PowerPoint Presentation - History 101

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					Age of Exploration
(Western European Expansion)
Spain & Portugal
   Led the Age of Exploration
Spain & Portugal’s
Exploration Motivations
 “God,” (Missionary Enterprise)
 “Gold,” (Spices, Silk, etc from Asia;
  Gold etc. from the “New World”
  (N. & S.America)]
 “Glory,” (National & Personal)
Prince Henry the Navigator

 Established a School of Navigation in
  Lisbon, Portugal.
 Built better ships.
 Developed better navigational skills &
  instruments (e.g. compass; astrolabe)
Prince Henry the Navigator of
Portugal
New Technology makes Exploration
Possible
                    Cross staff
                    Astrolabe
                    Used for
                     determining latitude
                    New Ship: Caravel
Bartholomew Diaz

 Overcame concerns about sailing
  around Africa to reach Asia.
 Reached the “Cape of Good Hope”
  (Southern tip of Africa), and then
  returned to Portugal.
 1487
Vasco da Gama

 Reached India by sailing aroundAfrica.
  He lost 2 of his ships & 1/3 of his men.
 Returned with a cargo of spices that
  was sold for an enormous profit (60
  times the cost of the trip).
 1497
Dias & Da Gama Explorations
Vasco da Gama
Christopher Columbus

 Reached America in 1492, thinking he
  was in Asia.
 He greatly miscalculated the
  circumference of the earth (by 7000
  miles!).
Christopher Columbus

 His visit connected the “New” world
  with the “Old” world for the first time in
  the “modern” era.
 This resulted in a phenomenal
  “Columbian Exchange”
Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus’ ships




    Nina, Pinta, & Santa Maria
  Columbus landing in the New World




Hmm… do you think this artist was there?
183ColumbusMap
Ferdinand Magellan’s voyage
Magellan’s Voyage
 1519-1522
 His expedition was the first to
  circumnavigate the globe (allthough he
  didn’t make it)
 First to sail to the Pacific through the
  Strait of Magellan (tip of S.America)
 270 men on 5 ships started the voyage;
  only 18 ever made it back to Spain.
  Only 1 ship returned
Magellan’s death in the Philippines
185AtlanticExplorerMaP
Conquistadors

 “Conquering Christians” who in the
  1500s ruthlessly conquered native
  Americans in the name of Christianity
  and for the benefit of the Spanish
  empire.
 By the 1600s other Western European
  countries competed in this kind of
  empire building.
Hernando Cortez

   A conquistador that sailed for Spain (1519).
   He conquered the Aztecs of Mexico & thus
    (by destroying that civilization) contributed to
    the vast empire of Spain. (2 years)
   Cortez had 600 men, superior weapons
    (canons), horses, & some native assistance.
Hernando Cortez
Mexico City (Tenochtitlan)
Cortez & allies using obsidian swords
Mexico surrenders to Cortez
Francisco Pizarro

 A conquistador who sailed for Spain.
 He conquered the Incas of Peru, took
  their gold & killed their ruler.
 He made a massive contribution to the
  vast empire of Spain.
Battle for Cuzco after the execution
of Atahualpa
England’s Motives for Exploration
 English wanted not only natural
  resources, but also wanted to settle and
  colonize
 New England area became the place to
  go for religious freedom
    subsistence farming & more
     manufacturing of raw materials
 Southern Colonies (Virginia) became
  more agricultural for cash crops
John Cabot- 1497 & 98


   Sailed for England
    and made the first
    British claims in North
    America.
   Later England would
    dominate Canada and
    the Eastern Coast of
    what is now the USA.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588)

 Cause: Spanish vs. English rivalry
  religiously & commercially.
 Result: The British won & went on to
  dominate the Age of Exploration &
  Colonization.
Arrival of the English in Virginia,
Roanoke Island… the lost colony
Samuel de Champlain

                   Established a
                    French colony at
                    Quebec in 1603.
                   This marked the
                    beginning of a
                    French tradition in
                    Canada.
Honorable Mentions
Holland & France
 Also became primary competitors in the
  Age of Exploration and colonization.
 France colonized for resources and
  established the trade cities of Quebec &
  New Orleans
 Holland was interested in trade markets
  in the New England area
    Established New Amsterdam in

     1625… later became New York under
     British rule
Sir Francis Drake

   British Pirate who
    preyed upon
    Spanish ship.
   He contributed to
    the decline of Spain
    and rise of England
    in the Age of
    Exploration.
Jacques Cartier 1534-1542

 Was one of several French explorers
  who made claims for France in North
  America.
 3 trips between 1534-1542
 Tried to find a northwest passage to the
  Pacific
Vasco Nunez de Balboa


   Crossed the Isthmus
    of Panama & was
    the first European to
    see the Pacific
    Ocean.
    Ponce de Leon


   Explored Florida
    and made claims
    for Spain in North
    America.
Ponce de Leon’s route: 1513

 His goal was to
  find the Fountain
  of Youth
 He was known for
  his brutal
  treatment of the
  native populations
    Hernando de Soto 1539-42
   Goal: to find lots of gold
    and silver
   Made brutal contact
    with many indigenous
    tribes such as the
    Cherokee, Choctaw,
    Seminole
   Had previously been on
    expedition with Pizarro
    and helped brutally
    conquer the Inca
Hernando de Soto




   Sailed for Spain and “discovered” the
    Mississippi River… also buried on its
    banks in 1542
The Columbian Exchange- See handout

     The exchange of plants, animals, & disease
      between the Europe & the Americas
     Disease in post-Columbian Americas
      decimated the native population
        Population in pre-Columbian Americas is

         estimated at 100 million
        By 1840, the native population was approx.
         2 million.
Treaty of Tordesillas
                           1494
                           Pope drew line of
                            demarcation to divide
                            lands claimed by Spain
                            (west of line) and
                            Portugal (east of line)
                           This is why Brazil
                            speaks Portuguese!
                           Little exploration had
                            been done at this time
                              Spain granted bigger

                                chunk
                                   Pope was

                                    Spanish…
                                    interesting!
Spanish Empire after Treaty of
 Tordesillas (1494 until 1763)

				
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