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					Written outcome of the seminar

I. Expectations of participants for the seminar

What do you want to take home?
  - a clear idea about the upcoming Gender Training Session
  - Ideas for local campaigns
  - Ideas from other countries how to activate women in politics and public space
  - Ideas and reflections on the subject
  - A defined strategy for a Gender Network (Green)
  - A group of gender activists
  - Ideas for future activities in the scope of gender issues
  - The spirit of the seminar
  - New knowledge, experience of implementing the ideas of the seminar in my
  - New ideas
  - New acquaintances and friends and hopefully future partners for our projects
  - A new impetus for gender mainstreaming
  - The next sexual revolution
  - Motivation, sexual war in safety

What do you bring with you?
  - Willingness to produce results
  - Previous experience
  - My country’s gender issues
  - Related situation and ambition to stabilize a framework in the topic
  - Experience
  - Contacts of organizations working with similar topics
  - Enthusiasm
  - Knowing how sexuality is political
  - Will to write, publish
  - Experience, will to work further on
  - Experience in working for feminist organizations
  - Will to publish
  - Theoretical knowledge about gender issues from the university
  - Will to know more about genders
  - Common point of view of our people written and gathered in an article
  - A broader look on the subject
  - Curiosity, interest, willingness to learn about the subject
  - Willingness for discussion and an open mind
  - Desire energy and power

What do you expect from the seminar?
  - Realization that sexual problems are not only gender problems
  - More information on the topic
   -   Making some connections for future projects
   -   Enthusiasm
   -   Creative ideas
   -   Fun, make super friends
   -   More information and contacts
   -   Not losing our time on nothing
   -   Constructive discussion
   -   Energetic workshops
   -   Clarify the word “feminism”, what it meant and what it means now
   -   Ideas for practical implementation
   -   Practical solutions on gender problems
   -   To make new friends and personal contacts
   -   To understand what young people can actually do on the subject
   -   Contacts
   -   Getting personal
   -   Beginning of a long term networking project
   -   Some Serbian impressions

II. Presentation of countries and participants


In France hate for the Arab boys and Islam make everyone an occasional feminist.
Radical ecologism can be essentialist: Woman is like the land, plow it with respect.
Concerning gender there is no little cause: Words produce sexist representations that can
produce violence against women. Gender “violation” in the language  “innocent”
jokes, expressions reflecting domination. Danger of putting gender as distant, abstract or
criminal issues. Gaps between theory and practice when working in an organization.


Important for country:
   - employment
   - economy
   - life standard
   - resolving ethic issues

Important for Ljupco:
   - honesty
   - love
   - sincere friendship
   - knowledge, curiosity
   - sports
   - Krstijan (my nephew)

Important for country:
   - resources
   - problems with asylum-seekers
   - hunting
   - bi-partisan politics

Important for Natalie:
   - reliability
   - friendship
   - joie de vivre
   - people with shining eyes, open minded
   - a modicum of intelligence
   - pleasure


   -     Formal respect to gender issues (specially public administration) because of:
         economical situation, social-cultural way of thinking and efforts to reach specific

Changing through the years:
   - Gradually public administration is not any more gender based. There is topic
      promotion in different areas of life. There is still gender discrimination
      (male/female). Until a specific age limit females are more active, they are
      stimulated and promoted to take over responsibilities. After family creation and
      specially after babies steps behind. Man in top position

   - mentality borders
   - character of gender too complex
   - economical situation: financially dependent. Lack of technology
   - general pessimism vs. optimism

Possible solutions:
   - it is individual way of thinking
   - trendy movements
   - stimulation through education, media, informal and formal every day life:
       continuous and sustainable

Bulgaria and Poland
   -   Home violence
   -   Inequality in society
   -   Bad image of homosexuality
   -   Differences between villages and large cities
   -   Conservative way of thinking
   -    Traditional model of family
   -   Women trafficking and exploitation
   -   Lack of gender education


   1. Legislature – no legislation for woman’s rights
   The Serbian Parliament will discuss the issue to pass relevant laws by the end of 2005
   2. Representation in the Parliament
   40 out of 250 are women MP’s
   Only 2-3 active / not being taken very seriously
   3. Representation in Government
   3 ministers in the previous government were women; none in the present government
   4. Young Greens
   Internal rules stipulate that 1/3 of the main board must bee of either sex; 2
   spokespersons (male/female)


   1. legislature: legislation exists( transposed from the EU Acquis Communetaire)
   Problem in the implementation of the laws
   2. Representation in the Parliament 9/56 women MP’s; most are active but not
      always considered as able as men MP’s
   3. Representation in the Government: only 3-4 women ever became ministers
   4. national machinery for women equality interministerial committee with NGO
      representatives promoting gender mainstreaming
   5. Green party Policy : no internal quotas but women in central committee are 40%;
      new committee for gender equality will start work in September
   6. Young Ecologists: no internal rules on gender issue; 80% of central committee is


   1. Problem: church/Catholicism
   Influence in schools
   Very influential
   Symbols: virgin theory

   2. Abortion illegal( exception: rape, life danger) illegal market, 100euro abortion
   3. abortion: change in discourse : baby, killing, little life under your heart
   4. Problem with sexual lessons at school- propaganda
   5. Economic problems:
   30% less income on the same post
   Glass ceiling
   Precarization of work- decline of social security
   Working standards
   Unemployment vs. family – problem to have children because of economic reasons;
   state: they are lazy, no support


   1. NEGATIVES: there is gender equality officially but there is still the problem with
      gender equality
   - domestic violence
   - stereotypes
   - increasing economic problems
   - 20% less income for the same post
   - Immigrants – rights
   - Problems of discrimination of homosexuals at schools
   - Only 4% of professors are women
   - Only a few women are on a high economic position

   2.   POSITIVES:
   -    very good law against domestic violence
   -    abortion is legal
   -    education there are more girls that succeed than boys


Human trafficking is a problem – many young women go abroad to find a better paid job
and some of them are forced to become prostitutes.
In the society this topic is a taboo it is not discussed in the media too.
Homosexuality is not understood. The topic is taboo.
Problems with parents and general public.


Work situation:
  - for decades women legally have the same rights as men. It’s unusual for
      Bulgarian families that both parents go to work. However, there are some
      “women” jobs and some “men” jobs and often it is harder for women to find well
      paid jobs.
  - There are a lot of stereotypes; many people think that women should stay at home
      as housewives and to raise the children.
    - Not enough women in politics. So they are not able to do much about women’s
        rights. The women in the politics are not in the top positions, and they can’t do

- Stereotypes in the family- often can lead to family violence. Many women do not think
about it in a negative manner. Also most of them are afraid to ask for help. The help they
receive is not good enough since women are not independent in terms of money, job,
means of supporting themselves and their children.

Serbia and Bulgaria have reached the conclusion that the situation in the 2 countries is
very similar on these issues.

III. Gender and political structures

Implementing Gender equality


Broader context:

       feminine values into politics
   -    against professionalization
   -    against power politics
   -    accepting failure and lack of efficiency
   -    less competition
   -    putting the individual in the center

       strategies
   -    doubling posts
   -    non-institutionalized mentoring (helping)
   -    building up self-confidence
   -    youth organizations as a place of education
   -    self reflection
   -    learn through games
   -    share responsibility
   -    encourage and support

Individual Actions

   I.      Themes
   -   Political participation (quota, women and politics  expectations, women, gender
       roles in politics, sexism)
   -   Gender in Labor (position, power, maternity)
   -   Education ( school, traditional patterns, Gender identities, individual pressures,
       differences between school and “adult” life

   II.  Strategies
   - Training for acting in public
   - More concrete, individual actions
   - Active male participation in gender activities

   III. Future Activities
   - Feminist Men
   - Trafficking: Finnish
   - Campaigns

Action Plan

      Political participation
   -   Inclusion
   -   Gender behavior in politics
   -   Problems with quota
   -   “Mentoring”

      Sexuality and Power
   -   Positions

      Male perspectives on Gender problems
   -   Discrimination?
   -   Clashing values: Traditional vs. “enlightened”
   -   Problems of roles in education
   -   Social gender identity
   -   School vs. “reality”
   -   Gender pressure on individual level
   -   Discrimination in labor
   -   Green feminist men’s movement

IV. Workshops


   -   Individual perception
   -   Theory
   -   Meaning in society
      Paradise beyond the corner – Mario Vargas Llosa (about Flore Tristan)
      Feminism: Reach equality or an opportunity to change society?  more
       solidarity,  green values

Out of bounds – Homosexuality, Transsexuality, Heteronormativity

   -   Taboos
   -   Communication in society
   -   Rights, Freedoms

   -   Two different strategies in showing homosexuality to society: 1. They are the
       same as heterosexuals with the little difference that they are homosexuals, but
       they are normal people. 2. They are different and so what? Everybody is different,
       sexuality is your own choice, business. We are various but equal.
   -   not considered as persons
   -   prejudices> sex, abnormal
   -   lack of communication  no rights
   -   importance of organizations
   -   not considered as individuals  them, the other, aliens
   -   not supposed to be on the street  stay at home
   -   heterosexual propaganda is not seen
   -   violence against
   -   radicalization of debate
   -   gay person was killed  no media coverage
   -   village vs. city
   -   society forces them into certain stereotyped behavior
   -   only sexuality is regarded
   -   homosexuals are not a uniform group
   -   “vanishing” lesbians
   -   Escape possibilities for homosexuals in big cities: protected communities

   Question of normality:

   -   not female
   -   not a child
   -   not old/elderly
   -   not poor
   -   not handicapped

   / male
   / adult
   / white
   / heterosexual
   / married
   / christian
   / educated
   / wealthy
   / (beautiful)

   Heterogeneity: group rights, individualism
   Homogeneity: broaden the concept of normality  Poland: strategy failed, Germany:
   “worked”  rights but not all  adoption

   - respond on different levels: direct action, intellectual debate  complexity
   - international solidarity: German greens in Poland
   - win well known persons
   - destabilize normality by not accepting it  claiming rights/influence, speak up,
       be brave, reacting to homophobia
   - changing the discourse: not homosexuality but homophobia is the problem

Girls like boys – boys like football

   -   roles in relationships
   -   stereotypes
   -   limitations

      Boys don’t cry
      Division of duties  division of power
      Tristan and Romeo
      What is more important: Car or Beauty
      Feminization of duties
      Changing the traditional roles
      Metrosexual
      Cultural sign – flower etc.

Ken and Barbie and the commodification of women

   -   women in commercials / the media
   -   conceptions of beauty
   -   pornography
   -   prostitution

      first two ways: more indirect so perhaps more dangerous? : 1. Existing legislation
       / Broadcasting rules 2. The importance of the change of mentality
      The role of media in revolutionizing the conceptions of people. E.g. Through
       series such as sex and the city, Will and Grace, Friends, Latin American soap
       Grey zone for (advertising) commercials

The Second Sex

       Female sexuality and weakness, subordination
       Male sexuality
       Conformism
       Sexual violence and its’ influence on self/societal perception

Women in politics:
Roles- models of behaviour; women acting as men to succeed in politics

People should behave as they truly are (or feel)

The matter of choice:

Social construction of gender identity vs. personal characteristics
No alternatives

Free choice – respect of choice

V. Workshop for Budapest

    -   Theoretical lectures: education
    -   Lectures from practical point of view
    -   Lecture: Women position in EE
    -   Theoretical stuff reader
    -   Video materials
    -   Games: Yes/so and so/No, Role Play, Story telling, Information gap, Building self
        confidence, boy/girl
   -    Email-list, Wiki
   -    Brainstorming
   -    Group movement
   -    Intercultural night (gender: represent the problem that they have)
   -    Shock effect
   -    Deadline for lectures and ideas  end of September
   -    Street actions
   -    Differences and similarity
   -    Practical solutions (How to do)
   -    Direct action in Budapest
   -   Self reflection

   - History of women’s movement
   - Economic problems, independence in the family, problems of equality
   - Gender identity, sexual identity
   - Differences and similarities between Western and Eastern Europe (film with
   - Introduction to Gender issues (sex/gender)
   - Prostitution and pornography
   - Domestic violence against women
   - Phenomenon of “virgins” in the Balkans

VI. Project

Trafficking education project in Moldavia

  -    Lack of information (rural areas)
  -    Lack of choice
  -    Old fashioned mentality
  -    Higher risk of being trafficked

  - Projection in rural areas of short documentary film “16-25 Export” (about women
  - Distribution of promotional materials
  - Debates after the film

Main Aim: Prevention

VII. Lecture

“Gender and media discourse”
Lecturer Tanja Rosic

The influence of media in modern society

1. Media and popular culture society (film, comics, rock, techno , fashion, theatre)mass
culture - consumerism
2. New technologies- participative
Form of media - dissemination of media discourse
Visual/audio and narrative part
Barbara Kruger messages
Shock effect visual+narrative to reach the public
“Politics of postmodernism” Linda Hutchins
“Genders” david glover and cora koplan
Derida – deconstruction
Foucault – discourse”Archeology of “history of madness” distribution of power no
hierarchy, power- centrical power that can change

Julia Butler ”Gender Trouble”
John Wallach Scott – “Gender and the politics of history”
Postmodernism - boundaries between high and popular culture

Tomas Puncheon “Lock 49”

New technologies – shape new identities
Gender identity is a culturally constructed identity connected with language categories. It
is a virtual identity constructed. Boundaries of gender identity can be changed and
moved. People enjoy the safety of virtual identity without exposing oneself. In new
technologies you are in the public enjoying the fantasy of privacy.
Recognition of ideologies

Cosmetic surgery –”Unbearable Weight” as a part of pop culture
Whether there is difference between your body and your mind if gender id. Is constructed
the body and mind are pacified by it

Active and passive role of media
New media
Abortion – public discussions reoccurring regularly
Sex/gender identity difference

Media have conservative passive role of consumerism, they shape gender roles and
stereotypes; media and form and messages can be changed in feminist media and

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