Ch LSA arterioscalerosis by liaoqinmei


									Ch. 5 LSA’S
LSA-Terms to know
• Draw and label the processes of dehydration
  synthesis and hydrolysis as they occur in the
  breakdown and creation of polymers.
• Remember to use four colors
• Question – Comparing glucose, galactose, and
  fructose, how are they alike?

• Question – Comparing glucose, galactose, and
  fructose, how are they different?

• Question what is the term for compounds
  with the same chemical formula but different
 Question: How do starch and cellulose differ in function?

 Question: Why can’t humans digest cellulose? Who can?

 Question: Are disaccharides and polysaccharides built through
  dehydration synthesis or hydrolysis?

 Question: When glucose is in short supply in humans, they break
  down glycogen to release glucose monomers. Is this a dehydration
  synthesis or hydrolysis reaction?

 Question: If a plant makes a starch molecule with 500 glucose
  molecules, how many water molecules would be removed in the
                 LSA -LIPIDS
 Question: What general type of molecule are
  fatty acids? Are they hydrophilic or
 Question: What functional group is associated
  with fatty acids?
                  LSA - LIPIDS
 Question: When a fatty acid binds to glycerol, is it
  a hydrolysis or a dehydration synthesis?
 Question: When a fatty acid binds to glycerol,
  which end of the fatty acid faces the glycerol?
 Question: When the acid group and the alcohol
  group combine, what molecule is lost when the
  bond forms between them?
 Question: What is the term for the type of bond
  that forms when the acid and alcohol groups
 Question: Why are lipids important to the body?
                  LSA- LIPIDS
 Question: Which type of
  fats, saturated or
  unsaturated are
  responsible for the
  buildup of plaque in the
  disease known as
 Question: Do the “bad”
  fats come from eating
  plant or animal fats?
             LSA - PROTEINS
• Describe and draw the general structure of
  the amino acid.
• What does the “R” stand for in the amino acid
  general structure?
The Primary Structure of a Protein

 The primary structure of a protein refers to the sequence or order in
  which the amino acids are hooked together. What type of bonds
  occur in the primary structure?

 Question: What cell organelle is responsible for facilitating the
  building of proteins?

 Question: What tells this organelle what order to put the AA in?

 This is soooo important:
        Remember, structure is related to function. The order of the
  AA sequence will determine the shape of the protein. The shape
  of the protein determines how it will function.
               LSA - PROTEINS
         The Secondary Structure of a Protein

 Question: Which parts of the AA backbone
  interact to cause the protein to bend into one
  of two secondary shapes?
 Into what two basic shapes will a protein twist
  due to its secondary structure?
               LSA - PROTEINS
         The Tertiary Structure of a Protein

 Question: What causes a protein to bend into
  its characteristic 3D shape?
 Question: If an “R” group is non-polar, will it
  fold inward toward the center of the molecule
  or outward toward the water? Explain why.
• Question: Which way will polar “R” groups
   bend? Why?
• Question: What is a disulfide bridge?
               LSA - PROTEINS
         The Quaternary Structure of Proteins

• Question: What has to be present in order to
  create quaternary level complexity in a
• Question: Do all proteins exhibit quaternary
  level structure?
• Two examples:
               LSA - PROTEINS
         The Effect of Denaturing a Protein

 Things like an increase in temp or change the
  pH can denature proteins. What does that
  mean they do to protein structure?
• Monomer: nucleotides
• Question: A Nucleotide has 3 parts.
• Draw and label a pyrimidine nucleotide and label
  its parts
• Draw and label a purine nucleotide and label its
• Describe how these nucleotides are alike and
• USE four colors!
• Discuss the major unique chemical bonds that
  occur between the monomers of each major
  – List each monomer and the chemical bond that
    must occur to create the polymer.

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