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Ch. 5 LSA’S LSA-Terms to know • Draw and label the processes of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis as they occur in the breakdown and creation of polymers. • Remember to use four colors LSA - CARBOHYDRATES • Question – Comparing glucose, galactose, and fructose, how are they alike? • Question – Comparing glucose, galactose, and fructose, how are they different? • Question what is the term for compounds with the same chemical formula but different structures? LSA- CARBOHYDRATES Question: How do starch and cellulose differ in function? Question: Why can’t humans digest cellulose? Who can? Question: Are disaccharides and polysaccharides built through dehydration synthesis or hydrolysis? Question: When glucose is in short supply in humans, they break down glycogen to release glucose monomers. Is this a dehydration synthesis or hydrolysis reaction? Question: If a plant makes a starch molecule with 500 glucose molecules, how many water molecules would be removed in the process? LSA -LIPIDS Monomers: Question: What general type of molecule are fatty acids? Are they hydrophilic or hydrophobic? Question: What functional group is associated with fatty acids? LSA - LIPIDS Question: When a fatty acid binds to glycerol, is it a hydrolysis or a dehydration synthesis? Question: When a fatty acid binds to glycerol, which end of the fatty acid faces the glycerol? Question: When the acid group and the alcohol group combine, what molecule is lost when the bond forms between them? Question: What is the term for the type of bond that forms when the acid and alcohol groups combine? Question: Why are lipids important to the body? LSA- LIPIDS Question: Which type of fats, saturated or unsaturated are responsible for the buildup of plaque in the disease known as arteriosclerosis? Question: Do the “bad” fats come from eating plant or animal fats? LSA - PROTEINS • Describe and draw the general structure of the amino acid. • What does the “R” stand for in the amino acid general structure? • USE FOUR COLORS TO DRAW and LABEL LSA-PROTEINS The Primary Structure of a Protein The primary structure of a protein refers to the sequence or order in which the amino acids are hooked together. What type of bonds occur in the primary structure? Question: What cell organelle is responsible for facilitating the building of proteins? Question: What tells this organelle what order to put the AA in? This is soooo important: Remember, structure is related to function. The order of the AA sequence will determine the shape of the protein. The shape of the protein determines how it will function. LSA - PROTEINS The Secondary Structure of a Protein Question: Which parts of the AA backbone interact to cause the protein to bend into one of two secondary shapes? Into what two basic shapes will a protein twist due to its secondary structure? LSA - PROTEINS The Tertiary Structure of a Protein Question: What causes a protein to bend into its characteristic 3D shape? Question: If an “R” group is non-polar, will it fold inward toward the center of the molecule or outward toward the water? Explain why. • Question: Which way will polar “R” groups bend? Why? • Question: What is a disulfide bridge? LSA - PROTEINS The Quaternary Structure of Proteins • Question: What has to be present in order to create quaternary level complexity in a protein? • Question: Do all proteins exhibit quaternary level structure? • Two examples: LSA - PROTEINS The Effect of Denaturing a Protein Things like an increase in temp or change the pH can denature proteins. What does that mean they do to protein structure? LSA -NUCLEIC ACIDS • Monomer: nucleotides • Question: A Nucleotide has 3 parts. • Draw and label a pyrimidine nucleotide and label its parts • Draw and label a purine nucleotide and label its parts • Describe how these nucleotides are alike and different. • USE four colors! LSA • Discuss the major unique chemical bonds that occur between the monomers of each major macromolecule. – List each monomer and the chemical bond that must occur to create the polymer.
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