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					Storyboard for
3D interface
   SL Masters
   Jump to a Certain Point   TOC
    Educational Overview  Reasons for grant,
                          and description of
                          larger future project
                          that this is part of.
   Programmer's Viewpoint Sketch of
                          programmer's work.
   Researcher's Viewpoint    Relationship to
                             LearnLab’s work.
      ACTUAL Current         Create 3D Authoring
        PROJECT              Interface !
           Table of contents
Choose one:
• Creating what?
     • Why 3D?

• Lesson Environments: One    Two Three
• Appearance to authors and teachers
• Behind the scenes
• Relation to Research / Software at LearnLab
     • Research Areas
                                    Note to speaker
A Standardized Interface


Math Problems and Existing 3D Software
    An Interface between Math
Problems and Existing 3D Software
This is an interface between existing 3D programs
  and textbook/online instructional materials. The
  following section shows examples created with
  existing software.
Educational materials can be created, which will
  supplement the standard 2D and words with 3D
  virtual environments.
This can be used as a graphical extension of the
  textbook, a weekly excursion from classroom
  work, or a creative tool for individual teachers.
Why 3D?
You may say, why add 3D
   graphics or interaction
   to what are already
   good instructional
   materials? Here are
   some reasons:           Flat?
1. Realism connects the
   lesson                    or
   better to everyday        Realistic?   (National Park Service)

   reality, which is, of
   course, in 3D.
Reason: Architectural and Scientific
 2.   Spatial skills learned while navigating through these
      worlds will improve math and scientific skills, such as
      Visualization, necessary for designing architecture or
      understanding chemistry.
                                                    Link to

                              AutoCAD drawing,
                                 SL Masters

        Chem3D drawing,
          SL Masters
Reasons: Complexity, Beauty, and
   Movement through Space
 3. The intricacy, beauty, and
    movement through space may
    fascinate learners:

                                                        from USGS
      Reasons: Visual to standard
    notation & Conceptual expression
  4. Visual learners can be drawn toward
        standard notation. This includes students with
        learning disabilities, autism, or even regular
        students with a preference for visual/spatial

  5. Certain concepts are best expressed in 3D
     like tectonics or chemistry: from USGS
             Impossible Models
6. Variables or angles
   can be manipulated
   interactively. This is
   similar to moving
   physical objects, but
   with more possibilities:
   overcoming gravity,
   expense, and hazards,
   or collapsing time.        TEAPOT, OpenGl Template, by SLMasters
Lesson Examples:
   ENVIRONMENTS                                                           Navigation/
Example #1: Orienteering                                                  Orienteering
                                                                        2004 Salomon/
                                                                        Adventure Rage

•Reading Topographic
Maps, based on US Army                Trees
training manuals
•International Orienteering
•This green map is from
US orienteering         
                    Orienteering defined
• “Participants are given a map, usually of an area with
  which they are unfamiliar, and a compass. They attempt
  to visit, in sequence, control points that are indicated on
  the map.”
• Map “detail is focussed towards what needs to be
  perceived at eye level, at a run; it must also convey any
  obstacles clearly.”
• “Controls are usually based around a visible feature,
  and explained on the map or on a special control
  description sheet. They are marked on the course by
  white and orange (or red) flags. A competitor marks their
  visit in some way”
 From Wikipedia,
Traditional Sample Map
       for Children

       Click to go to site.
  Project layout, young student’s
view of planning map (my project)
   When Done, Drive Through
• The student clicks
  when done with
  constructing the
  route. Then the 3D
  drive through begins.
        Immediate Feedback
The student knows immediately whether
 he/she succeeded or not! Either they:
  – reach the goal,
    • with rewards (which may be visual, aural, or
      by gaining virtual objects they will need later ),

  – they fail and are sent back to the
    beginning, to plan the route again.
    • Hints will be offered.
  Environments       .
Example #2: Going
above the Mountain

Or How Do Things
Look from Space?
        Use text or diagrams...


    ...or animations (created with the locally developed
                                        Eventscope software)

                              Starting with three mountains,
                              marked with colored rings, the
                              animation swoops forward and
                              up – to show the overhead

Depending upon their
prediction of what will
happen, the students sees
different results.
  Environment #2 – ELEM level
If you start on the ground in Florida, facing
    North, and go into space, what’s the
    shortest way to reach the West Coast?
     A.   Go straight ahead
     B.   Turn left
     C.   Turn right
     D.   Turn completely around.

                        Answer: The shortest way would be to turn left
    Environment #2,                            P

    8th GR level                               P

•Using a NASA educational resource                        d

(Space Mathematics, Problem 6, p. 60):
                                           r                      A
A spacecraft is at P, at an
altitude h above Earth’s surface,              D

as pictured...The Distance to
the horizon is d, and r is the
radius of the Earth.                     Answer:
•Describe d in terms of r and h.         Using Pythagorean:
                                         d=        2rh + h
      3D environment: Getting there
                             Columbia shuttle, 1981
Now, the VE part of the example begins.
After choosing an
answer, clicking “Done”
drops the student into a
3D world. It can be a
combination of 3D and
real photos as
“billboards” but the
person should be able
to move around in this
world, approaching the
shuttle, where other           NASA image
controls will enable lift-

                   Medium view
The student press the “lift-off” button, and gets to see the
   results of his previous answers.
Right - sees images from space, such as this one and the
   next page

Wrong – the student sees the engine die and reads
  comments as to why his choice is wrong. He or she is
  sent back to try again (Same question or with different
  “parameters” – such as ELEM going to London– or the
  8th GR might receive a different problem, if repeatedly
  wrong.) The student is offered “Hints” as suggestions on
  how to solve the problem.
Children with the right answer will continue to fly,
seeing the Himalaya Mountains from space, NASA
   Example #3:
Find this Viewpoint
            Find this Viewpoint
         from Where You are Now
• The student is given a Starting Point and
  directions on how to find buried or otherwise
  hard-to-see Treasure hidden at the End Point.
• The Directions may be given in multiple forms:
   – Map
   – Street Directions (like MapQuest)
   – Math Problem suitable for their level:
      • ELEM: 60 degrees North, 10 miles
      • 8th GR: Intersection of two equations
• First the student Draws in 2D (next slide)
• Then there is a Virtual Drive-Thru of this.
Superimposed on a map or landscape,
the student is given tools to draw (ruler
     and compass) from the Start.
              When Done!
• When finished, the student clicks “Done”
  and is transported into a 3D world (virtual
  environment) for a fly-through or drive-thru
  of the path they have recently drawn!
• Only while in this virtual world can the
  student see the otherwise invisible
                  Relation to Textbook
How does this relate to regular textbooks?
  automatic and/or independently creative
  inclusion of 3D examples.
   – Authoring Interface
   – Invisible Tags
• Match examples with existing written
  lessons, such as from NASA, or the Dept.
  of Education. Match it up with Discovering
  Geometry and other textbooks.
to authors and teachers
       to authors and teachers
• A textbook author or a teacher decides to
  add a connection to the 3D environment.
• They can create it simultaneously while
  writing a math/science problem or by
  selecting the appropriate problem later.
• A GUI opens, allowing them to insert or
  edit a 3D connection to the textbook or
  instructional materials.
                       goes here.
    Graphical Interface (GUI) for
When a spot in the text is selected for a 3D
  example, the GUI begins a series of

1. Title of problem?       A-1 #7
        Equation(s)?      y=x+3       Done
              Points?     (-10, 13)
         Origin and Direction
                                                    Goes to Certain
2. Where is the Origin?

   Type in or choose point.
                              Turns in Given
       0, 10, 300                    y       z      Click Done

                                        [default is (0, 0, 0)]

    Facing East – 0 degrees
• Start at Origin, facing “East”

             Images to Use:
1. Each Virtual ENVIRONMENT can have images
    that are linked to certain problem categories,
             with a mouse, for instance...
        Images:           Problem Types:
         ducks                  Liquid
          tanks                 Path

           These can be automatically constrained
           beforehand by the computer / author
           or may be individually MATCHED.
Behind the Scenes
After the example is entered by
the author or teacher...

When the creator clicks on Done, invisible
  tags are placed in the digital textbook.
  Click Done
                        This places INVISIBLE tags
                       that will pull the 3D example
                       out of the digital text, similar
                             to HTML, XML, or
                       S.K. Chang’s Growing Book.
The student would see the white square.
                                                      Problem A8 #11

Some of the hidden automatic levels                   For the equation:
(markup) behind this might include
these tags in order to                                   3y + 5x = 8
generate a 3D graphic.
 <3Dtitle> Problem A8 #11
                                                      Is the point (10, 8)
                                                      a solution?
    <type> graph </type>
    <text> For the equation:
              <equation> 3y + 5x = 8 </equation>
              is this point
              <answer point-equation intercept>
                                                    [Note: the author wants
                                                     the student to see only
                         <point> (10, 8) </point>
                                                     the x, y values in these
                                                      2D, traditional graphs,
              a solution ?
                                                      but the 3D graphic will
                                                            represent this by
                                                     adding a zero, such as
                                                          (10, 8, 0) creating a
                                                                     billboard ]
1. This Project Complements
Existing Research/Software
    2. Research Interests
This Interface would
Complement Existing Software
  • This project should complement existing ITS’s
    and cognitive tutoring software (such as the Cognitive Tutor)
     adding more capabilities, but running on the
    same foundation of guiding the student through
    an ideal pathway which is adaptive to their
    scoring patterns.
  • LearnLab’s Finite State Authoring Software
    should speed up and help organize development
    work on this interface.
               Research Work
• The development of this software should
  contribute to educational research, letting
  the development of 3-dimensional
  instructional materials be studied in an
  orderly fashion, since
  – The project will enable graphics/animation to
    be EASILY added to these already successful
    tutoring systems, and
  – every keystroke by the student can be logged
                         Research Areas

• Discover optimum methods for producing
  adaptive interactive, instructional materials
   – Different learning modalities
   – Disabled students, especially those with learning

• Experiment with the optimum combination
  /order for illustrating problems in text/ graphics
                     Educational Research
                     Areas (cont.)
• Find ways to Increase visualization and spatial
  skills interactively, for the purpose of increasing
  math and science capabilities (already shown to be
  related in the literature) and testing for optimum
.Some relevant researchers willing to advise me,
  matched with some of their specific areas of
  expertise, include:
Dr. S.K. Chang – adaptive educational materials,
  using XML-like tags; multisensory fusion; visual
Dr. Peter Brusilovsky – adaptive hypermedia and
  interactive educational resources
Dr. Shari Trewin – on-the-fly, adaptive web pages
Dr. Anthony Debons – organization and overview
  Note to Speaker:
Run through this presentation once ahead
   of time, so that the pictures and web
   pages will load faster for the

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