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					River Campus Libraries




 User Centered Design Process

     Brenda Reeb, Usability
     David Lindahl, Digital Initiatives
     Susan Cardinal, Science Libraries
 User Centered Design Process




Agenda
 Overview
 Design Group
 Content Group
 Usability Group
  Overview




 Content Group
   Knowledge of library science, content, content
    providers
   Experience with users and user interfaces
   Includes public and/or technical services staff
 Design Group
   Knowledge of user interface design, visual
    design, and web standards, and technology
 Usability Group
   Knowledge of Usability testing methods
  Overview




 Content Group
   Define key tasks
   Raise issues
   Manage project
 Design Group
   Create design iterations and prototypes
   Respond to issues and test results
   Manage issue-response process
 Usability group
     Select appropriate tests to perform
     Perform tests
     Report results
     Manage key-task process
Overview


                Content group

                issues   key tasks




Design group                 Usability group

                            key tasks
           designs
                            test results
   issue-response
Overview


                Content group

                issues




Design group                Usability group


           designs
                            test results
   issue-response
Overview


      Group             User Focus


      Usability group   Highest
                        No other goal than to
                        represent the user.


      Design group      Medium
                        Competes with standards,
                        technology, time and money

      Content group     Medium
                        Competes with exhaustive
                        content, complex tasks
  Overview




Artifacts of design process
 Key task list
 Design iterations and prototypes
 Usability results
 “Issue/response” document

Meetings
 Regular meetings (design     usability)
 Project specific meetings (usability content,
  content design)
  Design Group




 Reorganized in 2001
 Lives in the Digital Initiatives Unit
    ¼ FT UI designer (MS, Computer Science)
    1 FTE graphic designer (BA, Graphic Design)
    1 FTE developer
 Responsibilities
    UI Design and prototyping
    Style guidelines
    Issue/response process
  Design Group


Perspective on Site Design
 “Hide the technology”
 Consistency across library website
 Task-oriented pathways
 Usability testing results

Perspective on Page Design
 Essential components
 Prioritize
 Simplify
 Style guidelines
    Design Group


Style Guidelines

 Universal Design               “Universal design is the
                                 design of products and
 Section 508
                                 environments to be
 Web Style Guide                usable by all people, to
 Research-Based Web             the greatest extent
                                 possible, without the
  Design & Usability             need for adaptation or
  Guidelines                     specialized design.”
 Page Editors’                  Ron Mace
  Checklist
                                http://www.section508.gov/
                                  http://webstyleguide.com/
                             http://usability.gov/guidelines/
     http://www.library.rochester.edu/index.cfm?PAGE=623
 Design Group


User pathways

                            Databases A-Z




                    Databases by Subject

                      Mapping your search to a
                      subject takes you away
    Find Articles     from your natural path
    Google
  Design Group




Models For Finding: Google

1. Enter keywords
2. Browse results by title
   and snippet
3. View full text
  Design Group




Models For Finding: FRBR

FRBR User Tasks
 Find
 Identify
 Select
 Acquire

FRBR = Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records
More information: http://www.ifla.org
  Content Group




 Multiple content groups, one for each project
 Any number of members (1-?)
 Every department participates - cataloging,
  circulation, reference, etc.
 Created and disbanded as needed
  Content Group




Content group activities:
 Define key tasks
 Select appropriate content
 Apply experience and education
 Observe some tests
 Interpret usability results
 Raise issues, not design solutions
 Content Group



What is a key task?

  Key tasks are defined as frequently asked items,
  frequent actions or navigation to parent/child
  pages.

Example key tasks:

  •   Find   a known article.
  •   Find   a known journal.
  •   Find   an article on a specific topic.
  •   Find   articles on a multidisciplinary topic.
  •   Find   a specific journal collection.
 Content Group


Find Articles Group

 Acted as content group
 Collected issues
 Categorized these issues
     Technology issues (website, SFX, ILL, Databases OPAC)
     Building, shelving & organizational Issues
     Subscription issues
     Citation problems
     Basic research help
     Librarians
 Created scenarios
 Assigned issues to various other groups…
  Usability Group




Usability Program
 Began 2001
 7 staff trained as usability testers
 Over 20 projects, large and small
 Testers volunteer for projects
 Reading, conferences, practice
 Vendor co-development
  Usability Group




Usability team activities:
 Manage key task process
 Design and conduct tests
 Maintain a “lab”
 Communicate results to staff and public
 Usability Group

Manage key task process
 Usability Group


Manage key task process

    Key task              Test question



 Find a known      Find an article in the Journal
 journal           of Fish Biology.


 Find a journal    Your friend told you there is
 collection        a collection of political
                   science journals called
                   JSTOR. Where is it?
  Usability Group




Design and conduct tests
 Mental model test
 Heuristic test
 Card sort test
 Assessment test (Click path)
 Scenario test

See Jeff Rubin “Handbook of Usability Testing”, Wiley, 1994
 Usability Group


Picture of our lab




                     Meet me at Circ!
 Usability Group


Communicate results
Culture and Politics



Students say:
“I need an article!”



Librarians say:
 “Select a database”
 “This database has 435 journals in it.”
 “These journals are peer reviewed.”
 “Choose basic or advanced.”
 “These journals predate the Civil War.”
 Culture and Politics




Student culture

 Connect at courses, not at academic disciplines
 Meet them where they are
    Students attend POL250 – “Conflict in Democracies”
    They do not relate to Political Science.
    They do not envision themselves as political scientists.
 Sustainability
    Distributed workload (all bibliographers participate)
    Dynamic, database-driven pages
 Culture and Politics




Expect these accusations!
 Simple designs dumb down the site
 Testing 3 users is not enough
 “I have to wonder if usability testing - especially
  for money - proves very useful input”
 No one told me about this
 Where is your report?
 This is so subjective!
 Culture and Politics




Try these responses:
 Inform
    Page design process document
    Don’t leave home without the toolkit
       Neilson’s Alert Boxes
       Pages from Krug’s Don’t Make Me Think
 Engage
    Observe tests
    Publish results
 Technology


                   ERA Server
   Library                                Subscription
  Web Server       XML          XML        Database

                 XSLT        XSLT
                                             Page with
                   HTML         HTML         Full Text




User



        Search    (Gather)      Select       Full
                                Article      Text
  Technology




OpenURL Knowledge Base
 Get the article
 Choose an alternative (catalog, ILL)
 Translate Journal abbreviations
River Campus Libraries




 Questions?


     Brenda Reeb, Usability
     David Lindahl, Digital Initiatives
     Susan Cardinal, Science Libraries

				
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posted:12/16/2011
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