Timeline for the Roman Kingdom and Republic

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					                 Timeline for the Roman Kingdom and Republic

1500’s B.C. - Indo-European tribes enter Italian peninsula.

By 1000 B.C. – Greeks begin arriving in Southern Italy.

753 B.C. – Traditional date for the founding of Rome (by Latin tribes, though
       Etruscans apparently take over quickly)

750-500 B.C. – Greeks establish colonies in Sicily and Southern Italy (Cumae,
      Tarentum, Brindisi, etc)

By 650 B.C. – The Etruscans are the dominant culture in central Italy. They are
       present from the Arno River in the North down to Capua in the South.

600’s B.C. – Etruscans adopt alphabet from the Greeks, with whom they have
       mercantile contact.

Ca. 575 B.C.—The Etruscans lay down the Via Sacra in Rome. Later, they also
       build the Cloaca Maxima.

509 B.C. – Traditional date for the downfall of the Monarchy and the
       establishment of the Republic, due to the Rape of Lucretia.

Ca. 500 B.C. – Traditional story of Horatius Cocles defending Rome from the

499 B.C. – The other Latin tribes form an alliance against Rome.

496 B.C. – Rome beats the other Latin tribes at Lake Regillus, and forms the Latin
       League with them.

494 B.C.—The plebeians go on strike and leave the city of Rome. In response,
       Rome gives two tribunes (tribunes of the plebs) to protect their interests.

480 B.C. – The Etruscan influence begins to lessen

471 B.C. – The tribunes of the plebs create the Council of the Plebs, which can
       promulgate its decisions in plebiscita, which are only binding on the plebs.
450 B.C. – With the help of the decemviri, the Twelve Tables of Law are published
       in Rome.

445 B.C. – The Canuleian Law is passed, granting intermarriage between
       patricians and plebeians.

406 B.C. – The Romans begin besieging the main Etruscan town of Veii.

406 B.C. – The Celts pillage the Etruscan town of Melpum.

396 B.C. – Veii surrenders. Rome annexes its land and gives it to poor plebeians.

390 B.C. – The Celts pillage Rome itself. When they’ve had enough, they demand
       1000 pounds of gold (in their weights) and then leave.

400 B.C. – The Etruscans are once again limited to Etruria (betweent the Arno and
       Tiber rivers).

367 B.C. -- The Licinian-Sextian laws are passed, allowing one consul to be a

343 B.C. – Rome begins a conflict with the Samnites, whose domain is Campania
       (the region just South of Latium that includes Naples).

342 B.C. – A law is passed allowing both consuls to be plebeians, and requiring
       that one must be.

340 B.C. – The other tribes of the Latin League revolt against Rome.

338 B.C. – Rome crushes the Latin tribes, and absorbs them into Roman culture,
       making them Roman citizens.

336 B.C. – The office of praetor (urbanus) is created in the Roman Republic.

290 B.C. – Rome conquers the Samnites. Campania is theirs. This puts them in
       frequent contact with the Greeks.

287 B.C. – The Hortensian Law is passed, which makes the plebiscita binding on
281 B.C. – The Greeks send Pyrrhus of Epirus to fight the Romans. He comes over
       to Italy with 20,000 men and 20-30 elephants.

280 B.C. – General Pyrrhus beats the Romans at Heraclea.

279 B.C. – General Pyrrhus beats the Romans at Ausculum. He says, “One more
       victory like that, and I’ll be utterly ruined” (this is where we get the phrase
       “pyrrhic victory”, which means a victory obtained at great cost).

267 B.C. – Rome defeats the Greeks. Magna Graecia is theirs.

264 B.C. – Rome vanquishes the Etruscans in the North. The entire Italian
       peninsula from the Rubicon River to the Southern coast is theirs. This puts
       them into frequent contact with Carthage’s Empire.

264 B.C. – The beginning of the First Punic War (264-241 B.C.).

242 B.C. – The battle of Drepana: Rome sinks 50 Carthaginian ships and captures
       70 more.

242 B.C. – One praetor (the praetor peregrinus) is added to the Roman magistracy
       (i.e., now there are two praetors).

241 B.C. – Carthage surrenders to Rome. The treaty grants Sicily to Rome. End of
       the First Punic War.

238 B.C. – Rome takes advantage of ambiguous understandings and starts to take
       Corsica and Sardinia. According to legend, this so angers Hamilcar Barca,
       that he makes his nine-year old son, Hannibal, swear hatred for Rome.

237 B.C. – Hamilcar Barca (with Hannibal) goes to Spain and starts to build a land

227 B.C. – The number of praetors is increased to 4.

221 B.C. – After the death of his father (in battle) and the murder of his uncle-in-
       law, Hannibal becomes the general of the Carthaginian forces in Rome. He
       sacks the city of Saguntum, which, though it belongs to Carthage, is very
       friendly with Rome.

218 B.C. – Fabius Buteo demands that Carthage calls back Hannibal and turns him
       over for justice to the Romans. Carthage refuses. Fabius declares war in
       the name of Rome. Beginning of the Second Punic War (218-201 B.C.).

218 B.C. – Hannibal musters an army of 46,000 men and 37 elephants and
       marches north of Spain. He crosses the Rhone River, then he crosses the
       Alps in 15 days. He immediately has numerous victories over the Romans.

217 B.C. – The Battle of Lake Trasimene. Hannibal traps the Romans in a mist and
       crushes them before they even knew what was happening.

217 B.C. – The Romans appoint Quintus Fabius Maximus (Cunctator, “the
       delayer”) as dictator. He employs a tactic of little stabs at Hannibal, but
       avoids open conflict. Rome soon gets tired of this, and goes back to two
       consuls, who decide to engage Hannibal in open war. They muster an
       army of 86,000, the largest Rome has yet created.

216 B.C. – The Battle of Cannae. Hannibal lets the Romans attack his weak center,
       then quickly surrounds them and closes them in tightly, and utterly defeats
       them. 40,000-50,000 Romans dies, and 10,000 are sold into slavery. As a
       result, the impresses Italian allies, especially Capua, come over to
       Hannibal’s side. But Hannibal still refuses to attack Rome itself.

209 B.C. – Publius Cornelius Scipio (Africanus) captures New Carthage in Spain.

207 B.C. – The Carthaginians send Hannibal relief by means of an army led by
       Hasdrubal (Hannibal’s brother). But the Romans intercept his forces, cut
       off Hasdrubal’s head, and throw it into Hannibal’s camp.

206 B.C. – Publius Cornelius Scipio captures all of Spain.

204 B.C. – After stopping in Sicily, Publius Cornelius Scipio moves on to North
       Africa. Hannibal is forced to leave Italy to fight him.
202 B.C. – The Battle of Zama. Publius Cornelius Scipio easily defeats Hannibal’s

201 B.C. – Carthage surrenders. The treaty grants Spain to Rome. End of the
       Second Punic War.

197 B.C. – The Romans expand to cover most of Spain.

197 B.C. – The number of praetors is increased to 6.

196 B.C. – Rome intervenes to free Greece from Macedonian harassment.

192 B.C. – The Seleucids attack Greece. The Romans come into help. They defeat
        Seleucid forces at Thermopylae, chase them into Asia, and then
        vanquishes them at the Battle of Magnesia and Sipylus (in Asia Minor).
        This battle kicked the Seleucids out of Asia Minor (Hannibal was helping
        the Seleucids in this war).

183 B.C. – Hannibal, after fleeing to Bithynia, commits suicide.

149 B.C. – Taking advantage of a technical breach of treaty (since Carthage had
        attacked a Roman ally), Rome heeds the words of Marcus Cato (“Carthago
        delenda est!”) and declares war on Carthage. Beginning of the Third
        Punic War (149-146 B.C.).

148 B.C. – Macedonia pesters Greece. Rome conquers Macedonia.

146 B.C. – There is an uprising in Greece. Publius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus (the
        brother of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus) destroys the city of Corinth.
        Greece now belongs to Rome.

146 B.C. – Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus (Africanus), the grandson of the
        other Scipio) utterly destroys Carthage. End of the Third Punic War.

133 B.C. – The King of Pergamum leaves his Kingdom to Rome in his will. The
        whole Mediterranean world is Rome’s.

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