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					Academic Biology Final Exam Review                                                  Mannix / Biology

Academic Biology Final Exam Review

Answer the questions below on a separate sheet of paper. You may use any notes,
worksheets, or your textbook to find the answers. The questions are divided up based on the
different units you have learned about throughout the course.

1. List the four necessary elements of life.

2. State the monomers of each of the organic molecules listed.
        a. Carbohydrates
        b. Proteins
        c. Lipids
        d. Nucleic acids

3. Differentiate between a monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide and give an
example of each.

4. Differentiate between ionic and covalent bonds.

5. Draw an amino acid and identify the different groups

6. Define polymer and give 2 examples of polymers.

7. Differentiate between hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis (condensation reaction). Be sure
to include which one makes bonds and which one breaks bonds, and also which one stores
energy and which one releases energy.

8. State the importance of the molecule cellulose and indicate where it is found.

9. What is the purpose of an enzyme and how does it function?

10. Explain the structure and purpose of the ATP molecule.

11. Draw a phospholipid molecule and explain how it is arranged to form the lipid bilayer in cell

12. How many bonds does hydrogen form? How many does oxygen? How many does carbon?

13. Define pH.

14. What are the four levels of organization found in humans?
Academic Biology Final Exam Review                                              Mannix / Biology

Cell Structure and Function

1. What is the function of each of the following structures:
      a. Cell membrane
      b. Ribosomes
      c. Mitochondria
      d. Endoplasmic Reticulum
      e. Lysosomes
      f. Nucleus
      g. Golgi Aparatus

2. Differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Give an example of each.

3. Differentiate between plant and animal cells. Make sure to answer the following questions:
        a. What is the outer boundary of each?
        b. What are the support structures of each?
        c. What organelles do plant cells have that animal cells do not?

4. Relate, compare, and contrast the following terms:
        a. Hypertonic, Hypotonic, and isotonic
        b. Osmosis and Diffusion
        c. Active Transport and Passive Transport
        d. Plasmolysis and cytolysis

5. What would happen to an animal cell in each of the following solutions:
      a. Hypertonic
      b. Hypotonic
      c. Isotonic

6. Explain dynamic equilibrium

7. Compare and contrast endocytosis and exocytosis. Draw examples of each.

Cellular Respiration

1. What is glycolysis? Explain and state the reactants and products.

2. List each major step of aerobic respiration and the reactants and products that are produced.

3. Compare the amount of ATP produced in aerobic and anaerobic respiration

4. Which organisms do cellular respiration? Which organisms do photosynthesis?
Academic Biology Final Exam Review                                                Mannix / Biology

5. What molecule is the “final electron acceptor” in respiration?

6. List and describe the two types of fermentation.


1. Compare and contrast ADP and ATP

2. Write the chemical equations of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

3. The two major parts of photosynthesis are listed below. Write what the reactants and
products are of each, where it occurs, and any other important information related to them.
        a. Light Reaction
        b. Calvin Cycle (Dark Reaction)

4. Describe the functions of each major layer of the leaf.

5. Describe the structure of the photosynthetic organelle in autotrophs.

Cell Division

1. Summarize the events of the cell cycle in words. Sketch a “clock” of the cell cycle

2. What significant events occur during each phase of PMAT?

3. Explain crossing over. How does this increase genetic variety?

4. What is the difference between homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids?

5. Compare mitosis and meiosis using the following criteria:
      Number of cells formed
      Haploid or diploid (number of chromosomes)
      Function of cells formed
      Number of divisions

6. What are the significant differences between plant and animal cells during mitosis and
Academic Biology Final Exam Review                                               Mannix / Biology

7. What are the differences between Meiosis I and Meiosis II with respect to the alignment of
the homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids?

8. Compare oogenesis and spermatogenesis.

Mendelian and Human Genetics

1. Define the following terms:
        a. Homozygous (purebred)
        b. Heterozygous (hybrid)
        c. Genotype
        d. Phenotype
        e. Dominant
        f. Recessive

2. Relate the following terms: DNA, chromosome, gene, allele, trait.

3. What is the purpose of a Punnett Square?

4. What is the difference between a monohybrid and a dihybrid cross? How do you set up each
cross in a Punnett Square?

5. Compare the following mutations and provide examples when possible
      a. Chromosome structure- deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation
      b. Chromosome number- nondysjunction (resulting in mono- or trisomy)
      c. Gene- point (insertion, deletion, substitution), frameshift

6. What is the difference between somatic and germ mutations?

7. Discuss the following human genetic disorders and the pattern of inheritance that causes
each one.
        a. Cystic fibrosis
        b. Sickle cell anemia
        c. Hemophilia
        d. Color Blindness
        e. Klinefelter’s Syndrome
        f. Turner’s Syndrome
        g. Down’s Syndrome
        h. Huntingdon’s Disease
Academic Biology Final Exam Review                                               Mannix / Biology

8. Summarize the genotypic and phenotypic ratios for each of the following crosses:
      a. BB x BB
      b. BB x bb
      c. bb x bb
      d. Bb x BB
      e. Bb x Bb
      f. Bb x bb

9. What genetics vocabulary words would you use to describe the crosses in the previous
question? (example: homozygous dominant and a homozygous recessive parent…)

Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis

1. What is the relationship between DNA and the proteins in your body?

2. Describe the shape and composition of a DNA molecule. Draw a picture of it.

3. Draw and label the three basic parts of a nucleotide

4. What nitrogenous base is found in RNA but NOT in DNA?

5. A DNA molecule has a sequence of TAGCA. What is the sequence of its complementary

6. What are two ways in which DNA and RNA are similar? What are three ways in which they
are different?

7. How are complementary bases, such as adenine and thymine joined across a DNA molecule?

8. What is the function of mRNA in the nucleus of the cell? What is its function outside of the

9. If two amino acids, valine (mRNA codon GUU) and glycine (mRNA codon GGA) are brought
together at the ribosome, what is the DNA sequence that stored this information?

10. Dark hair is caused by the protein melanin. A person with dark hair has a gene for making
this protein. Discuss the sequence of events leading up to the person making the protein
(discuss the steps involved with protein synthesis).

11. What is the relationship between mRNA codons and amino acids?

12. The language of the nucleotide sequence is converted to the language of amino acid
sequence by a process known as what?
Academic Biology Final Exam Review                                              Mannix / Biology


1. Name and describe the terms associated with early embryonic development.

2. What do you call the mitotic cell divisions that occur in the zygote?

3. What is the difference between implantation and gastrulation?

4. What is the role of the placenta?

5. Sketch and describe the structure and function of a sperm cell.

6. Why is the hormone oxytocin important?

7. What is a fertilized egg cell called?

8. What are the three germ layers and when are they produced?


1. Describe the structure of a virus.

2. Compare the lytic and lysogenic cycles of viral infections.

3. What is a retrovirus?

4. What is the difference between facultative anaerobes and obligate aerobes?

5. How do bacteria reproduce?

6. Describe the three main stages of bacterial cells.

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