by a cable. Kneel on the floor
         Technique: Stand with your feet                                    under the bar (or sit on a bench, if one
     slightly more than shoulder-width                                      is available). Extend your arms over-
     apart. Grab a barbell off the floor with                                head and grab the bar with an over-
     an overhand grip (palms down, thumbs                                   hand grip and your hands 2 to 3 inches
     in) and your hands 8 to 10 inches apart.                               from the ends. Exhale as you pull the
     Let the bar rest against your thighs.                                  bar down smoothly in front of your
     Exhale and lift the bar straight up,                                   face until it touches your chest. Hold
     keeping it close to your body, until                                   for a second, then inhale and gradually
     it almost touches your chin. Keep your                                 let the bar return to the starting posi-
     back straight and your legs straight as                                tion. Repeat.
     you lift. Hold the barbell under your
     chin for a second, then inhale and                                     Lateral Raise
     lower it to the starting position in front                                Primary muscles used: Shoulders
     of your thighs. Repeat.                                                   Technique: Stand and hold a dumb-
                                                                            bell on each side of your body. Lean
     Lat Pulldown                                                           forward at the waist slightly, and bend
        Primary muscles used: Lats (back)                                   your elbows a little. Exhale and slowly
        Technique: This exercise is done on                                 raise your arms, keeping them in line
     a machine that’s found in almost every                                 with your shoulders. Stop when the
     gym. It has a long horizontal bar over-                                dumbbells are slightly higher than
                                                                            your shoulders. Don’t let your body
                                                                            rock—this reduces the benefit to your
                                                                            shoulders. Hold the dumbbells at the
                                                                            topmost point for a second, then inhale
                                                                            and slowly lower them to your side.

                                                                            Military Press
                                                                               Primary muscles used: Shoulders
                                                                               Technique: This exercise can be
                                                                            done with a barbell or on a machine.
                                                                               If you use a barbell: Grab a barbell
                                                                            off the floor with an overhand grip and
                                                                            your hands placed slightly more than
                                                                            shoulder-width apart. Stand with the
                                                                            barbell against your thighs. Then hoist
                                                                            the barbell until it touches the top of
                                                                            your chest. (Your palms are underneath
                                                                            the bar for support.) Exhale and lift the
                                                                            barbell over your head until your
                                                                            elbows lock. Keep your legs stationary.
                                                                            Hold for a second, then gradually lower
                                                                            the barbell until it rests against your
                                                                            chest again. Start the next rep from
                                                                            your chest.
                                                                               If you use a machine: Sit on a bench
                                                                            and grab the handle that’s about even
                             Upright Row                                    with your shoulders and connected
                 YO U R F I R ST R O UTI N E S   27

Military Press

     to a weight stack. Press up on the                                     seat and an armrest platform about
     handle, lifting the weight, until your                                 chest high that slopes down and away
     elbows lock. Hold for a moment, then                                   from the seat. Sit on the seat and place
     lower the handle until there is no resis-                              the backs of your upper arms on the
     tance. Repeat.                                                         sloping platform. Stretch your arms and
                                                                            grab a barbell with an underhand grip.
     Arms                                                                   Exhale and bend your arms, slowly
     Curls                                                                  bringing the barbell to the top of the
        Primary muscles used: Biceps                                        platform (near your chin). Pause, then
        Technique: Grab a barbell with an                                   inhale and lower the barbell to the
     underhand grip (palms up, thumbs out)                                  bottom of the platform, locking your
     and your hands about shoulder-width                                    elbows. Repeat.
     apart. Stand and let the barbell rest                                     NOTE: By not permitting use of your
     against your thighs. Keeping your                                      legs or upper body, this exercise isolates
     elbows close to your sides, exhale and                                 your biceps more than standing Curls.
     raise the bar to your chest. Hold for a
     moment, then inhale and lower the bar                                  Triceps Pushdown
     to your thighs. Keep your elbows and                                       Primary muscles used: Triceps
     upper arms stationary. Repeat.                                             Technique: This exercise is similar
                                                                            to the Lat Pulldown described above.
     Preacher Curl                                                          Stand in front of the machine, which
        Primary muscles used: Biceps                                        has a long horizontal bar overhead.
        Technique: This exercise uses a                                     Grab the bar with an overhand grip and
     “preacher bench,” which has a small                                    your hands 8 to 10 inches apart. Lower

                                                                     YO U R F I R ST R O UTI N E S   29

the bar until it’s even with your chest.     about shoulder-width apart. Stand with
Tuck your elbows against your sides.         the barbell in front of your thighs and
Now exhale and press down on the bar         elbows against your sides—this is the
with your upper arms only. Stop when         starting position. Exhale and raise your
the bar touches your thighs. Hold, then      forearms only until the backs of your
inhale and let the bar gradually rise to
the starting position in front of your
chest. Keep your upper arms against
your sides. Repeat.

Dips Behind Back
   Primary muscles used: Triceps
   Technique: This exercise is similar
to parallel bar Dips, described above.
No weights are used. Place two regular
flat benches parallel to each other and
about 4 to 5 feet apart. Place your heels
on one bench and your palms on the
other bench. Your buttocks will be
suspended in the air, just in front of the
rear bench. Your body will be in an L
shape—legs parallel to the floor and
torso at a 90-degree angle. Inhale, bend
your arms at the elbow and carefully
lower your buttocks until they almost
touch the floor. Keep your heels on the
front bench. Hold your body as low
as possible for a second, then exhale
and raise your body to the starting posi-
tion, locking your elbows. Repeat.

Dumbbell Wrist Curl
    Primary muscles used: Forearms
    Technique: Sit on a regular flat
bench. Grab a dumbbell in one hand
with an underhand grip. Lean forward
and place your forearm on your thigh,
with your wrist just beyond your knee.
Lower your wrist toward the floor,
letting the dumbbell roll toward the
ends of your fingers. Then bend your
wrist back toward your body, letting the
dumbbell roll onto your palm. Repeat.
Feel your forearm muscles stretch.
Repeat with your opposite arm.

Reverse Curl (illustrated on p. 30)
   Primary muscles used: Forearms
   Technique: Grab a barbell with an
overhand grip and your hands placed                                    Dips Behind Back

                                              Reverse Curl

     hands almost touch your chest. Hold,                                   resting on a rack at about shoulder
     then inhale and lower the barbell to                                   height. Stand with your back to the bar,
     your thighs. Keep your upper arms at                                   bend your knees slightly, and let the
     your sides throughout. Repeat.                                         bar touch the back of your shoulders.
                                                                            Grab it with an overhand grip and
     Legs                                                                   your hands placed slightly more than
     Leg Extension                                                          shoulder-width apart. Carefully lift the
        Primary muscles used: Thighs                                        bar off the rack. Make sure you have
        Technique: This exercise uses a                                     a good grip and stable footing. Place
     machine with a flat bench and two                                       the bar against the back of your shoul-
     cylinder-shaped pads attached to                                       ders, then inhale and bend your knees
     a weight stack. Sit on the end of the                                  until your thighs are parallel to the
     bench with your legs hanging straight                                  floor. Hold, then exhale and slowly rise,
     down from your knees. Place your shins                                 straightening your legs until you reach
     against the backs of the pads. Grab the                                the starting position. Repeat.
     sides of the bench (or handles if it has                                   NOTE: This exercise can be dangerous
     them) and lift your legs straight up,                                  if done improperly. As you lower your-
     raising the weight stack. Stop when                                    self, keep the bar directly above your
     your knees lock. Hold, then inhale and                                 ankles; don’t let the weight get too far
     lower the pads to the starting position.                               in front of or behind your body, or
     Repeat.                                                                you may lose your balance. Also, keep
                                                                            your head up and your eyes looking
     Squats                                                                 forward. This ensures that your thighs,
        Primary muscles used: Thighs                                        not your back, bear most of the
        Technique: Begin with a barbell                                     weight.
                YO U R F I R ST R O UTI N E S   31

Leg Extension


                                                                   Leg Curl

     Leg Curl                                                               Abs
         Primary muscles used: Hamstrings                                   Crunches
         Technique: This exercise is done on a                                  Primary muscles used: Abs
     machine with a flat or inverted-V bench.                                    Technique: Lie on your back on the
     Lie face down on the bench, and place                                  floor in front of a flat bench. Bend your
     your ankles under two cylinder-shaped                                  knees and place the backs of your calves
     pads. Bend your knees, then exhale and                                 on top of the bench. Clasp your hands
     lift your lower legs until your feet almost                            behind your head. Exhale and raise
     touch your buttocks. Hold, then inhale                                 your head and shoulders toward your
     and let the weights return your ankles                                 knees, keeping your back on the floor.
     to the starting position. Repeat.                                      Inhale and lower yourself to the floor.
     Calf Raise                                                                 NOTE: This is a very short movement.
        Primary muscles used: Calves                                        It’s critical to do it slowly and deliber-
        Technique: This exercise starts out                                 ately to get the full effect.
     like Squats, described above. Stand with
     your back to a barbell that’s resting on                               Leg Lifts (illustrated on p. 34)
     a shoulder-height rack. Grab the bar                                      Primary muscles used: Abs
     with an overhand grip and your hands                                      Technique: Lie on your back on
     placed slightly more than shoulder-                                    a flat bench with your buttocks at one
     width apart. Remove the bar from the                                   end and your legs hanging loosely.
     rack and carefully place it on top of                                  Straighten your legs until they are
     your shoulders. Position the balls                                     parallel to the floor and even with the
     of your feet on a block that’s about 2                                 top of the bench. Grab the sides of the
     inches high, with your heels extended                                  bench for support. Keeping your legs
     over the edge of the block. Exhale and                                 together and straight, exhale and raise
     raise your heels as high as possible,                                  them overhead until they are perpendi-
     while keeping the barbell securely on                                  cular to the floor. Pause, then slowly
     your shoulders. Hold, then inhale and                                  lower them to the starting position.
     lower your heels to the floor. Repeat.                                  Repeat.
             YO U R F I R ST R O UTI N E S   33

Calf Raise


                                                                   Leg Lifts
                    “I hate to see misled people work hard in the gym, only to have their results
                    ruined by eating the wrong foods.”
                           —John Parillo, nutrition and training expert

When people think of bodybuilding,                       In bodybuilding, “diet” simply
they consider weight training the key                means your overall eating habits.
component, but nutrition is almost                   To add muscle, you have to consume
as important in achieving the physique               a lot of calories. You can’t get huge
you want.                                            by eating like a bird.
    If you eat junk food, all the weight                 “Train big, eat big, sleep big”—
lifting in the world won’t produce a                 that’s the advice some people give.
top-notch body. In recent years, we’ve                   Naturally, what you eat is critical.
learned a great deal about the impor-                For instance, if you take in too much
tance of nutrition. Sure, we all slip up             fat, you won’t achieve outstanding
and eat things we shouldn’t, and body-               muscle definition. Bodybuilders face
builders are no exception. It’s not as if            the delicate balance of eating enough
you can never cheat again if you’re                  to gain muscle mass but keeping their
going to be a successful bodybuilder,                body fat percentage low enough for
but a major part of your training must               definition (about 8% to 11% for men
be watching what you eat.                            and 7% to 9% for women).
    Just as you need to understand your                  There’s no single perfect diet for
muscles and how they work, you need                  everyone, just as there’s no perfect
to be aware of the basics of nutrition:              weight training regimen for everyone.
protein, carbohydrates (“carbs”), and                As you learn about nutrition, you’ll be
fat. Each plays a critical role in your              able to craft an eating plan that helps
diet. What do we mean by “diet”?                     you achieve your fitness objectives.
To many people, “diet” means counting                Knowledge is power—both in weight
calories and starving themselves. That               lifting and in eating. The two go hand
form of dieting is normally counter-                 in hand.
productive. You may limit calories                       In the past, most people considered
enough to lose weight for a short                    three square meals a day as the best
while, but almost invariably you gain                diet. Nutritionists have learned that
it back.                                             eating fewer, smaller meals each day

                          Copyright © 2005 by Mountain Lion, Inc. Click here for terms of use.


        DEVELOPING AN EATING PLAN                                           Of the three macronutrients, protein
                                                                            is the most critical for bodybuilders.
        “Keeping a daily food record is crucial to                          Protein is responsible for growth, main-
        sustained growth, since it enables you to accu-                     tenance, and repair of muscle tissue,
        rately track how well you are keeping up with                       which is why top bodybuilders
        your dietary plan. The information gathered                         constantly monitor their protein intake.
        in your eating record provides the actual daily                         In general, a bodybuilder needs
        nutrient numbers, which will be critical for                        twice as much protein as the average
        achieving your bodybuilding goals, especially                       person. The best sources of protein are
        in competition. . . .                                               eggs, fish, poultry, meat, and dairy
           “To grow, you must stress the muscles                            products—the animal proteins. Plant
        through training and eat sufficient food to                          proteins—from foods like rice, beans,
        provide the materials for recovery. . . .                           corn, peas, and nuts—are not as easily
           “It is important to increase the amount of                       assimilated into the body as animal
        food you eat during the mid-morning, mid-                           proteins.
        afternoon, and post-training times. Of greatest                         Few top bodybuilders are vegetarian.
        importance is the post-training meal. During this                   However, one of the most famous
        time, your body is primed from the stress of the                    bodybuilders of all time, Bill Pearl, has
        workout to literally soak up as would a sponge                      been a vegetarian for decades. He was
        the proteins and carbohydrates that arrive                          a champion bodybuilder in the 1950s
        into circulation.”                                                  and ’60s and has since written best-
           —from Gold’s Gym Building Bulk
                                                                            selling fitness books. He says that he
                                                                            lowered his blood pressure and choles-
                                                                            terol and eliminated many aches and
                                                                            pains by cutting out meat. “With each
                                                                            succeeding year on the diet, I’ve felt
     is far better. Our bodies need to be fed                               better,” Pearl says. “I’m healthier, and
     often, but they don’t need to be over-                                 I can train with more energy.”
     whelmed by large quantities. For                                           A longtime friend of Pearl’s, Arnold
     instance, it’s not good to eat a big meal                              Schwarzenegger, says he respects Pearl’s
     of meat, vegetables, bread, and dessert                                decision not to eat meat: “Bill never
     an hour or so before bed. Those calories                               talked me into becoming a vegetarian,
     don’t have time to be burned, and                                      but he did convince me that a vege-
     they’ll transform into fat as you                                      tarian could become a champion
     sleep.                                                                 bodybuilder.”
         Bodybuilders normally eat their                                        Like most elite bodybuilders,
     largest meals during the day, when                                     Schwarzenegger believes that meat
     they’re more active, rather than                                       is too beneficial to give up. Meat is
     at night. They often prepare food in                                   a complete protein, that is, it contains
     advance and take it with them so they                                  all the amino acids—the building
     can stick to their eating plan. You                                    blocks of protein. By contrast, vegeta-
     should do the same. By preparing meals                                 bles, nuts, and fruits lack one or more
     in advance, you ensure that you have                                   of the essential amino acids and are
     plenty of nutritious food on hand,                                     considered incomplete proteins. There-
     and you won’t be tempted to eat junk                                   fore, a person would have to eat a wide
     food.                                                                  range and larger amounts of plant pro-
         Now let’s focus on the three basic                                 tein foods to get the same benefit that a
     macronutrients: protein, carbs, and fat.                               small serving of meat would provide.
                                                                              N UTR ITI O N   37

    Mike Matarazzo, one of today’s top       which protein source is best. Some
bodybuilders, says he eats three to four     medical researchers, for instance,
pounds of meat every day. “I load up         say that soy protein can help lower
my freezer with beef and chicken,”           cholesterol in some people. If you
Matarazzo says.                              have a problem with cholesterol, you
    Some nutritional experts say that        may want to consider a soy-based
it’s possible to eat too much protein        supplement.
and that excessive amounts can damage           A very basic, cheap protein supple-
the liver and kidneys. Most top body-        ment that’s been around for years is
builders, however, believe it’s safe—        powdered milk. It can be mixed with
and necessary—to consume a lot of            water or milk or perhaps blended with
protein.                                     yogurt to produce an inexpensive
    The U.S. government recommends           protein supplement. It won’t have all
that the average person eat 0.36 grams       the benefits of today’s high-tech supple-
of protein every day for each pound          ments, which are packed with vitamins
of body weight. For a 180-pound man,         and minerals, but it does provide top-
that’s about 65 grams of protein per         quality protein to enhance muscle
day. If that person is a bodybuilder,        growth.
conventional bodybuilding wisdom
says that he or she should consume
twice that, because it’s believed that too   CARBOHYDRATES
little protein will lead to greater muscle
soreness and fatigue after a workout.        Carbohydrates are the body’s main
                                             source of energy. Although protein and
Protein Supplements                          fat supply some energy, about 50% of
Unlike some nutrients, protein cannot        a bodybuilder’s calories should come
be stored in the body. Instead, it must      from carbohydrates.
be taken in continually to be useful—            Carbs fall into two categories: simple
this is another reason to eat frequently.    and complex.
In order to get enough protein, most             Simple carbs provide a quick burst
bodybuilders take protein supplements,       of energy. When they are digested, they
usually in powder form and mixed with        turn into glucose, a major source of
juice, milk, or water.                       energy that can be burned rapidly.
    Most of today’s supplements have         Candy is one example of a simple carb;
little or no fat and taste much better       fruit is another, healthier type.
than the supplements of the past. You            Complex carbs, on the other hand,
don’t have to hold your nose to force        fuel the body over a longer period
down a protein drink anymore. Protein        of time. Everyone needs both types of
supplements are handy because they’re        carbohydrates, but bodybuilders should
much easier to prepare and consume           focus on complex carbs because they
than a full meal—while providing most        provide a more sustained energy supply
of the same nutrients.                       throughout the day.
    Cost, however, can be a significant           Complex carbohydrates are broken
factor, so be sure to compare prices on      down further into fibrous and starchy
supplements. Some are extraordinarily        carbs. Sources of fibrous carbs include
expensive, while other, much cheaper         asparagus, green beans, broccoli,
supplements are just as beneficial.           lettuce, mushrooms, spinach, and
    Protein supplements are usually          zucchini. Examples of sources of starchy
made from whey, egg whites, soy,             carbs are red beans, corn, oatmeal, peas,
or milk. There are differing views on        pasta, potatoes, rice, and tomatoes.
38                     TH E O F F I C IAL G O LD’S GYM G U I D E TO G E T TI N G STARTE D I N B O DYB U I LD I N G

                                  Sausage                   28                 Grapes                    45          Whole wheat bread 72
 GLYCEMIC INDEX (GI)              Lentils                   29                 Oatmeal                   49          Honey              87
 FOR COMMON FOODS                 Kidney beans              29                 White spaghetti           50          Carrots            92
                                  Skim milk                 32                 Sweet potatoes            51          Russet potato      98
 Peanuts         13               Whole milk                34                 Potato chips              51          Glucose           100
 Soybeans        16               Pears                     34                 Corn                      59
 Fructose        20               Yogurt                    36                 Banana                    62
 Cherries        23               Ice cream                 36                 Beets                     64
 Plums           25               Tomatoes                  38                 Raisins                   64
 Grapefruit      26               Apples                    39                 White bread               69
 Peaches         26               Rye bread                 42                 White rice                70

                                                                                                 As you can see, carbs are vital to a
                          A measurement called a glycemic                                     person’s well-being. Be very careful with
                       index (GI) has been developed in recent                                eating plans that recommend low
                       years to indicate how quickly your                                     amounts of carbohydrates.
                       body consumes a carbohydrate. Foods
                       with a high GI produce a large, sudden                                 Carbohydrate Supplements
                       release of glucose—and energy. Those                                   Because it can be difficult to get
                       with a low GI are used slowly, over                                    enough quality carbs in a regular diet,
                       a long period of time, and help ensure                                 carb supplements are popular with
                       a steady blood sugar level throughout                                  many of today’s top bodybuilders.
                       the day.                                                               Since an intense workout burns a
                                                                                              tremendous amount of carbohydrates,
                       Low-Carb Diets                                                         some people say that you should eat
                       In today’s weight-conscious world,                                     50 to 75 grams of carbs within 20
                       people are constantly looking for a diet                               minutes of finishing your workout
                       that can produce quick weight loss.                                    or your body may burn protein instead;
                       Over the past few years, low-carb diets                                that, in turn, can hinder muscle
                       have become extremely popular. For                                     growth.
                       some people, they can be very effective.                                  Some everyday foods, such as carrot
                       Here’s how they work: When fewer                                       juice, are extremely high in carbohy-
                       carbs are available, the body burns                                    drates. Graham crackers and honey are
                       more fat for energy, thereby leading                                   also good. Eating these foods can be
                       to weight loss.                                                        an excellent way to add quality carbs
                          A low-carb diet may sound appeal-                                   without taking a high-priced carb
                       ing, but it can have serious drawbacks.                                supplement.
                       First, lowering your carbohydrate intake
                       can reduce your energy level and lead
                       to dehydration. Second, as your body                                   FAT
                       burns fat, it may also burn muscle.
                       In other words, you can lose some of                                   Of all the macronutrients, fat has the
                       the muscle mass you’ve worked so hard                                  worst reputation. People hear the word
                       to attain. Third, carbohydrates are                                    “fat” and think obesity, but fat plays
                       necessary for proper functioning of                                    a vital role in a well-balanced diet.
                       your brain, heart, and vital organs.
                                                                           N UTR ITI O N   39

It should comprise about 10% to 15%         of water’s importance, people can live
of your food intake.                        for weeks without food, but for only
    Fat is a secondary source of energy,    a few days without water.
but it has twice as many calories per           Muscles are composed of 72% water
gram as protein or carbohydrates. It’s      by weight. Therefore, as you sweat
easy to understand why people gain          during exercise, you’re losing muscle
weight by eating too much fat.              mass.
    In addition to providing energy, fat        You should keep a water bottle with
cushions and protects the major organs      you during workouts and take frequent
and insulates the body against extreme      sips. Try to drink before you become
cold. It also helps maintain healthy        thirsty. Many experts say that everyone
skin and hair and transports vitamins       should drink eight 8-ounce glasses of
A, D, E, and K throughout our bodies.       water a day, and bodybuilders need
    There are three different types of      to drink even more. Other liquids such
fat: saturated, unsaturated, and            as juice, soft drinks, and coffee do not
polyunsaturated.                            count toward your water intake.
    Saturated fat is found primarily            Some bodybuilders make the mistake
in animal products such as beef, lamb,      of trying to purge water from their
pork, butter, and most cheeses. Satu-       bodies before a contest by using diuret-
rated fat has been linked to high           ics. They think that excess water
cholesterol levels and an increased risk    beneath the skin reduces muscle defi-
of heart disease. Foods high in saturated   nition. However, diuretics can be
fat often taste good, but your diet         extremely dangerous, or even fatal.
should not include large amounts            Don’t deprive your body of water.
of this type of fat.
    Foods high in unsaturated fat in-
clude avocados, cashews, peanuts and        VITAMINS
peanut butter, and olives and olive oil.
This type of fat is preferable to satu-     “Take your vitamins.” That’s advice
rated fat.                                  many of our moms gave us while
    The third type, polyunsaturated fat,    growing up, and they were right.
is present in almonds, pecans, walnuts,        Vitamins are organic substances that
most margarine, mayonnaise, and             contribute to many important bodily
soybean oil. Medical research has           functions. We all need specific vitamins
shown that some people who eat large        in certain amounts for optimum health.
amounts of polyunsaturated fat along        However, most nutritional experts
with small amounts of saturated fat         believe that no one—not even a body-
have lower cholesterol levels than          builder—needs vitamins in massive
others.                                     amounts. Some people take huge doses
                                            of Vitamin C to try to prevent colds,
                                            but this is generally not considered
WATER                                       beneficial, and the result is simply
                                            high-priced urine.
Water is also one of the basic nutrients,      Vitamins fall into two categories:
and people often overlook its impor-        water soluble and fat soluble.
tance. Water offers many benefits. It’s         Water-soluble vitamins cannot be
essential for proper digestion, removes     stored in the body, and excess amounts
waste from the body, and regulates          are eliminated in urine. Because they
body temperature. As an illustration        can’t be retained, water-soluble vita-
40                             TH E O F F I C IAL G O LD’S GYM G U I D E TO G E T TI N G STARTE D I N B O DYB U I LD I N G

                                                      Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin)                            promotes healthy skin, hair, and
 KEY VITAMINS—THEIR SOURCES                              Sources: Meat, poultry, cheese, milk, eggs,          membranes
 AND FUNCTIONS                                        yogurt, oysters
                                                                                                              Vitamin D (cholecalciferol)
                                                         Functions: Is necessary for development
                                                                                                                 Sources: Tuna, salmon, cod liver oil, egg
 WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS                               of red blood cells; helps with functioning
                                                                                                              yolk, whole milk
                                                      of the nervous system; promotes metabolism
 Vitamin B1 (thiamin)                                                                                            Functions: Improves absorption of
                                                      of protein, carbohydrates, and fat
    Sources: Nuts, whole grains, dried beans,                                                                 calcium and phosphorus for healthy bones;
 peas, pork                                           Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)                               maintains functioning of the nervous system
    Functions: Helps with carbohydrate                   Sources: Citrus fruits, berries, green leafy         and the heart. NOTE: Sunlight manufactures
 metabolism and functioning of the nervous            vegetables, potatoes, tomatoes, green                   Vitamin D when it comes in contact with
 system; improves muscle tone; reduces                peppers                                                 skin.
 fatigue                                                 Functions: Helps build connective tissue
                                                                                                              Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)
                                                      in skin, cartilage, and bones; strengthens
 Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)                                                                                          Sources: Nuts, whole grain products,
                                                      the immune system; improves absorption
    Sources: Eggs, milk, beef, poultry, liver,                                                                green leafy vegetables, fish, wheat germ,
                                                      of iron; allows wounds to heal more
 asparagus, peanuts                                                                                           vegetable oils
    Functions: Is necessary for normal cell                                                                      Functions: Promotes healthy cell
 growth; helps with metabolism of carbo-                                                                      membranes; helps prevent blood clots
 hydrates, fat, and protein; promotes good            FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS
                                                                                                              Vitamin K (menadione)
 vision and healthy hair, skin, and nails
                                                      Vitamin A (retinol)                                        Sources: Cheddar cheese, spinach,
 Vitamin B3 (niacin)                                     Sources: Carrots, yellow and green                   cabbage, cauliflower, liver
    Sources: Fish, poultry, green leafy vegeta-       vegetables, fish, fruits, milk, butter                      Function: Is necessary for blood
 bles, dried fruit, whole grains, milk, eggs             Functions: Is necessary for normal                   clotting
    Functions: Stimulates circulation and             growth and tissue repair; improves night
 digestion; helps maintain healthy skin               vision; fights bacteria and infection;

                                                                                                      definitely need to take a basic vitamin
                               mins need to be taken daily if you                                     supplement, which can provide good
                               don’t get enough of them in the food                                   insurance against vitamin deficiency.
                               you eat. Some important water-soluble                                  Follow the dosage suggestions on
                               vitamins include B1 (thiamin), B2                                      the bottle unless advised to do other-
                               (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B12 (cyano-                                  wise by your doctor.
                               cobalamin), biotin, and Vitamin C
                               (ascorbic acid).
                                   Fat-soluble vitamins, unlike water-                                MINERALS
                               soluble ones, can be stored. They can
                               therefore be taken less often. Important                               Unlike vitamins, minerals are inorganic
                               fat-soluble vitamins are A, D, E, and K.                               substances. They promote the growth,
                                   Many experts believe that food loses                               maintenance, and repair of tissue.
                               much of its vitamin content through                                    Minerals also assist in muscle contrac-
                               processing and the addition of preserva-                               tion and the functioning of the nervous
                               tives. Unfortunately, much of the food                                 system. Some common minerals are
                               we eat today is highly processed,                                      calcium, magnesium, and potassium.
                               making it difficult to get enough vita-                                    Like vitamins, minerals are needed
                               mins through diet alone. Bodybuilders,                                 in relatively small amounts. A well-
                               because of their intense workouts,                                     balanced diet may provide all the
                                                                                                     N UTR ITI O N                             41

                                                   Functions: Assists in muscle contraction,
  KEY MINERALS—THEIR SOURCES                    nerve function, and bone and tooth              ing of the heart, nervous system, and
  AND FUNCTIONS                                 formation                                       kidneys

                                                Magnesium                                       Sodium
  Calcium                                          Sources: Nuts, fish, wheat germ, green          Sources: Table salt, milk, eggs,
    Sources: Milk, egg yolk, green leafy        leafy vegetables, whole grain cereals           seafood
  vegetables, clams, oysters                       Functions: Is necessary for muscle and         Functions: Helps regulate body fluids;
    Functions: Helps develop strong teeth and   nerve activity; helps with bone formation       assists in muscle contraction
  bones; prevents muscle cramping; promotes
                                                Potassium                                       Chlorine
  normal blood clotting and heart function
                                                  Sources: Fruits, milk, beans, meat, cereals      Sources: Table salt, seafood, milk, eggs,
  Phosphorus                                      Functions: Helps with metabolism of           meat
    Sources: Meat, fish, poultry, nuts, whole    protein and carbohydrates; aids in function-       Function: Promotes proper pH balance
  grain cereals, beans                                                                          in the blood

                                                         level. Earlier in the book, we discussed
minerals you need, but it’s wise to                      the three main body types: ectomorph
take a mineral supplement to prevent                     (naturally thin people), endomorph
deficiency. “No athlete should go                         (naturally heavy people), and meso-
without a multivitamin/mineral supple-                   morph (people with good natural
ment,” says Lee Labrada, two-time Mr.                    physiques who gain muscle easily).
Olympia runner-up.                                       Knowing your body type will help
    However, there’s no need to take                     to determine how much you should
massive doses. Six-time Mr. Olympia                      eat. You may have to eat almost
titlist Dorian Yates says vitamins and                   constantly in order to maintain muscle
minerals should serve only a com-                        mass, or you may struggle to keep
plementary role in your diet. “Supple-                   your weight down.
mentation is not nearly as important                         In general, the harder you train,
as eating a well-balanced and nutritious                 the more calories you need. Top body-
diet,” he says.                                          builders don’t train at the same inten-
                                                         sity year-round. It’s impossible to do
                                                         so—both mentally and physically.
CALORIE CONSUMPTION                                      When a contest is far off, they scale
                                                         back their workouts; when an event
How many calories should you                             is approaching, they increase workout
consume in a day? There’s no single                      intensity. For each level they adjust
answer for everybody, but as a body-                     their diet and calorie intake
builder, you need more calories than                     accordingly.
a sedentary person in order to achieve                       You should learn to be flexible
muscle gain. How many more calories                      in the number of calories you consume.
you need depends on your metabolism                      For instance, if you’re not getting to
rate and on the intensity and frequency                  the gym often to work out, you need
of your workouts.                                        to reduce your food intake.
   Some people have a much higher                            When a person stops lifting weight,
metabolism than others, meaning that                     muscle does not automatically turn
they burn many more calories than                        to fat, thereby causing the person
other people with the same activity                      to become overweight. Former body-

                                                                            intense workouts. Because muscle
                                                                            weighs more than fat, it’s possible—
        WORDS TO TRAIN BY                                                   even common—to add muscle and
                                                                            lose fat without dropping weight. Body
        “Start eating correctly when you begin your                         weight alone is not a complete mea-
        program. Diet is the key to losing weight.                          sure of your fitness. However, you may
        Remember, training and eating go hand in                            find that you still need to cut calories
        hand. I don’t disagree with taking supplements                      in order to achieve your desired
        or vitamins—as long as it’s in moderation.”                         weight.
                                                                               There’s no need to become fanatical
           —Frank Sepe, top bodybuilder
                                                                            about calorie intake—that is, count the
                                                                            calories in every cracker or slice of
                                                                            bread. That can be counterproductive
                                                                            and lead to binge eating because you’ve
     builders become overweight when they                                   been starving yourself. As you become
     stop lifting weights and don’t reduce                                  more experienced in bodybuilding,
     their calorie intake. If your calorie                                  you’ll be able to feel when your body
     intake matches your workout intensity,                                 needs food and trust your appetite.
     you shouldn’t develop a weight                                         Bodybuilders must learn to personalize
     problem.                                                               their eating habits and calorie intake
         Before you begin a serious weight                                  just as they fine-tune their workout
     training regimen, record your body                                     regimens.
     weight and body fat percentage. The
     easiest, least expensive way to measure
     your body fat percentage is with a skin-                               MEAL FREQUENCY AND SELECTION
     fold caliper, which resembles a pliers.
     You pinch your skin at certain places                                  In recent years, bodybuilders and nutri-
     on your body and use the caliper                                       tional experts have stressed the impor-
     to measure the thickness of the pinched                                tance of frequent, smaller meals. Our
     skin. A more accurate body fat test, in                                bodies need to be fed more than three
     which you’re submerged in water, may                                   times a day, particularly if we’re
     be arranged through a physician or                                     engaged in heavy weight training.
     trainer.                                                               When we eat less at each meal, our
         Start keeping a daily log of what you                              bodies can digest the food more easily
     eat, including the number of calories                                  and we don’t wind up feeling “stuffed”
     and the amount of protein, carbo-                                      and lethargic.
     hydrates, and fat. This will establish                                     As a rule of thumb, you should eat
     a baseline if you need to change your                                  five or six times a day—or about every
     eating habits later.                                                   two to three hours. By following this
         Don’t automatically increase or                                    pattern, you’ll never get so hungry that
     decrease your calorie intake at the                                    you’re tempted to overeat or to eat junk
     beginning. Start your workout program,                                 food.
     continue eating as you normally would,                                     The key to successful meal frequency
     and then see if you gain or lose weight.                               is planning—developing the discipline
     If you’re losing weight (and you don’t                                 to decide what to eat a few days in
     want to), you can afford to take in                                    advance so that meals mesh with
     more calories.                                                         training and fitness objectives.
         On the other hand, you may find                                         Few of us can arrange to eat five
     that you’re not losing weight even with                                or six meals at home every day, so it’s
                                                                          N UTR ITI O N   43

important to learn to set aside time        The latter often contain sugar, salt,
to prepare and package food to take         and preservatives that can be
along—perhaps a chicken breast              harmful.
or some brown rice to eat at work.          Select fresh meats instead of pro-
The meals you prepare can be small          cessed meats (like lunch meat) for
enough to be eaten quickly. By eating       the same reason that you choose
a small meal every few hours, you’ll        fresh fruits and vegetables.
maintain your energy level better than      Eat white meat (such as chicken
if you were eating two or three large       breasts) instead of dark meat (such
meals a day.                                as chicken thighs), because white
    If you have to eat at restaurants,      meat has less fat. Remove the skin
you can still maintain a healthy eating     to further reduce the fat.
plan if you carefully read menus and        Eat fish, which typically has even
check the ingredients of menu items.        less fat than white meat. A popular
These days, restaurants are accustomed      choice for bodybuilders is tuna,
to diners who watch what they eat.          which is inexpensive and easy to
Ask the server for more details if nec-     take with you, since it’s canned and
essary. It’s not out of order to ask that   requires no refrigeration. Select tuna
an item be specially prepared if it’s not   that’s packed in spring water, not
on the menu.                                oil. Oil contains many useless
    Be smart when grocery shopping—         calories.
read labels. Fortunately, most packaged     Broil or bake your meat, poultry, or
foods have a detailed ingredients label     fish. Never fry it.
so that it’s easy to find out the number     Don’t overcook vegetables, because
of calories per serving and the amount      overcooking destroys many of the
of protein, carbohydrates, and fat.         vitamins and minerals they
    Pay attention to what you put in        contain.
your body. You’ll see the difference.       Buy low-fat or no-fat versions of dairy
                                            products like milk and yogurt.
                                            Use fewer egg yolks, because they’re
GENERAL EATING GUIDELINES                   high in fat and cholesterol. You don’t
                                            have to give them up entirely; if you
Because of the almost infinite variety       fix three scrambled eggs, for example,
of food choices, it’s difficult to provide   you can include one yolk and toss
sample menus that would suit everyone       out the other two.
and meet each person’s individual           Choose whole grain breads, which
needs. Other books are devoted entirely     have more fiber and are more nutri-
to diet and food preparation for body-      tious than breads made with white,
builders. Here we’ll touch on some          processed flour.
of the broad “dos” and “don’ts” of food     Avoid toppings that are high in
selection and preparation.                  calories and fat. A dry baked potato
                                            is great, but a baked potato with
  Pay attention to the ratio of carbohy-    butter and sour cream is not. Lettuce
  drates, protein, and fat in your meals.   has almost no calories or fat until
  Ideally, your diet should consist of      you add salad dressing, so be sure
  about 50% carbs, 35% protein, and         to pick a dressing that’s low-fat
  15% fat.                                  or no-fat. When eating meats, avoid
  Choose fresh fruits and vegetables        gravy. With pasta, stay away from
  instead of canned or frozen ones.         sauces made with heavy cream.

                                                                               Don’t try to shed more than 2
                                                                               pounds a week if you want to lose
        WORDS TO TRAIN BY                                                      weight.
                                                                               Add variety to your diet. Eat a wide
        “You can have the best diet in the world, but                          range of healthy foods. The more
        if you don’t follow it, it does you no good.”                          you enjoy your food, the more likely
           —Flex Wheeler, Mr. Olympia runner-up
                                                                               you are to stick with good eating
                                                                               Make wise use of the excellent meal-
                                                                               replacement products that are avail-
                                                                               able, such as powders and drinks.
        Pick fruit instead of candy if you                                     If you’re short on time, you can take
        want to eat sweets. Go easy on fruits                                  them instead of preparing a meal.
        and fruit juices, however, because                                     However, never rely on replacement
        even though they’re healthier than                                     products and supplements entirely;
        candy and soft drinks, they’re still                                   they can’t take the place of healthy
        rich in sugar and calories.                                            eating.
        Learn to discipline yourself so you                                    Eat nuts and dried fruit for a quick
        don’t succumb to impulsive eating.                                     snack, but in moderation.
        We all “fall off the wagon” sometimes                                  Always eat breakfast. Some people
        and eat foods that aren’t a part of our                                skip breakfast to try to cut calories,
        recommended diet. Just try to make                                     but that’s not wise. You need a good
        sure that you do so only occasionally,                                 supply of fuel to start your day.
        and then resume your eating plan.                                      Otherwise, you may find yourself
        Avoid fad diets recommending that                                      low on energy and be tempted to eat
        you drastically cut back or elimi-                                     junk food.
        nate major nutrients, such as                                          Wait at least one hour after eating
        carbohydrates.                                                         to work out so that your food can be
                                                                               properly digested.
                    Intermediate Chest Exercises
                    “I’m never dogmatic when it comes to my training regimen.
                    If I discover something new, I don’t hesitate to use it.”
                          —Flex Wheeler, Mr. Olympia runner-up

After a few months of weight training,              and the result is new muscle growth.
you should know whether you want                    Different exercises attack different parts
to pursue bodybuilding seriously.                   of the muscle. For instance, the Stand-
If you like your results, you’re probably           ing Barbell Curl works the biceps as
hooked. It’s exciting to see your                   effectively as any single exercise, but
physique take shape and muscles                     it concentrates on only part of the
appear that you didn’t know existed.                biceps. Like most muscles, the biceps
    When you decide to stay with                    is complex and contains several areas.
bodybuilding, you need to tackle more                   To achieve maximum development,
advanced exercises. The basic exercises             you must do exercises that work all
we described in Chapter 2 cover all                 areas of a muscle. In this chapter and
the major muscle groups in your upper               the ones that follow, we’ll describe
and lower body, and you can keep                    numerous specialized exercises to target
doing them and make progress. Even                  certain muscle groups.
the best bodybuilders continue to                       There’s no need to perform all the
do some of them.                                    intermediate exercises we’ll describe,
    Nevertheless, if you really want to             certainly not on a consistent basis.
excel and set yourself apart from others,           Instead, choose the exercises that best
you need to expand the variety of your              suit your body and your goals. Ideally,
weightlifting exercises. Your muscles               you’ll rotate exercises: select a group
can become accustomed to the same                   that produces results, then switch to
exercises if they’re done repeatedly,               others later, and so on. Even the most
and they will no longer respond                     dedicated bodybuilder in the world
as well.                                            can get burned out by doing the same
    You need to constantly introduce                exercises over and over—and your
new exercises to your regimen. Some                 muscles can go unchallenged. By intro-
pros call this “shocking” the muscles.              ducing variety in your workout, you
The purpose is to make a muscle                     can increase your intensity and make
perform a movement that’s unfamiliar,               greater gains.


                         Copyright © 2005 by Mountain Lion, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

                                                                            you to move your arms across your
                                                                            body. They have four distinct parts:
        WORDS TO TRAIN BY                                                   upper, lower, inner, and outer. Each
                                                                            part must be fully developed, defined,
        “The trick to bodybuilding is to put an overload                    and separate from the others to receive
        on your muscles. The secret . . . is to push up                     high marks in judging.
        a heavy weight with the isolated strength of the                        To illustrate the effect of different
        muscle you are trying to train.”                                    exercises on your chest muscles, let’s
                                                                            single out Bench Press, one of the basic
           —Arnold Schwarzenegger
                                                                            chest exercises. It’s outstanding, but it
                                                                            works mainly the middle of the chest.
                                                                            However, if you do Bench Press on
                                                                            an incline or decline bench, you shift
         Pay close attention to the descrip-                                the focus to the upper or lower pecs.
     tion that accompanies each exercise.                                   An incline bench works the upper
     It’s crucial to perform them with correct                              chest, a decline bench the lower. (Some
     form to avoid injury and get the                                       benches are adjustable and can be made
     maximum benefit.                                                        flat, as well as inclined and declined.
         Before we focus on the intermediate                                Most gyms, however, have separate,
     chest exercises, we’ll briefly describe                                 dedicated flat benches, incline benches,
     the chest muscles. This will help you                                  and decline benches.)
     understand how the muscles work and                                        If you don’t have access to an in-
     will help you choose exercises that                                    cline or decline bench, you can achieve
     meet your needs.                                                       similar results with a flat bench. For
                                                                            instance, you can lower the barbell to
                                                                            your lower chest to develop the lower
     MUSCLES OF THE CHEST                                                   pecs and to your upper chest to work
                                                                            the upper pecs.
     All great bodybuilders have well-                                          You can also change your hand
     developed chests. The pectorals, or                                    position on the bar. Normally, you
     chest muscles, are so large and promi-                                 perform Bench Press with your hands
     nent that they can’t be hidden.                                        slightly more than shoulder-width
        A massive chest anchors the upper                                   apart. If you widen your grip by a few
     body and enhances the appearance                                       inches, you shift effort to the outer
     of your shoulders, arms, and abs. When                                 pecs. The reverse is also true: If you
     you see photos of Arnold Schwarzeneg-                                  bring your hands closer together, you
     ger, for instance, his chest grabs your                                work the inner pecs more.
     eye. His pectorals, and those of other                                     Chest exercises fall into two main
     champs, look like thick slabs                                          categories: presses and flyes. Presses
     of sculpted granite.                                                   involve lifting a barbell or dumbbell
        Compared to some other muscles,                                     vertically over your chest (or using a
     chest muscles can be developed fairly                                  machine that performs the same move-
     easily. Most people enjoy working                                      ment). Flyes involve raising and
     the chest, because they can easily see                                 lowering weights horizontally to the
     and feel the muscles as they lift and                                  sides of your chest. They too can be
     enjoy the pump.                                                        done with free weights or machines.
        Pectorals are fan-shaped and cover                                  Presses primarily work the center of the
     the upper rib cage, then extend across                                 pecs from top to bottom, while flyes
     to the upper arms and up to the collar-                                generally target the outside and inside
     bone. In the simplest sense, pecs allow                                pecs.
                                                                I NTE R M E D IATE C H E ST E XE R C I S E S   47

    You need to do a wide range of
presses and flyes to get complete pecto-
ral development. Some top bodybuild-           WORDS TO TRAIN BY
ers have built tremendous chests with
only a few exercises, but they are most        “Although my arms and calves responded fairly
likely genetically predisposed to having       quickly when I started training, my chest was
large chest muscles. For most people,          pitifully weak with no peak muscle to speak of.
variety is critical to good progress.          I used to dream of having massive bulbous pecs
    Here are some key points to keep           like those of Arnold.”
in mind when doing chest exercises:              —Dorian Yates, six-time Mr. Olympia

  Be careful. Have a spotter or
  someone at your side when you use
  free weights. It’s easy to become over-
  confident in your strength and grab          barbells, which can be essential in
  a barbell with too much weight.             some exercises. Cables attached
  You may wind up with the barbell            to weight stacks are common devices
  on your chest and be unable to move         on machines. Like dumbbells, cables
  it. That can be scary, as well as           provide a wide range of movement.
  embarrassing. You can yell for help         They also allow for a smooth, safe
  and someone will come to your aid,          lifting motion.
  but it’s much more reassuring to have       Keep your chest development in
  a spotter standing by. Besides helping      proportion to the rest of your body.
  you if you get in trouble, he or she        Some bodybuilders get fixated on
  can assist you with a final rep or two       having a huge chest. They do Bench
  after you become fatigued. It’s these       Press over and over, at the expense
  last few reps, even if assisted, that       of exercises for other muscles.
  often produce the greatest results.         The result is an unbalanced physique.
  Warm up. A strained chest muscle            It looks somewhat ridiculous to have
  can put you out of action for weeks.        a bowed-out chest and bird-like
  It can be painful and slow to heal.         arms and legs.
  With a proper warm-up, fortunately,
  a strained muscle is easy to avoid.
  This involves doing at least one set      EXERCISES
  with light weight and more reps than
  you normally would. A warm-up set         Upper Pecs
  loosens your muscles and lets them        Incline Press (illustrated on pp. 48–49)
  get the feel of the exercise movement         Technique: This is identical to
  before you move up to heavy weight.       Bench Press, described in Chapter 2,
  A warm-up set can also prepare you        except that you lie on an incline bench
  mentally.                                 instead of a flat one. Place your feet
  Barbells, dumbbells, and cables           on the floor at the end of the bench.
  produce slightly different results.       With an overhand grip, grab the barbell
  With barbells, it’s possible to use       that’s resting on supports above your
  heavy weight to develop greater mass      head, placing your hands slightly more
  and strength. With dumbbells, you         than shoulder-width apart. Raise the
  can’t use as much weight because          bar straight up until it’s off the
  you’re only lifting with one arm          supports. Bring the bar forward until
  at a time. However, dumbbells allow       it’s directly over your chest, then slowly
  you a greater range of motion than        lower it until the bar touches your

                                                               Incline Press . . .
                      I NTE R M E D IATE C H E ST E XE R C I S E S   49

. . . Incline Press

     chest. Don’t let it bounce off your body.                                  NOTE: As with the Incline Press,
     Keep your elbows close to your sides                                   it will take a few sets to get the “feel”
     and slightly behind your torso to                                      of the Incline Flye versus the Dumbbell
     achieve maximum range of motion.                                       Flye. Use light weight until you can
     Pause when the bar touches your chest,                                 completely control the dumbbells.
     then lift it straight up, locking your                                 Keep them in line over your chest
     elbows. Repeat.                                                        throughout the movement; don’t let
         NOTE: Be sure to keep the weight                                   your arms drift backward so that the
     securely balanced during this exercise.                                dumbbells are over your head or
     When you bench press on an incline                                     forward so that they are over your
     bench, the barbell will have a different                               abdomen. Your palms should be ori-
     balance point than when you bench                                      ented toward each other throughout
     press on a flat bench. Don’t let the                                    the exercise. As with the Dumbbell Flye,
     weight drift back over your head or                                    don’t lower the dumbbells too far to
     forward over your abdomen. Use light                                   the side on the way down. They should
     weight at first until you’re sure you can                               not touch the floor, or you may strain
     lift and lower the weight smoothly                                     your chest muscles; lower them only
     and under control. It’s a good idea to                                 to the top of the bench.
     have a spotter at first. Incline Press
     is a tremendous exercise for upper chest                               Low-Pulley Cable Crossover
     development, but you probably won’t                                    (illustrated on p. 52)
     be able to use as much weight as you                                       Technique: Stand midway between
     can for Bench Press.                                                   two weight stacks, each of which has
         You may also do the Incline Press                                  a pulley and cable attached. Place your
     with dumbbells, which allow a slightly                                 feet slightly more than shoulder-width
     longer range of motion than a barbell                                  apart and bend your knees a little.
     does. With dumbbells, you start with                                   Lean forward until your back is at a
     your palms toward each other, then                                     45-degree angle and cross your arms
     twist your wrists 90 degrees as you lift                               in front of your body. Grab the handles
     so that the palms are oriented toward                                  attached to each cable. With your
     your feet at the top.                                                  elbows bent slightly, pull the cables
                                                                            toward one another until the handles
     Incline Flye                                                           cross at the middle of your chest. Keep
         Technique: This is identical to the                                your hands low in front of your knees
     Dumbbell Flye, described in Chapter 2,                                 throughout the movement. Pull the
     except that you lie on an incline bench.                               cables as far as you can, then pause and
     With your hands at your sides, hold                                    lower the weights until they gently
     a dumbbell in each hand, even with                                     touch down. Repeat.
     the top of the bench. Extend your arms                                     NOTE: Keep your back stable during
     to the side until your elbows are only                                 the movement—don’t allow your body
     slightly bent. Raise the dumbbells                                     to move up and down. Maintain steady
     upward on a wide path until they are                                   tension on the cables throughout—
     directly over your chest, similar to                                   don’t jerk the weight up and then let
     a hugging motion. Let them touch                                       it slam down on the stack. Keep your
     briefly, then pause. Make sure you have                                 wrists firm. Your palms should be
     a secure grip, then lower the dumbbells                                oriented toward each other as they hold
     along the same path until they are                                     the handles throughout the exercise.
     again even with the top of the bench.                                  By keeping your body stable, you focus
     Keep your arms bent slightly at the                                    the effort on your pectorals. Raise and
     elbow throughout. Repeat.                                              lower the weights at the same speed.
               I NTE R M E D IATE C H E ST E XE R C I S E S   51

Incline Flye

                                     Low-Pulley Cable Crossover

     Lower Pecs                                                             for further stability and to keep you
     Decline Dumbbell Press                                                 from sliding down.
        Technique: This is identical to the                                    Grab a dumbbell in each hand.
     Incline Press with dumbbells, except                                   Hold them even with the top of the
     that you lie on a decline bench, where                                 bench, with your arms bent at about
     your legs are higher than your head.                                   a 90-degree angle. Your palms should
     By having the bench at this angle, you                                 be oriented toward your feet. Press
     shift the focus to your lower pectorals.                               the dumbbells straight up and slightly
     To keep your body stable during the                                    in until your elbows lock. Let your
     exercise, your knees should be at the                                  elbows extend from your sides for
     end of the bench with your lower legs                                  better leverage. Hold, then lower the
     hanging over the end. There should be                                  dumbbells to the starting position.
     a support bar to press your feet against                               Repeat.
                                                              I NTE R M E D IATE C H E ST E XE R C I S E S   53

                                  Decline Dumbbell Press

                                               down the bench. Use light weight in
   NOTE:  Just as it takes a few sets to       the beginning, raising and lowering the
get used to an incline bench, it requires      dumbbells directly over your lower
time to get the feel of a decline bench.       chest. Don’t bounce the dumbbells at
A decline bench is extremely valuable,         the bottom of the movement; doing
however, since it lets you develop your        so would help you lift the dumbbells
lower pecs far better than you can             and thereby decrease effectiveness. You
with a flat or incline bench.                   won’t be able to use as much weight
   As you perform this exercise, make          on a decline bench as you can on a flat
sure that your legs are steady at the top      bench.
of the bench—you don’t want to slide

     Decline Flye                                                           tension on the cables throughout—
         Technique: This is a variation of the                              don’t jerk the weight up and then let
     Dumbbell Flye, described in Chapter 2.                                 it slam down on the stack. Keep your
     Let yourself get used to the decline                                   wrists firm. Your palms should be
     bench before you use heavy weight.                                     oriented toward each other as they hold
     During the exercise, keep the dumbbells                                the handles throughout the exercise.
     in line over your lower pecs. Start with                               In this exercise, feel your pectorals fully
     a dumbbell in each hand, with your                                     flex as your arms cross in front of your
     arms bent slightly at the elbows and                                   chest. Hold that flexed position before
     even with the top of the bench. Raise                                  you lower the weight. Even as you tire,
     the dumbbells upward on a wide path                                    lower the cables steadily and at the
     until they touch over your lower pecs.                                 same speed you used to raise them.
     Pause, then return them to your sides.                                 If done properly, your muscles can get
     Repeat.                                                                just as much benefit from a “negative”
         NOTE: As with all Flye exercises,                                  motion (lowering a weight) as from
     don’t let the dumbbells drop too low                                   a “positive” motion (raising it).
     at your sides; this could easily strain
     your chest muscles. Keep your arms                                     Cable Flye
     slightly bent at the elbows; if you lock                                   Technique: This is identical to the
     them, you make the exercise easier                                     Dumbbell Flye, except that you use
     on your pecs.                                                          cables instead of dumbbells. Place a flat
                                                                            bench midway between two weight
     Bent-Forward Cable Crossover                                           stacks. Lie on your back and extend
         Technique: This is similar to the                                  your arms to your sides, grabbing
     Low-Pulley Crossover, described earlier                                a handle attached to the cable with
     in this chapter. The difference is that                                each hand and with your palms toward
     you pull the cables together and                                       each other. As with the Dumbbell Flye,
     upward until they cross in front of your                               keep your arms bent slightly at the
     chest. With the Low-Pulley Crossover,                                  elbow throughout the exercise. Raise
     you keep the cables in front of your                                   and lower the cables directly over your
     thighs. To start this exercise, stand                                  chest in wide arcs. Touch the handles
     midway between two weight stacks,                                      together gently and hold for a second,
     each of which has a pulley and cable                                   then lower the weight to the starting
     attached. Place your feet slightly more                                position. Be sure to raise both cables
     than shoulder-width apart and bend                                     at the same speed.
     your knees a little. Lean forward only                                     NOTE: Cables provide one benefit
     slightly (not at a 45-degree angle,                                    over dumbbells: You’re able to maintain
     as with the Low-Pulley Crossover).                                     steady, constant tension throughout
     Grab the handles attached to each                                      the exercise. With dumbbells, it’s much
     cable. With your elbows bent slightly,                                 more difficult to raise the weight than
     pull the cables together and upward                                    to lower it. With cables, the effort
     until the handles cross in front of your                               expended is about the same whether
     chest. Keep pulling until your arms                                    you’re raising or lowering the weight.
     form an X and can’t go any farther.                                    Some bodybuilders believe that cables
     Hold, then release and slowly lower the                                allow you to “feel” your muscles at
     weights to the starting position. Repeat.                              work more than dumbbells or barbells
         NOTE: As with the Low-Pulley                                       do. Many bodybuilders rely on free
     Crossover, keep your back stable during                                weights to build bulk and cables
     the movement—don’t allow your body                                     to shape and define their muscles,
     to move up and down. Maintain steady                                   particularly before a contest.
                                                              I NTE R M E D IATE C H E ST E XE R C I S E S   55

Inner Pecs                                 to an overhead pulley instead of a floor-
Standing Cable Crossover                   level pulley. As a result, you are pulling
   Technique: This exercise combines       the cables down from above your
elements of the Low-Pulley Cable           head, instead of up from around your
Crossover and the Bent-Forward Cable       ankles. With this motion, you work
Crossover. The fact that there are three   your inner pecs more.
such similar exercises shows that slight      Here are the key differences between
differences in movements and angles        these cable exercises:
produce significantly different results.
Top bodybuilders always use multiple         Low-Pulley Cable Crossover: Your
exercises for the same muscle to let         back is bent at a 45-degree angle.
them work the entire height and width        You cross the handles in front of
of it. With the Standing Cable Cross-        your thighs.
over, there’s a key difference from the      Bent-Forward Cable Crossover: Your
other two crossover exercises: You use       back is bent forward only slightly,
a machine that has cables attached           at about a 10- to 15-degree angle.

                                           Standing Cable Crossover

        You cross the handles in front of your                              the bench throughout the movement.
        chest.                                                              Avoid the temptation to arch your back
        Standing Cable Crossover: Your                                      (which would make it easier to lift the
        back is bent at about a 30-degree                                   weight but would reduce the effort
        angle. You cross the handles in front                               by the pecs). As with all cable exercises,
        of your waist.                                                      never jerk the cables up, then let them
                                                                            free-fall. Use a steady, gradual motion,
         NOTE: With the Standing Cable                                      both raising and lowering the weights.
     Crossover, you need to tilt your entire                                The downward motion can be just
     body—from your feet to your head—                                      as beneficial as the upward, if done
     slightly forward. This allows you                                      properly.
     to keep your balance as you raise and
     lower the cables from the high pulleys.                                Machine Flye
     In this exercise, as with the others,                                     Technique: This exercise has an
     don’t stop pulling when the handles                                    effect similar to that of the Dumbbell
     meet in front of your body; keep                                       Flye. The difference is that you use
     pulling until your arms can’t go any                                   a machine, commonly found in gyms,
     farther. This extra motion produces the                                called a “pec deck.” Sit on the seat,
     greatest muscle benefit. For variety,                                   leaning against the seat back. (The seat
     alternate the way your hands cross with                                height can be adjusted to fit your body.)
     each rep, that is, let your right hand                                 Extend your arms to the side and bend
     be in front on one rep, then your left                                 your elbows at a 90-degree angle so that
     hand on the next rep.                                                  your upper arms are parallel to the
                                                                            floor. Place your forearms against two
     Flat Bench Cable Crossover                                             pads that are attached to bars, about
        Technique: This cable crossover                                     shoulder-width apart and as high as
     exercise targets yet another area of your                              your collarbone. Press against the pads
     pecs. You certainly don’t have to do all                               until they meet in front of your nose.
     these different crossovers, but we’re                                  By squeezing the pads together, you
     offering them for variety. People tend                                 raise a weight stack behind your back.
     to find certain exercises more comfort-                                 Hold, then let the pads separate and
     able and effective than others. With                                   return to the starting position. Repeat.
     that said, this exercise is fairly self-                                  NOTE: Keep your back flat against
     explanatory. Place a flat bench between                                 the seat back. Lower the weights until
     two weight stacks that have floor-level                                 they are 2 or 3 inches above the stack.
     pulleys. Lie on your back on the bench.                                This keeps continuous tension on your
     Grab the handles on the cables with                                    muscles—you don’t rest when the
     your palms up and straighten your arms                                 weights hit the stack. In addition, it
     out to the sides until your elbows                                     allows for a smoother start to the lifting
     almost lock. Bring the cables together                                 motion. If you let the weights hit the
     over your chest until the handles barely                               stack, you may strain your pecs as they
     touch. Hold, then lower the weight                                     extend too far to the sides. Exercises
     until your hands are even with the                                     on this machine won’t build the pec-
     top of the bench.                                                      toral mass and size that you can build
        NOTE: As a variation, you can lift                                  with free weights. However, the pec
     the cables slightly past the point where                               deck can be extremely helpful in
     the handles touch. By doing so, your                                   creating definition and shape in your
     pectoral muscles contract even more—                                   chest. For greater control during the
     which is the goal of all weightlifting                                 exercise, you can wrap your fingers
     exercises. Keep your back flat on                                       around the tops of the pads.
                                                              I NTE R M E D IATE C H E ST E XE R C I S E S   57

Narrow-Grip Bench Press                       about 12 inches apart. This shifts the
   Technique: Bench Press is one of           effort to your inner pecs. Be aware that
the most basic exercises for the chest.       you won’t be able to lift nearly as much
Normally, your hands are slightly more        weight with this grip as you can with
than shoulder-width apart on the              a regular, wider grip. (With a narrow
barbell, but for this exercise, use           grip, your entire pecs don’t assist
a narrow grip, with your hands only           in lifting.) Except for the different grip,

                                Narrow- Grip Bench Press

     the lifting and lowering movement is                                       NOTE: Experiment with placing your
     the same as for regular Bench Press.                                   feet on top of the bench, instead of
     Lie on your back on a flat bench, with                                  on the floor. This keeps you from
     your knees at the end of the bench and                                 “cheating” with your legs—using them
     your feet on the floor. Lift the barbell                                to help you lift the dumbbells. With
     off the supports overhead. Carefully                                   your feet on the bench, your chest
     bring the barbell forward until it’s                                   muscles become isolated. For more
     directly over your chest, then lower                                   variety, you can rotate your wrists 90
     it straight down until it barely touches                               degrees inward as you lift so that your
     your chest. Push up until your arms                                    palms are oriented toward each other
     lock. Allow your elbows to flare to the                                 at the top of the motion. Then you can
     side for greater support and leverage.                                 rotate your wrists back as you lower the
         NOTE: This exercise can be danger-                                 weight so that they’re in the starting
     ous if done incorrectly. Because you’re                                position again.
     using a narrow grip, you don’t have
     nearly as much control of the bar as                                   Dips
     you do with a wider grip. First and fore-                                  Technique: This was one of the
     most, use much less weight than for                                    basic exercises described in Chapter 2.
     regular Bench Press. Be especially                                     It doesn’t use weights; instead, your
     careful taking the barbell off the sup-                                body provides all the resistance. Dips
     port and bringing it forward to start the                              are one of the best chest exercises.
     lifting movement. Always use a spotter                                 Almost all gyms have “dip bars”—free-
     for Narrow-Grip Bench Press. As you                                    standing, parallel bars that are about
     become tired, it’s easy for the bar                                    chest high and slightly more than
     to get unbalanced and fall to one side                                 shoulder-width apart.
     or another, possibly injuring yourself                                     Stand between the bars. Rise up
     or someone else. If you become                                         on your toes and put your palms on
     comfortable with your hands only 12                                    top of the bars. Exhale and straighten
     inches apart on the bar, you can experi-                               your arms, raising your body until your
     ment with moving them closer. The                                      elbows lock. Your feet should be about
     closer together they are, the more your                                a foot off the floor and your waist in
     inner pecs will be worked. Be extremely                                line with the top of the bars. Hold for
     careful—the narrower the grip, the                                     a second, then inhale and lower your-
     more difficult it is to balance and lift                                self gradually to the starting position,
     the weight.                                                            with your chest even with the bars.
                                                                            Bend your knees slightly to keep your
     Outer Pecs                                                             feet from touching the floor. You may
     Flat Bench Dumbbell Press                                              want to cross your ankles to keep
        Technique: This is another variation                                your legs still. At the bottom, hold
     of Bench Press. Lie on a flat bench and                                 for a second, then exhale and push
     take a dumbbell in each hand at your                                   yourself back up until your elbows
     side, with your palms down. Extend                                     lock.
     your arms out from your body and                                           NOTE: Keep your torso leaning
     bend your elbows at about a 90-degree                                  forward slightly for better balance.
     angle. Gradually lift the dumbbells                                    The more forward you can lean (while
     straight up until your elbows lock.                                    keeping your balance), the more you
     At the top, the weights should be about                                work your outer pecs. If you lift your
     6 inches apart. Hold for a second, then                                ankles toward your buttocks, you’ll
     lower the dumbbells to the starting                                    naturally lean forward more. At first,
     position at your side. Repeat.                                         don’t lower yourself too far on the bars
                            I NTE R M E D IATE C H E ST E XE R C I S E S   59

Flat Bench Dumbbell Press

     or you may strain your shoulders.                                      pecs. In this exercise, by contrast, you
     However, the lower you can safely go,                                  widen your hand position to more fully
     the more your outer pecs will benefit.                                  work the outer pecs. Place your hands
     Some dip bars are parallel, while others                               as close to the ends of the bar as feels
     have horizontal bars that taper at one                                 comfortable. Move them closer if you
     end. If you use the latter, experiment                                 feel like you’re straining. You won’t
     with different hand positions. If you do                               be able to lift as much weight with
     Dips where the bars are farther apart,                                 a wide grip as you can with a normal,
     your outer pecs will get more work.                                    shoulder-width grip.
     If the bars are closer together, the effort                               NOTE: Just as with the Narrow-Grip
     shifts to your inner pecs. Advanced                                    Bench Press, use light weight initially;
     bodybuilders sometimes attach weights                                  otherwise, you can easily strain your
     to their waist for greater resistance.                                 pecs. Have a spotter nearby and wear
     Don’t try this until you are very                                      a belt to support your back. Let your
     comfortable with regular Dips.                                         elbows flare to the sides as you lift for
                                                                            more control. Keep your back flat
     Wide-Grip Incline Press                                                against the bench. Be sure to keep the
        Technique: The Narrow-Grip Bench                                    barbell balanced as you raise and lower
     Press, described earlier, works the inner                              the weight.
                    Intermediate Shoulder Exercises
                    “I have always emphasized deltoid training. Since my earliest days
                    in bodybuilding, I was told that the key to a great body was to build
                    the abdominals, calves and deltoids to the absolute maximum.”
                           —Lee Labrada, two-time Mr. Olympia runner-up

In the previous chapter, we noted that               the front of the body, connecting the
all great bodybuilders have outstanding              shoulder muscles to the neck.
chests. The same can be said of the                      The deltoid is considered one
shoulders. Broad, massive shoulders                  muscle, but it has three distinct parts,
are a natural complement to a thick                  or heads. All three heads must be fully
chest.                                               developed for the shoulders to be
    Shoulders provide the foundation                 considered outstanding.
for the sharp V shape that marks a top                   The front of the deltoid is the
bodybuilder—a wide upper body                        anterior head, the side is the medial
narrowing to a small waist. Some peo-                head, and the back is the posterior head.
ple are born with fairly wide shoulders,             It’s important to understand the role
while others have to work extremely                  of each part in day-to-day functioning.
hard to achieve them.                                The anterior head lets us raise our arms
    The shoulder muscles are called                  to the front of our bodies. The medial
deltoids, or “delts.” They are large,                head allows us to lift our arms to the
rounded muscles at the ends of our                   sides. The posterior head makes it
shoulder bones. Delts lie just above the             possible to raise our arms behind our
triceps—the top arm muscles—and tie                  bodies, as a sprinter does to grab a
into the chest muscles (pecs). Delts also            baton in a race. All three heads work
join the trapezius muscles (traps) of                together when you extend your arms
the upper back. We include traps in our              straight out from your sides and rotate
discussion of shoulder muscles because               them in a circle.
most bodybuilders exercise their delts                   Some shoulder exercises work all
and traps at the same time. The traps                three parts of the deltoid in varying
are flat, triangle-shaped muscles that                degrees, but most exercises target one
start at the base of the neck in the back            head more than the others. We’ll
and extend across the shoulder blades,               describe exercises that work all three.
then down to the middle of the back.                 Most people tend to work the front
The top of the traps can be seen from                head most because it’s the most visible,

                          Copyright © 2005 by Mountain Lion, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

     but you can’t ignore the side and back                                 in ongoing problems that can cause you
     heads if you want to be competitive                                    to miss workouts.
     in a bodybuilding contest.                                                A few minutes of warm-up sets can
         Muscle proportion is critical in                                   do wonders to prevent shoulder in-
     bodybuilding. If you develop one                                       juries. You can do warm-ups with any
     muscle—or a part of one muscle—more                                    of the exercises listed below. Remember
     than those around it, your physique                                    to use light weight and proper form
     is flawed. As you gain experience, pay                                  to get the best possible warm-up.
     attention to which areas seem to be                                       Delts can be slow to develop. For
     developing faster than others so that                                  most people, they don’t grow as quickly
     you can adjust your regimen as                                         as pecs or biceps. You need to be
     necessary.                                                             patient and stick with the exercises.
         Remember that weak shoulder devel-                                 Some bodybuilding champs worked
     opment cannot be hidden in a contest.                                  long and hard before their delts became
     In virtually every pose, at least one part                             respectable.
     of the deltoid is visible. For instance,                                  The deltoid muscles are complex
     poses intended to show off chest                                       because they move your arms to the
     muscles highlight the front delts.                                     front, back, side, and in a circle.
     Poses for the back draw attention to                                   To work the entire deltoid area, you
     the back delts. Side poses exhibit the                                 need to do a variety of exercises.
     side delts.                                                               “I like to keep variety in my work-
         The entire deltoid area must be                                    outs so that I’m always hitting the
     developed so that it’s clearly separate                                muscles from a different angle,” said
     from the pecs and traps. Again, defini-                                 Shawn Ray, two-time Mr. Olympia
     tion is a key part of bodybuilding. Some                               runner-up.
     people naturally have greater separation                                  Deltoid exercises fall into two main
     between their delts and surrounding                                    groups: presses and raises. With presses,
     muscles, whereas others have to work                                   you lift weight directly over your head.
     harder to achieve it.                                                  Presses involve all three heads of the
         Well-developed delts give you more                                 delt. With raises, you lift the weight
     than a wide look; they give you a thick                                in a wide arc to the front, side, or back
     look. Thickness, or hardness, is another                               of your body. Front raises strengthen
     essential element in bodybuilding.                                     the front head, side raises the medial
     People often develop wide shoulders                                    head, and rear raises the posterior head.
     soon after they begin serious weight                                   With raises, especially, the amount of
     training, but thickness is more difficult                               weight you use is far less important
     and takes longer to achieve. Thickness                                 than lifting with proper form. You want
     separates bodybuilding champs from                                     to isolate the delts as you lift without
     “wannabes.”                                                            drawing on the strength of your back
         Earlier in this book, we stressed                                  or legs.
     the importance of warm-up sets to keep                                    “Many bodybuilders try to go too
     from straining muscles. You should use                                 heavy when they train delts,” said Steve
     lighter weight (about half of what you                                 Brisbois, a former leading bodybuilder.
     would use for training) and do about                                   “The delts are actually a small muscle
     twice as many reps. Warm-up sets                                       and don’t require tons of weight to
     are extremely important when working                                   grow, but they do require high-intensity
     your shoulders, because your shoulders                                 work and strict form to keep the lever-
     can be easily injured by lifting too                                   age on the shoulders. I use a weight
     much weight too soon. A strained                                       heavy enough to tax the muscle but
     shoulder can be slow to heal, resulting                                light enough to control.”
                                                                            I NTE R M E D IATE S H O U LD E R E XE R C I S E S                      63

                                                  who matched Cory’s record by winning six                 “We live in a time in which women are
  A BRIEF HISTORY OF WOMEN’S                      consecutive Ms. Olympia titles in the 1990s.          becoming involved in all manner of activities
  BODYBUILDING                                        Another dominant bodybuilder emerged              and professions that were once denied to
                                                  in 1996, Kim Chizevsky. She won four                  them. I am happy to see women overcoming
  If men’s bodybuilding has come a long way,      straight Ms. Olympia titles and further               the artificial barriers that have limited them
  women’s bodybuilding has come light years.      pushed the boundaries of female muscular-             in the past.”
     The first competition for women wasn’t        ity. She weighed 165 pounds and had                      After Chizevsky won her fourth straight
  held until the late 1970s—and contestants       extraordinary definition.                              Ms. Olympia title in 1999, she retired from
  wore high heels.                                    Some people, however, criticized Kim              bodybuilding. Women with smaller muscles
     In 1980, women’s bodybuilding gained         for being too large and too muscular. Her             and a softer appearance won the next two
  legitimacy when the International Federation    titles intensified a debate that had been              years. Then in 2002, Lenda Murray came
  of Bodybuilders, the sport’s governing board,   growing for years and remains unresolved.             out of retirement and regained the Ms.
  sanctioned the first Ms. Olympia contest—        How big should women bodybuilders strive              Olympia crown.
  the female counterpart to the famed Mr.         to become? Some bodybuilding fans and                    Her development approached that of
  Olympia competition.                            officials think women should get as big as             Chizevsky. Lenda makes no apologies for
     The first Ms. Olympia winner was Rachel       they can—just like men. Others think women            her size. “No woman in the history of the
  McLish, whose sleek muscularity and beauty      should strive for a leaner, more feminine             sport has displayed such astonishing
  drew widespread attention to the sport.         appearance.                                           symmetry and shape—wide, developed
  She proved that muscles and femininity              “Everyone is entitled to an opinion, but          shoulders, a radically V-shaped torso, and
  can coexist.                                    in my view, women have the same skeletal              incredibly flaring quadriceps,” Lenda says
     Rachel was followed by Cory Everson,         muscles as men and should be free to                  on her web site. “Muscle and Fitness
  who won the Ms. Olympia title six straight      develop them as they wish,” Arnold Schwar-            [magazine] dubbed Lenda ‘the shape
  times in the 1980s and became the sport’s       zenegger writes in The New Encyclopedia               of things to come’.”
  first superstar. She retired in 1990 and         of Modern Bodybuilding.
  was quickly followed by Lenda Murray,

                                                           lean backward or forward. At the top,
EXERCISES                                                  hold momentarily, then lower the bar
Front Delts                                                to your shoulders without bouncing
                                                           it against your chest. Repeat.
Military Press (illustrated on p. 27)                          NOTE: If possible, use a barbell off
    Technique: Bend your knees, lower                      a shoulder-high rack for this exercise,
your buttocks, and grab a barbell off the                  instead of lifting one off the floor.
floor with an overhand grip (palms                          This will help prevent lower back strain
down, thumbs in). Your hands and feet                      as you bring the bar to the starting
should be slightly more than shoulder-                     position at your shoulders. Military
width apart. Stand and carefully raise                     Press can also be done while seated;
the bar to your shoulders so that it                       this isolates your delts even more and
is even with your collarbone. Your                         prevents you from “cheating” with your
palms will be under the bar for support                    legs.
and your elbows close against your                             There are specially designed benches
sides. Hold the barbell for a second,                      for Military Press; they have a flat seat
then lift it straight up smoothly,                         and a short back to help stabilize your
keeping it close to your face, until your                  torso as you lift. In addition, there
elbows lock. Keep the weight balanced                      are a variety of machines that allow
and under control. Be careful not to                       you to do a Military Press lifting

     motion. Always wear a belt when                                            NOTE: Wear a belt for Dumbbell
     doing any variation of this exercise,                                  Press to protect your lower back.
     which can place a large amount of                                      Dumbbell Press has two advantages
     stress on your lower back. Military Press                              over presses with a barbell: You can
     is the most basic exercise for front delt                              lower the weight farther, since there’s
     development, but it also works the                                     no bar in the middle to hit your chest,
     side delts.                                                            and you can vary the distance between
                                                                            your hands at the top of the move-
     Dumbbell Press                                                         ment. For instance, you can bring the
         Technique: Dumbbell Press is                                       dumbbells together until they touch
     identical to Military Press, except that                               at the top, or you can have them at
     it’s done with dumbbells instead of                                    shoulder width. You can also keep your
     a barbell. To avoid swaying, Dumbbell                                  palms oriented forward as you lift or
     Press is best done while seated. Let your                              rotate your wrists gradually so that your
     elbows flare to the sides to stabilize the                              palms are oriented toward each other
     weight as you lift. You can lift the                                   at the top.
     dumbbells either one at a time or
     simultaneously. Some bodybuilders                                      Arnold Press
     believe that lifting each arm separately                                  Technique: Arnold Press is similar
     creates a smoother, more fluid motion.                                  to Dumbbell Press, but there are several
     Try both methods to see which you                                      key differences. Start with the dumb-
     prefer.                                                                bells at shoulder height with your
                                                                            palms oriented inward instead of for-

                                                                      Arnold Press
                                                              I NTE R M E D IATE S H O U LD E R E XE R C I S E S   65

ward. As you lift, rotate your wrists 90       shoulders. This increases the range of
degrees so that your palms are oriented        motion and works the delts in a slightly
forward at the top. Don’t lock your            different way.
elbows at the top. When you lower the
dumbbells, rotate your wrists back so          Front Dumbbell Raise
that your palms are oriented inward                Technique: The Front Dumbbell
again.                                         Raise can be done while standing or
   NOTE: Arnold Press is named for             seated. Hold dumbbells at your sides
Arnold Schwarzenegger, who popular-            with your thumbs pointed toward each
ized it. It’s best done while seated for       other. Straighten your left arm and raise
greater upper body stability. For variety,     it in front of your body and overhead.
you can lower the dumbbells to your            Pause at the top, then lower the
chest instead of stopping at your              dumbbell—under control—while

                                             Front Dumbbell Raise

     simultaneously raising your right arm.                                 then lower the bar to your chest, bend
     Both arms should be in motion at the                                   your knees, and place the barbell back
     same time, passing in front of your                                    on the floor—in one continuous
     face. Keep your arms parallel to one                                   motion.
     another, and don’t allow your torso                                       NOTE: Because of all the squatting
     to sway. If you do the Front Dumbbell                                  and standing with Clean and Press, use
     Raise while standing, bend your knees                                  extreme caution. If it continues to be
     slightly for stability.                                                awkward or painful, don’t do it; there
         NOTE: As you lift, you can keep your                               are other exercises that can produce
     wrists in line with your forearms, or                                  the same results. However, some
     you can bend your wrists down slightly.                                advanced bodybuilders swear by Clean
     In addition, you can rotate your wrists                                and Press. They’ve learned to do it
     90 degrees so the dumbbells are held                                   properly, and they say it produces thick,
     vertically instead of horizontally. Some                               hard deltoids—while developing your
     bodybuilders think holding them this                                   traps, arms, and back as well. It’s
     way lessens the strain on the shoulder                                 considered a “holistic” exercise.
     joint. You can also perform this lift-
     ing motion with a barbell instead of                                   Side Delts
     dumbbells. Use an overhand grip and                                    Dumbbell Lateral Raise (illustrated on p. 68)
     keep your arms straight. Gradually raise                                   Technique: Stand with your feet
     the bar in front of your body, then                                    shoulder-width apart and a dumbbell
     to your forehead, but not all the way                                  in each hand at your side. Bend forward
     overhead.                                                              slightly at the waist. Slowly raise your
                                                                            arms from your sides, with your elbows
     Clean and Press                                                        slightly bent. As you lift, rotate your
         Technique: The “clean” in Clean                                    wrists down slightly, so that the back
     and Press refers to the motion of lifting                              of the dumbbell is higher than the
     the barbell off the floor and to a resting                              front. Stop lifting when the dumbbells
     point in front of your chest. From                                     are slightly above your shoulders.
     there, you “press,” or lift, the weight                                Don’t let your body rock. Hold the
     overhead. With each repetition, you                                    weights above your shoulders for
     return the barbell to the floor. That’s                                 a second, then slowly lower them to
     how this exercise is different from                                    the starting position at your side. Start
     Military Press, where you begin and                                    each new rep from a complete stop—
     end each rep with the bar at your                                      don’t swing the weight up. Keep your
     shoulders.                                                             torso stable, maintaining a slight
         Lowering yourself to the floor for                                  forward lean.
     each rep to “clean” the weight can be                                      NOTE: You can do this exercise
     stressful on your lower back. Follow this                              seated if you have trouble keeping
     technique to do it safely: Bend your                                   your upper body stationary. If you do
     knees fully and squat until your thighs                                it properly, you should feel a slight
     are parallel to the floor. Lean forward                                 burning sensation in the side delt.
     slightly and grab the bar with an                                      That’s a good sign. Wear a belt to ease
     overhand grip and with your hands                                      the strain on your lower back. For
     shoulder-width apart. With a smooth,                                   variety, you can bring the dumbbells
     steady motion, stand and lift the                                      down toward the front of your body
     barbell at the same time. Bring it to                                  instead of to the side. In addition, you
     the top of your chest, even with your                                  can bend your elbows at a 90-degree
     shoulders. Pause, then lift the weight                                 angle instead of keeping your arms
     overhead under control. Pause again,                                   straight.
                                                                    I NTE R M E D IATE S H O U LD E R E XE R C I S E S   67

Cable Lateral Raise                                    the Dumbbell Lateral Raise, you work
    Technique: The Cable Lateral Raise                 one arm at a time with the Cable
is very similar to the Dumbbell Lateral                Lateral Raise. Stand with the right side
Raise, except that you use a machine                   of your body about a foot from the
with a cable. Cables provide the advan-                weight stack. Grab the handle with
tage of continuous, steady tension as                  your left hand, so that your left arm
you raise and lower the weight. Unlike                 crosses in front of your chest.

Note: The models are not wearing belts in the
photographs in this chapter because they are lifting
light weight for demonstration purposes.

                                                              Clean and Press

                                                          Dumbbell Lateral Raise

     Bend your right arm and place your                                     slightly before lifting again. You can
     right hand on your hip for stability.                                  also lift while sitting. For more variety,
     With your left elbow bent, pull the                                    you can step forward a few inches and
     cable out and up until your left hand                                  lift the cable behind your body instead
     is higher than your shoulder. As you                                   of in front.
     lift, twist the front of your wrist down
     slightly (as if pouring water from a                                   Lying Side Lateral
     pitcher). When you finish the reps,                                         Technique: The Lying Side Lateral
     stand with the left side of your body                                  combines elements of the Dumbbell
     about a foot from the weight stack.                                    Lateral Raise and the Cable Lateral
     Lift the cable with your right hand                                    Raise. Lie on a bench (either flat
     in the same manner as with your left.                                  or incline) on your right side. Hold
         NOTE: Don’t let your body sway                                     a dumbbell in your left hand near
     while lifting. Use only your deltoid.                                  or slightly below your hip. Your elbow
     As you lower the weight, let the handle                                should be slightly bent. Lower the
     drop slightly below the middle of your                                 dumbbell in front of your body until
     torso. Let the weights touch down only                                 it’s about 6 inches from the floor.

Lying Side Lateral

        Pause, then lift your arm straight up                                     NOTE: Use light weight so that
        until it’s directly overhead. The front                                you can perform the motion properly.
        of the dumbbell should point down                                      By lying on a bench instead of the floor,
        slightly or be parallel to the floor.                                   you have a greater range of motion.
        When you finish the reps, turn and lie
        on your right side. Repeat the exercise                                Prone Dumbbell Lateral Raise
        with your right hand.                                                      Technique: Lie face down on an
                                                                               incline bench with your head at the
                                                                               top. Grab a dumbbell in each hand and
                                                                               let your arms hang loosely down with
                                                                               your palms oriented toward each
                                                                               another. Bend your elbows slightly and
                                                                               raise the dumbbells away from your
                                                                               sides and upward in a wide arc. Stop
                                                                               when the weights are just above your
                                                                               shoulders. Lift gradually and under
                                                                               control. As you near the top, turn the
                                                                               front of the dumbbells down slightly
                                                                               to focus effort on the side delt. At the
                                                                               top, hold the dumbbell for a moment,
                                                                               then lower it along the same path until
                                                                               it’s about 2 inches below the bench.

                                                                               Rear Delts
                                                                               Bent-Over Dumbbell Lateral Raise
                                                                                  Technique: Do this exercise while
                                                                               seated. It’s identical to the Dumbbell
                                                                               Lateral Raise, described above, except
                                                                               that you bend forward at the waist
                                                                               at about a 45-degree angle to work the
                                                                               back part of the delt.
                                                                                  NOTE: Keep in mind the following

                                                                                   1. Sit with your feet close together
                                                                                      and your knees almost touching.
                                                                                   2. Start with the dumbbells behind
                                                                                      your calves and return them
                                                                                      there, until they almost touch.
                                                                                   3. Don’t raise your body as you
                                                                                      lift—this would reduce the
                                                                                      benefit to your delts.
                                                                                   4. Raise the dumbbells just above
                                                                                      head high.
                                                                                   5. Keep the dumbbells in line with
                                                                                      your shoulders throughout the
                                                                                      movement, with your palms
                                                                                      oriented toward each other.
                                                                                      Don’t let the dumbbells drift
     Prone Dumbbell Lateral Raise                                                     behind your shoulders.
                                                         I NTE R M E D IATE S H O U LD E R E XE R C I S E S   71

   6. At the top of the movement,            to your chest. This also helps the ex-
      pause, then lower the dumbbells        ercise benefit your delts instead of your
      under control.                         lats and traps. Keep your head up and
                                             your eyes looking forward throughout
Bent-Over Cable Lateral Raise                the movement to reduce strain on your
    Technique: This exercise is similar
to the Cable Lateral Raise. The key
differences are that with the Bent-Over
Cable Lateral Raise, you use two cables
instead of one and you lift with both
arms at the same time.
    Stand midway between two weight
stacks, with your feet shoulder-width
apart. Cross your arms in front of your
body in an X and grab the handles.
Your left hand will hold the handle
on your right side, and your right hand
will hold the handle on your left side.
Bend from the waist until your back
is almost parallel to the floor. Pull your
arms simultaneously out and up in
a wide, smooth motion until they are
above your head. Pause, then let the
weights lower and your hands cross
in front of your body.
    NOTE: You should feel continuous,
steady tension on your rear delts
throughout this exercise. Don’t raise
your torso; keep it almost parallel to the
floor—this keeps the effort on the rear

Bent-Over Row (illustrated on p. 72)
    Technique: Grab a barbell with an
overhand grip and your hands 8 to 10
inches apart. Stand with your feet
slightly more than shoulder-width
apart. Bend your torso forward at a
45-degree angle. Keeping your legs and
upper body stationary, lift the barbell
straight up until it touches the top
of your abs. Hold momentarily, then
lower it under control, stopping in
front of your shins.
    NOTE: A similar exercise, the Upright
Row, is a classic for lat and trap devel-
opment. By bending your torso for-
ward, you shift the effort to your rear
delts. Be sure to lift the barbell only as
high as your upper abs—not all the way                             Bent- Over Dumbbell Lateral Raise

                                                        Bent- Over Row

     neck. Wear a belt to protect your lower                                to the front of your shoulders, instead
     back.                                                                  of in line with them.

     Prone Dumbbell Lateral Raise                                           Traps
        Technique: Sit at the end of a flat                                  Upright Row
     bench. Place your feet close together                                      Technique: Grab a barbell with an
     on the floor. Lean over until your torso                                overhand grip and your hands 8 to 10
     rests against your thighs. Holding a                                   inches apart. Stand with your feet
     dumbbell in each hand, let your arms                                   slightly more than shoulder-width apart
     hang straight down with your palms                                     and the barbell resting against the front
     oriented toward each other. Bend your                                  of your body. Keep your legs stationary
     elbows slightly, then lift the dumbbells                               and your back straight. Lift the barbell
     up and out, keeping them in line                                       straight up—keeping it close to your
     with your shoulders. Stop when the                                     torso—until it almost touches your
     weights reach head high. Pause, then                                   chin. Hold momentarily, then lower
     lower the dumbbells gradually to the                                   it under control to a position just below
     starting position.                                                     your waist.
        NOTE: Keep your torso stationary                                        NOTE: Keep your head up and your
     during the movement. For variety,                                      eyes looking forward throughout the
     you can raise the dumbbells a little                                   exercise. This isolates your traps instead
                                                           I NTE R M E D IATE S H O U LD E R E XE R C I S E S   73

                                      Upright Row

                                              When your shoulders are at the highest
of allowing your entire torso to lift the     point, pause momentarily, then gradu-
weight. Wear a belt to stabilize your         ally lower your shoulders and the bar
lower back.                                   to the starting position.
                                                  NOTE: This is a very short move-
Shrugs (illustrated on p. 74)                 ment. The bar rises only 4 to 6 inches
    Technique: Grab a barbell with            as you shrug your shoulders. The
an overhand grip and your hands               distance is not important—proper form
shoulder-width apart. Let the bar rest        is. Your traps can get a great workout
against your thighs. Lift or “shrug” your     with very little movement. As you lift,
shoulders as high as you can, as if they      dip your chin toward your chest
are going to touch your ears. Keep your       slightly. This helps stabilize your torso
lower body steady and arms bent               and focuses the effort on the traps
slightly at the elbows. Don’t sway.           instead of the chest or delts. You can


     try a wider or narrower grip to work                                   Lying Incline Lateral
     different areas of the traps. Wear a belt                                 Technique: Lie face down on
     to protect your lower back. Shrugs can                                 an incline bench with your head at
     also be done with dumbbells. However,                                  the top. Hold a dumbbell in each hand
     hold them at your sides, not in front.                                 with your palms oriented toward each
     Let your arms hang straight down                                       other. Let your arms hang down
     throughout the motion. Some people                                     loosely. Bend your elbows slightly, then
     find this exercise more comfortable and                                 raise your arms out and up in a wide
     effective with dumbbells because they                                  arc until they are slightly above and in
     allow you to have a longer range of                                    front of your shoulders. They should be
     motion.                                                                in line with your ears. At the top, twist
                                                                            the front of the dumbbells down
                                                           I NTE R M E D IATE S H O U LD E R E XE R C I S E S   75

                                  Lying Incline Lateral

slightly to more fully work the traps.         play. At the very highest point, you
Hold for a second, then gradually lower        should feel your traps fully contract.
the dumbbells to the starting position.        Be sure to keep the dumbbells in line
    NOTE: In the first part of this exer-       with your ears, not back a few inches
cise, your delts will do most of the           (in line with your shoulder joints).
work. As your arms approach the                That small difference causes your traps
topmost position, your traps come into         to work more than your delts.

     T-Bar Row                                                              at a 45-degree angle. Lift until the
        Technique: This exercise is similar                                 weights touch your chest. Pause, then
     to the Upright Row, except that you                                    lower the weights, straightening your
     don’t use a barbell. Instead, you use                                  arms.
     a piece of equipment that has a long                                       NOTE: Keep your head up and your
     metal bar (longer than a barbell), with                                eyes looking forward during the T-Bar
     one end hinged at the floor. Place                                      Row to ease the strain on your neck.
     weights on the free end. Step onto a                                   Pull your shoulders back slightly as
     wooden box or platform and straddle                                    you lift. Don’t let your body sway.
     the bar. Bend your knees slightly, lean                                If you can’t remain stationary, you’re
     over and grab a short bar that forms                                   using too much weight; remove some
     a T with the long bar. Pull the weights                                weight until you can lift with proper
     toward your chest. Keep your back bent                                 form.
                    Intermediate Back
                    and Neck Exercises
                    “My back is a weapon I use to destroy my opponents.”
                          —Franco Columbo, two-time Mr. Olympia

“Thick” and “wide”—those are the                    Some people become discouraged
two words most commonly used to                     because back muscles often develop
describe outstanding back development.              more slowly than other muscles,
An awe-inspiring back can be the final               which can seem to pop out quickly
piece of the puzzle needed to achieve               with serious training. It may take years
bodybuilding success. Too often, young              of concentrated training to build a
bodybuilders—and even seasoned                      championship-caliber back. As a begin-
veterans—overlook the back in their                 ning bodybuilder, you should make
workouts.                                           the commitment to train the back as
    The reason is simple. Bodybuilding              seriously as any other part of your
judges, as well as others, tend to notice           body. Don’t worry if you fail to see
a person’s chest and shoulders first.                immediate results. If you’re doing the
It takes a trained eye to appreciate the            correct exercises with proper form,
less-obvious, less-dramatic group of                you’ll make progress—even though the
muscles that make up the back. Yet a                payoff may be farther down the road.
broad back is the key to the extreme V                 By making your back a priority early
shape that bodybuilders need—an                     on, you’ll avoid a problem that some
expansive upper torso that tapers to                advanced bodybuilders face. They reach
a narrow waist. Well-developed “lats”—              the upper levels of the sport only to
the muscles that flare out from the                  find that their underdeveloped backs
sides of the torso—are clearly visible              are keeping them from becoming
from the front and play a key role                  winners.
in a number of mandatory poses                         “The most common problem of
in competition.                                     today’s competition bodybuilders is
    Don’t spend so much effort on the               incomplete back development,” Arnold
“showy” muscles—the chest, shoulders,               Schwarzenegger says. “Back training
biceps, and legs—that you don’t have                is more subtle and more difficult than
enough time to properly train the back.             most people realize.”

                         Copyright © 2005 by Mountain Lion, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

     MUSCLES OF THE BACK                                                    today’s bodybuilding superstars—their
                                                                            backs are so broad that they dwarf
     Before you can hope to sculpt a                                        the backs of top competitors from just
     massive, “ripped” back, you have to                                    a few decades ago.
     understand the muscles that comprise                                      Lats have distinct upper and lower
     it. To simply say “back muscles” is                                    parts. The lower lats extend from the
     too general and too oversimplified to                                   middle of the back almost to the waist.
     be useful. Unless you understand each                                  To develop them, you’ll do exercises
     muscle and its function, you can’t                                     with a narrow grip. Chin-Ups and Cable
     target it with specific exercises.                                      Pulldowns are excellent when you bring
                                                                            your hands close together. These same
     Latissimus Dorsi                                                       exercises, and many more, build the
     Commonly called the “lats,” these are                                  upper lats by using a much wider grip.
     the triangle-shaped muscles that extend
     from below the armpits to the lower                                    Upper Back
     back on both sides. They are the largest                               The muscles of the upper, center part
     muscles of the back and the only ones                                  of the back are called the trapezius
     that can be clearly seen in a frontal                                  muscles, or “traps.” They are flat and
     view. Often the lats aren’t prominent                                  triangular, starting at the base of the
     when bodybuilders are in a relaxed                                     neck and extending horizontally across
     position. When flexed, however, the                                     the shoulder blades and vertically down
     lats spread out like wings under the                                   to the middle of the spine. Traps allow
     arms. People who don’t train with                                      you to pull your shoulders up and back.
     weights usually have little lat develop-                               Although the traps are technically
     ment, so when you see someone with                                     muscles of the back, bodybuilders train
     prominent lats, you know you’re                                        them with their shoulder muscles.
     looking at a bodybuilder.                                              We included several trap exercises,
         Strong lat muscles aren’t just for                                 such as Shrugs and Upright Rows,
     show. They let you pull your arms back-                                in the previous chapter. Review them
     ward, and they allow you to lift and                                   if necessary.
     carry heavy weight without straining                                       Well-developed traps provide a clear
     your lower back. To develop great lats,                                center line to your back that highlights
     you need to do exercises with a pull-                                  broad lats on either side. Your traps
     down movement, such as Chin-Ups.                                       must be well-defined and distinctly
     Another exercise is the Cable Pull-                                    separate from your lats.
     down—you grab a long bar overhead
     and press it down toward the floor,                                     Middle Back
     raising a weight stack.                                                Of all the back muscles, those of the
         You can work different areas of the                                middle back may be the most ignored.
     lats by varying the grip and the lifting                               You can easily spot wing-like lats and
     motion when doing the exercises.                                       tall traps, but the middle back muscles
     For instance, if you do the Cable Pull-                                often get lost in the mix. They are
     down with the bar in front of your                                     subtle, yet they must become thick
     head, you get one result. If you do                                    and prominent to complete your back
     it by pulling the bar behind your head,                                development. Someone who does not
     you get another.                                                       have a good middle back will pale in
         Over the years, advances in training                               comparison to someone who does,
     methods have contributed to better                                     although you may not immediately be
     and better back development. Look at                                   able to identify why. Judges, however,
                                                    I NTE R M E D IATE BAC K AN D N E C K E XE R C I S E S   79

are trained to spot every flaw, and their    these muscles along slowly as you
eyes quickly go to the middle back          sculpt your entire physique, but make
when sizing up competitors.                 sure that you don’t ignore them.
   To develop the muscles of the            They can become a weak link in your
middle back, you need to do exercises       back development if you don’t target
that involve a long range of motion.        them in training.
Extreme pulling and stretching move-            As Schwarzenegger says, “If you
ments call the middle back muscles into     don’t properly appreciate the complex-
action. A good example is the Cable         ity of the back and how many different
Row. You sit on the floor (or on a seat)     movements it takes to get full back
facing a weight stack and pull two          development, you will end up with
cables toward your chest. The exercise      serious weak points in this part of your
requires you to fully straighten and        physique.”
extend your arms as you return the
weight, then pull your arms as far back
as possible to lift the weight.             BACK EXERCISES
Lower Back                                  Lats
An outstanding lower back is marked         Lat Pulldown
by two thick vertical columns of                Technique: This exercise is done on
muscles on either side of the lower         a machine found in almost every gym.
spine; these are called spinal erectors.    A long horizontal overhead bar is
They start about 4 inches above your        attached to a cable that ties into a stack
waist and extend below your waistline.      of weights. Crouch down on your knees
Spinal erectors help you to arch your       under the bar, or sit on a seat if one is
spine to perform many day-to-day            provided. Raise your arms overhead
functions. They stabilize your lower        and grab the bar with a wide overhand
torso and protect your spine from           grip—about 2 to 3 inches from the
injury. They don’t flex in dramatic          ends. Angle your torso back slightly
fashion, like biceps or lats. Although      and pull the bar down smoothly
they tend to keep their shape whether       in front of your face until it touches
you’re relaxing or working out, they        the top of your chest. Hold for a
must be prominent if you are to have        second, then gradually let the bar rise
a fully developed back.                     back to its starting position.
   Spinal erectors can easily become            NOTE: Keep your torso steady. Don’t
strained, or even seriously injured,        let your torso sway backward—doing
by improper lifting or by too much          so takes effort off the lats and shifts
work. Yet they are critical in helping      it to the upper back. When your torso
to avoid lower back problems, which         is steady, the lats do all the pulling.
are common to many people. The more         If you have trouble remaining station-
you can develop these muscles, the less     ary, have a spotter gently place his or
likely you are to develop these back        her hands on your shoulders. Keep
problems.                                   steady tension on the weights as you
   When you first begin to work your         return them to the starting position.
lower back, warm up thoroughly and          Don’t let go of the bar and let the
proceed carefully. You don’t need a         weights slam down. You should keep
great deal of weight to build your spinal   the same tension on the cable as you
erectors, given their small size. Proper    lift and then lower the weights. Some
form is much more important. Bring          lat machines have a short, inverted

     V–shaped handle instead of a long bar.                                 One-Arm Cable Row
     To use this type of handle, grasp both                                     Technique: Use a machine with
     sides of the V and perform the exercise                                a floor-level pulley. Either sitting
     as with the straight bar. Because you’re                               or standing, grab the handle with your
     using a much narrower grip, your lower                                 right hand (thumb up). Pull the cable
     lats will get more of a workout. If your                               toward your right side, stopping when
     gym doesn’t have a V handle, you can                                   the handle touches your ribs. Your
     accomplish the same result by bringing                                 elbow should be well behind your
     your hands closer together on a straight                               torso. If you do this exercise while
     bar. You can also experiment with an                                   standing, place your feet even or with
     underhand grip (palms up, thumbs out)                                  your left foot well in front of your right
     on a straight bar.                                                     for greater balance as you pull the
                                                                            cable. If you do this exercise while
     Machine Pullover                                                       sitting, rest your left forearm on your
         Technique: This exercise is also                                   left knee for more stability. When
     performed on a machine that’s found                                    you’ve finished the reps, change sides
     in most gyms. You begin by sitting on                                  and pull with your left hand.
     a seat that has a back. Above your head                                    NOTE: This exercise is particularly
     is a large U-shaped bar, with the open                                 effective in developing your upper lats.
     part of the U facing out. Place your                                   Because of the long range of motion
     elbows on the two pads at the open                                     from start to finish, you get more
     end. Press down firmly on the                                           benefit than with most other exercises.
     pads with your upper arms, lowering                                    For variety, you can gradually twist the
     the U-shaped bar toward your chest.                                    handle toward your torso as you lift,
     Stop when it touches your abs.                                         so that your thumb is at your side
         NOTE: The bar moves in a semicircu-                                when you finish.
     lar motion from start to finish. While
     pressing down on the bar, you can wrap                                 Chin-Ups (illustrated on p. 82)
     your fingers around the top of the bar                                      Technique: Like Dips, this versatile
     for a firmer hold. Keep your back firmly                                 exercise doesn’t use weights; your body
     against the back of the seat.                                          provides all the resistance. Many of us
         If a pullover machine is not available                             are familiar with this exercise from
     in your gym, you can do essentially the                                school gym class. You stand under
     same exercise with a barbell. Start by                                 a horizontal bar that’s anywhere from
     lying on your back on a flat bench,                                     a few inches to a foot or more above
     with your head slightly off one end.                                   your head.
     Grab a barbell and hold it behind your                                     Raise your arms overhead and grab
     head, off the floor. Bend your arms                                     the bar with a wide overhand grip
     at a 90-degree angle and keep them                                     (palms down, thumbs in). Your hands
     close to your sides. Smoothly lift the                                 should be slightly more than shoulder-
     barbell over your head and toward your                                 width apart. Make sure you have a firm
     chest, stopping when it touches your                                   grip, then pull your body up until
     chest. You may want a spotter to press                                 your upper chest touches the bar and
     down gently on your thighs so your                                     your chin is above it. As you do so,
     body doesn’t rise off the bench. A word                                bend your knees and cross your ankles
     of caution: If you’re using a high                                     to keep your lower body steady. Keep
     bench, don’t try to reach behind and                                   your elbows behind your torso as you
     grab a barbell off the floor. You can                                   lift. At the topmost position, hold
     strain your lats doing so. Instead, have                               for a second, then lower yourself to
     someone hand you the barbell.                                          the starting position.
                                                    I NTE R M E D IATE BAC K AN D N E C K E XE R C I S E S   81

                                           One-Arm Cable Row

    NOTE: Chin-Ups are very difficult       The wider the grip, the more you work
for some people, particularly those who    your upper lats. If you’re especially
are heavy. In fact, you may not be able    strong, you can put your head in front
to do a single chin-up at first. If so,     of the bar (instead of behind) and lift
skip this exercise until you build your    until the back of your neck touches
strength with other exercises, and then    the bar (instead of your chin touching
try it again. If you can do Chin-Ups,      the bar). Some advanced bodybuilders
try to straighten your arms almost         attach weights to their waist to increase
completely as you lower yourself. This     the resistance.
gives your lats a good stretch. However,      A word of caution: If you’re using
keep your lats flexed as you hang           a bar that’s much higher than your
so that your shoulder joints don’t bear    head, be careful as you reach for it
all the weight of your body.               to start the exercise—either stand on
    For variety, you can adjust your       a stool or have someone assist you
grip so that it is wider or narrower.      as you jump up to grab the bar.


     Middle Back                                                            your knees slightly and place your feet
     Seated Cable Row                                                       against a horizontal bar for support.
         Technique: The Seated Cable Row                                    Grab the V-shaped handle, holding it
     is similar to the One-Arm Cable Row                                    with your thumbs up. Lean back
     described above for lats. The main                                     slightly, then pull the cable toward your
     differences are that you pull with two                                 ribs. Arch your back slightly and draw
     hands simultaneously and that you                                      your shoulder blades together. Keep
     are seated instead of standing. Use                                    your arms close to your sides. Stop
     a machine with a floor-level pulley.                                    when the handles touch your abs; at
     Sitting on or just off the floor, bend                                  this point your elbows should be well
                                                      I NTE R M E D IATE BAC K AN D N E C K E XE R C I S E S   83

                                   Seated Cable Row

                                             splits into two short cables that are
behind your torso. Hold, then gradu-         connected to one handle. With either
ally return the weights to the starting      type, the lifting motion is the same.
position.                                       NOTE: This exercise has a shorter
   Some machines have two cables and         range of motion than the One-Arm
two handles. With others, a single cable     Cable Row. Therefore, it works the

     middle back more than the lats,                                        Bent-Over Row
     although the lats do get some benefit.                                      Technique: The Bent-Over Row can
     As you pull the cables, lean back                                      work well to develop your rear deltoids,
     slightly, but then straighten your torso                               but it’s also excellent to strengthen
     at the end. This lets your back muscles                                your middle back. Grab a barbell with
     get more work, rather than your lats.                                  an overhand grip and with your hands
     When you lower the weight, be sure                                     near the ends of the bar. Lean over
     to extend your arms fully and lean                                     from the waist so that your torso is
     forward to completely stretch your lats.                               almost parallel to the floor. Bend your
     For variety, you can gradually twist the                               knees slightly for stability. The barbell
     handle toward your body as you lift                                    is in front of your shins. Lift it straight
     so that your thumb is at your side                                     up until it touches the top of your abs.
     as you finish.                                                          Hold for a moment, then lower it
                                                                            under control to your shins. Repeat.
     T-Bar Row                                                                  NOTE: It’s important to keep your
         Technique: We recommended                                          head up and your eyes looking forward
     this exercise for trap development                                     as you lift; this reduces strain on your
     in Chapter 5, but it’s also good for                                   neck. Keep your buttocks and thighs
     strengthening the middle back if you                                   steady. Always wear a belt to protect
     make a few adjustments in your stance                                  your lower back, and don’t try to lift
     and lifting motion. As a reminder, the                                 too much weight at first. For variety,
     T-Bar Row is similar to the Upright Row                                you can do the Bent-Over Row with
     except that you don’t use a barbell.                                   a dumbbell instead of a barbell. As with
     Instead, you use a machine that has                                    all dumbbell exercises, you’ll get a
     a long metal bar with one end hinged                                   longer range of motion. To use a dumb-
     at the floor. On the other end of the                                   bell, lean over in the same way, but
     bar, you load weights. You step onto                                   place your right knee and right palm
     a wooden box or platform, straddling                                   on a flat bench. This will keep your
     the bar. With your knees bent only                                     body steady as you lift a dumbbell with
     slightly, lean over and grab the crossbar                              your left arm. Raise it from the top of
     that serves as a handle. For middle back                               the bench toward your armpit in a
     development, tilt your torso at about                                  sawing motion. When you’ve finished
     a 60-degree angle (in contrast to the                                  your reps, reverse and lift with your
     45-degree angle when working the                                       right arm, placing your left knee and
     traps). Place your weight mainly on                                    palm on the bench.
     your heels. Gradually pull the bar
     toward you and squeeze your shoulder                                   Lower Back
     blades together. Lift until the weight                                 Deadlift (illustrated on p. 86)
     touches your lower chest. (For trap                                       Technique: Grab a barbell on
     work, you pull the bar to your                                         the floor with an overhand grip (palms
     mid-chest.)                                                            down, thumbs in) or a “mixed grip”
         NOTE: Keep your back steady with                                   (one palm down, the other up). Some
     your weight toward your heels as you                                   people find that a mixed grip allows
     lift. If your weight moves toward the                                  them to lift more weight. Either way,
     front of your feet, the focus shifts                                   the next step is to crouch down,
     to your traps. Lower the weight if you                                 bending your knees until your thighs
     have trouble remaining stationary as                                   are almost parallel to the floor. Your
     you lift.                                                              back should be at about a 45-degree
                                                                            angle. Keep your head up and your
                                                               I NTE R M E D IATE BAC K AN D N E C K E XE R C I S E S   85

                                                          Bent- Over Row

Note: The models are not wearing belts in the
photographs in this chapter because they are lifting
light weight for demonstration purposes.

                                                       back. Always wear a weightlifting belt.
eyes looking forward. Begin lifting                    Never drop your head and look down
the barbell, driving up with your legs,                as you lift. This makes your torso lean
and gradually straightening your back                  forward too much and places stress
and knees. Keep your arms straight.                    on your lower back. Instead, keep your
As you finish lifting, pull your shoul-                 back at a 45-degree angle, your head
ders back and thrust your chest forward                up, and your eyes looking forward.
to stand fully erect. The barbell will                 Never jerk the barbell off the floor
rest against your thighs. Pause, then                  or let it drop to the floor as you finish.
carefully bend your knees, lean forward                Don’t use heavy weight until you
from the waist, and set the barbell on                 become comfortable with the lifting
the floor. With each repetition, you                    motion. Pay special attention to your
place the barbell on the floor and start                knees as you do the Deadlift. Some
the entire lifting motion again.                       people find that this exercise hurts their
   NOTE: The Deadlift is a tried-and-                  knees. If it hurts your knees, don’t do
true exercise that involves not only                   it. However, you might first try wrap-
your lower back but also your upper                    ping your knees with an elastic bandage
back, traps, buttocks, and legs. It’s been             for the exercise. Many bodybuilders do
a staple of bodybuilding champs for                    this to support their knees and avoid
generations. However, if you don’t use                 problems with them.
proper form, it’s easy to injure your


     Good Morning                                                           waist until your torso is parallel to
         Technique: This oddly named exer-                                  the floor. Keep your knees locked and
     cise is a key part of many bodybuilders’                               don’t let the barbell roll onto your
     routine. (The term comes from the                                      neck. Once you’ve bent over, pause,
     “rising up” motion—as if you’re get-                                   then straighten up until you are
     ting out of bed.)                                                      standing erect again. Keep your head
         Rest a barbell across the back                                     up and your eyes looking forward
     of your shoulders behind your head,                                    throughout.
     as you would with Squats. It’s best to                                     NOTE: Start with very light weight
     take a barbell off a rack instead of                                   to get the feel of this exercise. You
     lifting it off the floor. Place your feet                               never want to bend over and find that
     at shoulder width and lock your knees.                                 you’re holding too much weight, which
     Make sure you have a firm grip on                                       can cause you to lose your balance and
     the bar, then bend forward from the                                    fall. Use a spotter for safety.
                                                        I NTE R M E D IATE BAC K AN D N E C K E XE R C I S E S   87

                                 Good Morning

                                                your chest, then bend your torso down
Hyperextension (illustrated on p. 88)           until your head almost touches the
   Technique: Like Dips and Chin-Ups,           floor. Feel your lower back muscles
this exercise uses only your body               work. Pause, then gradually raise your
weight for resistance. The equipment            torso until it’s in a straight line with
specially designed for this exercise has        your legs.
a small pad at its top and a horizontal            NOTE: Make sure your feet and
bar at its foot. Position yourself so that      ankles are firmly under the support bar.
the fronts of your thighs are against           Otherwise, you’ll be unsteady and you
the pad and your ankles are under the           might even fall as you perform this
bar (for stability); your torso will be         exercise. Lower your torso slowly
unsupported. Cross your arms over               and under control—don’t let it drop

                                                   I NTE R M E D IATE BAC K AN D N E C K E XE R C I S E S   89

quickly. Likewise, don’t jerk your torso   exercises put stress on the neck. For
as you raise it back up. Keep your head    instance, Bench Press can hurt the neck
up and your eyes looking forward.          if you press your head too firmly
When you reach the top, don’t lift         against the bench as you lift. With
your torso higher than the plane of        any exercise, if you grit your teeth and
your legs—that places too much stress      strain to perform a few more reps, the
on your spine. As an alternative, you      tension often winds up in your neck.
can clasp your hands behind your           Building a strong neck is a form of
head (instead of crossing your arms        injury prevention.
over your chest) to keep your upper            Many shoulder, trap, and chest
body steady.                               exercises indirectly work the neck mus-
                                           cles, but they alone aren’t enough to
                                           build the neck that you need. That’s
MUSCLES OF THE NECK                        why there are special exercises for the
                                           neck. The ones we describe have move-
Neck muscles, like those of the lower      ments to work the front, back, and
back, are often ignored. Some body-        sides of your neck.
builders become so focused on develop-
ing the more prominent muscles that
they fail to work on subtle muscles,       NECK EXERCISES
such as those of the neck, that would
complete their development. Some           Wrestler’s Bridge (illustrated on p. 90)
beginners aren’t even aware that the           Technique: Use an exercise mat that
neck can be made larger.                   has about an inch of padding. Lie on
    A powerful neck is important           your back in the middle of the mat.
because it enhances the appearance         Bend your knees and pull your feet
of broad shoulders and a thick chest.      toward your buttocks until they are flat
If two people with identical shoulder      on the mat; your knees will be bent at
and chest development stand side           about a 90-degree angle. Arch your back
by side, the one with the larger neck      and lift your buttocks. Roll most of
will seem much bigger.                     your body weight onto the top of your
    Football players often have large      head. Slowly roll your head back until
necks, and you, too, can achieve a         your forehead almost touches the mat.
similar look. Your neck should be only     Pause, then carefully roll your head
an inch or two smaller in circumference    forward until your neck touches the
than your biceps. If your biceps are 18    mat again. This movement works
inches in circumference, your neck         the muscles at the back of your neck.
should measure about 17 inches. If your    If you lie face down on the mat instead,
neck measures only 15 inches, which        you’ll target the front and sides of your
is normal for many people, your            neck.
physique will look unbalanced and              NOTE: Be extremely careful when
out of proportion.                         doing this exercise. Keep your legs and
    Fortunately, neck muscles are          feet stable on the mat so that your body
some of the easiest muscles to develop.    weight doesn’t stress—and possibly
They respond quickly to weight work,       injure—your neck. As you roll your
so you’ll see and feel the difference      head on the mat to work your neck
quickly. Besides improving your appear-    muscles, do so slowly and cautiously,
ance, strong muscles make your neck        with no quick, jerky movements.
less susceptible to injury. This is im-    If Wrestler’s Bridge feels uncomfortable,
portant because many weightlifting         don’t do it. There are other exercises

                                                              Wrestler’s Bridge
                                                   I NTE R M E D IATE BAC K AN D N E C K E XE R C I S E S   91

that can work your neck. If you want       Neck Raise Using Weights
to do Wrestler’s Bridge but don’t have        Technique: This exercise is identical
an exercise mat, you can place             to Hand Pressure with Partner, except
a folded-up towel under your head.         that you don’t have a partner. Instead,
                                           you use weight plates for resistance.
Hand Pressure with Partner                 Lie on your back on a flat bench, with
    Technique: Lie on your back on a       your head extending off one end.
flat bench, with your head hanging off      Place a small towel on your forehead,
one end. Have a partner stand beside       then put a weight plate (no more than
you and place his or her palms on your     5 or 10 pounds at the beginning) on
forehead, perhaps placing a towel          top of the towel. Grab either side of the
between the palms and your forehead.       weight to keep it in place. Then gradu-
Keeping your body stationary, raise        ally raise your head until your chin
your head forward until your chin          almost touches your chest. Pause, then
touches your chest. As you are raising     lower your head until it’s below the top
your head, your partner places gentle      of the bench again. You can also lie face
pressure on your forehead. This resis-     down on the bench, or on your side,
tance works the neck muscles. After        to work other neck muscles.
your chin touches your chest, lower           NOTE: To avoid injury, never use
your head to the starting position         heavy weight for the Neck Raise.
(slightly below the bench) without         The muscles of the neck are fairly easy
pressure from your partner. Raise your     to develop and don’t require heavy
head again with the person pressing        weight. Proper form is more important
down on your forehead. This resistance     than the amount of weight. You want
works the muscles at the front of your     just enough weight to provide gentle
neck. You can also lie face down on        resistance. On all neck exercises, be sure
the bench. Your partner then presses       not to strain as much as you do when
against the back of your head as you       working other parts of your body.
raise your head toward your back.
This movement targets the muscles          Neck Strap
at the back of your neck.                      Technique: This is one of the oldest
    NOTE: For variety, you can lie on      neck exercises and one of the best. It
your side and have the partner press       requires the use of a neck strap, avail-
against the side of your head as           able at most stores that sell weight-
you raise it toward your shoulder.         lifting equipment. The strap is made
With each different movement, you’ll       of crisscrossed leather pieces and
feel different parts of your neck at       fits over the top of your head and
work. As with Wrestler’s Bridge, do this   down the sides. Weights are attached
exercise cautiously and slowly. Never      to a chain that dangles from the front
jerk your head up or down—that places      of the apparatus. Lie on your chest
too much stress on your neck. Commu-       or back on a flat bench and raise and
nicate with your partner so that he or     lower your head. Alternatively, you can
she is not placing too much pressure       lie on your side and lift up the side of
on your head. You want gentle pressure     your head.
only.                                          NOTE: Use light weight and perform
                                           the movements slowly and carefully.
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                    Intermediate Arm Exercises
                    “The more my biceps stood out, the bigger I wanted them to be. The bigger
                    they became, the more I worked them. Big arms, after all, are the most famous
                    symbol of bodybuilding, more so than any other body part.”
                          —Ronnie Coleman, six-time Mr. Olympia

If you survey top bodybuilders, you                 If you ever hope to compete in body-
will find many reasons why they took                 building contests, you must be well-
up the sport. Obviously, they all wanted            proportioned, with no glaring
to improve their physiques and build                weaknesses.
bigger muscles overall.                                 In this chapter, we’ll tell you how
    Most people who take up body-                   to develop biceps that will be the envy
building first become infatuated with                of others. We’ll also cover the other
big arms—specifically biceps. A big pair             arm muscles—the triceps and the
of biceps—or “guns,” as they’re some-               muscles of the forearms—that some-
times called—stand out like no other                times get little attention. If you build
muscle group. Big biceps convey power,              these muscles as well, your biceps will
strength, authority.                                appear bigger.
    The muscles of the chest, shoulders,                We hope you haven’t skipped the
abs, and legs can remain somewhat                   chapters on other muscle groups to get
hidden beneath a bodybuilder’s clothes,             to this chapter. Arm development is
but massive biceps stand out like two               essential—and fun—but it should occur
mountain peaks, especially with a                   at the same pace that you develop the
short-sleeved shirt. Some beginning                 rest of your body. With that caveat,
weight lifters care only about biceps               let’s talk about arms.
development. They do curl after curl
until their biceps look like cantaloupes.
That’s okay—if they later apply the                 BICEPS
same dedication to developing other
muscles. Let’s face it, a pair of 20-inch           “When I began training, I would study
biceps looks strange alongside a                    photographs of bodybuilders, and what
scrawny chest and skinny legs.                      drew my attention most was huge
    One of the goals of this book                   biceps,” Arnold Schwarzenegger says.
is to encourage you to develop your                 “I would go through the magazines,
muscles equally—from head to toe.                   page by page, looking for examples


                         Copyright © 2005 by Mountain Lion, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

     of outstanding biceps and vow that                                         At the highest levels of bodybuild-
     someday my arms would look like that                                   ing, there are few training secrets.
     too.”                                                                  If a top competitor realizes he needs
         As Arnold and others learned,                                      taller biceps, he knows the exercises
     building championship biceps is more                                   he must do. Still, he may not be able
     difficult—and requires more sophistica-                                 to achieve the height he wants. Should
     tion—than might seem likely. Even                                      he become discouraged and give up?
     people who know almost nothing                                         No.
     about weight lifting are often aware                                       The biceps is one of many muscles
     of the basic biceps exercise, Curls—but                                that judges evaluate. Someone with
     Curls are only one of many exercises                                   shorter biceps may have an outstanding
     that you must do to fully develop this                                 chest, shoulders, and legs. A body-
     muscle. Every contour of the biceps                                    building title goes to the person with
     must be developed to the max if you                                    the best overall size and proportion.
     want to be a contender in a bodybuild-                                 If you have short biceps, work hard to
     ing competition. As a result, you have                                 make them as thick and full as possible.
     to attack the biceps from numerous                                     The other dimensions can help make
     angles in your training. Any weakness                                  up for biceps that aren’t tall.
     in biceps development will become                                          If you look at photographs of body-
     apparent in competition because                                        building champions over the years,
     of the many mandatory poses that                                       you’ll find that not all of them had
     feature them.                                                          “perfect” biceps—just as they didn’t all
         “Peak” refers to the height of your                                have a perfect chest, shoulders, or legs.
     biceps. The biceps must be tall, not just                              A bodybuilding champion is the sum
     big around. In addition, a biceps with                                 of the parts.
     a high peak must also have sharp                                           Your height plays a key role in how
     definition on all sides: The biceps                                     big your biceps appear. People who are
     should rise powerfully and be clearly                                  short normally have short arms, and
     separate from the triceps beneath it.                                  it’s easier to build biceps that look huge
         Some people naturally have big                                     if your arms are short. For instance,
     upper arms, even without doing serious                                 a pair of 20-inch biceps on someone
     weight training. There’s a huge differ-                                who is 5 8 looks much bigger than
     ence, however, between having arms                                     20-inch biceps on someone who is 6 4 .
     that are large and shapeless and having                                If you’re tall, you’ll have to develop
     arms that meet the requirements for                                    even bigger biceps to compete against
     a bodybuilder—cut and defined,                                          a shorter contender.
     as if sculpted out of marble.                                              Bodybuilders of all heights should
         As discussed previously, genetics                                  do exercises that work the biceps
     plays a key role in bodybuilding                                       through a full range of motion. It’s
     success. Some people will train much                                   important not to “cheat” on biceps
     harder than others but still won’t have                                exercises. If you allow your elbows and
     a top-notch physique. Differences in                                   shoulders to help you do Curls, for
     genetics often become apparent in                                      example, your biceps won’t get a full
     biceps training.                                                       workout—especially at the lowest and
         Some bodybuilders have biceps that                                 highest points of each rep. As a result,
     are naturally tall, but not particularly                               your biceps won’t develop as much
     thick and full. Others have plenty of                                  as they should.
     fullness, but their biceps aren’t very tall.                               In the exercises that follow, you’ll
     These differences are largely the result                               notice a wide variety of lifting motions.
     of genetics and are hard to change.                                    Some of the exercises use a barbell,
                                                             I NTE R M E D IATE AR M E XE R C I S E S   95

some use a dumbbell, and some use               Here again, genetics plays an impor-
machines. They are performed standing       tant role in developing this muscle.
or sitting, on flat benches or incline       Some bodybuilders can build massive
benches. Taken together, this array of      triceps fairly easily, while others have
exercises will help you build biceps that   to repeatedly “bomb” them to achieve
are impressive from any angle, flexed        similar results.
or relaxed.                                     Hand position is critical in triceps
                                            exercises. A narrow grip on a barbell
                                            produces a different effect than a wide
TRICEPS                                     grip. With dumbbells, you get different
                                            results based on the orientation of your
Triceps, the muscles on the back            palms. In bodybuilding, little details
of the upper arms, don’t get enough         can make a big difference.
respect. Beginning bodybuilders love            Be aware that some triceps exercises
to focus on biceps, and some don’t          can cause elbow pain. Exercises that
even think about working on their           bother one person won’t necessarily
triceps. That’s a shame. The triceps is     bother another, however, so pay atten-
actually a larger muscle than the biceps.   tion to your elbows during and after
It isn’t as dramatic, but it makes up       triceps work. Don’t do an exercise that
about two-thirds of the size of the         is clearly painful, or you may develop
upper arm. As you can see, the best way     a chronic problem. There are plenty
to increase the circumference of your       of triceps exercises to choose from
upper arms is to develop your triceps.      that likely won’t cause you elbow
    The triceps should have the same        pain.
degree of definition as the biceps,
although that can be difficult to
achieve. A fully developed triceps looks    FOREARMS
somewhat like an upside-down horse-
shoe. It has two distinct vertical sides    As a kid, you may have watched
and a thicker horizontal slab at the top.   the TV cartoon Popeye. Remember his
It should be distinct from the deltoid      forearms? They were massive—ridicu-
muscle above it as well as from the         lous looking, in fact, and entirely
biceps on the front of the arm.             out of proportion to his biceps, which
    Triceps development requires            hardly seemed to exist.
dedication and commitment. Since                Big forearms draw attention—just
it is a more complex muscle than the        like big biceps. Visually, they ensure
biceps, you may have to do even more        that your lower arm is in proportion
exercises and sets for your triceps than    to your upper arm. Forearm work
for your biceps. In the upper levels        can be rewarding, because these mus-
of bodybuilding, it’s impossible to         cles often respond quickly to weight
hide weak triceps development.              training. With the right exercises, you
    Biceps exercises generally involve      can really pump up your forearms.
bending your upper arm toward your          You’ll also be able to create impressive
body. Triceps exercises, by contrast,       definition.
normally require you to straighten your         Forearm strength is also important.
upper arm against resistance. That’s        Most upper body exercises involve
how these muscles on the back of your       lifting with your forearms. If you don’t
arms get work. You need to pick exer-       have the strength to lift heavy weight,
cises that target the top, middle, and      other muscle groups can’t benefit from
lower parts of the triceps.                 the exercise.

        Some people incorrectly assume
     that they don’t need to specifically                                    Biceps
     train their forearms. The truth is, even
     though forearms are involved in most                                   Standing Barbell Curl
     upper body exercises, these exercises                                     Technique: This is the most basic
     don’t specifically target the forearms.                                 biceps exercise, having been performed
     To achieve a well-developed physique,                                  by bodybuilders since the sport began.
     you must focus on each and every                                       Kneel and grab a barbell with an under-
     muscle during your training regimen.                                   hand grip (palms up, thumbs out) and
     Forearms are no exception. Make them                                   your hands at shoulder width. Stand
     a priority right from the start.                                       up and straighten your arms so that

                                                                            Note: The models are not wearing belts in the
                                                                            photographs in this chapter because they are lifting
                                                                            light weight for demonstration purposes.

                                                           Standing Barbell Curl
                                                             I NTE R M E D IATE AR M E XE R C I S E S   97

the barbell rests against your thighs.      wraps around your neck to keep it
Your feet should be slightly more than      in place. The Arm Blaster has a single
shoulder-width apart. Keep your body        purpose: to keep your elbows steady
stationary and your elbows at your          and isolate all the effort on your biceps.
sides, then lift your forearms (and the     It doesn’t allow you to cheat nearly
bar) out, up, and in toward your chest      as much.
in a wide semicircle. Keep your wrists          When you use the Arm Blaster
firm (don’t bend them toward your            for the first time, it may feel odd.
torso) until the very end of the move-      You’ll probably be surprised at how
ment. Stop lifting when the bar is at       much more difficult it makes Standing
the top of your chest and can’t go any      Barbell Curls. This tells you that you’ve
higher. Pause, then lower the barbell       been cheating too much before. When
to the starting position, elbows at your    you’re using the Arm Blaster, don’t
sides.                                      cheat with your back and lower body
    NOTE: To get maximum benefit from        to compensate. At least at first, you
this exercise, it’s critical to keep your   won’t be able to lift as much weight
upper and lower body stationary as you      doing the Standing Barbell Curl when
lift. Wear a belt to help stabilize your    you use this piece of equipment.
lower back. Don’t let your elbows move          NOTE: Many people like to use an EZ
in front of your body as you lift,          curl bar, instead of a regular bar, with
because that shifts some of the work        an Arm Blaster. EZ curl bars, widely
from your biceps to your shoulders.         found in gyms, are the same length as
If you can’t keep your upper and lower      a regular bar but are wavy instead of
body stationary while performing Curls,     straight. This feature allows your hands
you’re using too much weight. Proper        to turn in slightly, rather than be in
form is more important than heavy           line with each other. This is more
weight. You could even injure your          comfortable for most people and places
back if you use too much weight and         less strain on the wrists. An EZ curl bar
sway back and forth. Advanced body-         can be used for all varieties of curls.
builders sometimes “cheat” (use their
backs a little) when lifting very heavy     Preacher Curl
weights. That’s okay because they have         Technique: This exercise uses a
years of experience and only cheat with     preacher bench, which has a small seat
a specific goal in mind. As a beginner,      (about the height of a regular flat
stick with strict form. For variety, you    bench) and an armrest platform about
can change your grip on the bar. With       chest-high that slopes down and away
a grip that’s narrower than shoulder        from the seat at a 45-degree angle. Sit
width, you’ll work your inner biceps        on the seat and place the backs of your
more. With a wider grip, you’ll place       upper arms against the platform. At the
more stress on the outer biceps.            bottom of the platform, there’s a rack
                                            that holds a barbell. Straighten your
Arm Blaster                                 arms and grab the barbell with an
    Technique: This exercise is identical   underhand grip and your elbows about
to the Standing Barbell Curl, except        shoulder-width apart. Press your chest
that you use a piece of equipment           firmly against the platform for support.
called an Arm Blaster. It’s a metal band,   Lift the bar out and up in a regular
about as wide as a weightlifter’s belt,     curling motion. Stop when the bar is
that has a slight S curve at both ends.     near your chin and you can’t lift it any
It rests against your abs, and a strap      higher. Pause, then gradually lower the

     weight to the starting position, until                                 arms hang loosely down. Keep your
     your arms are straight. Don’t let the                                  elbows close to your sides and slightly
     barbell bounce at the bottom.                                          in front of your torso. Slowly lift both
        NOTE: The preacher bench serves the                                 dumbbells at the same time in the
     same purpose as the Arm Blaster: It                                    regular curling motion, stopping when
     keeps your elbows stable and helps                                     your arms can’t go any higher. Keep
     prevent you from cheating. The                                         your upper arms steady as you lift. At
     preacher bench is a favorite of many                                   the top, pause, then lower the dumb-
     top bodybuilders. In particular, it helps                              bells to the starting position. At the
     develop the lower biceps near the                                      bottom, stop for an extra count before
     elbow. Use a light enough weight so                                    lifting the dumbbells again. This will
     that you can keep your arms firmly                                      keep you from relying on momentum
     against the pad without rocking your                                   to swing the dumbbells up, thereby
     body. Preacher Curls are normally done                                 making the exercise too easy. The
     with an EZ curl bar.                                                   Incline Dumbbell Curl is also designed
                                                                            to minimize cheating.
     Incline Dumbbell Curl                                                      NOTE: Try rotating your wrists
        Technique: Sit on an incline bench.                                 slightly outward as you lift. Start with
     Grab a dumbbell in each hand. Let your                                 your palms up, then gradually rotate

                                                Incline Dumbbell Curl
                                                                   I NTE R M E D IATE AR M E XE R C I S E S   99

your wrists so that your palms are             angle. Variety is always good in arm
turned out at the top. As you lower the        workouts.
dumbbells, rotate your wrists back so              NOTE: You’ll get more benefit
that your palms are oriented up again          if you rotate your wrists during the
at the bottom. Many bodybuilders               movement, as described above for the
find that this wrist rotation produces          Incline Dumbbell Curl. Start with your
a higher “peak” to the biceps, as well         palms up, then rotate your wrists so
as creating better overall size and            your palms are turned out at the top.
definition.                                     You can raise the dumbbells either one
                                               at a time or simultaneously. If you lift
Seated Dumbbell Curl                           them one at a time, raise one arm just
   Technique: This exercise is identical       as the other arm reaches the lowest
to the Incline Dumbbell Curl, except           position; this helps create a smooth
that you sit on a flat bench. As a result,      rhythm as you lift.
your back won’t be as stable and you
may have to fight a tendency to cheat.          Hammer Curl (illustrated on p. 100)
However, by sitting erect, instead of             Technique: This exercise is identical
leaning against an incline bench, you          to the Seated Dumbbell Curl, except
work your biceps at a slightly different       that you start with your palms turned

                                            Seated Dumbbell Curl

                                                                  Hammer Curl

      inward and keep them in that position                                  Place your right elbow against the
      throughout the movement. You don’t                                     inside of your right thigh. Straighten
      rotate your wrists.                                                    your arm with the dumbbell near the
         NOTE: By keeping your palms facing                                  floor. Gradually raise the weight toward
      inward throughout, you work your                                       your shoulder, keeping your elbow
      forearm muscles as well as the biceps.                                 pressed against the inside of your thigh
      You can do the Hammer Curl seated or                                   for support. At the top, pause, then
      standing. Either way, keep your elbows                                 lower the dumbbell to the starting
      close to your sides and your upper arms                                position. After you finish the reps,
      stable. You may lift your arms either                                  lift with your left arm.
      one at a time or simultaneously.                                           NOTE: When you’re lifting with
                                                                             your right arm, place your left hand
      Concentration Curl                                                     on the side of your left thigh or your
          Technique: This is an excellent exer-                              forearm on top of the thigh (and
      cise for adding height to your biceps.                                 vice versa). This will help keep your
      Sit on the end of a flat bench with your                                upper body stationary and the effort
      legs apart. Grab a dumbbell in your                                    focused on your biceps. The key to this
      right hand. Lean your torso forward                                    exercise is concentrating all the work
      until your back is at a 45-degree angle.                               on your biceps.
                                                                I NTE R M E D IATE AR M E XE R C I S E S   101

                                          Concentration Curl

Lying Dumbbell Curl (illustrated on p. 102)        NOTE: Don’t lock your elbows at
    Technique: The Lying Dumbbell              the bottom. That removes some of the
Curl is a variation of the Seated Dumb-        tension from the biceps, and it lets
bell Curl, described above. It allows          them rest momentarily. You may not
you to more fully stretch your biceps,         be able to use as much weight on this
lengthening the muscle and improving           exercise as you can with the Seated
its appearance. Lie on your back on            Dumbbell Curl. That’s because you’re
a flat bench, with your knees off the           lying on your back, and your biceps are
end of the bench and your feet on the          working against gravity more as they
floor for stability. Grab a dumbbell in         lift the weight. You can raise your head
each hand. Let your arms hang loosely          and shoulders a few inches off the
down. Hold the dumbbells about an              bench if it makes the movement more
inch off the floor, with your elbows            comfortable. Just don’t let your head
slightly bent. Slowly lift both dumbbells      and shoulders sway to help you lift the
toward your shoulders at the same              weight.
time, using a regular curling motion.
Keep your elbows close to your sides           Cable Curl
and your upper arms stationary. Raise             Technique: For this exercise, you
the dumbbells as high as possible, then        use a machine with a floor-level pulley
pause and lower them until your arms           and cable and with a short horizontal
are almost straight.                           bar (2 to 3 feet long) attached to the

                                          Lying Dumbbell Curl

                                                                             Biceps Machine
      cable. Grab the bar with an underhand                                      Technique: Most gyms have
      grip and with your hands shoulder-                                     machines specifically designed to work
      width apart. Hold the handle in front                                  the biceps. They may vary in appear-
      of your thighs—just as you would                                       ance, but they provide the same basic
      a barbell for the Standing Barbell Curl.                               lifting motion, using a weight stack for
      The cable should be taut. Lift the han-                                resistance. They have a seat, which is
      dle out and up toward your chest in                                    usually adjustable, about the height
      a wide arc. Keep your elbows close to                                  of a regular flat bench, and some have
      your side and your upper arms station-                                 a back to lean against. Straighten your
      ary. This is the same lifting motion                                   arms in front of you, parallel to the
      used for the Standing Barbell Curl.                                    floor, and place your elbows on
         NOTE: Lean your torso back slightly                                 the chest-high pad. Grab a handle
      as you lift to keep the cable taut, but                                with each hand (palms up, thumbs
      don’t let your upper body sway. Because                                out). Lift the handles toward your chest
      the cable provides continuous tension,                                 simultaneously, keeping your elbows
      there’s as much resistance when you                                    on the pad. Hold for a moment, then
      lower the weights as when you raise                                    return to the starting position. Repeat.
      them. This is different from similar                                       NOTE: On some biceps machines,
      exercises with a barbell or dumbbells,                                 you extend your arms straight in front
      where it’s easier to lower the weights                                 of you, as described above. On others,
      than to raise them. For variety, you                                   you extend your arms slightly toward
      can stand farther away from the weight                                 the floor. On the latter machines,
      stack and raise the bar only to your                                   the backs of your upper arms rest
      abs instead of to your upper chest.                                    against a platform that slopes down
                                                                    I NTE R M E D IATE AR M E XE R C I S E S   103

                                              Biceps Machine

                                                   up until your chin is just above the bar.
at about a 45-degree angle. A machine              Pause, then carefully lower yourself
like this simulates the motion of the              to the starting position with your arms
Preacher Curl.                                     not quite straight when you reach the
                                                   lowest point.
Close-Grip Chin-Up (illustrated on pp. 104–105)        NOTE: Don’t sway or swing your
    Technique: Chin-Ups, like Dips,                body up to help you get to the top—
don’t use weight. They rely entirely               this robs the biceps of the full effect.
on your body weight for resistance.                Tilt your torso back slightly as you lift
Stand beneath a horizontal chin-up bar             yourself for a smoother movement.
(normally about a foot above your                  You can try placing your hands closer
head). Reach up and grab the bar with              and closer together, even to the point
an underhand grip and with your                    that they touch. A narrow grip works
hands 4 to 6 inches apart. (If the bar             your biceps, whereas a wide grip bene-
is too high, you may have to stand                 fits your lats and other back muscles.
on a stool.) Bend your knees and cross             Chin-Ups, as you can see, are a very
your ankles to keep your lower body                versatile exercise. You can also do this
stable. Start with your arms almost fully          exercise with an overhand grip.
extended and your body hanging under
the bar. Then gradually pull yourself

                                             Close- Grip Chin-Up (underhand grip)
                                      I NTE R M E D IATE AR M E XE R C I S E S   105

Close- Grip Chin-Up (overhand grip)

      Triceps                                                                are straight. Keep your upper arms
      Cable Pressdown                                                        stable. Pause, then let the bar slowly
          Technique: Stand next to a machine                                 return to a point even with your chest.
      with an overhead pulley and cable.                                        NOTE: Keep your torso straight
      Grab the horizontal bar attached to the                                or leaning slightly forward. Don’t tilt
      end of the cable (it may be at eye level                               forward so much that you use your
      or slightly above your head) with an                                   body to press down on the weights.
      overhand grip. Place your hands 6 to 10                                Maintain steady tension on the cable
      inches apart on the bar and your feet                                  as you raise and lower the weight stack.
      6 to 10 inches apart. Hold the bar about                               Keep your elbows even with your
      a foot in front of your torso and even                                 torso—don’t let them move forward
      with your chest. With your elbows                                      or backward. A variety of bars can
      tucked against your sides, press down                                  be used for the Cable Pressdown; they
      on the bar with your lower arms until                                  may be long, short, or in an inverted
      it touches your thighs and your arms                                   V shape.

                                            Cable Pressdown
                                                                I NTE R M E D IATE AR M E XE R C I S E S   107

   Variations: There are several varia-     Seated Triceps Dumbbell Press
tions of the Cable Pressdown:                   Technique: This exercise is identical
                                            to the Seated Triceps Barbell Press,
  You can use an Arm Blaster, described
                                            except that you use dumbbells. As with
  in the Biceps section above. This
                                            all dumbbell exercises, there is a longer
  metal band rests in front of your abs
                                            range of motion. You can lift either
  and keeps your elbows in place,
                                            two dumbbells simultaneously or one
  forcing you to do the Cable Press-
                                            at a time. Hold the dumbbell(s) behind
  down with very strict form.
                                            your head with your palm(s) facing up
  You can lie on an incline bench,
                                            and the bar(s) parallel to the floor.
  with your back to the weight stack.
                                            If you are using one dumbbell, you can
  Grab the bar over your head and
                                            place both hands on it, holding the bar
  lower it into position in front of your
                                            perpendicular to the floor and with
  collarbone. With this as the starting
                                            your palms facing inward. Raise the
  point, press down on the bar until
                                            dumbbell(s) straight up, but stop short
  it touches the tops of your thighs.
                                            of locking your elbows. Hold for a
  You can do the Cable Pressdown
                                            moment, then lower the dumbbell(s)
  with an underhand grip (palms up,
                                            to the starting position. Keep your
  thumbs out) to work the triceps from
                                            elbows close to your head as you
  a different angle. This can be done
  standing or seated.
                                                NOTE: If you lift one dumbbell at
  You can press down with one arm
                                            a time, place the nonlifting arm across
  at a time. To do this, remove the
                                            your chest to stabilize your torso.
  horizontal bar from the cable and
                                            As you lift, keep the dumbbells behind
  replace it with a handle suitable for
                                            your head—not over your shoulders;
  one hand.
                                            this makes your triceps work harder.
                                            You may want to do the Seated Triceps
Seated Triceps Barbell Press                Dumbbell Press in front of a mirror
   Technique: Sit on a flat bench and        in order to check the position of your
hold a barbell in front of your chest       hands and arms. Don’t use too much
with an overhand grip—as if you’re          weight or you could injure your elbow.
preparing to press the bar overhead.        Perform the motion slowly, without
Carefully lift the barbell over your head   bouncing the weight at the lowest
and lower it until it’s even with the       point.
base of your neck in the back. Bring
your hands together on the bar until        Lying Barbell Extension (illustrated on p. 108)
they are only 3 to 4 inches apart. With        Technique: Lie on your back on
your arms bent at a 90-degree angle         a flat bench, with your head just off
and your elbows on either side of your      one end. Bend your knees so that your
head, press the barbell up until            feet are on the floor. Hold a barbell
your arms straighten overhead. Keep         behind your head. Bend your arms so
your elbows and upper arms steady.          that the barbell is near the floor.
Lower the barbell back to the base          Keeping your elbows close to your
of your neck.                               head, lift your forearms (and the bar)
   NOTE: You can also do this exercise      straight up. Stop when your hands are
standing, although there’s more of          above the back of your head (not your
a tendency to cheat in that position.       forehead). Stop just short of locking
For variety or increased comfort, you       your elbows, in order to keep constant
may do this exercise with an EZ curl bar    tension on your triceps.
or on an incline bench.                        NOTE: Lift with a smooth motion,

                                        Lying Barbell Extension

      keeping control of the bar at all times.                               one end; this lets you lower the bar
      Don’t let it fall quickly as you lower                                 farther and get greater extension
      the weight. Start with light weight until                              of your triceps.
      you get comfortable with the motion.                                      Variations: There are several varia-
      Be sure to keep your head slightly off                                 tions of the Lying Barbell Extension:
                                                                  I NTE R M E D IATE AR M E XE R C I S E S   109

                                              Dumbbell Kickback

                                           dumbbell back to the starting position
  Use an EZ curl bar and/or an incline     by your knees. When you’ve finished
  bench.                                   your reps, repeat the exercise with your
  Vary the width of your grip on the       right arm, placing your left hand on
  bar.                                     the bench.
  Use dumbbells instead of a barbell.         NOTE: Don’t swing the weight up.
  If you do, keep your palms turned        Lift it gradually, feeling your triceps
  inward as you lift.                      at work. By using a bench for support
                                           and positioning one leg in front of the
Dumbbell Kickback                          other, you should be able to isolate
    Technique: Stand beside a flat          your triceps.
bench. Place your left foot in front of
your right. Grab a dumbbell in your left   Narrow-Grip Bench Press (illustrated on
hand and bend your torso so that it’s      p. 110)
parallel to the floor. Place your right        Technique: This exercise is identical
hand on the bench for support.             to the regular Bench Press, except that
Hold the dumbbell by your left knee,       your hands are much closer together.
with your elbow bent at a 90-degree        With Bench Press, your hands are
angle and your forearm parallel to the     shoulder-width apart in order to benefit
floor. Your palm should face inward.        your chest and shoulder muscles. To
Keep your elbow stationary, then press     turn Bench Press into a triceps exercise,
the dumbbell backward until your arm       place your hands only 4 to 6 inches
is straight. The dumbbell will be behind   apart on the bar. The lifting and lower-
your buttocks. Pause, then lower the

                                                          Narrow- Grip Bench Press
                                                             I NTE R M E D IATE AR M E XE R C I S E S   111

ing motion is the same as with Bench        Triceps Machine
Press.                                          Technique: Most gyms have triceps
    NOTE: When you lift the barbell         machines, which are very similar to
off the supports to begin the exercise,     biceps machines. They typically have
use a normal overhand grip, with your       an adjustable seat about the height
hands shoulder-width apart. This will       of a regular flat bench, and there may
help you more easily control and            be a back to lean against. Rest your
balance the bar. Once it’s comfortably      elbows on the pad. Bend your arms
overhead, you can move your hands           at the elbow so that your hands are
closer together, then lift and lower the    near your face. Grab the two handles
barbell. For variety, you may do this       with your palms turned inward. Gradu-
exercise on an incline or decline bench.    ally press out and down on the handles
Regardless of which bench you use,          until your arms straighten. Pause, then
keep your back firmly in place as you        bend your elbows and let the handles
lift. Don’t arch your back to help you      slowly return to the starting position
lift the weight. You can also use an EZ     near your face. You should feel resis-
curl bar for performing the Narrow-Grip     tance through the entire movement.
Bench Press; this may reduce the strain         NOTE: These machines vary widely
on your wrists.                             in appearance but perform basically

                                           Triceps Machine

      the same movement. They’re effective                                   Be sure to bend your knees and cross
      because they isolate the triceps, making                               your ankles in order to keep your legs
      it harder to cheat. They also provide                                  stable. Lock your elbows at the top and
      continuous resistance as you raise and                                 lower yourself until your chest is even
      lower the weight.                                                      with the top of the bars.
                                                                                NOTE: If you have trouble with Dips,
      Long Cable Extension                                                   don’t lower yourself all the way down
          Technique: This exercise uses a                                    at first; otherwise, you’ll risk straining
      cable machine with an overhead pulley.                                 your shoulders. Some dip bars have
      Stand with your back to the weight                                     horizontal bars that are parallel, while
      stack. Reach over your head and grab                                   others taper in at one end. If you use
      the horizontal bar with an overhand                                    the latter type, try different grip
      grip. (Use a short bar if one is avail-                                positions on the bars.
      able.) Take about three or four steps                                     Variation: Once you become adept
      away from the weight stack, and place                                  at Dips, you can change the position
      one foot in front of the other for                                     of your hands on the bars to make the
      stability. Lean forward at the waist                                   exercise much more difficult. Instead
      at about a 45-degree angle. Make sure                                  of having your palms turned inward,
      the cable is taut. Keep your elbows by                                 place them so that they are turned
      your head, your forearms parallel to                                   outward. This makes your triceps do
      the floor, and the bar near the back                                    even more work as you raise and lower
      of your neck. Keeping your body                                        your body. In addition, your chest
      stationary, press up and out on the bar                                muscles don’t come into play nearly
      until your arms straighten above your                                  as much. However, be very careful with
      head. Look down at the floor and hold,                                  this reverse grip. It should only be used
      then gradually bend your elbows and                                    by advanced bodybuilders, because it
      let the weight return to the starting                                  places much more strain on the wrists
      position.                                                              and elbows and can therefore lead to
          NOTE: Use light weight until you get                               injury. If you are uncomfortable or feel
      a feel for this exercise and can maintain                              unsteady, don’t do it. Go back to the
      a comfortable stance and keep your                                     normal grip, with your palms turned
      balance. The Long Cable Extension                                      inward. You can attach weights to your
      is similar to the Cable Pressdown,                                     waist for extra resistance.
      described above. The main differences
      are that, with the Long Cable Exten-                                   Dips Behind Back
      sion, you face away from the weight                                       Technique: In this exercise, you
      stack and you tilt your torso.                                         perform a “dipping” motion without
                                                                             using Dip bars. Instead, you use two
      Dips                                                                   flat benches, placed parallel to each
         Technique: Dips were discussed                                      other and about 4 feet apart. Put your
      earlier in this book. They are an                                      heels on one bench and your palms on
      extremely versatile exercise, but are                                  the other. Your body will be suspended
      usually thought to benefit the chest                                    in the shape of an L—legs parallel to
      muscles. By changing your body posi-                                   the floor and torso erect. Your buttocks
      tion, however, you can work the triceps                                will be just in front of the rear bench
      very effectively. Normally, you want                                   and your arms will be straight up and
      to lean forward slightly as you lift and                               down. From this starting position,
      lower your body on Dips, but if you                                    gradually bend your elbows and lower
      keep your torso straight up and down,                                  your buttocks toward the floor. Your
      the stress is shifted to your triceps.                                 heels should remain stationary on the
                                                             I NTE R M E D IATE AR M E XE R C I S E S   113

                                   Dips Behind Back

                                             arms and raise your torso until your
front bench as your legs angle down.         legs are parallel to the floor again.
Stop when your buttocks are a few               NOTE: Keep your feet stable on the
inches off the floor. Don’t lower your-       front bench throughout the motion.
self farther than feels comfortable.         Make sure you maintain control of your
Pause, then gradually straighten your        body so that you don’t suddenly fall

      to the floor. Dips Behind Back places                                   Curl, especially at first. That’s a sign
      considerable strain on your elbows, so                                 that you’re doing it correctly and mak-
      do it carefully. Done properly, it’s one                               ing progress. Add weight gradually so
      of the best triceps exercises. For variety,                            that you don’t strain your wrists. Wrists
      you can change the placement of your                                   are vital for almost all weightlifting
      hands on the bench in order to work                                    exercises—don’t risk injuring them.
      different parts of the triceps. For extra                                 Variations: These modifications
      resistance, you can place a weight on                                  will work the forearm muscles
      your thighs or have a partner press                                    in slightly different ways, improving
      down gently on your shoulders. At first,                                their development.
      however, there’s no need for more
      resistance.                                                               Reverse your grip. Grab the barbell
                                                                                with an overhand grip (palms down,
      Forearms                                                                  thumbs in) instead of an underhand
      Wrist Curl                                                                grip. Widen your grip so that your
          Technique: Sit on the end of a flat                                    hands are 6 to 8 inches apart. Other-
      bench with your feet shoulder-width                                       wise, perform Wrist Curls as described
      apart. Grab a barbell with an under-                                      above. This grip focuses more effort
      hand grip and your hands only 2                                           on the muscles on top of your fore-
      to 3 inches apart. Place the tops                                         arm. You probably won’t be able
      of your forearms on your thighs, with                                     to use as much weight as you can
      your forearms angling in slightly. Your                                   with an underhand grip.
      wrists and the barbell should hang                                        Stand and hold the barbell behind
      slightly beyond your knees. Bend your                                     you, against your buttocks, with your
      wrists down so that the tops of your                                      hands shoulder-width apart and your
      hands touch your kneecaps. Let the                                        palms turned away from your body.
      barbell roll from your palms onto your                                    Your thumbs should rest against the
      fingers—this is the starting point. Now                                    sides of your thighs. Let the barbell
      lift your wrists up toward your body,                                     roll from your palms onto your
      keeping your forearms against your                                        fingers as described above. At the
      thighs. As you bend your wrists, let the                                  lowest point, your wrists will be
      barbell roll back onto your palms. Stop                                   in a straight line with your forearms.
      when your wrists won’t go any higher.                                     Then bend your wrists up, keeping
      Your knuckles will be turned upward.                                      your forearms stationary, to raise the
      Pause, then gradually bend your wrists                                    weight. The barbell will roll back
      down and lower the barbell again.                                         onto your palms.
          NOTE: Start with light weight until                                   Sit on a preacher bench and place
      you get the feel for this exercise. With                                  your forearms on the angled armrest
      such a narrow grip, it takes practice                                     platform. Grip a barbell with an over-
      to keep the bar in balance as you raise                                   hand grip and your hands about 8
      and lower it. Be sure to keep your wrists                                 inches apart. Start with your palms
      beyond your knees and your forearms                                       turned toward the floor and your
      steady throughout. By moving only                                         wrists in a straight line with your
      your wrists, you isolate your forearm                                     forearms. Bend your wrists up and
      muscles. If you move your entire arm,                                     toward your body so that your palms
      you get help from other muscles. For                                      turn outward.
      variety, you can try a wider grip on the                                  Use dumbbells instead of a barbell.
      bar. Expect your forearm muscles to                                       Many people prefer dumbbells
      burn as you perform the barbell Wrist                                     for Wrist Curls because they place less
                                                            I NTE R M E D IATE AR M E XE R C I S E S   115

strain on the wrists and they allow        Reverse Barbell Curl
a longer range of motion. Sit on the           Technique: This exercise involves
end of a flat bench with your fore-         your arms, not just your wrists. It is
arms on your thighs and your hands         identical to the Standing Barbell Curl
extending beyond your knees. Curl          for biceps, except that you use an over-
the dumbbells toward you as you            hand grip instead of an underhand
would with a barbell. Start with an        grip. That slight difference transforms
underhand grip, but you can also try       it into a forearm exercise. Stand with
an overhand grip. You can lift with        your feet slightly more than shoulder-
both arms simultaneously or with           width apart. Grab a barbell with an
one at a time.                             overhand grip and with your hands
                                           shoulder-width apart. Straighten your

                               Reverse Barbell Curl

      arms, holding the barbell against your                                 your arm hanging straight down—
      thighs. Lift your forearms out, up, and                                this is the starting position. Raise your
      in toward your body in a wide arc.                                     forearm out, up, and in toward your
      Keep your wrists firm and your elbows                                   body, stopping when you can’t raise
      at your sides. Stop when the bar almost                                it any higher. Keep your wrist firm
      touches your chest. Pause, then lower                                  throughout.
      the weight along the same path to the                                      NOTE: Keep your elbows at your
      starting position.                                                     sides and your upper arms stable.
         NOTE: Don’t use as much weight                                      You can also use a dumbbell in each
      for the Reverse Barbell Curl as you do                                 hand, lifting your arms one at a
      for the Standing Barbell Curl. (Your                                   time or simultaneously. If you sit,
      forearm muscles are not as strong as                                   you can use a flat bench or an incline
      your biceps.) Keep your upper and                                      bench.
      lower body stationary as you lift and
      lower the bar. Wear a belt to stabilize                                Zottman Curl
      your lower back. Don’t let your elbows                                     Technique: The Zottman Curl
      move in front of or behind your torso.                                 is similar to the Hammer Curl. Hold
      For variety, you can do the Reverse                                    a dumbbell in your right hand with
      Barbell Curl on a preacher bench                                       your palm turned up and your arm
      or you can use an EZ curl bar.                                         hanging straight down. Lift the dumb-
                                                                             bell straight up toward your right
      Reverse Cable Curl                                                     shoulder. About halfway up, rotate
          Technique: This exercise is identical                              your wrist 180 degrees so that your
      to the Reverse Barbell Curl, except that                               palm turns downward. Stop when
      you use a machine with a floor-level                                    your right hand reaches your shoulder.
      pulley. With an overhand grip, hold the                                Keep your elbow at your right side.
      handle against your thighs. Lean back                                  Hold, then lower the weight, rotating
      slightly to keep the cable taut. Then                                  your wrist 180 degrees back so that
      raise and lower your forearms in the                                   your palm turns up again as your arm
      same manner as described above.                                        returns to your right side.
                                                                                 NOTE: Zottman Curls aren’t com-
      Hammer Curl (illustrated on p. 100)                                    monly done today, but they’re very
         Technique: We included the                                          effective for forearm development.
      Hammer Curl in the biceps section,                                     At the beginning of the exercise, you
      but it’s equally good for forearm devel-                               work the muscles on the bottom of
      opment. It works the upper forearm                                     your forearm. After you rotate your
      muscles where they join the biceps.                                    wrist, your upper forearm muscles
      Either standing or seated, hold a dumb-                                come into play. You can lift one arm
      bell at your side, with your palm turned                               at a time for several reps or you can
      inward and your thumb on top, and                                      alternate arms as you do each rep.
                    Intermediate Leg Exercises
                    “My leg workout is the most intense of any body part. It takes a lot of hard work
                    and totally drains me. On the morning of my workout, I am totally preoccupied
                    with it. I can’t think of anything else.”
                           —Nimrod King, former top bodybuilder

Beginning bodybuilders want big arms.                I realized that if I was to succeed as
They wouldn’t mind broad shoulders                   a bodybuilder, I’d need to bring my legs
and a thick chest too. And “six-pack”                into balance with my upper body. I also
abs would be swell too.                              knew that it would be tough sledding
    Unfortunately, many aspiring body-               to accomplish this transformation
builders don’t give any thought to their             because my upper body had exploded
legs. Maybe they figure their legs don’t              in growth.”
show under their clothing, so why                        Some people simply dislike doing
bother to develop them? Maybe they                   leg exercises—Squats, Leg Extensions,
think that their thighs and calves get               and Leg Presses are strenuous, and
enough work during everyday activity                 even painful. It takes mental, as well
and on the treadmill. Maybe they tried               as physical, strength to stick with them.
weight training for their legs once                  Yet serious bodybuilders don’t avoid
and thought it was too hard.                         leg work, because they know they can’t
    Whatever the reason, avoiding leg                afford to. Today’s events are so com-
work is a bad idea. Too often, you                   petitive that well-developed legs can
see people who have huge arms,                       provide the winning margin. Contes-
massive upper bodies—and tiny legs.                  tants realize that they must spend
It looks like they’ve never done a leg               hours and hours training their thighs
exercise in their lives. And that may                and calves.
be the case.                                             It can be frustrating to train your
    Even some bodybuilding stars admit               legs. Some people, because of their
that they didn’t focus on their legs as              genetic makeup, struggle to make
beginners. “I made the classic mistake               significant gains, particularly in their
of training to build a showy upper body              calves. Even Arnold Schwarzenegger fell
while neglecting my leg development,”                into that category. He says that in his
says Lou Ferrigno, a bodybuilding                    early years, he never allowed his calves
champ of the 1970s who starred in                    to be photographed. They were so
the TV series The Incredible Hulk. “Later,           underdeveloped that he thought they

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      would detract from the well-developed                                  “Normal workouts are hard enough,
      arms, shoulders, and chest that he                                     but if thighs happen to be a weak point
      loved to show off. In his book The New                                 in your physique, you have to be
      Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding,                                   prepared to push yourself even more.
      Arnold has a photo that shows him                                      That means forcing yourself to break
      posing in knee-deep water. His calves                                  down any inhibition or barrier,
      aren’t even visible!                                                   blasting your thighs to create total
          Today, he can laugh about such                                     development.”
      self-consciousness. After years of deter-                                  Paul DeMayo, a modern-day cham-
      mined training, he finally developed his                                pion, agrees. “If you want to make
      calves to the extraordinary level of the                               progress in your leg training . . . your
      rest of his physique—but it wasn’t easy,                               mind has to be into it,” he says. “Most
      and it may not be easy for you. That’s                                 people with underdeveloped legs dread
      no excuse for avoiding leg training.                                   leg training because they know if
      Your thigh muscles are the largest of                                  it’s done right, it’ll take the life out
      your entire body. You can’t simply                                     of you. So a lot of people avoid
      “write off” such a significant muscle                                   the hard work. You have to be willing
      group.                                                                 to put forth the maximum effort.
          Think of your legs as pillars. You                                     “Legs are the basis of your upper
      don’t want skinny, weak pillars trying                                 body strength. They have to support
      to support an otherwise impressive                                     you during all standing exercises. They
      physique.                                                              are the source of your drive and speed
          You may be surprised to find that                                   in all sports.”
      your legs respond well to weight train-                                    Because leg exercises can be so
      ing. Tom Platz, a top bodybuilder of the                               strenuous and often involve heavy
      1960s and ’70s, developed enormous                                     weight, you should have a spotter
      thighs, measuring 28 inches in circum-                                 or a training partner nearby. You never
      ference. He loved leg work and trained                                 want to run the risk of taking too much
      harder than most, but he also had                                      weight and being unable to handle it.
      the benefit of good genes. His thighs                                   This is especially true when doing
      developed faster and became much                                       Squats with a barbell. Bodybuilders
      bigger than those of other bodybuilders                                have been known to seriously injure
      who trained in much the same manner.                                   their backs or knees by trying to squat
          You may have similar potential.                                    with too much weight.
      You’ll never know until you seriously
      train your legs. Bodybuilding champs
      normally have one muscle group that                                    EXERCISES
      stands out above the rest—whether
      it’s arms, chest, back, abs, or legs.                                  Thighs
      Your legs may turn out to be your best                                 Squats (illustrated on p. 31)
      attribute.                                                                Technique: Squats are the tried-and-
          To get maximum results with leg                                    true exercise for thigh development.
      exercises, you have to work up to using                                They are like Bench Press for the chest
      heavy weight and doing many, many                                      and the Standing Barbell Curl for the
      sets. You need the intensity to do a few                               biceps. No bodybuilding champ has
      more reps when you feel like your legs                                 ever developed his thighs without
      are about to give out.                                                 doing hours and hours of Squats. They
          “I accepted the fact that leg work-                                can, however, be dangerous if done
      outs simply have to be brutal to be                                    improperly. You must learn proper form
      effective,” Schwarzenegger says.                                       before tackling even moderate weight.
                                                              I NTE R M E D IATE LE G E XE R C I S E S   119

    To start the exercise, turn your back       Variations: Squats are normally
toward a barbell on a shoulder-height       done with your feet shoulder-width
rack. (This is far safer than lifting a     apart and your toes pointing out
heavy barbell off the floor and putting      slightly. If you widen the stance, you
it on your shoulders.) Bend your knees      work your inner thighs more. If you
and get under the bar so that it lies       turn your toes in, your inner thighs get
across the back of your shoulders. Grab     even more work. A narrower stance
it with an overhand grip and with your      focuses effort on the outer thighs.
hands slightly more than shoulder-
width apart. Make sure you have a firm       Smith Machine Squat
grip, then straighten your legs to lift         Technique: A Smith Machine has
the bar off the rack. Take a few steps      a large rack that supports a barbell and
forward. Be sure the bar is balanced        vertical rails that let it slide up and
properly before proceeding. Place your      down along a fixed path as you perform
feet slightly more than shoulder-width      Squats. The benefits of using a Smith
apart and bend your knees a little.         Machine are that you don’t have to
While keeping your back straight, bend      balance the barbell on your shoulders,
your knees fully and lower yourself         and you don’t have to fear taking too
until your thighs are just lower than       much weight and not being able stand
parallel to the floor. At the bottom,        up with it. A Smith Machine holds
pause and be sure you have a firm grip       the barbell in place and allows you
on the bar and a stable stance. Then        to get out from under it. For beginners,
gradually stand up, keeping the barbell     particularly, this machine is good
steady on your shoulders. Don’t bounce      because it gives a feel for the squatting
at the bottom to make standing easier.      motion while relieving fears of being
Let your thigh muscles do all the           injured.
work.                                           NOTE: Even some advanced body-
    NOTE: Wear a belt to support your       builders do Squats on a Smith Machine.
lower back and have a spotter nearby        That’s fine, particularly if a person
for safety. It should go without saying,    has knee or back problems. However,
but make sure the collars are secured       your thighs will get more benefit if you
on the bar before beginning. You don’t      can handle using a regular barbell
want weights to fall off, injuring you      instead, because balancing full weight
or someone else. As you lower yourself      on your shoulders forces your thighs
and stand up again, always keep your        to work harder.
head up and your eyes looking forward.
This helps stabilize your lower back and    Dumbbell Squat (illustrated on p. 120)
avoid injury. Make sure the bar stays           Technique: The Dumbbell Squat
directly in line with your feet through-    is a good exercise for beginners.
out the movement. In the beginning,         It involves the standard squatting
use light weight. As you gain experi-       motion, but you hold a dumbbell
ence, you can add weight and try to         in each hand at your sides instead
lower yourself farther—past the point       of having a barbell on your shoulders.
where your thighs are parallel to the       With dumbbells, you don’t have to
floor. However, do so cautiously. Some       worry about taking too much weight.
advanced bodybuilders go down so            If you do, you can simply set the dumb-
far that their buttocks touch their         bells on the floor. Hold the dumbbells
ankles, but this can place enormous         with your palms turned inward.
strain on your knees and back if                NOTE: Dumbbell Squats allow you
you’re not prepared.                        to get used to the squatting motion.

                                                             Dumbbell Squat

                                                                             slightly so that you can lower your
      Once you gain confidence, you can                                       chest under the bar. Grab the bar
      move up to using a barbell or a Smith                                  with a wide overhand grip. Carefully
      Machine. The drawback to doing this                                    straighten your legs to lift the barbell
      exercise with dumbbells is that you                                    off the rack. It should lie at the base of
      can’t hold enough weight to build                                      your neck and rest across your deltoids.
      massive thighs.                                                        Take a few steps away from the rack.
                                                                             Make sure you have a firm grasp and
      Front Squat                                                            a steady stance, then perform the
         Technique: This exercise is identical                               normal squatting motion.
      to regular Squats, except that you                                         NOTE: You may want to place a
      hold the barbell in front of your neck                                 towel underneath the bar to make it
      instead of behind it. Face a barbell on                                more comfortable and secure against
      a shoulder-height rack. Bend your knees                                your neck and delts. With Front Squats,
                                                              I NTE R M E D IATE LE G E XE R C I S E S   121

you won’t be able to use as much
weight, because your buttocks don’t
assist, as they do when the bar is
behind your neck. Some people prefer
to do this exercise with a different grip
altogether, as shown in the accom-
panying photograph: When you
remove the barbell from the rack, place
your palms on top of the bar and cross
your arms in front of your chest in an
X so that your arms are parallel to the
floor and your elbows point forward.
This method of holding the bar is easier
on your wrists than using a regular
overhand grip. However, make sure that
the bar is secure against your body
before starting your reps. If you have
any doubt, don’t proceed, or go back
to an overhand grip. Front Squats can
also be done on a Smith Machine.                                               Front Squat

Sissy Squat (illustrated on p. 122)
    Technique: This is an outstanding       Hack Squat
squat exercise that uses only your body         Technique: This exercise uses
weight. Stand with your feet shoulder-      a piece of equipment similar to the
width apart and your toes pointing out      Smith Machine, described above.
slightly. Hold onto a support with one      A Hack Machine also has rails for
hand. Then bend your knees fully,           weight to travel on, but they are angled
squatting to the floor. At the same time,    at 45 to 60 degrees, not vertically.
rise up on your toes and lean your torso    In addition, a Hack Machine doesn’t
back at about a 45-degree angle, con-       use a barbell; instead, you place weights
tinuing to hold onto the support.           on a platform that moves up and down
Lower your body until your buttocks         like a sled. To start, lie on your back
almost touch your heels, but don’t go       on an inclined pad (with your head at
any lower than is comfortable. Feel         the top) and rest your shoulders against
your thigh muscles stretch. Pause at        two supports. With your feet on a plat-
the bottom, then slowly stand up.           form near the floor, bend your knees
    NOTE: Despite its name, this exercise   fully. Grab the handles next to your
is more difficult than it might appear.      head for support. Make sure you feel
Sissy Squats can help develop extreme       comfortable, then press your legs
definition in your thighs. Some people       against the bottom platform, moving
prefer to do them between a set of          your torso (and the weights) along the
dip bars because you can hold the bars      rails. At the top, pause, then bend your
on both sides for support. Experiment       knees and gradually lower your body
with the width of your stance. Some         to the starting position.
people get better results when using            NOTE: This machine offers the same
a narrower stance. More advanced            advantage as a Smith Machine: You
bodybuilders often hold a barbell plate     don’t have to balance a barbell on your
against their chest for extra resistance.   shoulders to do a squatting motion.
                                            The tilted angle of the Hack Machine

                                             Sissy Squat

                                                                             bend your knees fully until your thighs
      works your thighs in a different way                                   are near your chest. Place your feet on
      than the vertical movement of the                                      the platform and press firmly against
      Smith Machine. When you first use a                                     the platform until your legs straighten
      Hack Machine, have your feet shoulder-                                 and your knees lock, raising the stack
      width apart and point your toes out                                    of weights. Hold, then bend your knees
      slightly. Then try changing the posi-                                  again and return the weight to the
      tioning of your feet and toes. With                                    starting position.
      each change, you’ll get a slightly                                        NOTE: The Leg Press has an advan-
      different result from your workout.                                    tage over Squats because it places no
                                                                             stress on your lower back and you don’t
      Leg Press                                                              have to balance the weight. Your thighs
         Technique: This exercise uses                                       do all the work of raising and lowering
      a piece of equipment similar to a Hack                                 the weight. As with Hack Squats, you
      Machine: It has a seat with a back                                     can vary the position of your feet.
      and a platform at head-height attached                                 Some Leg Press machines, especially
      to a weight stack. Sit on the seat and                                 older ones, require you to lie on your
                                                              I NTE R M E D IATE LE G E XE R C I S E S   123

back and push straight up on a weight       Standing Barbell Curl for your biceps.
platform that’s directly overhead.          You start by lying face down on a flat
A machine with this design isn’t as         bench that has a floor-level pulley with
comfortable to use as one that allows       a weight stack. Extend your knees off
you to push against weights at about        one end of the bench and place your
a 45-degree angle, and it’s generally       ankles under two roller pads. Grab
not as effective.                           the side of the bench for support.
                                            Then raise your lower legs up and back
Leg Extension (illustrated on p. 31)        toward your buttocks in a wide arc.
    Technique: This exercise uses           During the movement, keep your upper
a machine widely found in gyms.             body and thighs firmly against the
Designs vary slightly, but they typically   bench. Stop lifting when the roller pads
have a seat with a back to lean against     touch (or come close to) your buttocks.
and padded rollers, attached to a weight    At the end of the movement, it’s okay
stack, to tuck your legs under. Sit on      to arch your back a little and come off
the seat, bend your knees at a 90-degree    the bench to lift the weight a few more
angle, and place your shins against the     inches. Pause, then slowly lower the
two roller pads with the tops of your       weight.
feet underneath the pads for stability.         NOTE: Be sure not to “kick” up the
Grab the handles on either side of the      weight at the start of the motion. Form
seat for support, then raise your lower     is much more critical than using heavy
legs up in a semicircular motion until      weight. You want a steady, gradual
your legs are straight and can’t go         movement up and down. You may find
any higher. Pause, then return to           that it is difficult to use a lot of weight
the starting position.                      at first, but that’s okay—many begin-
    NOTE: Keep the rest of your body,       ning bodybuilders have weak ham-
including your upper legs, steady as you    strings. Instead of lying face down
lift with your lower legs. Don’t let your   on the bench, you can try resting your
back move forward or your buttocks          weight on your elbows. This may keep
come off the seat. You want your thighs     your torso from rising off the bench.
to do all the work. Never “kick” up the     Some people with back problems find
weight up in a jerky manner. Likewise,      that even when done properly, Lying
don’t let the weight drop without any       Leg Curls are painful. If you find
resistance. Strive for a steady, smooth     them painful, don’t do them. If you
motion as you lift and lower the            still choose to do this exercise, how-
weight. Leg Extensions can produce          ever, you can lift with one leg at a
outstanding definition in your thighs.       time.
As an alternative, you can lift one leg
at a time, using less weight.               Standing Leg Curl
                                                Technique: The Standing Leg Curl
Lying Leg Curl                              also works the hamstrings. It’s done
   Technique: This exercise is an excel-    on the machine used for Leg Exten-
lent complement to Leg Extensions.          sions, described above. Your starting
Whereas extensions focus on the front       position is different, however: You
of the thigh, leg curls work the back—      stand instead of sit. Stand at the end
the hamstring area. These muscles           of the seat, facing the weight stack,
aren’t as showy as the quadriceps           and place your lower calves against
muscles in front, but they are essential    the roller pads. Hold the machine for
for complete thigh development. This        support, then lift or “curl” one leg at
exercise is somewhat similar to the         a time toward your buttocks. Raise the

      weight as high as you can while                                        Cable Kick
      keeping your upper body stationary.                                       Technique: This exercise has many
      Pause, then lower it. Reverse legs.                                    variations. Although it isn’t performed
          NOTE: To change the effect on your                                 very often, it can be extremely effective.
      hamstrings, you can angle your feet                                    Stand next to a machine that has a
      in different directions. Keep your back                                floor-level pulley. Attach a leather loop
      straight until you reach the top of the                                handle, or cuff (instead of a metal
      motion, then arch your back slightly                                   handle), to the end of the cable. Place
      to lift the weight a few more inches.                                  the loop around your left ankle and
      If you have back problems, do this                                     stand facing the machine. Step back
      exercise carefully. You may prefer to do                               a few feet and hold onto the machine.
      Lying Leg Curls or Standing Leg Curls,                                 You may want to lean forward at a
      which are similar, depending on which                                  45-degree angle for added stability.
      is more comfortable.                                                   Gradually, move your left leg back until
                                                                             you’ve taken up the slack in the cable.

                                                  Cable Kick
                                                             I NTE R M E D IATE LE G E XE R C I S E S   125

This is the starting point. Now kick       formed facing in any direction. You
your left leg back and up, raising the     can face away from the weight stack
weight. You’ll only move your leg          and raise your leg in front of your body,
about 3 feet—not all the way to your       or you can stand with either side
buttocks. Pause when you can’t lift your   toward the weights and raise your
leg any higher, then gradually lower       leg laterally.
your leg to the starting position. After
you complete your reps, reverse legs.      Lunges
    NOTE: The Cable Kick works your            Technique: Lunges are somewhat
thighs but also your buttocks, making      similar to Squats in that you hold
it a valuable exercise. You need firm       a barbell behind your head, resting
buttocks to complement your thighs.        it across the back of your shoulders.
As an alternative, you can stand on        Bend your knees and get under the bar
a block so that your foot doesn’t hit      so that it’s on your shoulders. Grab it
the floor as you lower the weights.         with an overhand grip and with your
    Variations: We have described          hands slightly more than shoulder-
the movement when facing the weight        width apart. Straighten your legs to take
stack, but the Cable Kick can be per-      the bar off the rack, and step forward


      slightly. Position your feet about                                     in the section on lower back exercises.
      shoulder-width apart. Now, instead                                     You start the same way—by stepping
      of squatting straight down, take a big                                 up to a barbell that’s lying on the
      step—about 2 feet—forward with your                                    floor—but instead of bending your
      right leg, bending it fully at the knee.                               knees as you grab the bar, you keep
      This causes your torso to sink toward                                  your legs straight. Your back is then
      the floor. Your right knee will be in                                   parallel to the floor. Grab the barbell
      front of your body. At the same time,                                  with an overhand grip and your hands
      your left leg will extend behind you                                   about shoulder-width apart. Gradually
      and be bent slightly at the knee for                                   raise your torso until you’re standing
      stability. As you lower yourself toward                                upright with the bar in front of your
      the floor, keep your back straight, your                                thighs. Keep your arms straight
      chest thrust out, and the barbell firmly                                throughout the exercise and maintain
      balanced on your shoulders. Make                                       a very slight bend in your knees. At the
      sure your head is up and your eyes                                     top, pull your shoulders back and thrust
      are looking forward. When your body                                    your chest forward to stand fully erect.
      is at the lowest point, pause, then bring                              Pause, then bend from the waist until
      your left leg forward until it’s even with                             the barbell is only a few inches off
      your right and slowly stand up. When                                   the floor. Then lift it again for another
      you’re standing straight, pause again                                  rep. Keep your head up and your eyes
      to make sure you have a firm grasp                                      looking forward to avoid straining your
      on the barbell, then take another big                                  neck.
      step forward with your left leg. This                                      NOTE: Just as with the regular Dead-
      time, your right leg will extend behind                                lift, never jerk the barbell up or drop
      you. After lowering your body as far                                   it to the floor. Use light weight at first
      as possible, bring your right leg forward                              and add weight cautiously. You won’t
      until it’s even with your left and slowly                              be able to lift nearly as much weight
      stand up. Repeat this movement,                                        as with Deadlifts, because your legs
      alternating legs.                                                      aren’t providing assistance. As an alter-
          NOTE: Like Cable Kicks, Lunges are                                 native, you can perform the Straight-
      excellent for developing your buttocks.                                Leg Deadlift with dumbbells instead
      Make sure that you use only light                                      of a barbell. If you use a barbell,
      weight at first; you don’t want to                                      you can stand on a platform to let you
      be so worried about balancing the                                      lower the weight farther. However, the
      bar on your shoulders that you can’t                                   extra distance may cause back pain,
      concentrate on the lunging motion.                                     so be careful.
      In the beginning, you can even do
      Lunges with no weight at all, just                                     Calves
      practicing the leg movement.                                           Standing Calf Raise
      As another alternative, you can do                                        Technique: This exercise is perhaps
      Lunges with a dumbbell in each hand,                                   the most effective calf exercise, and it’s
      which removes the challenge of                                         been a standby for decades. It can be
      balancing a barbell on your shoulders.                                 done with a barbell or with a machine.
      If you have knee problems, be careful                                     If you use free weights, place a
      about lowering yourself too far in                                     barbell across the back of your shoul-
      this exercise.                                                         ders as you would for Squats or Lunges.
                                                                             (Again, it’s best to take a barbell off
      Straight-Leg Deadlift                                                  a shoulder-height rack than to lift it off
         Technique: This exercise is a                                       the floor.) Your hands and feet should
      variation of the Deadlift, described                                   be about shoulder-width apart. Make
                                                               I NTE R M E D IATE LE G E XE R C I S E S   127

sure the bar is secure on your shoulders,     as described above. Holding the
then place the balls of your feet on          shoulder supports with both hands,
a block about 2 or 3 inches high. Keep        raise your body until your heels are
your heels on the floor. Being careful         higher than your toes. Pause, then
to keep your balance, rise up until your      lower yourself.
heels are higher than your toes. Feel            NOTE: Keep your body in one
your calf muscles stretch. When you’re        continuous line throughout the move-
as high as you can go, pause, then            ment. Don’t bend your torso to the
lower yourself to the starting position       front or rear. If you do Standing Calf
with your heels on the floor. Let them         Raises with a barbell, it’s essential
touch only briefly before starting             to maintain a firm grasp on the weight
another rep.                                  throughout the movement and to keep
   If you use a machine, bend your            your balance. Use light weight at first
knees and place your shoulders against        until you become comfortable with the
two padded bars that resemble a yoke.         motion. As you gain experience, you
Put the balls of your feet on a block,        can use a taller block—up to about

                                   Standing Calf Raise

      4 inches high. With a calf machine,                                    your heels, pressing your thighs against
      you don’t have to balance the weight                                   the pads and lifting a weight stack.
      on your shoulder: You simply raise your                                At the top, pause, then lower your legs
      body up. If your gym doesn’t have                                      until your heels are on the floor again.
      a calf machine, you can use a Hack                                     If you don’t have access to a seated calf
      Machine, described above for                                           machine, you can place a barbell across
      thigh work. It has twin supports for                                   the tops of your thighs near your knees,
      your shoulders and a sled that holds                                   then lift and lower the weight. Place
      weights for resistance. Position yourself                              a towel under the bar for comfort, and
      under it and straighten your legs.                                     hold the bar securely so that it doesn’t
      To do the Standing Calf Raise, rise up                                 roll back and forth.
      on the balls of your feet and then lower                                   NOTE: Keep your torso stationary
      your heels to the starting position.                                   and perpendicular to the floor
      Whether you use free weights or                                        throughout the exercise. Otherwise,
      a machine, you can change the posi-                                    you’re bringing other muscles into play
      tioning of your feet or your toes for                                  and reducing the benefit to your calves.
      different effects. Be sure not to                                      Develop a smooth, rhythmic motion
      “bounce” up at the bottom of the                                       as you lift and lower the weight.
      motion to help you lift the weight.
         Variations: The Standing Calf Raise                                 Calf Raise on Leg Press Machine
      has variations that you may want to try:                                  Technique: This type of Calf Raise
                                                                             uses the Leg Press machine, described
         You can lift with one leg at a time,                                in the thigh section. Sit, bending your
         instead of both together. This is                                   knees toward your body. Place the
         particularly useful if one calf is larger                           bottom of your feet on a platform in
         than the other, because you can work                                front of you, which may be at eye level
         more on the smaller leg until the                                   or lower. To begin, press firmly against
         calves are about the same size. You                                 the platform until your legs straighten,
         should measure your calves first                                     raising the weight. Position your feet
         to make sure that the size difference                               so that only the balls of your feet
         is real and that your eyes aren’t                                   are on the platform, then push up
         deceiving you.                                                      so that you’re working only your calf
         You can use dumbbells instead of                                    muscles. When your feet are fully
         a barbell or machine. Hold a dumb-                                  extended, pause, then allow your feet
         bell in one hand, with your palm                                    to return to the starting position.
         turned inward. With the other hand,                                    NOTE: Some Leg Press machines,
         hold onto a bar or machine for                                      usually older ones, have a vertical
         support as you raise and lower                                      instead of horizontal design. That is,
         yourself.                                                           you lie on your back and press straight
                                                                             up, instead of out, on the weights. This
      Seated Calf Raise                                                      type of machine isn’t as comfortable,
         Technique: This exercise is identical                               but you can still use it for calf raises.
      to the Standing Calf Raise, except that                                Follow the technique described above.
      you sit instead of stand. It can be done                               As with any calf exercise, you can vary
      more effectively on a machine designed                                 the positioning of your feet or your
      specifically for the Seated Calf Raise                                  toes for different effects.
      than with a barbell. Sit on the seat,
      with your thighs under a padded hori-                                  Reverse Calf Raise
      zontal bar. Place the balls of your feet                                  Technique: As the name implies,
      on a platform on the floor. Then raise                                  the Reverse Calf Raise is the opposite of
                                                                I NTE R M E D IATE LE G E XE R C I S E S   129

                             Calf Raise on Leg Press Machine

                                              heels, raise your toes toward your chest.
the standard Calf Raise. You stand with       At first you should try this movement
your heels (instead of the balls of your      without weight, because it can seem
feet) on a block or platform. Make sure       awkward. As you lift and lower yourself,
you are properly balanced on your heels       hold onto an object for support.
before beginning. Without moving your

         NOTE: Reverse Calf Raises are good                                  parallel to the floor and hold onto
      because they work the muscles at the                                   an object for support. Place the balls
      front of your lower legs. Traditional calf                             of your feet on a block, then have
      raises focus on the rear muscles. The                                  a partner sit on your back as close to
      muscles in front aren’t as prominent                                   your buttocks as possible with legs
      or showy, but they must be built up to                                 hanging loosely down. Make sure the
      have complete lower leg development.                                   partner is secure on your back and is
      They can also add significantly to the                                  not causing you pain. Then do normal
      overall size of your calves.                                           calf raises, raising and lowering your
      Donkey Calf Raise                                                          NOTE: You may feel somewhat
         Technique: This exercise, which                                     strange performing this exercise, but
      isn’t done often, is identical to the                                  it’s a good one nonetheless. As you
      Standing Calf Raise, except that you                                   become more advanced, your calves
      have someone sitting on your back                                      may get so strong that you need more
      as you go up and down. This may seem                                   and more weight. Arnold Schwarze-
      odd, and it does look a little strange,                                negger swore by Donkey Calf Raises
      but the idea is to increase the resistance                             during his heyday in the 1970s, and
      as you do calf raises. Otherwise, you                                  there are black-and-white photos of
      may not be able to hold enough weight                                  him with two guys on his back. Arnold
      to get a good workout. Even if you’re                                  cared about results, not appearance.
      using a machine, it may not provide                                    You’ll never need to try that—
      enough resistance. Having a friend sit                                 you might not even be able to find
      on your back solves that problem.                                      two guys who want to sit on your
      To start, bend your torso until it’s                                   back.
                   Intermediate Abdominal Exercises
                   “Well-toned abs go hand in hand with total health and lower back
                   integrity. There is also great psychological value to having tightly
                   muscular abdominals.”
                          —John Hnatyschak, former top bodybuilder

Bodybuilders throughout time have                    some people can achieve a rock-hard,
always wanted to develop their arms,                 sculpted “six-pack” relatively easily.
chest, shoulders, and legs, but only                 Even if you’re lacking in the gene
in recent years have they devoted the                department, though, you can still
same attention to their abdominal                    improve your midsection tremendously.
muscles, commonly called abs.                            Look at today’s top bodybuilders.
    Bodybuilding contestants today                   Their ab muscles put to shame those
know that a great set of abs is just                 of their predecessors of the 1950s, ’60s,
as important as any other muscle group               and even ’70s. Over the years, much
in winning an event. As a beginner,                  more importance has been attached to
you shouldn’t overlook your abs either.              ab development, and bodybuilders have
Some people have a negative image of                 learned more effective ways to train
stomach exercises. They remember                     these muscles. In addition, there’s
doing countless sit-ups in gym class as              a much better understanding of nutri-
kids—and hating it. Today, we’re aware               tion. Diet has a huge effect on abs:
of many other ab exercises that are                  If you eat too much fat, you’ll never
more effective and more enjoyable.                   be able to achieve great definition
    Most people have a real incentive                of your abs because a layer of fat will
to do ab exercises. After all, who                   cover the muscles.
doesn’t want a flat, hard stomach?                        It’s a misconception that you can
It’s great to have broad shoulders and               take several inches off your waist with
massive biceps, but a protruding stom-               ab exercises alone. This is called “spot
ach will certainly dull the impression               reduction,” and it doesn’t work, despite
they make. Ab exercises, done properly               the ads for some workout equipment.
and faithfully, can tighten, tone, and                   If you’re overweight and flabby, you
add definition to your midsection.                    have to improve your diet and do
    Genetics comes into play in                      a lot of aerobic work, such as running
developing your abs, just as it does                 or riding a bike. Once you shed pounds,
in working your other muscles, so that               you can tighten, firm, and flatten your


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      stomach. The ab exercises we’ll describe                                   Some bodybuilders make the mistake
      aren’t miracle workers, and they can’t                                 of adding mass at the expense of their
      produce washboard abs in a matter                                      abs, but it’s not worth packing a few
      of days. Combined with an overall                                      more inches onto your chest and arms
      fitness plan, though, they are effective.                               if your midsection also grows. Body-
          “I’m amazed at how many people                                     building success is all about proper
      still believe that all you have to do to                               proportion.
      get good abs are abdominal exercises,”                                     “I have often seen contests
      says Lee Labrada, a two-time Mr. Olym-                                 in which good bodybuilders came
      pia runner-up. “You hear people say                                    in a few pounds overweight in order
      things like, ‘I’m going to work off my                                 to appear bigger, but the extra weight
      beer belly. A hundred sit-ups a day                                    they were carrying at the waist spoiled
      for a month ought to do it.’                                           the effect,” Arnold Schwarzenegger
          “That’s the fallacy about spot                                     says. “The sport has become so com-
      reduction. The persistence of this myth                                petitive that there is no longer any
      is what sells needless gimmicks to the                                 such thing as a champion bodybuilder
      public.”                                                               without excellent abs at almost any
          Beginning bodybuilders tend to                                     level of competition.”
      go full bore in developing their arms,                                     Ab exercises are intended to create
      chest, and shoulders, while ignoring                                   shape and separation in the muscles
      their abs. Granted, abs aren’t as visible                              of your midsection, but it’s possible
      as the upper body muscles, but they’re                                 to develop your abs too much, so that
      just as important. A narrow waist and                                  your waistline grows instead of
      tight midsection will accentuate the                                   shrinks—you would lose the effect
      development in your shoulders, chest,                                  you were after in the first place! For this
      and arms. You can’t achieve the                                        reason, most ab exercises don’t involve
      extreme V shape necessary in body-                                     weights. Your own body weight
      building without a small waist.                                        provides enough resistance. Contrary
          Besides improving your appearance,                                 to what some people think, there’s no
      well-developed abs help support your                                   need to do hundreds of repetitions
      lower back during heavy lifting. Many                                  on ab exercises. You can stick to 15
      people suffer back injuries, in part                                   to 20 reps if you use proper form.
      because they haven’t developed their                                       “I find that once my abs are in
      abs. Taller, heavier men sometimes have                                shape, I don’t have to do too much
      more trouble achieving outstanding                                     to maintain them,” says Dorian Yates,
      definition in their abs, but that doesn’t                               six-time Mr. Olympia winner. “Too
      mean they shouldn’t work at it.                                        much ab work causes thickening
          “Years ago, contest judges didn’t                                  of the waistline.”
      really expect heavyweight body-                                            All effective ab exercises use some
      builders—those weighing over 200                                       type of “crunching” motion—contract-
      pounds in contest condition—to have                                    ing your abs. This can be done either
      sharply delineated abdominal muscles,”                                 by bringing your rib cage down toward
      says Lee Haney, an eight-time Mr.                                      your waist or by bringing your waist up
      Olympia. “The bigger men could get                                     toward your rib cage. In the exercises
      away with having plenty of muscle                                      that follow, you’ll see a wide variety
      mass to complement their lofty                                         of motions. Some exercises are per-
      stature. . . . Today, men competing                                    formed on the floor, some on a flat
      at body weights of up to 250                                           bench, some on an incline bench, and
      pounds . . . must have total abdominal                                 some on machines. You need to work
      development.”                                                          your abs thoroughly from a number
                                                        I N T E R M E D IAT E A B D O M I NAL E XE R C I S E S   133

of angles, just as you do any muscle.       a light weight behind your head to add
Some of these exercises will be more        resistance. If you find this exercise
comfortable and more effective than         painful, skip it. There are other abdomi-
others. There’s no need to force            nal exercises that are just as effective.
yourself to do an exercise that doesn’t
feel right or that doesn’t seem to be       Roman Chair Sit-Up (illustrated on p. 134)
working.                                       Technique: This exercise is done on
                                            a specially designed bench. A Roman
                                            chair has a seat that’s about knee high
EXERCISES                                   (with no back) and a low horizontal bar
                                            near the floor in front of the seat. Sit
Incline Board Sit-Up                        upright with your legs bent toward the
    Technique: Lie on your back on          floor. Extend your legs slightly and
an incline board with your head at          place your feet under the support,
the bottom. Hook your feet under two        pressing them up against it. Fold your
roller pads that are just below the top     arms across your chest in an X. Lean
of the board; this way, you won’t slide     your torso back until it’s almost parallel
down. Clasp your hands behind your          to the floor—this is the start of the
head (fingers interlocking) with             movement. Now raise your torso several
your elbows pointing outward. Raise         inches toward your knees (but well
your head slightly off the bench, then      short of upright) until your abs no
roll your shoulders and upper torso         longer flex. Pause, then lower yourself
toward your knees in one motion. Stop       to the starting position before raising
when your torso is perpendicular to the     your torso again.
floor and your abs are still flexed.             NOTE: As you sit up, you should
Hold, then slowly lower yourself—but        feel a “crunching” sensation in your
stop about 8 inches from the bench.         abs. This exercise involves a very short
By not going all the way down on each       range of motion—only a few inches.
rep, you help avoid back problems.          Yet it can help produce rock-hard abs.
At the lowest point, pause, then raise      You can also twist from side to side
your torso back to perpendicular.           as you do the reps. Be careful not to
    NOTE: Don’t bring your torso so far     “bounce” at the bottom of the motion
forward that your elbows touch your         or to swing your torso up—this takes
knees, for the same reason that you         effort away from the abs. Keep your legs
don’t lower yourself all the way: Both      stable on the bench.
can cause back pain or injury. All the
benefit to your abs comes in the middle      Crunches (illustrated on p. 135)
part of the motion. Don’t raise your            Technique: Crunches are a very
torso abruptly on the first rep. Raise       effective ab exercise with several varia-
and lower yourself gradually and under      tions. For the basic crunch, lie on the
control. To make the Incline Board          floor with a flat bench crosswise in
Sit-Up more difficult and more effec-        front of you. Rest the backs of your
tive, twist your torso slightly in either   calves and ankles on the bench, with
direction as you bring your torso           your legs bent at a 90-degree angle.
forward. Turn a little to the left on       Clasp your hands behind your head
one rep, so your right elbow points at      (fingers interlocking), raise your head
your left knee. On the next rep, do the     slightly off the floor, then roll your
reverse. This way, you work the inter-      shoulders toward your knees a few
costal muscles at the top and sides         inches. Don’t lift your back off the
of your abs. For variety, you can hold      floor; this can cause injury, and it

                                                             Roman Chair Sit-Up
                                                        I N T E R M E D IAT E A B D O M I NAL E XE R C I S E S   135


doesn’t benefit your abs. As you raise       so that your back is completely off the
yourself, “crunch”—or flex—your abs.         bench with your weight resting on your
   NOTE: As alternatives, you can cross     shoulder blades. Pause, then lower your
your arms across your chest instead         legs until your lower back is on the
of clasping your hands behind your          bench again.
head or you can twist from side to side        NOTE: As your knees near your
as you sit up. Do each rep slowly and       elbows, you should feel the “crunch.”
deliberately. You should be able to feel    When you lower your legs to the
your abs contracting and strengthening.     starting position, you’ll feel a stretch.
Don’t thrust your shoulders forward         Do this movement slowly and deliber-
on the way up.                              ately. You should feel as if you’re rolling
                                            into a ball, and then unrolling.
Reverse Crunch (illustrated on p. 136)
    Technique: As the name implies,         Cable Crunch
the Reverse Crunch is essentially the          Technique: Attach a 2-foot long
opposite of standard Crunches. Instead      rope to the end of the cable on an
of “crunching” your torso toward your       overhead-pulley cable machine. Kneel
legs, you crunch your legs toward           in front of the machine and pull both
your torso. Lie on a flat bench with         ends of the rope toward the floor to
your head at one end. Reach back and        make an inverted V. Grab the big knots
grab the bench behind your head for         at each end. Position your arms so that
support, keeping your forearms against      the ends of the rope are just in front
the sides of your head. Bend your knees     of your forehead and your elbows are
fully and bring your legs toward your       close to your side. Lean forward.
chest as far as possible without raising    Now pull down on the rope with your
your lower back off the bench—this          torso, keeping your elbows close to your
is the starting point. Now curl your        side and your lower body stationary.
knees toward your face until they touch     Pull downward until your head is close
your elbows, which are pointing up,         to the floor, your elbows are close to

                                                                Reverse Crunch
                                                           I N T E R M E D IAT E A B D O M I NAL E XE R C I S E S   137


your knees, and your torso is parallel          your body to the starting position.
to the floor. Hold, then return to                   NOTE: On some machines, you
the starting point.                             start by sitting upright and grabbing
   NOTE: Keep in mind that this is              two handles behind your head. Then
an ab exercise. Don’t pull down on the          you crunch forward while holding
cable with your arms. You want your             the handles. Some bodybuilders dislike
abs to pull the weight down as you              all ab machines because they think
lower your torso.                               they only benefit from exercises using
                                                benches. Judge for yourself. Successful
Machine Crunch                                  bodybuilding is all about learning what
   Technique: A variety of machines,            works for you.
some more effective than others, have
been developed to work the abs.                 Twists
On most machines, you lie on your                  Technique: This exercise uses no
back on a bench, bend your knees,               weights—only a long bar (or broom
and place your feet under two roller            handle). Sit on the end of a flat bench
pads. Then you grab two handles that            with your feet on the floor. Place the
are either at the sides of your chest or        bar behind your head, resting it across
behind your head. This is the starting          the back of your shoulders, and hold it.
position. Now perform the crunching             Keeping your head still and your eyes
motion—raising your head, shoulders,            looking forward, bend your torso to the
and torso off the bench—until you               right as far as possible. Your shoulders
can’t go any higher. Pause, then                should rotate at about a 90-degree

      angle so that they’re turned sideways.                                 midsection, not overdevelop the
      Hold, then rotate in the opposite                                      muscles.
          NOTE: You want a slow, deliberate                                  Hanging Leg Raise
      motion to work the abs. Be careful not                                     Technique: Grab an overhead bar—
      to swing your torso from side to side.                                 the type used for Chin-Ups—with
      Keep your buttocks and thighs firmly                                    an overhand grip and with your hands
      on the bench—don’t let them lift up.                                   shoulder-width apart. Let your body
      For variety, you can stand and perform                                 hang straight down. Bend your knees
      the same movement, with your feet                                      slightly and extend your legs straight
      slightly more than shoulder-width                                      out until they are parallel to the floor
      apart. You can also bend forward from                                  and even with your waist. Keep your
      the waist so that your torso is almost                                 upper body stationary so that you don’t
      parallel to the floor, then twist from                                  swing your legs up. When your legs are
      side to side. As you do, keep your head                                parallel, hold for a second, then lower
      down and your eyes looking at the floor                                 them under control to the starting
      in front of your feet. Do the motion                                   position. Keep your lower legs slightly
      under control. Twisting movements—                                     in front of your body as you end each
      whether standing or seated—develop                                     rep, so that your torso and legs aren’t
      the intercostal muscles at the top and                                 in a straight line. This helps prevent
      sides of your abs. Twists are also an                                  you from rocking backward, which puts
      excellent warm-up exercise at the                                      stress on your lower back. If swaying
      beginning of your workout because                                      remains a problem, have a partner
      they loosen up the entire upper body.                                  gently hold your hips as you raise
      You can hold a bar with an overhand                                    and lower your legs.
      grip using your fingers or you can place                                    Variations: The Hanging Leg Raise
      your wrists and lower forearms on top                                  has variations:
      of the bar to support it.
                                                                                Start with your legs hanging straight
      Side Bend                                                                 down, as above. As you begin to raise
          Technique: Stand with your feet                                       your legs, bend them fully at the
      about shoulder-width apart and hold                                       knee and then twist both thighs to
      a light dumbbell in your left hand at                                     the left. On the next rep, do the same
      your side. Lean your torso to the right                                   but twist both thighs to the right.
      as far as possible, bending only from                                     Raise your thighs slightly higher than
      the waist. Extend your right arm down                                     parallel to the floor. As you twist
      toward the floor for balance. The dumb-                                    either direction, feel your abs
      bell in your left hand will act as a                                      “crunch.” Keep your toes pointed
      counterweight to help you lower and                                       slightly downward. Some people find
      raise your right side smoothly. After                                     that this variation places less stress
      you’ve finished the reps, hold the                                         on the lower back than the basic
      dumbbell in your right hand                                               Hanging Leg Raise.
      and repeat, bending to the left.                                          Start with your legs hanging straight
          NOTE: Be sure to use light weight                                     down, then bend your knees so that
      and perform high reps—about 20                                            your thighs are parallel to the floor—
      on each side. If you use heavy weight                                     this is the starting position. Hold this
      and do low reps (8 to 10), you’ll build                                   position, and then raise your knees
      bulk through your waist. Side Bends                                       together as high as you can toward
      should tone and tighten your                                              your chest. At the same time,
                                                                                curl your shoulders forward. You’ll
                                                           I N T E R M E D IAT E A B D O M I NAL E XE R C I S E S   139

                                          Side Bend

  feel as if you’re rolling up into a ball.     width apart. Place your forearms on the
  Point your toes slightly downward.            padded bars, with your hands in front
  Pause, then lower your legs to                of you, and grab the handles at the
  the starting position, with your              ends of the bars. Bend your knees and
  thighs parallel to the floor. If your          raise your thighs until they’re parallel
  legs are well-developed and heavy,            to the floor—this is the starting posi-
  you may have difficulty doing                  tion. Pull your knees toward your chest
  this variation.                               as far as possible, round your shoulders
                                                as if rolling into a ball, and point your
Parallel Bar Leg Raise                          toes slightly downward. Feel your
   Technique: For this exercise, use            abs crunch. Hold, then lower your
a piece of equipment similar to Dip bars        thighs back to the starting position.
that has two short, parallel horizontal             NOTE: Be sure to hold your upper
bars about chest high and shoulder-             body steady so that you don’t swing

      your legs up. For variety, you can raise                               stress on your lower back, then gradu-
      one leg at a time from the starting                                    ally raise your legs to form a 45-degree
      point.                                                                 angle with the bench. Pause, then lower
                                                                             them back to parallel.
      Bench Leg Raise                                                           NOTE: Notice that you raise your
          Technique: The Bench Leg Raise                                     legs only 45 degrees, not 90 degrees,
      is an effective exercise that has many                                 as with flat bench leg raises. Because
      variations. To start, lie on your back                                 your upper body is at an angle,
      with your buttocks at the end of a flat                                 your abs don’t get any benefit by going
      bench and your legs straight out in line                               higher than 45 degrees. Many incline
      with your torso. Grab the end of the                                   benches are adjustable, so you can try
      bench under your buttocks for support.                                 different angles, but be sure to raise
      (Alternatively, grab the bench behind                                  your legs vertically only—don’t extend
      your head.) Keeping your legs straight,                                your legs sideways in a V.
      raise them until they are just short of                                   Variation: At the starting point,
      perpendicular to the floor. Hold, feeling                               with your legs together and parallel
      your abs crunch, then lower them to                                    to the floor, bend your knees and bring
      the starting position.                                                 your thighs toward your chest as far as
          NOTE: Keep your upper body and                                     possible. Hold them there, feeling the
      head flat on the bench. Do each rep                                     crunch. Then extend your legs together
      slowly and deliberately. Don’t raise your                              back to the starting point. Don’t raise
      legs too high or your abs will relax.                                  your legs overhead.
      As you lower your legs, don’t let them
      go below the top of the bench, because                                 Bench Kickback (illustrated on p. 142)
      this places too much strain on your                                       Technique: This exercise involves
      lower back. You can bend your knees                                    a much different movement, one that
      slightly if that’s more comfortable.                                   works your glutes more than your abs.
      Monitor your body. Some people expe-                                   For a well-developed midsection, you
      rience back pain even when doing the                                   need strong, firm glutes. Kneel on
      Bench Leg Raise properly, and they                                     top of a flat bench. Extend your arms
      need to choose other exercises instead.                                perpendicular to the floor and grab the
          Variation: After returning your legs                               sides of the bench for support. Bend
      to the starting position parallel to the                               your legs at a 90-degree angle and place
      floor, extend them to the sides as far                                  your knees on the bench with your
      as possible in a V. Pause, then bring                                  back parallel to the floor. Your stance
      your legs together and raise them verti-                               resembles that of a sprinter. Kick your
      cally. As you return your legs to parallel                             right leg directly behind you until your
      to the floor, extend them horizontally                                  foot is slightly higher than your head
      again. Be sure to keep your upper body                                 and your leg points up. It will travel
      stationary.                                                            in a semicircular, sprinting motion.
                                                                             Keep the rest of your body stationary
      Incline Bench Leg Raise                                                and balanced on the bench. Then lower
         Technique: This is the Bench Leg                                    your right leg, bringing your knee for-
      Raise performed on an incline bench.                                   ward, up to your right arm—the
      Place your head at the higher end.                                     starting position. Repeat. After you
      Grab the top of the bench behind your                                  finish the reps, repeat with your left leg.
      head for support, then raise your legs                                    NOTE: Keep your head up and your
      together until they are parallel to the                                eyes looking forward throughout the
      floor—this is the starting position.                                    exercise. This will help you remain
      Bend your knees slightly to reduce                                     steady on the bench. Do the reps slowly
                  I N T E R M E D IAT E A B D O M I NAL E XE R C I S E S   141

Bench Leg Raise

                                                       Bench Kickback
                                                          I N T E R M E D IAT E A B D O M I NAL E XE R C I S E S   143

                                        Side Leg Raise

                                               can either point upward or be parallel
and deliberately. You should quickly           to the floor. Hold, then lower your leg
feel your glutes at work. This is one          to the starting position, but keep
of the best exercises for glute                it from touching your left leg. Repeat.
development.                                   After you finish the reps, repeat with
                                               your left leg.
Side Leg Raise                                     NOTE: Side Leg Raises primarily work
    Technique: Lie on the floor on your         your intercostals, the muscles at the top
left side, legs together and extended.         and sides of your abs. Intercostals give
Bend your left arm at the elbow and            your abs a complete, well-developed
rest your head on your palm. Your body         look. They aren’t as visible as the abs
is now in a straight line. Keeping your        themselves, but they are nonetheless
right leg straight, raise it until it’s        important.
perpendicular to the floor. Your foot
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                    The Role of Cardiovascular Exercise
                    “If you do aerobics all the time, your body’s more efficient at burning fat.
                    I do my main aerobic exercise on the days I don’t train.”
                           —Dorian Yates, six-time Mr. Olympia

Bodybuilders want to get big, but                    They think you can’t see a healthy
they can become so fixated on muscle                  heart and lungs, so you’re wasting your
development that they forget another                 time doing it. However, aerobic exercise
important component of fitness:                       has another benefit besides boosting
cardiovascular conditioning.                         your endurance. It’s far more effective
   Cardio work, such as running or                   at burning fat than lifting weights.
biking, builds your lung capacity and                If your body has less fat, you’ll have
endurance. It also helps you in the                  greater muscle definition, so there’s
gym. If you’re in better cardiovascular              a direct payoff for running, biking,
shape, you can work out longer and                   swimming, or any other type of cardio
harder with weights, and that’s a big                exercise you choose. If you make
plus. After all, doing multiple sets with            aerobic work a key part of your regimen
heavy weight is extremely taxing, so                 early on, you’ll likely stick with it over
you need all the endurance you can get.              the long term—and reap the dividends.
   It’s extremely shortsighted to ignore                 Most bodybuilders do cardio
cardio, or aerobic, work. If you do,                 exercise on the days they don’t lift.
you can limit your ability to make                   This makes sense. If you try to do
muscle gains. We’re not talking about                intense aerobics at the end of a grueling
doing hours and hours of aerobic exer-               lifting session, you’ll be too burned
cise. As a general rule, about 30 minutes            out to get results. Likewise, if you start
of cardio work three or four times a                 your weight workout with strenuous
week is a good start, as long as you’re              cardio, you’ll become fatigued, and
disciplined about it. It’s always easy               your lifting will suffer.
to convince yourself that you need                       However, light cardio exercise
to take it easy or spend more time                   is advantageous at the start of your
in the gym instead.                                  weightlifting sessions. Five or 10 min-
   Many bodybuilders have the same                   utes on a stationary bike, for instance,
attitude toward cardiovascular exercise              can get your heart pumping, your blood
that they do toward ab and leg work.                 flowing, and your muscles loose so that


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                                                                             other forms of exercise. However,
                                                                             running can place tremendous stress
         ESSENTIAL AEROBICS                                                  on your knees, ankles, hips, and lower
                                                                             back, especially if you’re heavy. That’s
         “For maximum results in terms of mass and                           because of the constant pounding
         cuts, bodybuilders need to do two kinds                             of each step.
         of workouts: bodybuilding workouts to build                             If you find that running is painful,
         mass and aerobic workouts to burn fat. . . .                        stop. Don’t try to “run through” the
            “The ideal approach to bodybuilding involves                     pain, as some people advocate. If you
         using bodybuilding workouts to build muscle                         do, you’re setting yourself up for
         rather than to burn excess calories . . . [and]                     chronic injuries that can interfere
         doing a sufficient amount of aerobic exercise                        with your weight training.
         over a long enough period to burn excess                                If you choose to run, find a soft
         fat, stimulate your metabolism and lower the                        surface, such as grass, rather than
         fat content of your body. . . .                                     an unforgiving concrete street. Some
            “As far as diet is concerned, your goal should                   modern tracks have a rubberized surface
         be to raise your caloric intake as high as possible                 that’s much easier on your joints than
         to facilitate maximum muscle gain, while still                      concrete. Treadmills, which also have
         being able to burn up excess energy using                           a softer surface, can be found in
         aerobic activity to avoid storing calories as fat.                  most gyms. They have the additional
         The result? You gain muscle and lose fat at                         advantage of allowing you to adjust
         the same time.”                                                     the speed and the angle of incline. Fast
            —from Gold’s Gym Mass Building, Training,
                                                                             walking can be just as good as running,
             and Nutrition System
                                                                             without as much pounding, and you
                                                                             can walk either on a treadmill or
                                                                                 In addition, most gyms have other
                                                                             equipment for cardiovascular work.
      your body is ready to tackle an intense                                For example, there are stair machines
      workout. The more you warm up, the                                     that let you “climb” stairs in place.
      less likely you are to strain a muscle.                                In recent years, “elliptical” machines
          A little aerobics can also be good                                 have become popular, which simulate
      at the end of a tough weight workout.                                  a running motion but offer an impact-
      It’ll help you gradually wind down,                                    free workout. On these machines,
      reflect on your lifting, and make mental                                you stand upright and place your feet
      notes for your next workout. It’s easier                               on two oval surfaces a little larger than
      on your body to gradually reduce the                                   your shoes, then you begin to “run,”
      intensity of your workout than to go                                   and the platforms move in a long,
      full bore and then stop suddenly.                                      elliptical path that simulates the
      In addition, cardio exercise can actually                              running motion.
      tone your muscles and help them                                            If these machines aren’t to your
      recover from a grueling weight session.                                liking, you could try biking. It, too,
          Dorian Yates says, “I think a small                                provides excellent benefits without
      amount of aerobics . . . actually helps                                stress on your joints. If the weather is
      recuperation between workouts.”                                        great, you can bike outdoors and enjoy
          What are the best forms of cardio                                  the scenery. Of course, you can always
      exercise? Fortunately, you have many                                   ride a stationary bike indoors and
      choices. Some people like to run; they                                 watch TV, listen to music, or even read.
      find that jogging works their heart                                     Some people prefer a stationary bike
      and lungs more in a short period than                                  even if they could ride outside.
                                                                   TH E R O LE O F C AR D I OVA S C U L AR E XE R C I S E                        147

                                              building. At the time, he had already won             but you never thought it would happen,
  BODYBUILDING BIO:                           the sport’s top prize, Mr. Olympia, three             and all of a sudden it did.”
  Ronnie Coleman                              straight times. Since leaving law enforce-              Coleman, a former football player at
                                              ment, Coleman has added three more                    Grambling State University, has a web site
  Ronnie Coleman was an intimidating cop.     Mr. Olympia titles.                                   called BigRonnieColeman.com. How
     Before he left the police department        The first time he won, he collapsed                 appropriate.
  in Arlington, Texas, near Dallas, Officer    onstage in tears. He still gets emotional               He has no intention of giving up his
  Coleman struck fear in bad guys.            with each win.                                        Mr. Olympia crown any time soon.
  Weighing close to 300 pounds, his police       “It’s so overwhelming,” says Coleman,                “I’m always challenging myself,” says
  uniform couldn’t hide his world-class       who is 5 11 and competes at about                     Coleman, 39. “I’m good at challenging
  muscles.                                    260 pounds. “It’s almost better than winning          myself.”
     Coleman retired from the force in 2000   the lottery because you worked for it. It’s
  to devote full time to his passion—body-    like something you want all your life,

    Swimming is another excellent                      do less during the “off season” when
aerobic exercise. It’s very demanding,                 they’re not preparing for a competition.
and it can produce excellent results                   During this time, they’re usually trying
in a short amount of time, particularly                to gain muscle mass, but they still want
if you aren’t accustomed to swimming.                  to keep their heart and lungs in good
If you haven’t been swimming in                        shape. In the weeks leading up to a
a while, it may take some time to get                  contest, bodybuilders normally increase
in the groove. As you can imagine,                     their aerobic exercise significantly in
swimming is easy on the joints. It can                 order to get rid of fat and improve their
also be enjoyable and relaxing.                        muscle definition.
    Even if you don’t like to swim,                        We should also mention that it’s
you can still get a good workout in                    possible to do too much cardio work.
the pool by running. That may sound                    Particularly when you’re in intense
odd, but running in 3 or 4 feet of                     training, you shouldn’t do lengthy,
water provides excellent resistance and                demanding aerobics—such as running
gives you a great low-impact workout.                  long distances on a regular basis—
You’ll be surprised at how difficult it                 because if you do, you’ll tax your body
is—you certainly won’t make great                      too much. Weight training requires
time. However, your heart, lungs,                      tremendous stamina and strength,
and leg muscles will definitely feel                    and if your body is weak from miles
the results.                                           of running, you won’t get the full
    Running, biking, and swimming                      benefit in the gym. Remember—
are the most common forms of cardio                    your goal is to become a bodybuilder,
exercise, but there are many more.                     not a marathon runner. A cardio
Hiking, jumping rope, playing tennis,                  program should always complement
softball, or golf (if you walk rather than             your weight training, not detract
ride in a golf cart) all provide good                  from it.
cardio benefits. There may be other                         Excessive cardio work can also
activities you enjoy that provide a                    make it difficult to retain muscle mass.
good aerobic workout.                                  If you are thin by nature, you may
    Most top bodybuilders do cardio                    already have trouble gaining quality
work year-round, although some may                     weight. If you add in too much cardio,

      you can sweat off your muscle as well                                  have a tendency to get too heavy may
      as your fat. Be smart, and pay attention                               always need to do more aerobics than
      to your progress.                                                      thinner people. Everyone is different.
         Everyone, no matter how thin,                                       Success in bodybuilding depends on
      needs to do some aerobics in order                                     customizing both your weight training
      to strengthen the cardiovascular system                                and your aerobics program for your
      and build endurance. Bodybuilders who                                  physique.
                    Mental Aspects of Bodybuilding
                   “Your mind must be in gear or all the training and nutrition
                    in the world won’t get you anywhere.”
                          —Lee Haney, eight-time Mr. Olympia

Your mind is a powerful tool.                           Visualization is one of the elements
   In recent years, athletes in all                 that sport psychologists teach. You can
sports have learned the value of mental             train yourself to “see” what you desire.
preparation in order to perform their               In the scenario above, you could visu-
best. Bodybuilding is certainly no                  alize yourself completing a strenuous
different. Learning to harness the                  set and imagine the satisfaction that
power of your mind can assist you                   follows. Or you could see yourself
in achieving both short-term and long-              finishing your entire workout, admiring
term goals.                                         your pump, and feeling good about
   Many professional athletes use                   your progress.
sport psychologists to help them gain                   Visualization can help you over-
a mental edge. You may not be able to               come the need to fulfill an immediate
afford a sport psychologist, but you can            desire—in the above case, taking it
apply some of the methods they teach                easy—and achieve your true goal.
to achieve better results.                          Once you can imagine yourself attain-
   “Correct mental programming is                   ing success, it’s easier to overcome
essential to success in gaining humon-              the obstacles that stand in your way.
gous muscle mass and becoming                       Soon you may discover a newfound
a champion,” says Lee Haney. “Your                  enthusiasm for working out.
mental approach to bodybuilding first                    “Bodybuilders who have to force
primes the pump and then keeps the                  themselves to go to the gym and work
water flowing.”                                      out will never achieve the kind of
   You can even employ mental                       success possible for those who can’t
strength to get in the gym door and                 wait to hit the gym and start pumping
start your workout. There’s always                  iron,” Arnold Schwarzenegger says.
an excuse for not training:                         “Training with this kind of enthusiasm
   I don’t have time.                               is vital.
   I’m too tired.                                       “The hours I spent in the gym were
   It won’t hurt to miss a workout.                 the high point of my day. I liked the


                        Copyright © 2005 by Mountain Lion, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

                                                                             biggest contest of their lives. “I can
                                                                             make people lose,” he boasted.
         YOUR STATE OF MIND                                                      Some people might criticize this
                                                                             type of mental intimidation, but Arnold
         “Serious bodybuilders, committed to muscular                        never had a problem with it. “There is
         size, ripped definition, and symmetrical enhance-                    always a psychological element in
         ment, must include mental training in their                         any sports competition,” he writes in
         bodybuilding program. Think of sports                               The New Encyclopedia of Bodybuilding.
         psychology as another component of training—                        “Athletic performance at the highest
         a set of tools designed to make the best athlete                    levels requires a tremendous degree of
         possible. . . .                                                     self-confidence and concentration, and
            “You must treat mental training the same way                     anything that interferes with either will
         you treat your physical training, nutritional                       seriously threaten the athlete’s chances
         regimen, and sleep habits. Would you enter a                        of winning.
         bodybuilding contest without working out in the                         “Nobody is immune to being
         gym months earlier? Could you have developed                        psyched out. In fact, I have to admit
         that ripped physique by adhering to a high-fat,                     that I’ve been on the receiving end of
         low-protein diet? . . .                                             this treatment as well as dishing it out.”
            “You can develop mental skills by practicing                         Most top bodybuilders, however,
         them in a diligent and consistent manner,                           use psychological methods more
         just as you lift weights, eat soundly, get enough                   to motivate themselves than to derail
         rest, and take nutritional supplements. For                         others. Unless you concentrate on your
         mental skills to be effective, you must practice                    own development, you’ll have no
         them every day.”                                                    chance of defeating others—even if
            —from Mind & Muscle: Psych Up, Build Up
                                                                             you’re a master at manipulation.
                                                                                 Champion bodybuilders use
                                                                             mental strength to help them stick
                                                                             to their training schedule as well as to
                                                                             work out with fierce intensity. The role
      way training felt, the pump I would get                                of intensity cannot be overstated. You
      during my workout, and the relaxed                                     can spend hours and hours in the gym,
      sensation of near exhaustion that came                                 but if you aren’t giving it everything
      afterward.”                                                            you have—pushing yourself harder and
         Your mind and body can’t be sepa-                                   harder—you’re almost wasting your
      rated—you can’t develop your body                                      time. You can use visualization to create
      to its fullest without enlisting the                                   an intensity you didn’t know you had.
      power of your mind. Schwarzenegger                                         “You won’t make optimum progress
      was one of the first bodybuilders who                                   toward a truly massive physique until
      became known for using mental prepa-                                   you have a high level of mental con-
      ration to motivate himself as well                                     centration throughout each workout,”
      as to intimidate his opponents. He was                                 says Mike Matarazzo, a top bodybuilder.
      a master at “psyching out” competitors                                 “If you can concentrate fully on the
      before major events.                                                   working muscle, you’ll be able to feel
         The classic documentary Pumping                                     it quite intensely as it goes through its
      Iron follows Arnold and several other                                  paces in a particular bodybuilding
      contestants as they prepared for the                                   movement.”
      1975 Mr. Olympia competition. Arnold                                       As you progress in bodybuilding,
      used his mental strength—as well                                       you’ll invariably suffer setbacks.
      as some manipulation—to make others                                    It might be an injury, an illness, or
      doubt themselves on the brink of the                                   a commitment that gets in the way
                                                                             M E NTAL A S P E C TS O F B O DYB U I LD I N G                      151

of training. When this happens, you                       says Lee Haney. “Visualization is an
need the mental strength to get back                      exciting and effective method of pro-
on track in pursuing your goals.                          gramming your subconscious mind
    A few missed workouts won’t doom                      to assist it in bringing you bodybuild-
you—unless you give in and become                         ing success.”
discouraged. That’s the power of the                         Champion bodybuilders aren’t
mind. It can be your best friend or your                  necessarily the ones with the greatest
worst enemy. Don’t be like so many                        natural potential, but they’re usually
people who vow to get in shape but fail                   the toughest mentally. They have faced
to follow through.                                        the same setbacks and hard times
    Remind yourself, over and over if                     as other competitors, but they remain
necessary, that success in bodybuilding                   focused on their goals and they don’t
is much more a marathon than a                            give up. Mental strength might seem
sprint. Most likely, you won’t make                       intangible, but it’s very real.
steady, predictable gains. You’ll                            It can help you overcome failure—
probably add size and definition                           big or small. If you enter a bodybuild-
in unpredictable spurts. You may go                       ing contest and don’t do as well as
months without seeing any significant                      you had hoped, it doesn’t mean that
improvement. Just remember that                           you’ll never succeed. The resulting
if you follow your training schedule,                     disappointment can be a motivator
perhaps making a few changes in your                      to train harder and smarter.
regimen, big gains are probably right                        Mental strength also comes into
around the corner. Mental strength                        play in your diet. As we’ve said, what
gives you the dedication to press on                      you eat has a huge bearing on your
when there’s not an immediate payoff.                     physique. If you constantly consume
    “To get really massive, you have                      junk food, your body will show it.
to see yourself as being really massive,”                 Discipline yourself to eat right,

                                                    “I know I can’t fight fire with fire, so                 “I think I got my genetics from my
  YOU DON’T HAVE TO BE TALL                      my approach is to be the finest, the most              mother,” says Lee, 31. “She took up body-
                                                 complete, the most finished physique                   building at age 38 and won the state title
  Height is not a requirement to be an           up there,” says Labrada, 43.                          after only eight months of training.”
  accomplished bodybuilder.                         He isn’t the shortest person to reach                 Shawn Ray, who stands only 5 7 ,
     Some of the top competitors in the          the pinnacle of bodybuilding, however. Lee            was runner-up in the Mr. Olympia contest
  history of the sport have been well under      Priest, one of today’s top competitors, is only       in 1994 and 1996. He’s had top-five finishes
  6 feet tall.                                   5 4 . He’s much more massive than Labrada,            in virtually every major competition around
     Lee Labrada, who is 5 6 , finished second    weighing 220 pounds in contest shape.                 the world. It’s tough to find any flaws in
  in the prestigious Mr. Olympia contest in         “How can anyone pack so much beef onto             Shawn’s physique, but he sees room
  1989 and 1990.                                 such a small frame?” a bodybuilding writer            for improvement.
     “A champion doesn’t have to have            once commented.                                          “My bodybuilding philosophy is that
  big arms and a big chest,” says Labrada, who      Priest became interested in bodybuilding           you’re never good enough,” says Ray, 38.
  competed at 180 pounds. “He’s developed        even before he reached puberty. By age                “Nobody is perfect. When I look in the
  proportionately all over.”                     13, he had won three bodybuilding contests.           mirror, I can see what’s good about my
     Lee regularly found himself onstage with    At 17, he competed in Mr. Universe, the               physique, but I can see my weak points
  250-pound competitors. Yet he usually          world’s top amateur event.                            as well.”
  defeated them.

                                                                                Athletes sometimes turn to medita-
                                                                             tion to overcome negative thoughts and
         WORDS TO TRAIN BY                                                   focus on success. They may head
                                                                             to a quiet place, close their eyes, and
         “Make the commitment and stick to it.”                              concentrate on their goals, blocking out
                                                                             everything else. They might practice
            —Lee Priest, top bodybuilder
                                                                             visualization, “seeing” themselves
                                                                             performing perfectly, even accepting
                                                                             the champion’s prize.
                                                                                Just as our bodies don’t all perform
      as tempting as it may be at times                                      the same way, neither do our minds.
      to do otherwise. Stay focused on your                                  You might give yourself a pep talk that
      goals. Is that donut or cheeseburger                                   would seem corny to someone else,
      really worth the effect it will                                        but if it motivates you, that’s all that
      have?                                                                  matters.
         Some people use positive self-talk—                                    The mind, it’s been said, is a muscle.
      also called affirmations—for motiva-                                    Use it, and it will grow stronger.
      tion. Examples are “I can do this!”                                       “I’m the best bodybuilder in the
      or “I’m the best!” You can make these                                  sport,” Arnold Schwarzenegger once
      statements to yourself or yell them out                                said, “because my mind is stronger and
      loud.                                                                  better disciplined than others’.”
                    Preparing for Contests
                    “I’ve always been a confident, outgoing person. I’m very comfortable onstage—
                    something of a showoff—so posing in front of a big audience is easy for me.”
                          —Kevin Levrone, top bodybuilder

Bodybuilders share a desire to develop                 People on both ends of the spectrum
large, impressive physiques.                        share the same love of lifting weights
    Beyond that, however, they set                  and improving their bodies. For them,
different goals. For most, the payoff               bodybuilding is a very personal en-
for serious weight training is a stronger,          deavor. Unlike team sports, you alone
more attractive body. Perhaps they                  dictate your goals and control your
want to prove to themselves—or to                   results.
others—that they have the willpower                    If you think you’d like to enter
and the discipline to reshape their                 bodybuilding contests, however, you
physique.                                           need to know what to expect and how
    A small percentage of people who                to prepare properly. That’s the purpose
turn to bodybuilding intend to enter                of this chapter. You’ll learn how to train
bodybuilding contests. Arnold Schwar-               for an event and how to do your best
zenegger is a classic example. He got               once you get there.
hooked on bodybuilding as soon as                      Before you decide whether to
he began weight lifting, and he knew                compete, you need to realize that it
immediately that he wanted to                       takes extreme commitment and dedi-
compete. In contrast, other top body-               cation to be a serious contender.
builders have drifted toward compe-                 Just like you wouldn’t decide to enter
tition years after they began weight                a marathon just a few weeks before the
training.                                           race, you can’t decide that you want
    You certainly don’t have to enter               to compete in a bodybuilding contest
contests to be considered a bodybuilder.            just a few weeks before it is held.
Anyone who faithfully develops and                  You must lay the foundation months,
shapes his or her physique with weights             even years, in advance of a bodybuild-
can be called a bodybuilder. One of the             ing competition—with systematic
sport’s appeals is that you can enjoy it            and rigorous training.
at all levels—from beginner all the way                If you’ve begun to develop a
up to the professional ranks.                       respectable physique, you should be


                        Copyright © 2005 by Mountain Lion, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

      able to assess whether you have the                                        Now you have a comprehensive
      potential to compete. Genetics, which                                  baseline of your physique as you begin
      plays a huge role in bodybuilding, may                                 intense training. You’ll be able to set
      be the determining factor. You might                                   realistic goals for your development
      train for years and eat right, but still                               and measure yourself periodically
      not have the body to enter a contest.                                  as the event approaches.
      That’s okay—most people don’t.                                             The goal in preparing for a body-
      Yet they can still enjoy bodybuilding.                                 building event is to peak at the right
          Besides analyzing your genetic                                     time. You want your physique to be
      potential, you need to look at your                                    its absolute best on the day of the
      commitments and responsibilities.                                      contest—not a week before, not a week
      If your career and home life are so                                    after. As you can imagine, timing your
      demanding that you can’t stick to a                                    preparation to coincide perfectly with
      training regimen, you can’t be a serious                               the contest is tricky.
      competitor. Again, that’s fine. You can                                     Even the world’s best bodybuilders
      enjoy bodybuilding to the degree that                                  sometimes miss the mark. Don’t be
      it suits your lifestyle.                                               surprised if it takes several contests
          Once you’ve decided that you have                                  to learn exactly how to organize your
      the potential and you know that you                                    training so that you arrive in peak
      have the time to train for a contest,                                  condition. Very few people place high,
      you need to thoroughly evaluate your                                   much less win, in their first contest.
      physique. It’s best to enlist the help                                 Each time you have a disappointing
      of an experienced bodybuilder for this.                                finish, you can gain valuable experience
      Even top competitors have weaknesses                                   to help you for the next contest.
      in their physique. What are yours?                                         Between contests, it’s normal to gain
      Once you find out, you’ll be able                                       some weight and lose some definition.
      to develop an effective training                                       While you can’t stay in peak form all
      regimen.                                                               year long—physically or mentally—
          In previous chapters, we’ve described                              make sure that you don’t abandon
      numerous weightlifting exercises that                                  training altogether. If you get woefully
      cover all your muscle groups. Once                                     out of shape, it’s much harder to whip
      you’ve determined your body’s main                                     yourself into contest condition, no
      weaknesses, you can pick and choose                                    matter how much time you allow.
      from the various exercises to develop                                      Even though you should lift weights
      a regimen that suits your own phy-                                     year-round, you won’t continue to train
      sique. You may do only three or four                                   with all-out intensity. Between contests,
      exercises for one body area if it’s well                               you’ll abide by a more general workout
      developed, while you might do six                                      plan and do fewer sets. Twelve to 16
      or seven for another if it’s lagging                                   weeks before a competition, you need
      in development. Over time, you’ll learn                                to assess your condition and develop
      to evaluate your progress and make                                     a detailed regimen to help you achieve
      adjustments to your regimen.                                           your goal.
          It’s a good idea to start by weighing                                  This is also the time to become
      yourself, because although weight is                                   more disciplined about your eating.
      only one indicator of fitness, it’s an                                  Your pre-contest planning must include
      important one. Measure your key body                                   your diet and, hopefully, you won’t
      areas—chest, shoulders, arms, legs,                                    have abandoned good eating habits
      and waist. Finally, have someone take                                  altogether.
      photos of you in relaxed and flexed                                         Competitive bodybuilding involves
      poses.                                                                 elements that people often don’t
                                                                        P R E PAR I N G FO R CO NT E ST S   155

consider: learning posing techniques,
getting a tan, shaving your body,
applying oil to highlight your muscles,        WORDS TO TRAIN BY
and even picking out trunks that
complement your physique. The many             “In preparation for a contest, I practice my
people who enjoy bodybuilding but              posing for up to one hour at a time four or five
who have no interest whatsoever                days a week. This is increased to one hour
in these issues shouldn’t consider enter-      per day over the last two weeks before a show.
ing a competition. Even such seemingly         There’s no other way for me to get it right.”
small details can determine the out-             —Marjo Selin, top female bodybuilder
come of a bodybuilding contest.

                                             cramp. Posing may appear effortless,
Proper posing is critical in bodybuild-      but it’s not. “Contest posing is exhaust-
ing contests. You may have the best          ing,” says Dave Draper, a former
physique in the field, but if you don’t       Mr. Universe. “It’s emotionally and
know how to show it off, you won’t           often physically harder than the work-
win.                                         outs that led up to posing.”
    How do you feel about posing                 In addition to mandatory poses,
onstage in a pair of skimpy shorts,          contestants are allowed to develop
under bright lights and the scrutiny         poses that highlight their strengths, as
of judges? If this doesn’t appeal to you,    well as others that would perhaps hide
there’s no use in training for a contest.    their weaknesses. These vary widely,
Many people love the sensation of            depending on a contestant’s height,
lifting weights and the satisfaction         weight, and build.
of sculpting an impressive physique,             “If you copy someone else’s posing
but they would be incredibly self-           style, that’s exactly what it will look
conscious about being onstage. People        like,” said Cory Everson, a six-time
who enter bodybuilding contests must         Ms. Olympia winner. “The judges will
enjoy being onstage and having people        see you as a follower, not a leader.”
stare at their bodies.                           Whether you’re doing a mandatory
    Training in the gym is one skill.        pose or a unique pose, your facial
Posing is an entirely different skill.       expression is important. You need to
Just as with lifting, there are right ways   leave that pained, snarling look in the
and wrong ways to pose. It’s not as          gym. What you want people to notice
simple as flexing your biceps and             is your physique, not your face.
making it as big as you can.                     Arnold Schwarzenegger says, “When
    Bodybuilding contests have certain       you are onstage, you are not only an
mandatory poses, just like figure skating     athlete, but a performer as well.”
competitions have compulsory
elements. You must master these poses
to score well. Posing is an art form that    TANNING, OIL, AND
involves timing, positioning onstage,        POSING TRUNKS
and body control.
    It’s also extremely strenuous. During    Contest judges are evaluating your
competition, you may have to hold a          entire presentation. Besides posing, this
pose for a minute or more. If you’re not     includes your complexion and clothing.
prepared, your muscles can shake or          Here again, these may seem like silly,

      insignificant issues to some, but—like                                  look natural. Instead, you should
      it or not—they’re an integral part of                                  develop a moderate tan and then
      competition. Consideration of these                                    enhance it with a cream or lotion.
      aspects of a bodybuilder’s presentation                                    Onstage, even a good tan and proper
      is another opportunity to decide                                       posing aren’t enough. To make your
      whether you really want to enter a                                     muscles more prominent to the judges
      bodybuilding contest.                                                  and the audience, you must apply
          Why is a good tan important?                                       posing oil before you go onstage. The
      Because the bright lights onstage wash                                 thought of this may not thrill you, but
      out a contestant with fair skin. To give                               again, it’s part of the package. Before
      yourself a fair chance, you need a tan.                                you can apply oil, however, you’ve got
      These days, however, we all know about                                 to shave down.
      the danger of spending too much time                                       Few people, at least initially, are
      in the sun. Overexposure can cause                                     keen about shaving all the hair off their
      your skin to wrinkle and age and may                                   chest, arms, and legs, but face it—hair
      put you at higher risk of developing                                   masks the detail and definition of your
      skin cancer.                                                           muscles. Shaving and applying posing
          To protect yourself, you must use                                  oil go hand in hand, and they serve
      sunscreen and limit your time outdoors.                                the same purpose—to show off your
      As a result, you need to start working                                 muscles and give you a better chance
      on your tan months before a com-                                       of winning.
      petition. Don’t try to get a deep, dark                                    Don’t shave for the first time the
      tan the week of an event. You’ll                                       night before a contest. You’re likely
      probably wind up beet red and burned.                                  to cut or irritate your skin. In addition,
          Fair-skinned bodybuilders aren’t                                   you’ll experience a psychological effect
      the only ones who need to worry about                                  when you suddenly lose all your body
      getting a tan. “Tanning is not just for                                hair—you’ll probably feel smaller,
      fair-skinned bodybuilders,” Schwarze-                                  weaker. Give yourself time to get used
      negger says. “Most darker-skinned                                      to the bald body look.
      bodybuilders, like African-Americans                                       When you’re ready to shed your
      or Latinos, find that spending some                                     hair, you can lather up and shave,
      time tanning changes the skin texture                                  as you would your face. Alternatively,
      and depth of tone and adds to their                                    you can apply hair-removal creams.
      appearance onstage.”                                                   These are fairly effective, but don’t use
          What about tanning booths and                                      them at the last minute. They, too,
      tanning creams? Both are okay if used                                  can irritate your skin and give you
      in moderation. Tanning beds can be                                     a coarse look.
      safer than direct exposure to the sun,                                     Now that you’ve gotten rid of your
      but sunlamp rays can burn and damage                                   body hair, it’s time to put on the oil.
      your skin too.                                                         Keep in mind, though, that too much
          Today’s tanning lotions are far                                    is just as bad as too little. Beginners
      superior to those of the past, which                                   often slosh on posing oil indiscrimi-
      often had the unfortunate effect of                                    nately. This makes them look shiny,
      turning your skin orange. Modern                                       and it causes light to reflect off them
      creams and lotions can help you get                                    as if they were a mirror, which is very
      a rich tan without the time and danger                                 distracting to judges.
      associated with long periods out in the                                    Oil should be applied in thin coats
      sun or in a tanning booth, but it’s a                                  well before you go onstage. That way
      mistake to try to get your entire tan out                              it can soak into your skin instead
      of a bottle. The result probably won’t                                 of staying on the surface. Once the oil
                                                                 P R E PAR I N G FO R CO NT E ST S   157

is absorbed, you can add a second or        day of the event. Too often, contestants
even a third coat. Just don’t overdo it.    appear doughy and smooth because
And don’t apply a coat mere seconds         they haven’t dropped enough weight.
before you walk onstage. It leaves a bad    However, it’s also possible to lose so
impression to be dripping oil. Body-        much weight that you look weak and
builders use a host of different oils,      dehydrated onstage.
from vegetable oil to olive oil. Experi-        It takes experience to know how
ment to find out what works best for         much to cut your calories before
you.                                        a contest so that you look your best
    Besides getting a good tan and          in competition. By the time you begin
learning to use posing oil, you need        preparing for competition, you should
to consider one other onstage detail:       already understand your body’s metabo-
your shorts. There are a myriad of          lism, that is, how easily your body
colors, styles, and fabrics to consider.    burns calories. Once you understand
As fashion experts will tell you, certain   your metabolism, you can more accu-
clothes look great on some people but       rately plan your diet. It’s unlikely that
terrible on others, and the same is true    you’ll diet perfectly for your first
for posing trunks. You should consult       contest. There’s a learning curve, just
a person who has some knowledge and         as there is with all aspects of prepa-
experience in this area, because the        ration. After a few contests, though,
wrong trunks can be as distracting          you should be able to chart out an
to judges as too much oil.                  eating plan that gets you in lean shape
    Today, most competitors wear the        just in time.
briefest of shorts—essentially bikini           Your preparation should address
briefs. The objective is to reveal your     not only lifting and eating but also
muscles as much as possible. Get used       aerobic exercise. Normally, bodybuilders
to wearing these shorts well before you     increase the amount and intensity of
go onstage. Just as when you shave          cardio work leading up to an event.
your body hair for the first time, you’re    The reason is simple. They want to
likely to feel naked and self-conscious     burn off as much fat as possible so that
in posing trunks at first.                   their muscles show more prominently.
                                            You have to be careful, though, because
                                            if you do too much aerobic exercise,
DIET AND WEIGHT LOSS                        you can lose muscle tissue as well as fat.
                                            Then you’ve undermined all your
Bodybuilding contestants usually gain       efforts to build mass.
weight between contests to increase             Some bodybuilders make the mistake
their muscle mass. Then as an event         of using diuretics before an event
nears, they steadily lose weight so that    so they can lose water weight, figuring
their muscles will be more defined           that excess water detracts from their
and “cut.” Typically, top competitors       definition. Diuretics, however, can be
begin a pre-contest diet 12 to 16 weeks     extremely dangerous, even fatal. Your
before an event. This gives them            body needs an adequate amount of
enough time to lose up to 25 pounds—        water for proper functioning, and
or even more, if necessary. Of course,      muscles are made up primarily of water.
it’s best not to gain this much weight      If you extract water from your body
in the first place.                          with diuretics, you decrease your
    Once again, timing is critical.         muscle size. Today, major bodybuilding
You need to start losing weight early       contests test for diuretic use, just as
enough to get in tiptop shape by the        they do for illegal drugs. Don’t be

      tempted to break the rules and
      endanger your life.
         Consider the tragic story of                                            START EARLY
      Mohammad Benaziza. After winning
      the 1992 Belgium Grand Prix body-                                          “We have seen many bodybuilders drop more
      building contest, he dropped dead only                                     than seven pounds during a one-week period
      hours later. It’s believed that he died                                    and continue to do this for several weeks.
      because of an electrolyte imbalance                                        This is not dieting. It’s a desperation method.
      brought on by diuretic use. “Momo                                          It means the bodybuilder waited far too long
      just froze,” says bodybuilder Mike                                         to get serious.
      Matarazzo. “Guys who were there said                                          “Starting late in contest preparation is the
      he was like a piece of iron when he                                        number one reason why bodybuilders fail
      died.”                                                                     to achieve their peaks.”
                                                                                    —from Sliced: State-of-the-Art Nutrition
                                                                                     for Building Lean Body Mass
      Most bodybuilding contestants do
      some lifting and stretching immediately
      before going onstage. The idea is to                                   others find a secluded place. There’s
      pump up your muscles, even a little,                                   psychological strategy at work. Some
      to give yourself an edge.                                              bodybuilders think it gives them an
          You should do exercises that require                               advantage to hide their physiques until
      no weights, such as Dips and Chin-Ups,                                 they go onstage. They hope to shock
      or exercises with only light weight                                    opponents with their massiveness.
      and high reps. Be careful not to work                                  Others, however, think it’s to their
      out so much that you become fatigued.                                  advantage to show off their physiques
      Keep in mind that posing for long                                      backstage in order to demonstrate their
      periods onstage can be exhausting,                                     confidence.
      and the pressure of competition                                           “Psyching out your opponents,
      adds to your fatigue. Last-minute                                      or gamesmanship, is common to all
      lifting can also pump up your muscles                                  sports,” Schwarzenegger says. “None
      too much so that they lose critical                                    of this is cheating. Cheating is when
      definition.                                                             you break the rules, not when you take
          Backstage before an event, some                                    advantage of an opponent’s psycho-
      contestants work out together, while                                   logical weakness.”

                                                     Schwarzenegger, Arnold, with Douglas
Connors, Edward, Peter Grymkowski,                   Kent Hall. Arnold: Arnold’s Own Story.
Tim Kimber, and Michael J. B.                        New York: Fireside/Simon & Schuster,
McCormick. Building Bulk. Chicago:                   Inc., 1977.
NTC/Contemporary Publishing Group,
1999.                                                Sisco, Peter. Ironman’s Ultimate Body-
                                                     building Encyclopedia. Chicago: NTC/
Connors, Edward, Peter Grymkowski,                   Contemporary Publishing Group, 1999.
Tim Kimber, and Michael J. B. McCor-
mick. Total Torso Training. Chicago:                 Sisco, Peter. Ironman’s Ultimate Guide
NTC/Contemporary Publishing Group,                   to Building Muscle Mass. Chicago: NTC/
2000.                                                Contemporary Publishing Group, 2000.

Connors, Edward, Peter Grymkowski,                   Thorne, Gerard, and Phil Embleton.
Tim Kimber, and Bill Reynolds. Gold’s                Encyclopedia of Bodybuilding. Missis-
Gym Mass Building, Training, and                     sauga, Ontario, Canada: MuscleMag
Nutrition System. Chicago: NTC/                      International, 1997.
Contemporary Publishing Group, 1992.                 Thorne, Gerard, and Phil Embleton.
Connors, Edward, Michael J. B.                       Explosive Growth! Everything You Ever
McCormick, Peter Grymkowski, and                     Wanted to Know about Building Muscle.
Tim Kimber. The Gold’s Gym Ency-                     Mississauga, Ontario, Canada:
clopedia of Bodybuilding. Chicago: NTC/              MuscleMag International, 2000.
Contemporary Publishing Group, 1996.                 Thorne, Gerard, and Phil Embleton.
Dallas Morning News. Dallas, Tex.:                   Muscle Quest: Training Secrets of the
October 3, 1999; May 10, 2001; and                   Superstars, Mississauga, Ontario,
October 31, 2001.                                    Canada: MuscleMag International,
Hatfield, Frederick C. Hardcore Body-
building: A Scientific Approach. Chicago:             Weider, Joe, with Bill Reynolds. Joe
NTC/Contemporary Publishing Group,                   Weider’s Ultimate Bodybuilding. Chicago:
1993.                                                NTC/Contemporary Publishing Group,
Reynolds, Bill, and Negrita Jayde. Sliced:
State-of-the-Art Nutrition for Building Lean         Whitmarsh, Blair. Mind & Muscle.
Body Mass. Chicago: NTC/Contem-                      Champaign, Ill.: Human Kinetics, 2001.
porary Publishing Group, 1991.                       Wolff, Robert. Bodybuilding 101.
Schwarzenegger, Arnold, with Bill                    Chicago: McGraw-Hill/Contemporary
Dobbins. The New Encyclopedia                        Books, 1999.
of Modern Bodybuilding. New York:
Fireside/Simon & Schuster, Inc., 1999.

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                                              stretching exercises for              Buttocks muscles, 14 (see also
      Abdominal muscles, 13,                     Back Roll, 17                          Gluteus maximus muscles)
           131–33 (see also Oblique              Seated Torso Bend, 15–16
           muscles)                              V-Stretch, 16                      Cable Crunch, 135–37
        exercises for, 32 –34, 133– 43      Belt, weightlifting, 3, 66, 72,         Cable Curl, 101–2
           Bench Kickback, 140 – 43              73, 74, 84, 85, 97, 116,           Cable Flye, 54
           Bench Leg Raise, 140                  119                                Cable Kick, 124 –25
           Cable Crunch, 135–37             Benaziza, Mohammad, 158                 Cable Lateral Raise, 67– 68
           Crunches, 32, 133–35             Bench, 3 (see also names                Cable Pressdown, 106 –7
           Hanging Leg Raise,                    of benches)                        Calcium, 41
                138 –39                     Bench Kickback, 140 – 43                Calf muscles (see also
           Incline Bench Leg Raise,         Bench Leg Raise, 140                         Gastrocnemius muscles;
                140                         Bench Press, 23–24                           Leg muscles)
           Incline Board Sit-Up,            Bent-Forward Cable Crossover,             exercises for, 126 –30
                133                              54, 55                                  Calf Raise, 32
           Leg Lifts, 32                    Bent-Over Cable Lateral Raise,               Calf Raise on Leg Press
           Machine Crunch, 137                   71                                           Machine, 128
           Parallel Bar Leg Raise,          Bent-Over Dumbbell Lateral                   Donkey Calf Raise, 130
                139– 40                          Raise, 70 –71                           Reverse Calf Raise, 128 –30
           Reverse Crunch, 135              Bent-Over Row, 71–72, 84                     Seated Calf Raise, 128
           Roman Chair Sit-Up, 133          Biceps, 13, 93–95 (see also Arm              Standing Calf Raise,
           Side Bend, 138                        muscles)                                     126 –28
           Side Leg Raises, 143               exercises for, 96 –105                  stretching exercise for
           Twists, 137–38                        Arm Blaster, 97                         Calf Stretch, 18
        stretching exercise for                  Biceps Machine, 102 –3             Calf Raise, 32
           Crunches, 18                          Cable Curl, 101–2                  Calf Raise on Leg Press
      Aerobic work, 131–32, 145– 48              Close-Grip Chin-Up, 103                 Machine, 128
      “America’s Most Perfectly                  Concentration Curl, 100            Calf Stretch, 18
           Developed Man,” 6                     Curls, 28                          Calorie consumption, 41– 42
      Arm Blaster (equipment), 97,               Hammer Curl, 99–100                Camera, 3
           98, 107                               Incline Dumbbell Curl,             Carbohydrates, 35, 37–38
      Arm Blaster (exercise), 97                      98 –99                          low-carbohydrate diet, 38
      Arm muscles, 13–14, 93–96                  Lying Dumbbell Curl, 101             supplements, 38
           (see also Biceps; Forearm             Preacher Curl, 28, 97              Cardiovascular work, 145– 48
           muscles; Triceps)                     Seated Dumbbell Curl, 99                (see also Aerobic work)
        exercises for, 28 –30, 93–116            Standing Barbell Curl,             “Cheating,” 58, 94
      Arnold Press, 64 – 65                           96 –97                        Chest muscles, 45– 46 (see also
      Atlas, Charles, 6                     Biceps Machine, 102 –3                       Intercostal muscles;
                                            Body fat percentage, 35                      Pectoral muscles; Serratus
      Back muscles, 77–79 (see also         Body types, 3                                muscles)
          Latissimus dorsi muscles;           ectomorph, 3, 4, 41                     exercises for, 45– 60
          Spinal erectors; Trapezius          endomorph, 4, 41                           Bench Press, 23–24
          muscles)                            mesomorph, 4, 41                           Dips, 25, 58 – 60
        exercises for, 79– 89               Bodybuilding                                 Dumbbell Flye, 24 –25
          Bent-Over Row, 84                   history of, 5–7                            Inner Pecs, 55–58
          Deadlift, 84 – 85                   mental aspects of, 149–52                  Lower Pecs, 52 –54
          Good Morning, 86                    women in, 1–2, 63                          Outer Pecs, 58 – 60
          Hyperextension, 87– 88            Breathing, 20                                Upper Pecs, 47–51
          Seated Cable Row, 82 – 84         Brisbois, Steve, 62                     Chin-Ups, 80 – 81
          T-Bar Row, 84                     “Burn,” 5                               Chizevsky, Kim, 63

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                                                                                                INDEX    161

                                  Eating guidelines, 43– 44              Reverse Barbell Curl,
Chlorine, 41                           (see also Nutrition)                  115–16
Clean and Press, 66               Ectomorph, 3, 4, 41                    Reverse Cable Curl, 116
Close-Grip Chin-Up, 103           El Sonbaty, Nasser, 23                 Reverse Curl, 29–30
Coe, Boyer, 22                    Endomorph, 4, 41                       Wrist Curl, 114 –15
Coleman, Ronnie, 93, 147          Equipment, 3                           Zottman Curl, 116
Collars, 3                          bench, 3                         Forward Bend, 15
Columbo, Franco, 77                 Biceps Machine, 102 –3           Free weights, 3, 20 –21
Concentration Curl, 100             camera, 3                        Front Dumbbell Raise, 65– 66
Contests                            collars, 3                       Front Squat, 120 –21
  oil in, use of, 155–57            decline bench, 3
  posing in, 155                    dip bars, 25                     Gastrocnemius muscles, 14
  posing trunks in, 157             EZ curl bar, 97, 98, 107, 109,        (see also Calf muscles)
  preparation for, 153–58                 111, 116                   Genetics, 3, 131, 154
  shaving for, 156                  flat bench, 3                     Gloves, 3
  tanning for, 155–57               free weights, 3, 20 –21          Gluteus maximus muscles, 14
  weight gain/loss for, 157–58      gloves, 3                             (see also Buttocks muscles)
Crunches                            Hack Machine, 121–22, 128          stretching exercise for
  exercises, 32, 133–35             incline bench, 3                      Lunges, 16
  stretching exercise, 18           log book, 3                      Glycemic Index (GI), 38
Curls, 28                           machines, 3, 20 –21 (see also    Good Morning, 86
                                          names of machines)         Groin Stretch, 16
Deadlift, 84 – 85                   Pec Deck, 25, 56                 Gym, training in, 7
Decline bench, 3                    plates, 3
Decline Dumbbell Press, 52 –53      preacher bench, 3, 6, 28,        Hack Machine, 121–22, 128
Decline Flye, 54                          97–98, 116                 Hack Squat, 121–22
Deltoid muscles (delts), 13,        Pullover Machine, 80             Hammer Curl, 99–100, 116
    61– 62 (see also Shoulder       scale, 3                         Hamstrings, 14 (see also Leg
    muscles)                        Scott bench, 6                       muscles; Thigh muscles)
  exercises for, 63– 66             Smith Machine, 119, 121           exercise for
    Arnold Press, 64 – 65           tape measure, 3                      Leg Curl, 32
    Bent-Over Cable Lateral         weightlifting belt, 3, 66, 72,    stretching exercises for
          Raise, 71                       73, 74, 84, 85, 97, 116,       Forward Bend, 15
    Bent-Over Dumbbell                    119                            V-Stretch, 16
          Lateral Raise, 70 –71     weights, 3                       Hand Pressure with Partner,
    Bent-Over Row, 71–72            wraps, 3                             91
    Cable Lateral Raise, 67– 68   Ertunc, Meryl, 4                   Haney, Lee, 12, 132, 149, 151
    Clean and Press, 66           Everson, Cory, 63, 155             Hanging Leg Raise, 138 –39
    Dumbbell Lateral Raise, 66    Examination, physical, 9           Hnatyschak, John, 131
    Dumbbell Press, 64            Exercises (see names of muscles,   Hyperextension, 87– 88
    Front Dumbbell Raise,              exercises for)
          65– 66                  EZ curl bar, 97, 98, 107, 109,     Incline bench, 3
    Lying Side Lateral, 68 –70         111, 116                      Incline Bench Leg Raise, 140
    Military Press, 63– 64                                           Incline Board Sit-Up, 133
    Prone Dumbbell Lateral        Fat, 35, 38 –39 (see also          Incline Dumbbell Curl,
          Raise, 70, 72                Nutrition)                         98 –99
DeMayo, Paul, 20, 118               body fat percentage, 35          Incline Flye, 50
Diet, 9, 35, 131–32, 157–58         polyunsaturated fat, 39          Incline Press, 47– 48
    (see also Nutrition)            saturated fat, 39                Inner Pecs, 55–58
Dip bars, 25                        unsaturated fat, 39              Intercostal muscles, 13 (see also
Dips, 25, 58 – 60, 112            Ferrigno, Lou, 7, 117                   Chest muscles)
Dips Behind Back, 29, 112 –14     Flat bench, 3                      International Federation of
Diuretics, 157–58                 Flat Bench Cable Crossover,             Bodybuilders, 63
Donkey Calf Raise, 130                 56                            “Ironheads,” 7
Draper, Dave, 6, 155              Flat Bench Dumbbell Press,
Dumbbell Flye, 24 –25                  58                            Junior Nationals, 12
Dumbbell Kickback, 109            Forearm muscles, 14, 95–96
Dumbbell Lateral Raise, 66             (see also Arm muscles)        King, Nimrod, 117
Dumbbell Press, 64                  exercises for, 114 –16
Dumbbell Squat, 119–20                 Dumbbell Wrist Curl,          Labrada, Lee, 13, 41, 61, 132,
Dumbbell Wrist Curl, 29                     29                           151
                                       Hammer Curl, 116              Lat Pulldown, 26, 79– 80
                                                                     Lateral Raise, 26
162   INDEX

                                           magnesium, 41                    Pain vs. soreness, 22
      Latissimus dorsi muscles (lats),     phosphorus, 41                   Parallel Bar Leg Raise, 139– 40
           13, 77–78 (see also Back        potassium, 41                    Parillo, John, 35
           muscles)                        sodium, 41                       Partner, Hand Pressure with,
        exercises for                    “Mr. America,” 6, 7                     91
           Chin-Ups, 80 – 81             “Mr. Olympia,” 6, 7, 8, 12, 13,    Partner, training with, 9
           Lat Pulldown, 26, 79– 80          21, 41, 44, 45, 47, 61, 62,    Pearl, Bill, 36
           Machine Pullover, 80              77, 93, 132, 145, 149, 151     Pec Deck, 25, 56
           One-Arm Cable Row, 80         “Mr. Universe,” 6, 7, 8, 11, 22,   Pectoral muscles (pecs), 13, 46
           Upright Row, 26                   151, 155                            (see also Chest muscles)
      Leg Crossover, 17                  “Ms. Olympia,” 63, 155               exercises for
      Leg Curl, 32                       Murray, Lenda, 63                       Bent-Forward Cable
      Leg Extension, 30, 123             Muscle failure, 5                            Crossover, 54, 55
      Leg Lifts, 32                      Muscles, 13–14 (see also names          Cable Flye, 54
      Leg muscles, 14, 117–18 (see           of muscles)                         Dips, 25, 58 – 60
           also Calf muscles;                                                    Decline Dumbbell Press,
           Hamstrings; Thigh             Narrow-Grip Bench Press,                     52 –53
           muscles)                          57–58, 109–11                       Decline Flye, 54
        exercises for, 30 –32, 117–30    Neck muscles, 89                        Flat Bench Cable
      Leg Press, 122 –23                  exercises for, 89–91                        Crossover, 56
      Leg Press Machine, 128                 Hand Pressure with                  Flat Bench Dumbbell
      Levrone, Kevin, 153                         Partner, 91                         Press, 58
      Lifting, 19–22                         Neck Raise Using Weights,           Incline Flye, 50
        repetitions (reps), 5, 20                 91                             Incline Press, 47– 48
        sets, 5, 20                          Neck Strap, 91                      Low-Pulley Cable
        soreness vs. pain, 22                Wrestler’s Bridge, 89–90                 Crossover, 50, 55
        warm-up sets, 22, 47              stretching exercise for                Machine Flye, 56
        workout, 20 –22                      Neck Roll, 18 –19                   Narrow-Grip Bench Press,
      Log book, 3                        Nutrition, 35– 44                            57–58
      Long Cable Extension, 112           calorie consumption, 41– 42            Standing Cable Crossover,
      Low-carbohydrate diet, 38           carbohydrates, 35, 37–38                    55–56
      Low-Pulley Cable Crossover,         diet, 9, 35, 131–32, 157–58            Wide-Grip Incline Press,
           50, 55                         eating guidelines, 43– 44                   60
      Lower Pecs, 52 –54                  fat, 35, 38 –39                   Phosphorus, 41
      Lunges, 16, 125–26                  Glycemic Index (GI), 38           Physical examination, 9
      Lying Barbell Extension, 107–9      low-carbohydrate diet, 38         Plates, 3
      Lying Dumbbell Curl, 101            meals                             Platz, Tom, 11, 118
      Lying Incline Lateral, 74 –75          frequency of, 42 – 43          Polyunsaturated fat, 39
      Lying Leg Curl, 123                    selection of, 42 – 44          Posing, 155
      Lying Side Lateral, 68 –70          metabolism, 41                    Posing trunks, 157
                                          protein, 35                       Potassium, 41
      Machine Crunch, 137                 supplements                       Preacher bench, 3, 6, 28,
      Machine Flye, 56                       carbohydrate, 38                    97–98, 116
      Machine Pullover, 80                   dietary, 9                     Preacher Curl, 28, 97
      Machines, 3, 20 –21 (see also          protein, 37                    Priest, Lee, 151, 152
          Equipment; names of             vegetarianism, 36                 Prone Dumbbell Lateral Raise,
          machines)                       vitamins, 39– 40 (see also             70, 72
      Magnesium, 41                             names of vitamins)          Protein, 35
      Matarazzo, Mike, 4, 13, 37,            fat-soluble, 39– 40              supplements, 37
          150, 158                           water-soluble, 39– 40          Pullover Machine, 80
      McLish, Rachel, 63                  water, 39                         “Pump,” 5
      Meals                               weight gain/loss, 157–58
       frequency of, 42 – 43                                                Quadriceps, 14 (see also Leg
       selection of, 42 – 44             Oblique muscles, 13 (see also         muscles; Thigh muscles)
      Mental aspects of                       Abdominal muscles)
          bodybuilding, 149–52             stretching exercise for          Ray, Shawn, 62, 151
      Mesomorph, 4, 41                        Standing Torso Bend,          Rear Delts, 70 –72
      Metabolism, 41                              14 –15                    Repetitions (reps), 5, 20
      Military Press, 26, 63– 64         Oil, use of, in contests, 155–57   Reverse Barbell Curl, 115–16
      Minerals, 40 – 41 (see also        Oliva, Sergio, 6                   Reverse Cable Curl, 116
          Nutrition)                     One-Arm Cable Row, 80              Reverse Calf Raise, 128 –30
       calcium, 41                       Outer Pecs, 58 – 60                Reverse Crunch, 135
       chlorine, 41                      Overtraining, 5                    Reverse Curl, 29–30
                                                                                                 INDEX   163

                                    Supplements                       Unsaturated fat, 39
“Ripped,” 5                           carbohydrate, 38                Upper body muscles, 13
Roman Chair Sit-Up, 133               dietary, 9                          (see also names of muscles)
Routine, 5                            protein, 37                      exercises for, 23–28
                                                                      Upper Pecs, 47–51
Sandow, Eugen, 5– 6                 T-Bar Row, 76, 84                 Upright Row, 26, 72 –73
Saturated fat, 39                   Tanning, 155–57
Scale, 3                            Tape measure, 3                   Vascularity, 5
Schwarzenegger, Arnold, 1,          “Teen Mr. America,” 12            Vegetarianism, 36
     6 –7, 8, 36, 46, 65, 77, 79,   Thigh muscles (see also           Vitamin A (retinol), 39
     93–94, 117, 118, 130, 132,          Hamstrings; Leg muscles;     Vitamin B1 (thiamin), 39
     149, 150, 152, 155, 156,            Quadriceps)                  Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), 39
     158                              exercises for, 118 –26          Vitamin B3 (niacin), 39
Scott, Larry, 6                          Cable Kick, 124 –25          Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin),
Scott bench, 6                           Dumbbell Squat, 119–20           39
Seated Cable Row, 82 – 84                Front Squat, 120 –21         Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), 39
Seated Calf Raise, 128                   Hack Squat, 121–22           Vitamin D (cholecalciferol),
Seated Dumbbell Curl, 99                 Leg Extension, 30, 123           39
Seated Torso Bend, 15–16                 Leg Press, 122 –23           Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol),
Seated Triceps Barbell Press,            Lunges, 125–26                   39
     107                                 Lying Leg Curl, 123          Vitamin K (menadione), 39
Seated Triceps Dumbbell Press,           Sissy Squat, 121             Vitamins, 39– 40 (see also
     107                                 Smith Machine Squat, 119         names of vitamins)
Selin, Marjo, 155                        Squats, 30, 118 –19            fat-soluble, 39– 40
Sepe, Frank, 42                          Standing Leg Curl, 123–24      water-soluble, 39– 40
Serratus muscles, 13 (see also           Straight-Leg Deadlift, 126   V-Stretch, 16
     Chest muscles)                   stretching exercises for
Sets, 5, 20                              Groin Stretch, 16            Warm-up sets, 22, 47
Shaving, 156                             Leg Crossover, 17            Warming up, 12 –13
Shoulder muscles, 61– 62                 Lunges, 16                   Water, 39
     (see also Deltoid muscles)     Training                          Weight gain/loss, 157–58
  exercises for, 61–76                in gym, 7                        spot reduction, 131
     Lateral Raise, 26                with partner, 5                 Weightlifting belt, 3, 66, 72,
     Military Press, 26             Trapezius muscles (traps), 13,        73, 74, 84, 85, 97, 116,
     Rear Delts, 70 –72                  78 (see also Back muscles)       119
     Side Delts, 66 –70               exercises for, 72 –76           Weights, 3
Shrugs, 73–74                            Lying Incline Lateral,       Weights, Neck Raise Using,
Siciliano, Angelo (Charles                    74 –75                      91
     Atlas), 6                           Shrugs, 73–74                Wheeler, Flex, 1, 44, 45
Side Bend, 138                           T-Bar Row, 76                Wide-Grip Incline Press, 60
Side Delts, 66 –70                       Upright Row, 72 –73          Women in bodybuilding, 1–2,
Side Leg Raises, 143                Triceps, 13, 95 (see also Arm         63
Sissy Squat, 121                         muscles)                     Workout
Smith Machine, 119, 121               exercises for, 106 –14           duration of, 20 –22
Smith Machine Squat, 119                 Cable Pressdown, 106 –7       frequency of, 20 –22
Sodium, 41                               Dips, 112                    World Amateur
Soleus muscles, 14                       Dips Behind Back, 29,            Championships, 12
     (see also Calf muscles;                  112 –14                 Wraps, 3
     Gastrocnemius muscles)              Dumbbell Kickback, 109       Wrestler’s Bridge, 89–90
Soreness vs. pain, 22                    Long Cable Extension, 112    Wrist Curl, 114 –15
Spinal erectors, 13, 79 (see also        Lying Barbell Extension,
     Back muscles)                            107–9                   Yates, Dorian, 21, 41, 47, 132,
Spotter, 5, 9, 47, 58, 86, 119           Narrow-Grip Bench Press,         145, 146
Squats, 30, 118 –19                           109–11                  Yorton, Chet, 8
Standing Barbell Curl, 96 –97            Seated Triceps Barbell
Standing Cable Crossover,                     Press, 107              Zottman Curl, 116
     55–56                               Seated Triceps Dumbbell
Standing Calf Raise, 126 –28                  Press, 107
Standing Leg Curl, 123–24                Triceps Machine, 111–12
Standing Torso Bend, 14 –15              Triceps Pushdown, 28 –29
Straight-Leg Deadlift, 126            stretching exercise for
Stretching, 12 –13                       Triceps Stretch, 18
Stretching exercises, 14 –19        Twists, 137–38
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