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Educational Overview Reasons for grant,
and description of
larger future project
that this is part of.
Programmer's Viewpoint Sketch of
Researcher's Viewpoint Relationship to
ACTUAL Current Create 3D Authoring
PROJECT Interface !
Table of contents
• Creating what?
• Why 3D?
• Lesson Environments: One Two Three
• Appearance to authors and teachers
• Behind the scenes
• Relation to Research / Software at LearnLab
• Research Areas
Note to speaker
A Standardized Interface
Math Problems and Existing 3D Software
An Interface between Math
Problems and Existing 3D Software
This is an interface between existing 3D programs
and textbook/online instructional materials. The
following section shows examples created with
Educational materials can be created, which will
supplement the standard 2D and words with 3D
This can be used as a graphical extension of the
textbook, a weekly excursion from classroom
work, or a creative tool for individual teachers.
You may say, why add 3D
graphics or interaction
to what are already
materials? Here are
some reasons: Flat?
1. Realism connects the
better to everyday Realistic? (National Park Service)
reality, which is, of
course, in 3D.
Reason: Architectural and Scientific
2. Spatial skills learned while navigating through these
worlds will improve math and scientific skills, such as
Visualization, necessary for designing architecture or
Reasons: Complexity, Beauty, and
Movement through Space
3. The intricacy, beauty, and
movement through space may
Reasons: Visual to standard
notation & Conceptual expression
4. Visual learners can be drawn toward
standard notation. This includes students with
learning disabilities, autism, or even regular
students with a preference for visual/spatial
5. Certain concepts are best expressed in 3D
like tectonics or chemistry:
http://www2.nature.nps.gov/geology/usgsnps/oilgas/CH4_3.MPG from USGS
6. Variables or angles
can be manipulated
interactively. This is
similar to moving
physical objects, but
with more possibilities:
expense, and hazards,
or collapsing time. TEAPOT, OpenGl Template, by SLMasters
Example #1: Orienteering Orienteering
Maps, based on US Army Trees
•This green map is from
US orienteering http://www.infiterrasports.com/pics/2004rage/index.htm
• “Participants are given a map, usually of an area with
which they are unfamiliar, and a compass. They attempt
to visit, in sequence, control points that are indicated on
• Map “detail is focussed towards what needs to be
perceived at eye level, at a run; it must also convey any
• “Controls are usually based around a visible feature,
and explained on the map or on a special control
description sheet. They are marked on the course by
white and orange (or red) flags. A competitor marks their
visit in some way”
From Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orienteering
Traditional Sample Map
Click to go to site.
Project layout, young student’s
view of planning map (my project)
When Done, Drive Through
• The student clicks
when done with
route. Then the 3D
drive through begins.
The student knows immediately whether
he/she succeeded or not! Either they:
– reach the goal,
• with rewards (which may be visual, aural, or
by gaining virtual objects they will need later ),
– they fail and are sent back to the
beginning, to plan the route again.
• Hints will be offered.
Example #2: Going
above the Mountain
Or How Do Things
Look from Space?
Use text or diagrams...
...or animations (created with the locally developed
Starting with three mountains,
marked with colored rings, the
animation swoops forward and
up – to show the overhead
Depending upon their
prediction of what will
happen, the students sees
Environment #2 – ELEM level
If you start on the ground in Florida, facing
North, and go into space, what’s the
shortest way to reach the West Coast?
A. Go straight ahead
B. Turn left
C. Turn right
D. Turn completely around.
Answer: The shortest way would be to turn left
Environment #2, P
8th GR level P
•Using a NASA educational resource d
(Space Mathematics, Problem 6, p. 60):
A spacecraft is at P, at an
altitude h above Earth’s surface, D
as pictured...The Distance to
the horizon is d, and r is the
radius of the Earth. Answer:
•Describe d in terms of r and h. Using Pythagorean:
d= 2rh + h
3D environment: Getting there
Columbia shuttle, 1981
Now, the VE part of the example begins.
After choosing an
answer, clicking “Done”
drops the student into a
3D world. It can be a
combination of 3D and
real photos as
“billboards” but the
person should be able
to move around in this
world, approaching the
shuttle, where other NASA image
controls will enable lift- http://images.jsc.nasa.gov/lores/S81-36664.jpg
The student press the “lift-off” button, and gets to see the
results of his previous answers.
Right - sees images from space, such as this one and the
Wrong – the student sees the engine die and reads
comments as to why his choice is wrong. He or she is
sent back to try again (Same question or with different
“parameters” – such as ELEM going to London– or the
8th GR might receive a different problem, if repeatedly
wrong.) The student is offered “Hints” as suggestions on
how to solve the problem.
Children with the right answer will continue to fly,
seeing the Himalaya Mountains from space, NASA
Find this Viewpoint
Find this Viewpoint
from Where You are Now
• The student is given a Starting Point and
directions on how to find buried or otherwise
hard-to-see Treasure hidden at the End Point.
• The Directions may be given in multiple forms:
– Street Directions (like MapQuest)
– Math Problem suitable for their level:
• ELEM: 60 degrees North, 10 miles
• 8th GR: Intersection of two equations
• First the student Draws in 2D (next slide)
• Then there is a Virtual Drive-Thru of this.
Superimposed on a map or landscape,
the student is given tools to draw (ruler
and compass) from the Start.
• When finished, the student clicks “Done”
and is transported into a 3D world (virtual
environment) for a fly-through or drive-thru
of the path they have recently drawn!
• Only while in this virtual world can the
student see the otherwise invisible
Relation to Textbook
How does this relate to regular textbooks?
• STANDARDIZED METHODS, allow for
automatic and/or independently creative
inclusion of 3D examples.
– Authoring Interface
– Invisible Tags
• Match examples with existing written
lessons, such as from NASA, or the Dept.
of Education. Match it up with Discovering
Geometry and other textbooks.
to authors and teachers
to authors and teachers
• A textbook author or a teacher decides to
add a connection to the 3D environment.
• They can create it simultaneously while
writing a math/science problem or by
selecting the appropriate problem later.
• A GUI opens, allowing them to insert or
edit a 3D connection to the textbook or
Graphical Interface (GUI) for
TEACHER / AUTHOR
When a spot in the text is selected for a 3D
example, the GUI begins a series of
1. Title of problem? A-1 #7
Equation(s)? y=x+3 Done
Points? (-10, 13)
Origin and Direction
Goes to Certain
2. Where is the Origin?
Type in or choose point.
Turns in Given
0, 10, 300 y z Click Done
[default is (0, 0, 0)]
Facing East – 0 degrees
• Start at Origin, facing “East”
Images to Use:
1. Each Virtual ENVIRONMENT can have images
that are linked to certain problem categories,
with a mouse, for instance...
Images: Problem Types:
These can be automatically constrained
beforehand by the computer / author
or may be individually MATCHED.
Behind the Scenes
After the example is entered by
the author or teacher...
When the creator clicks on Done, invisible
tags are placed in the digital textbook.
This places INVISIBLE tags
that will pull the 3D example
out of the digital text, similar
to HTML, XML, or
S.K. Chang’s Growing Book.
The student would see the white square.
Problem A8 #11
Some of the hidden automatic levels For the equation:
(markup) behind this might include
these tags in order to 3y + 5x = 8
generate a 3D graphic.
<3Dtitle> Problem A8 #11
Is the point (10, 8)
<type> graph </type>
<text> For the equation:
<equation> 3y + 5x = 8 </equation>
is this point
<answer point-equation intercept>
[Note: the author wants
the student to see only
<point> (10, 8) </point>
the x, y values in these
2D, traditional graphs,
a solution ?
but the 3D graphic will
represent this by
adding a zero, such as
(10, 8, 0) creating a
1. This Project Complements
2. Research Interests
This Interface would
Complement Existing Software
• This project should complement existing ITS’s
and cognitive tutoring software (such as the Cognitive Tutor)
adding more capabilities, but running on the
same foundation of guiding the student through
an ideal pathway which is adaptive to their
• LearnLab’s Finite State Authoring Software
should speed up and help organize development
work on this interface.
• The development of this software should
contribute to educational research, letting
the development of 3-dimensional
instructional materials be studied in an
orderly fashion, since
– The project will enable graphics/animation to
be EASILY added to these already successful
tutoring systems, and
– every keystroke by the student can be logged
• Discover optimum methods for producing
adaptive interactive, instructional materials
– Different learning modalities
– Disabled students, especially those with learning
• Experiment with the optimum combination
/order for illustrating problems in text/ graphics
• Find ways to Increase visualization and spatial
skills interactively, for the purpose of increasing
math and science capabilities (already shown to be
related in the literature) and testing for optimum
.Some relevant researchers willing to advise me,
matched with some of their specific areas of
Dr. S.K. Chang – adaptive educational materials,
using XML-like tags; multisensory fusion; visual
Dr. Peter Brusilovsky – adaptive hypermedia and
interactive educational resources
Dr. Shari Trewin – on-the-fly, adaptive web pages
Dr. Anthony Debons – organization and overview
Note to Speaker:
Run through this presentation once ahead
of time, so that the pictures and web
pages will load faster for the