User-Centered Design

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					                                  e-GM Discovery & Innovations Marketing Research




 User-Centered Website Design



              William Rosen
Technical Director, eGM Market Research
              July 11, 2001




                                                         GM Confidential
 Usability deals with the design of everyday things to
 make them useful




User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 2
 Designers and users look at the world differently




User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 3
 We’ll cover the following topics today

  State of Website Design Today, A User’s View

  Current Best Practice of User-Centric Development

  User-Centered Design

  Usability Testing

  Summary


              “Not even the nascent state of the Web can excuse the
                amateurish lack of usability of today's e-Commerce
           initiatives….. companies will have to get serious about user
                    experience.” -The Forrester Report Why Most B-To-B Sites Fail, Dec 99
User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                             Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 4
 Of 158 sites evaluated, none attained a passing grade
 for usability

                Dist ribut ion of scores from 158 Web site reviews conducted by Forrester, Dec. 1999 to May 2001
                                             Sites are scored from -50 (low) to 50 (high)
                        35

           Number 25                                                                                                              None in
           of sites                                                                                          Top score: 23       the pass
           in each
           range
                     15                                                                                                            zone!
           of scores
                      5

                         -50 -30     -25     -20   -15   -10        -5    0       5       10       15         20        25 50
                    Commonly failed tests            Failure rate
                    Guided search                        87%
                    Comprehensive and precise search     84%             Passing grade:                 25 or higher
                    Act ive personalizat ion             80%
                                                                         Average score overall:               -3.5
                    Proact ive customer service          75%
                    Accessibilit y                       70%             Average B2C score:                   -2.2
                    Efficient page layout                66%
                    Task-specific interact ivit y        59%             Average B2B score:                   -5.5
                    Site reliabilit y                    55%             Sites are graded on 25 test s; each test is
                    Essent ial content available         54%             scored on a scale from -2 (crit ical failure)
                    Consistent navigat ion               48%             to 2 (exemplary pass)



User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                                                      Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 5
 Buyers give-up on 70% of buying attempts

  Inspired by the 7-11 Milk Experiment
        If you drive a 12 yr old to 7-11, hand them $5.00 and ask them to go into the
         store and purchase a gallon of milk, what percent of them will successfully
         complete the task?
                     Virtually 100%
        If you give shoppers a credit card and ask them to purchase a well-known,
         amply-stocked item on one of the top 18 e-commerce sites, what percent of
         them will successfully complete the task?
                     About 30%
  Why is this so?
        Usability problems that so frustrate shoppers they can’t buy even when
         most motivated
                     Problems included:
                              Poorly labeled categories
                              Ineffective search
                              Broken Check-out processes



User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                           Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 6
 Jupiter sees the current state of poor usability as a
 legacy of Web culture past.

            Cause/Perception                           Effect                 Legacy/Impact Today
                                                     Loose                       Companies still do
                                                   methodology                    not understand
             Rush to get the
                                                      Little                      value of project
           site on the internet
                                                  Documentation                  methodology and
                                                                                  documentation
                                                                                  Consequences of
                                                                                    changes after
                                                                                   implementation
                                                   Sites seen as                        are
              HTML/Web
                                                    disposable.                    underestimated
           Development seen
                                                   Easy to repair,
             as cheap and
                                                 improve on the fly
                 easy
                                                                                  Value of Planning
                                                                                   and Testing are
                                                                                   underestimated
User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                                     Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 7
 User-Centered Design pays for itself by removing
 barriers and increasing the chance of revenue
                                                           Shop/Buy #1                   Shop/Buy #2
                                                        Non-Iterative Design           Iterative Design
      Development Costs/Investment                      $         2,500,000                    $3,000,000
      Development Time (# of Months)                                8 Months                    14 Months
      Advertising per Month                             $           469,000          $            469,000
      Revenue per Message                                                $25                          $25
      Revenue Producing Months                                    24 Months                     18 Months
      Site Traffic per Month                                      1,000,000                     1,000,000
      Messaging Rate                                                   2.00%                        5.00%
      Messages per Month                                              20,000                       50,000
      Cumulative Profit/(Loss)                                  ($1,750,000)                 $11,062,500

                        Message Rate for Comparable Result to Shop/Buy #1= 2.15%
                                                 Message Rate for AutoByTel.com= 15.00%
               Faster development time and lower development cost result in better
                               profit performance when all else is equal
                 If all else is not equal, then managing to development time and
                              development cost alone can be dangerous
User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                                     Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 8
 We’ll cover the following topics today

  State of Website Design Today, A User’s View

  Current Best Practice of Customer-Centric Development

  User-Centered Design

  Usability Testing

  Summary




User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 9
 The key elements of User-Centered Design

                    Directives                                                                                     Benefits



                                                                                   Satisfy the customers/prospects/investors,
            Focus on high-value users                                             employees/recruits who deliver the greatest
                                                                                                                         ROI




                                                                                              Prioritize content and function to
               Identify users’ key goals                                                        optimize value for target users




                                                                                         Details each step in a user’s process.
              Support each step users                                            Clarifies page-level requirements for content,
              take to fulfill their goals                                                  function, measurement, and support




                                                                                   Series of usability tests with progressively
              Practice Iterative Design                                          more refined and detailed prototypes prior to
                                                                                        site launch. Keeps customer in view

 Adapted from: The Forrester Report: Why Most B-To-B Sites Fail, December 1999
User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                                                      Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 10
 Sidebar: What are step alternatives

  “Step Alternatives” refer to the steps a user goes through to complete a
   task/goal on a website
  Example Goal: Figure out which Saturn best suits my needs
        Alternative 1 “Silo” Approach
                       Present customer with list of Saturn models
                       Select one model/series
                       Receive detailed information and photographs on selected model
                       Print material
                       Select a second model, receive detailed info, print material
                       Compare and contrast the models offline
        Alternative 2 “Advisor” Approach
                     Answer short questionnaire about needs and budget
                     Receive a recommended short list of Saturn vehicles which fit needs
                     Display short list in side-by-side comparison of photos and detailed information
                               Also highlights differences between the recommended Saturn vehicles



User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                                         Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 11
 An idealized approach to customer (user) centric
 website development--Iterative Design




User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 12
 We’ll cover the following topics today

  State of Website Design Today, A User’s View

  Current Best Practice of Customer-Centric Development

  User-Centered Design

  Usability Testing

  Summary




User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 13
 The four phases of web development center around
 users through iterative design

                                                   Live Site
                                                              Determine
            • Complete Code
                                                 Side-by-Side
                                                                Goals                            •   Identify Target Users
            • Beta Prototype                                                                     •   Specify User Goals
            • Connect                                                                            •   Detail Scenarios
              Functionality                Beta                       Alternative                •   Establish Requirements
                                         Prototype                    Scenarios



                                                                      Alternative
                                                                      Wireframes
                                               Alpha
                                             Prototype
                                                               Wireframe
                                                              Confirmation
                    • Develop and Code                                              • Develop Low Cost
                      first (alpha) pilot                                             Prototypes showing
                      using static dummy                                              site functionality and
                      data. Key functions                                             process flows
                      are operational                                                 consistent w/capability



User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                                            Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 14
 We’ll cover the following topics today

  State of Website Design Today, A User’s View

  Current Best Practice of Customer-Centric Development

  User-Centered Design

  Usability Testing

  Summary




User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 15
 Usability testing is about observation and problem
 identification
  Purpose of usability testing
        Identify the number, kind and severity of problems target users experience
         when completing key tasks on a website
        Develop an action plan for the next iteration of development
        Assure that the site, when launched is
                     easy to use, not confusing or frustrating
                     a satisfying experience
                     highly valued by the target users




User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                                 Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 16
 A small number of one-on-ones repeated over
 several events is fast, cheap and effective




     Sample size of zero yields zero problems identified
     5 or 6 yield about 80% of problems found
     3 iterative tests of 5 respondents is better than 1 test of 15

User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                   Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 17
 A usability lab is a great way to observe and
 preserve the usability test
  Simply a picture-in-picture
        Monitor feed to television screen
        Camera showing facial expressions of the user




User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                    Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 18
 The typical flow of usability testing

  Orientation
        Purpose of test, room and equipment, monitoring, establish rapport,etc
  Performance Tests
        Several tasks introduced one-at-time
                     Tasks are realistic and selected to exercise the website adequately
        Participant is encouraged to work without guidance
        Participant is observed. Errors, recovery, and time are recorded
        Participants may be asked to “think out-loud”
        If participant is hopelessly stuck, then moderator will intervene seeking to
         fully understand the reasons for the problem
  Participant Debriefing (Moderator administered)
        Brief preference questionnaire
        Participant’s overall comments about their performance
        Probes developed by the moderator about specific errors and problems
  Special Issues
User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                                    Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 19
 Planning tasks, evaluation criteria, leads to good
 action plans
  Team should discuss the usability plan
        Develop a set of tasks which exercise the website/prototype
                     e.g., You have heard that Saturn is a different kind of company and you are
                      intrigued but you don’t know names or kinds of models Saturn offers. You surf
                      the web to locate the Saturn website and try to figure out which Saturn, if any,
                      best meets your needs
        Map out the set of steps (sub-tasks) someone should go through to
         complete each task
        Establish evaluation criteria
                     e.g., average time to complete each sub-task
                     fraction of sub-tasks completely error-free
                     fraction of errors which a critical
        Understand the causes of errors
        On-site, end-of-day debriefing
                     Review of problems and causes
                     Action plans for the next iteration


User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                                     Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 20
 We’ll cover the following topics today

  State of Website Design Today, A User’s View

  Current Best Practice of Customer-Centric Development

  User-Centered Design

  Usability Testing

  Summary




User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 21
 Fundamental Concepts of Web Usability
 Jakob Nielsen (1 of 2)
  Grudin Principle
        Align the interests of
                     Doing the work and…
                     Getting the benefits
                              Example: Networked Calendars
  Participation Inequality
        Contributions to online communities
                     A few users post almost everything
                     A very small number of infrequent contributors
                     Huge number of observers/lurkers
  Attention Economics
        web surfers know that: on average they are on the wrong page
                     Probability of the next page having what I want is near zero
        The back button is the no-brainer user interface
        People ignore things they don’t understand
        Lack of attention makes new services hard to launch
User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                                      Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 22
 Fundamental Concepts of Web Usability
 Jakob Nielsen (2 of 2)
  Control Feels Good
        Primacy of search
        Death of Web Advertising
  Landauer Directive
        Measure productivity
                     Direct relationship between performance and preference
                     Direct relationship between success rate and user satisfaction
  Discount Usability Engineering
        Test with a few users often
                     Practice iterative design
                     Test with 4-5 users
        Utilize Heuristic Evaluation
                     Avoid making the known blunders
  Magnification of usability effects
        Improving usability by 50%, increases sales by 400%

User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                                    Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 23
 How to do unsuccessful web design

           A. Keep people out
              Demand pre-registration

           B. Restrict Loitering
               Log them out if they go the bathroom


           C. Deliver Threats
              Give them plenty of lawyer talk
              Make it UPPER CASE




  Source: Bruce Tognazzini
User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 24
 How to do unsuccessful web design

                D. Keep them in the dark
                    Tell them everything but what they need to know
                    Make information repetitious and redundant as possible
                    Make it ambiguous
               E. Make sure they can’t order anything
                   Provide plenty of confusing error messages

               F. Make sure they don’t talk back
                    eBay Solution: Don’t give them a way to complain
                    Help them til they give up
                       Make sure they know the century before
                       submitting

  Source: Bruce Tognazzini
User-Centered Design, July 2001
e-GM Discovery & Innovation Marketing Research
  MIRC Project #:                                  Revised: (July 2001) Hegener MBA User.ppt: WJR@e-GM, 12/16/2011: 25

				
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