33-03 - Biofortification - sweetpotato - INTERNATIONAL POTATO CENTER

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					                       INTERNATIONAL POTATO CENTER
                       Annual Sub-project Progress Report
               Reporting Period: January 1, 2005- December 31, 2005

1. Title of Sub-project

   3303 Biofortification of Sweetpotato

2. Activities included in the report (title and CIPFIS number)

   330301 HarvestPlus Orange fleshed Sweetpotato for Alleviating Vitamin A in SSA
   330304 Biofortified Crops with improved Vitamin A, essential Minerals and Quality Protein
          Sweetpotato Breeding Component

3. Sub-project leader/ team leader and team members

   Sub-project leader: Wolfgang Gruneberg

   Team Leader 330301: Regina Kapinga
   Team Member 330301: Sammy Agili (CIP-Kenya), Silver Tumwegamire (CIP-Uganda).
   Collaborators: Robert Mwanga (Uganda), Don La Bonte (LSU), Philip Ndolo (Kenya), Elia
   Marandu (Tanzania), Presley Sisupo (Zambia), Anabela Zacarias (Mozambique), Jean
   Marc(Madagascar), Harrison Dapaah (Ghana), Sunette Laurie (South Africa), Jean Ndirigue
   (Rwanda), and Tshemo Anshebo ( Ethiopia)

   Team Leader 330304: Wolfgang Gruneberg
   Team Member 330301: Jorge Espinoza (CIP-Peru), Gabriella Burgos (CIP-Peru).
   Collaborators: Gustavo Cordova (INTA, Nicaragua), Luis Alberto González Díaz (CIAP, Cuba),
   José Bienvenido Núñez (ISA, Republica Dominicana), José Amauri Buso (EMBRAPA, Brazil)

4. Main outputs per category, and milestone achievement in 2005

   Output category                     Output                       Milestone          Achievement (%)
 Materials                20 local OFSP landraces in SSA t        20 local OFSP        >100%
                          collected & virus cleaned               landraces
                                                                  collected in SSA
 Materials                Introduction of 30 clones with          Introduction of 30   100%
                          ≥ 30 % DM, high β-carotene              clones
                          from CIP, Lima into SSA for
                          acceptability & adaptability studies,
                          disseminated to Nigeria, Zambia &
                          South Africa
 Materials                OFSP Seed production for SSA            10,000 – 15,000      >100%
                          and LAC region ≥15,000 seeds            OFSP seeds
                          available by polycross nurseries &      produced
                          controlled crossings
                          CIP Uganda generated > 0.2
                                                                  10,000 OFSP
                          million poycross seeds; ≥ 50,000
                          seeds shared with other countries
                          for 2006 trials.
                          CIP Lima generated - 242 families
                          with > 40 seeds per cross (about
                                                                  250 OFSP families
                          10,000 seeds) for the OFSP
                                                                  with > 40 seeds
                          “Population ZAPSPK” (VA-1
                          generations) to be tested in SSA &
                          CIP Lima shipped 4 OFSP
                                                                  1000 seed send to
                          polycross families (4000 seeds) to
                                                                  each country
                          4 LAC countries (Nicaragua, Brazil,
                          Cuba, Dom. Rep.)

Materials   CIP Lima developed & tested the        VA-0x generation       100%
            OFSP “Population Jewel ” (VA-          developed
            0x generation) for LAC, ESEAP,
            SWCA & SSA region (4200                4000 – 5000 VA–
            clones).                               0x clones tested &
            Characteristics: Pop. Means:           Population means
            30% DM, 79 ppm tot-carotenoids,        determined
            21 ppm Fe, 9 ppm Zn, yield range
            1-9 kg / 1m2
Materials   CIP Lima selected 45 promising         MTP 2006 to test       100%
            OFSP clones from “Population           45 promising
            “Jewel ” for global distribution.      OFSP clones
            Characteristics: Promis. Means:
            31% DM, 230 ppm tot-carotenoids,
            23 ppm Fe, 11 ppm Zn, yield
            range 1-9 kg / 1m2
Materials   Variety Development & testing in       Establishment of       80% (late import
            LAC for OFSP:                          a breeding
            - 22 Elite-Demonstration clones to     network in LAC
            4 LAC countries (Nicaragua, Brazil,    with Elite,
            Cuba, Dom. Rep.)                       advanced &
            - 23 promising OFSP clones to 4        promising clones
            LAC countries (Nicaragua, Brazil,
            Cuba, Dom. Rep.)
Materials   OFSP Variety Development &             5 – 10 OFSP            100%
            testing in SSA:                        varieties officially
            - 10 advanced OFSP clones in           released in SSA
            SSA GxE trials in 6 countries
            - 1 high yielding wide adapted
            clone (CIP material 19906.12) for
            East Africa identified
            - 2 high yielding wide adapted
            clones (CIP material) for South
            Africa identified
            - 4 OFSP varieties officially
            released in Ethiopia
            - 15 - 20 promising clones
            identified & widely deployed
            through participatory evaluation
            with national programs, farmers,
            CBOs & NGOs.; 3 countries & 5
Materials   On-farm acceptability studies for      New advanced           85% (late planting
            OFSP varieties in SSA:                 clones identivied
                                                                          due to rain
            5 - 10 advanced varieties identified
            through participatory evaluation                              shortage in some
            with national programs, farmers,                              selected sites)
            CBOs & NGOs.
Materials   Multiplication & dissemination of                             75% (lack of
            planting materials of popular
                                                                          enough resources
            breeder’s varieties in SSA:
            Basic plots for multiplication of                             to expand to many
            clean planting material established                           sites)
            in ≥ 5 countries
Practices   Sweetpotato germplasm                  Yes                    >100%
            maintenance, multiplication &
            distribution practices

Capacity                Capacity building for NARS             Conduct planning     >100%
                        breeders & collaborators:              meetings
                        - Planning meeting for
                        Biofortification SP in SSA & LAC       1 Statistic & G&E
                        with collaborators                     course in SSA
                        - Two Statistic & GxE courses for
                        15 and 4 breeders from 11 SSA
                        countries                              Attend and present
                        - Exchange visits during harvesting    papers at the
                        of trials was done with 16 NARS        African Crop
                        breeders and technicians from          Science
                        Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda.
                        - Support three NARS scientists to
                        attend and present papers at the
                        African Crop Science
Capacity                Collaborative research activities      Estimation of        >100%
                        between CIP and Louisiana State        genetic
                        University (LSU) for plant quality     parameters for
                        analysis                               yield, storage
                        Heritability & genetic correlations    root dry matter
                        for DM, b-carotene, iron & zinc in     total-caroteniods,
                        sweetpotato roots:                     Fe & Zn in
                        Range: 20 – 40%, 0 – 400ppm, 10        different
                        – 40ppm, 5 –15 ppm, respectively       sweetpotato
                        Heritability: 85%, 90%, 70% and        breeding material
                        70% respectively                       (means, range,
                        Correlations: (r2 about -0.5 -0.3, -   genetic variances
                        0.3, 0.4, 0.4, 0.75, respectively      and genetic
Capacity                PhD study: GxE assessment of β-        Research study on    60% (slow process of
                        carotene, Fe & Zn in SSA               screening OFSP       approving the
                        landraces                              landraces from       Research Study at the
                                                               SSA                  University)
Capacity                - Program PLABSTAB introduced          Two Plant            100%
                        to CIP & NARS breeders                 Breeding Statistic
                                                               courses conducted

                        - Program PLABAMMI developed                                50% (statistic &
                        to analysis GxE trials.                                     computer knowledge in
                                                                                    SP breeding)
Other kinds of                           -                             -                       -
Policy strategies                        -                             -                       -

5. Report

   5.1 Collection of OFSP landraces and in SSA and virus cleaning

   Sweetpotato varieties in SSA are usually white-fleshed. Introducted OFSP varieties in SSA are
   often not accepted (Reason: low dry matter content of storage root). Exceptions are the varieties:
   Resisto, Jonathan and Zapallo, however these fail under high virus pressure in SSA. Against this
   background CIP-Uganda started to search if it is possible to find OFSP landraces in SSA. OFSP
   SSA landraces have been identified in Uganda, Madagascar, Ghana, Zambia and Kenya. About
   50 OFSP SSA landraces have been collected. A list of the collected material is given in Table 1.
   The landraces are currently tested in connection with the PhD thesis of Silver Tumwegamire.
   The work is also linked to additional funds (40,000 USD) obtained from Harvest Plus for 2006 to
   speed up OFSP variety release in Uganda. Justification: Currently grown OFSP varieties in
   Uganda are not very high in β-carotene content so that HarvestPlus is alarmed that it is perhaps
   not possible to achieve the promised impact for Uganda given by the HarvestPlus Enduser
   project. At CIP-SSA, over 20 promising OFSP SSA landraces have been virus cleaned and are
   currently being multiplied for distribution in the SSA region. Title of PhD thesis: GxE assessment
   of β-carotene, Fe & Zn in 90 SSA landraces. Country: Uganda. Locations: Namulonge,
   Kacwekano. Universities: Makerere University, Uganda, Louisiana State University, USA.

Table 1: Local OFSP germplasm collection during 2005 in SSA

     Country               No. of varieties identified   Sites

     Uganda                             26               Country wide (21 districts)

     Zambia                             20               3 Districts: Kawambwa, Mwense, & Samfya

     Madagascar                         2                Antobimandroso and Tsarafidy

     Ghana                              1                6 administrative regions

     Kenya                              4                Busia district: Budagari division

     Total                              53

5.2. Introduction of exotic high DM, high β-carotene content, and virus tested varieties
from CIP, Lima

During 2005 CIP introduced further OFSP clones to four countries: Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda
and Zambia. Country: Nigeria received 90 clones of which 76 are OFSP to target different
regions in the country (14 white/yellow fleshed clones were included because of their strong yield
performance). Country: Zambia received 14 clones. Country: South Africa received 7 clones.
Moreover, virus clean OFSP landraces (see above) from Muguga were shipped to Uganda.
Uganda also received 39 accessions from Beltsville, Maryland, USA for weevil resistance
screening and introgression of the weevil resistance trait (if present) into the Ugandan
germplasm. Moreover, CIP germplasm bank at Muguga, received from South Africa 10 local
popular land races (some OFSP) collected/developed in SADC countries and 20 deep orange-
fleshed clones which are used as parents in a newly established crossing block in Kenya.

Table 2: CIP Sweetpotato germplasm distribution via KEPHIS-Kenya (2004 - 2005)
     Country        OFSP       Non-OFSP         Total clones distributed
     South Africa        7           1                       8
     Uganda             25           -                      25
     Zambia             14           -                      14
     Nigeria            90          14                      90

5.3. OFSP Seed production for the SSA, LAC ESEAP and SWCA region - ≥15,000 seeds
available for evaluation in regional national programs

Crossings and seed production is the only way to develop new genetic variation in sweetpotato
for population and variety development. However, seed formation is low in sweetpotato (about 3
seed per cross), so that seeds are often produced in polycrosses nurseries by open pollination.
This has the disadvantage that the frequencies of allele contribution of each male parent is often
extremely unbalanced and nearly unknown. Controlled crossings allow to control the allele
frequencies each parent is contributing to the off-spring. However, sweetpotato is hexaploid and
highly heterozygous and parental performance should only give limited information for the value
of a clone to improved the genetic variation. Test crossings are theoretical the best method to
estimated the value of a clone to be used to contribute to the next generation. Nevertheless, the
advantage of the methods have not been quantified for sweetpotato. First investigations are
conducted in the GCP activity 320711 “Application of Molecular Markers for Gene Pool Division

and Heterosis in Sweetpotato”. CIP Lima moved completely from polycrosses to controlled
crossings because the risk with polycrosses is too high that no superior OFSP population is
developed within short terms (3 - 5 years).

In Uganda 7,600 and 214,800 seeds have been generated by controlled crossings and open-
pollinated polycrosses, respectively. A total of 30,000 seeds were sent to Kenya, Zambia and
Tanzania for seedling selection and virus resistance evaluation. In South Africa, the polycross
has been transferred to a new site which will allow optimal seed production. In Zambia, a new
polycross was established early in the year 2005 with 17 parents, 10 of which were orange-
fleshed; the rest white-fleshed. However, only 12 clones (199042/1, 15/1, Chingovwa, L3-
Brondol, Kalungwishi, Kakamega, L1 –45/ 1, Lukul, 19/1, 199084/1, Unknown 2/1, 199047/2)
were able to flower and produce open pollinated seeds. A total of 12,253 seeds have been
harvested in Zambia. Moreover, in Mozambique, a new polycross nursery was established in
2005 with 35 parents.

CIP Lima developed 242 OFSP families from controlled crossings, which have at least 40 seed
per cross. This work was carried out within Harvest Plus activities 330301. These families were
designated as the “Population ZapSPK” (status in 2005 >9680 seeds). All 242 OFSP families
with at least 20 seeds / genotypes per cross were multiplied and planted in Peru at 4 locations in
1m row plots (December 2005). The material was further used: to ship 98 families with at least 20
seeds per family to Uganda [to be tested at 2 locations / 2 treatments (drought stress / irrigated)],
to ship 72 families with at least 20 seeds per family to Kenya [be tested at 2 locations / 2
treatments (drought stress / irrigated)] and to ship 72 families with at least 20 seeds per family to
Mozambique [to be tested at 2 locations / 2 treatments (drought stress / irrigated)].

Moreover, CIP Lima has shipped 4 old OFSP polycross families (each with 1000 seeds) to
Nicaragua, Brazil, Cuba, Dominican Republic within the CIDA activities 330304: “Biofortified
Crops with improved Vitamin A, essential Minerals and Quality Protein”. This is aiming at the
establishment of OFSP population development in LAC countries.

5.4 OFSP “Population Jewel” developed (4200 clones) for the LAC and other regions.

Population development comprises seedling trials (ST) and selection of parents for the next
recurrent selection cycle. CIP Lima started to work with OFSP genepools and populations,
respectively. The “Population ZapSPK” (HarvestPlus activity 330301, see above,) and the
“Population Jewel” developed within the CIDA activities of 330304 (status in 2005 is clones). This
avoids double reporting to funding bodies and allows to exploit heterosis in the future of CIP
sweetpotato breeding. The “Population Jewel” - 4200 clones - was generated by polycrosses.
The female parents trace back to crosses mainly conducted with the variety Jewel and as male
parents advanced clones of the CIP breeding program were used. Seedling trials were conducted
in Peru. Locations: SanRamon I, San Ramon II, La Molina and Canete. The materials were: 4200
clones (“Population Jewel”). Results across 4200 “Jewel” clones: Means: storage root dry
matter: 30%, total-carotenoids: 79 ppm, Fe: 21 ppm, Zn: 9 ppm - storage root yield: mean:
            2                      2                                         2
1.5kg / 1m , range 0 - 9.9 kg / 1m , upper biomass yield: mean 3 kg / 1m , range 0.1 – 17.6 kg /
1m . Additionally, the population Jewel was tested for virus tolerance under high virus pressure at
the location Canete. We used the Pesek Baker index to select 300 parents in 2005 to improve
“Population Jewel” for the next recurrent cycle in order to avoid negative trade-offs in population
improvement. Results across 300 selected “Jewel” parents in 2005: Means: storage root dry
matter: 30%, total-carotenoids: 170 ppm, Fe: 25 ppm, Zn: 11 ppm, storage root yield mean
            2                        2                                          2
2.7kg / 1m , range 0.9 – 9.4 kg / 1m , upper biomass yield mean 3.6 kg / 1m , range 0.4 – 8.4 kg
/ 1m . It can be seen that negative trade-offs were successfully avoided. The usually observed
undesired decline of storage root dry matter in selection for high total carotenoid content — which
is due to the strong negative genetic correlation between these traits — was not observed.

5.5 OFSP Variety Development

Variety development comprises preliminary yield trials (PYT), advanced yield trails (AYT) and
multi-environment trials (MET), which includes on-farm studies, as well as Elite-Demonstration &
Genotype by Environment trials (GET). At these different stages of variety development the size
of plots and the number of environments increases. The outputs of these trials are reported here
according to their relative importance.

CIP-SSA supported testing in GET with 8 Elite-GE OFSP clones in 6 SSA countries.
Countries: Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Madagascar. Locations: The materials
were: 199024.2, 199026.1, 199034.1, 199027.3, 199015.1, 199005.1, 199004.2, SPK004 and
local checks. Locations: ARI-Maruku, Kitengule prison, ARI-Ukiriguru (Lake zone, Tanzania),
SRI–Kibaha, Hombolo (East and Central Zone, Tanzania), Kizimbani (Zanzibar, Tanzania), 4
locations in Madagascar (from 3 agro-ecologies), Awassa, Amaro, Wonago, Sirinka (Ethiopia),
Katumani (Eastern Kenya), Mtwapa (Coastal Kenya) and KARI-Kakamega (Western Kenya),
Namulonge, Serere, Kachwekano and Ngetta (4 major agro-ecologies, Uganda) and 3 locations
in Rwanda (high, medium and low altitudes). It is reported that all trials wait harvesting in
July/August and that in Uganda all entries failed except SPK004 because high susceptibility to
SPVD and/or Alternaria blight and/or low DM content (<30%) – only one clone 19995.11 has
been included in the polycross nursery as a high parental source for β-carotene (no further

CIP-Lima compiled a set of 22 clones for GET for LAC and other regions. Field experiments
started in Peru, Nicaragua, Brazil, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Vietnam – further
countries will be India, Uganda, Mozambique, China. The materials are: Zapallo (CIP
No.420027), SPK004 (CIP No.441768), INA100 (CIP No.192033.50), Humbachero (CIP
No.422656), Jonathan (CIP No.420014), Jewel (CIP No.440031), Beauregard (CIP No.440132),
Tanzania (CIP No.440166), Wagabolige (CIP No.440167), Resisto (CIP No.440001), Kemb37
(CIP No.440170), Mohc (CIP No.440034), Naveto (CIP No.440131), Blesbok (CIP No.440429),
Brondal (CIP No.442107), Cemsa74-228 (CIP No.400004), Santo Amaro (CIP No.400011),
Yanshu1 (CIPNo.440024) Xushu18 (CIP No.440025), Feng Shou Bai(CIP No.440029),
Ningshu1(CIPNo.440027) and NCSU1560 (CIP No.440093). Among these are the best currently
available OFSP varieties. This set of clones is recommended for unspecific germplasm requests.
The target is: A variety yield and quality description and adaptation study. Example Jewel:
Means: storage root dry matter 27.5%, total-carotenoids 210 ppm, Fe 17 ppm, Zn 8 ppm, storage
root yield mean 29.5 t / ha and range 25 – 33 t / ha, upper biomass yield mean 27.5 t / ha, range
19 – 34 t / ha. INA100: Means: storage root dry matter 24%, total-carotenoids 220 ppm, Fe 16
ppm, Zn 8 ppm, storage root yield mean 18 t / ha and range 13 – 28 t / ha, upper biomass yield
mean 25 t / ha, range 10 – 45 t / ha.

CIP-SSA supported testing in AYT, MET and on-farm trials with about 80 clones at about
35 locations (trials were conducted with different sets of 7 to 33 advanced yellow and orange
clones). Countries: Tanzania, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Madagascar, South Africa,
Mozambique, Ghana and Nigeria. Results reported for Ethiopia: The clone Guntutie exhibited
maximum B-carotene equivalent (744 ppm) followed by Koka-12 (310 ppm), Japon Tresmesino
(202 ppm), LO-323 (172 ppm), Zapallo (155 ppm), Damota (63.4 ppm) and TIS-8250 (32.7 ppm).
The clone LO-323 exhibited the highest dry matter content of 29.8 % followed by Zapallo (27.6%)
and TIS-8250 (23.1%). Guntutie was found to have the least dry matter content (14.7%). The
clones TIS-8250, Zapallo and LO-323 were officially released and are currently under
multiplication for distribution to users. These clones gave root yields of 35.4, 28.5 and 27.0 t ha
respectively on station and of 26.6, 25.5 and 25.6 t ha under verification plots. The check variety
recorded total root yield of 18.2 t ha under research fields and 21.8 under farmers’ fields.
Results reported for Mosambique: Two OFSP clones with 10 –12 t ha across 16 locations are
ready for variety release. The check variety recorded total root yield of 5 to 7 t ha . Results
reported for South Africa: The number established advanced breeding lines are 15 cream-

fleshed and 16 orange-fleshed clones. For details see Appendix 1: “CIP-SSA supported testing
in advanced yield trails (AYT), multi-environment trails (MET) and on-farm trials”.

CIP-Lima tested 16 clones in AYT. Country: Peru, Locations: LaMolina, SanRamon 1,
SanRamon2. The 5 best OFSP: 101048.1, 101091.3, 101133.3, 101133.4, 101088.2. Results
across 5 best OFSP: Means: Storage root dry matter 30.6%, Total-carotenoids 160 ppm, Fe
18 ppm, Zn 8 ppm, Storage root yield mean 17.25 t / ha and range 14 – 20 t / ha. Moreover, CIP-
Lima started to support testing in AYT, MET and on-farm trials with 23 OFSP clones at 8
locations in the LAC region: Countries: Peru, Nicaragua, Brazil, Cuba, Dominican Republic. The
materials were : CIP No. 187017.1, CIP No. 188002.1, CIP No. 199026.1, CIP No. 199035.7, CIP
No. 199043.4, CIP No. 199043.7, CIP No. 199043.7, CIP No. 199055.3, CIP No. 199057.4, CIP
No. 199062.1, CIP No. 199071.8, CIP No. 199071.9, CIP No. 440004, CIP No. 440176, CIP No.
440185, CIP No. 440189, CIP No. 440224, CIP No. 440225, CIP No. 440231, CIP No. 440232,
CIP No. 440286, CIP No. 440310, CIP No. 440311. The material is currently multiplied in Brazil,
Nicaragua, Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Field experiments started in Peru.

CIP-SSA supported testing in PYT with 35, 20, 75 and 278 promising OFSP clones in
Tanzania, Zanzibar, Kenya and Uganda, respectively. Country: Tanzania, Locations: Kibaha and
Hombolo in the Eastern and Central Tanzania. The materials were: 24 clones of SPKBH series,
10 CIP clones and Simama as a local check. SPVD severity scores were high in both locations
ranging between 2 and 4 at Kibaha and between 1 and 4 at Hombolo. A scale of 1-5 (1 = no
symptoms and 5 = severe symptoms) was used. Region: Zanzibar islands. Locations: Kizimbani
and Matangatuani. The materials were: 20 high b-carotene and high DM clones: Jonathan, Jewel
1, Jewel 2, Beauregard, Centennial, Costanero, Resisto, NC 1560, TIS 83/0138, TIS 2535, VSP–
4, BP–SP–2, SPK004, CN 317, Xushu 18, Camote Rosita, Tainainen 15, 29 Comensal, Maria
Angola, CN 1448–59, Julian and SPK004 as a local check. Initial data is being collected. Country:
Kenya, Locations: Kakamega, Katumani, Mtwapa and Kabete. The materials were: 75 high b-
carotene and high DM clones (no further information). Country: Uganda, Locations: Namulonge,
Kacwekano. The materials were: 278 promising clones (no further information).

CIP-Lima tested 42 promising OFSP clones in PYT for LAC and other regions. Country: Peru.
Locations: SanRamon I, San Ramon II, La Molina. The 7 best OFSP were: 102002.1,102006.14,
102006.18, 102021.5, 102061.7, 102025.3, 102028.7. Results across 7 best OFSP: Means:
Storage root dry matter 30.4%, Total-carotenoids 191 ppm, Fe 18 ppm, Zn 8 ppm, Storage
root yield mean 20.5 t / ha and range 13.6 – 29.5 t / ha

CIP-Lima selected 45 promising OFSP clones for PYT from “Population “Jewel” for LAC and
other regions. Country: Peru. Locations: SanRamon I, San Ramon II, La Molina and Canete. The
materials were 45 new promising clones selected from the “Population Jewel” in 2005. Results
across 45 clones: Means: Storage root dry matter 31.4%, Total-carotenoids 230 ppm, Fe 24
                                                          2                           2
ppm, Zn 11 ppm, Storage root yield mean 2.7kg / 1m and range 0.9 – 9.4 kg / 1m , Upper
                                  2                           2
biomass yield mean 3.4 kg / 1m and range 1.4 – 6.8 kg / 1m .These clones will be virus cleaned
in 2006. The target is to send this new PYT material in 2006 to the LAC, SWCA, ESEAP and SSA

5. 6. Multiplication & dissemination in SSA of planting material of popular varieties

The objective was to establish a chain of locations to disseminate clean planting material which
can be accessed by partner NGOs and farmer groups. In Ethiopia, multiplication at Awassa
research station for 12 popular varieties, 2 of which are OFSP. 5 million vine cuttings have been
distributed to NGOs and farmer groups in 2005. Awassa research station earned about 29,760
USD from one year vine sales. Private farmers were identified and involved. In Zambia, at Mansa
research station for 5 yellow and OFSP varieties [Kakamega (orange), Lunga (yellow),
Mulungushi (yellow), 15/1 (yellow), Zambezi (orange)] In the Northern Province, 10,000 vines for
each variety have been distributed for secondary multiplication and give to the farmers. In
Madagascar, at Mimosa station for 2 varieties, Rangita (420009) and Riba (420027) (0.08 ha and

0.06 ha for Rangita and Riba). In Ghana, at Kwadaso, Mampong (forest), Tono, Jukwa and
Ohawu for 2 newly released varieties: ‘CRI-Apomuden’ and ‘CRI-Otoo’). The target was to
produce about 500,000 cuttings for distribution to farmer groups, individual farmers and NGOs
during 2005 (no further information). In Kenya, at KARI-Kakamega and Alupe sub-centres in
western Kenya. The materials were: SPK004, Ejumula, Salyboro, Mugande and Nyawo.
Approximately 500,000 cuttings were distributed to farmer groups, NGOs and Agriculture
extension departments for further multiplication. World vision has initiated secondary
multiplication activities with farmers in the Busia and Siaya district. In Rwanda, at Rubona,
Karama, Gitarama (Runda) and Kigali – Rural (Mbyo). The materials were SPK 004, 97-062,
Cacearpedo, Kwezikumwe, 2000-203 and 2000-024. Cuttings from primary multiplication fields of
5-6 ha were distributed to farmer associations/groups, boarding schools, Catholic Relief Service
and nutritional centers for secondary multiplication in different provinces.

5.7. Sweetpotato germplasm maintenance, multiplication & distribution practices

The objective is to ensure a back-up of the sweetpotato germplasm in target countries. In
Ethiopia germplasm maintenance blocks were established at Awassa and Wondogenet stations.
In Tanzania, maintenance plots were established in different regions: 1) Lake zone, two
germplasm populations at Maruku (86 accessions) and Ukiruguru (160 accessions) In the
Eastern and Central zone at Kibaha (58 accessions) and Hombolo (6 accessions) research
stations. In Zanzibar, at Kizimbani Research Station (56 accessions including 21 OFSP
accessions material). In South Africa at Roodeplaat in-vivo maintenance of germplasm
genebank under glass houses conditions. In Rwanda at Rubona (130 accessions including 24
OFSP accessions).

5. 8. Capacity building of NARS breeders

   A planning meeting for Sweetpotato Biofortification in SSA was organized for the partners
    from Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda and Zambia. A master plan of HP activities for the
    year 2005 was made and was a basis for disbursement of funds to partners.
   A planning meeting was conducted at CIP-Lima from 28 March to 2 April 2005 with the
    participants: Gustavo Cordova, (INTA), Luis Alberto González Díaz (CIAP), José Bienvenido
    Núñez (ISA) and José Amauri Buso, (EMBRAPA). The design of experiments with the activity
    330304 “Biofortified Crops with improved Vitamin A, essential Minerals and Quality Protein –
    Sweetpotato breeding component” was defined.
   A crop review and planning meeting for sweetpotato HP was held for partners in Kampala
    Uganda to make strategic plans for year 2006. All HP participating countries, except
    Madagascar and Mozambique, were represented.
   Two statistical course on GxE data analysis and interpretation were organized (15 scientists
    in Uganda and 4 scientists in Mozambique).
   A one day training of trainers’ workshop on production, management, multiplication and
    protection of sweetpotato was organized by the sweetpotato program in Zambia in
    collaboration with the Zambia National Farmers Union in Mansa District (21 farmers

5. 9. Collaborative research activities between CIP and LSU for plant quality analysis

The upper ranges of total carotenoids, Fe and Zn were determined in current sweetpotato
breeding material: 400ppm, 40 ppm and 15 ppm, respectively. The heritabilities for dry matter,
total carotenoids, Fe, and Zn were determined: 0.81, 0.93, 0.67 and 0.70, respectively.

There were four striking genetic correlations in the breeding material: 1) the negative genetic
correlation of -0.55 between storage root dry matter and storage root total carotenoid content, 2)
the positive genetic correlations of 0.51 and 0.62 between total caroteniod content and Fe and Zn
content, and 3) the positive genetic correlations of 0.85 between Fe and Zn content of storage

    roots (results not presented). This leads to two conclusion: 1) breeding material with high total
    carotenoid content of storage roots has also a high Fe and Zinc content in storage roots 2)
    sequential selection as well as weighting of traits with the economic weights only (is usually done
    in breeding practice) is not sufficient to avoid negative trade-offs in the process of
    biofortification!! The sweetpotato breeding group at CIP started to conduct model calculations
    on this multi-trait selection problem. Results of model calculations clearly show that this problem
    in biofortification in sweetpotato is large, but also that it can be avoided with the Pesek Baker
    selection strategy. Additional MTP target in 2006: Publication of this information.

6. Related Training Activities completed (workshops, individual training, theses, internships).

  Course name,          Dates and           Type              Trainee          Trainer       Location
     topic             duration (in     (Individual,       (Institution)*
                          days)           group), if
                                       group include
                                         number of
                                       participants in
 Statistics & GxE     25-26 Nov.       Group (15)         NARS               W.             Seeta,
 using PLABSTAB       2005                                breeders from      Gruneberg      Uganda
                                                          10 countries)
                      4-5 Dec.         Group (4)          NARS               W.             Maputo
                      2005                                breeders from      Gruneberg      Mozambiq
                                                          Mozambique                        ue

 Standardization      May, 2005        Group (10)         NARS               R. Kapinga     Kampala,
 of breeding                                              breeders fro                      Uganda
 course for

 Sweetpotato joint    November,        Group (19)         East African       R. Kapinga     CIP-SSA
 trial harvesting     2005                                breeders and
 exchange visit                                           technicians

  Trainers’          May, 2005        Group (21)          Farmers from         R. Kapinga Mansa,
  workshop on                                             Mansa district                     Zambia
  multiplication and
  protection of
*If group put number of trainees only and the institutions; if individual put name and institutions.

7. Potential for Protection of Intellectual Property


8. Activities to Strengthen Team (training, conferences, courses, meetings, etc.).

         See above

9. Comments on impediments to progress.

    More statistical knowledge and capacity is required to describe the data generated in SSA –
    especially in the section variety trials.

10. Special projects HarvestPlus and CIDA

11. Proposals submitted.

 Title (or shortened       Donor            Stage (PNM, concept note,        Submission
 version)                                   full proposal)                   date                  Status
 Speed up OFSP             HarvestPlus      Full proposal                    August 2005           Approved
 variety release in        (40,000 USD)
 Sweetpotato               HarvestPlus                                       August 2005           Approved
 Biofortification in       (82,000 USD
 South Africa
 Feasibility Study for     HarvestPlus      Concept Note                     August 2005           In review
 Fast Quality Screening    (25,000 USD)
 in Harvest Plus by

12. Publications (list all publications differentiating those submitted, accepted or published).

    Estimation of genetic variances, covariances and genotype-by- environment interactions for
    simultaneous yield and quality improvement in sweetpotato – submitted to Plant Breeding

13. Funding gaps. What priority research needs funding?

         Research and development needs on sweetpotato under drought stress

14. Budget (Include the list of activities in the sub-project, budget in 2005 and indicate your needs
    for 2006 if the activity is going to continue or change, for 2006 needs you need to check the
    commitments established in the 2006-2008 MTP).

Name of the activity                        CIPFIS code 2005       Amount in 2005     Amount for 2006
Orange-fleshed sweetpotato for
                                                  330301          371,300 USD         494,000 USD
alleviating vitamin A deficiency in sub-
Saharan Africa (SSA)

Biofortified Crops with improved Vitamin
                                                  330304          Amount in 2004/5 223,000 USD
A, essential Minerals and Quality Protein
                                                                   335,000 USD
Sweetpotato Breeding Component

                                                    APPENDIX 1

CIP-SSA supported testing in advanced yield trails (AYT), multi-environment trails (MET) and on-
farm trials – from activity report 330301 HarvestPlus Orange fleshed Sweetpotato for Alleviating
Vitamin A in SSA


Advanced Yield Trials

Seven yellow/orange sweetpotato varieties (Kibakuli, Pipi, Zambezi, Carrot Dar, L068/17, Simama and Ukerewe)
were planted in March at SRI-Kibaha station. Data on SPVD scores and establishment have been taken. The data
shows good establishment (65-90%) rates of the varieties and moderate susceptibility to SPVD (severity score 2 and
3) although all the varieties showed disease symptoms.

In Zanzibar islands advanced yield trials were established at 3 locations, Mahonda, Kizimbani and Matangatuani.
Six varieties (NIS 91/218, TIS 2534A, 440117, 440157, 420131 and SP 93/17) previously selected from AYT 1
during 2004 were used for the trial. All sites were planted in April though one of the sites was destroyed by floods
and has been replanted early June. Two ridges measuring 6 metres and 3 replications were used for each variety in
all the sites. Ridges were 1 m apart and vine cuttings 30cm apart within the ridge. Two guards rows after each sub
plot was planted.

Uniform Yield Trials

Two sets of materials are being evaluated for uniform yield performance in the Eastern zone. The 1st set consisting
of 6 yellow/orange-fleshed varieties (SP2001/261, SP2001/264, Jewel (44003), Resisto, Simama and Ukerewe) was
planted at SRI-Kibaha, Sokoine University of Agriculture and 10 farmers’ fields during March. Plots established in
farmers’ fields are researcher managed. Farmers were selected from each of the three villages Chanika, Magindu
and Zinga. Preliminary data on sprouting show high rates ranging between 85 and 98% and SPVD severity range
between 2 and 3. All the varieties tested showed disease symptoms. In the same sites a 2nd set of 11 varieties
namely SP2001/084, SP2001/392, SP2001/205, SP2001/264, SP2001/188, SP2001/081 SP2001/386, SP2001/261,
Simama, Ukerewe and Mwananjemu were planted. Preliminary data from Kibaha research station show good
sprouting rates by the varieties ranging between 82 and 97%. SPVD severity ranged between 2 and 3 with all the
varieties showing symptoms. The trial will be harvested in August 2005.

In the central zone the trials were established at ARI-Hombolo station and selected on-farm fields in Mahoma,
Makulu, Chahwa and Mvumi villages. The varieties that were planted in these trials are SP2001/261, SP2001/264,
Resisto, Simama and Ukerewe also planted at SRI-Kibaha with an inclusion of Jewel (440031) at Hombolo.
Preliminary data has been collected for on establishment rates, foliage vigor and virus severity. Establishment rates
were poor at Hombolo, ranging between 5 and 38% and good on farm, ranging between 19 and 99%. However, the
on farm variety establishment varied with the location of the field and the level of management by the farmer.
Variety establishment was better for fields located near wetlands and managed well compared to fields established
in the upland (dryland). Farmers complained of unreliable rainfall experienced during the period, which probably
explains poor establishment rates in upland fields. In the lowlands farmers were able to irrigate the fields. SPVD
generally affected all the varieties in all sites at class 2 level of severity. Additional data will be collected during
harvesting of the trials.

Multi-location yield trials

Progress is reported for the Lake zone for both Ukiruguru and Maruku research stations. In Kagera region two sets
of the trials involving different batches of introduced OFSP clones were established early February. Two sites
(Maruku research station and Kitengule prison) were used for the trials. Initial data on sprouting and diseases has
been collected (not presented) and more data will be collected at harvesting that is scheduled for end of July.
Kakamega and SP2001/207b at Ukiriguru, Ukerewe and Sengerema sites had no SPVD symptoms while all varieties
at Ukerewe did not show SPVD sysmptoms.

Also two sets of multi-locational yield trials were planted in Mwanza region. The first trial involving 8 varieties (a
mixture of white, yellow and orange) namely SP2001/207b, Jewel No.1, Kakamega, Resisto, SP2001/198A, Simama,
Misalaba, and Polista were planted at 3 sites (ARI-Ukiriguru, Sengerema and Ukerewe) that represent diverse agro
ecological conditions in the region. Initial data on SPVD and sprouting has been taken. The second trial involving 9
varieties namely NASPOT 1, NASPOT 2, NASPOT 3, NASPOT 4, NASPOT 5, NASPOT 6, Simama, Polista and
Ipembe were also planted at 3 sites (ARI-Ukiriguru, Sengerema and Meatu). At all sites NASPOT 3 and NASPOT 4
did not show any SPVD symptoms.


i) National Variety Trial
Nine varieties were planted at Awassa, Areka, Adet, Bako, and Sirinka in 2004. The objective was to identify
sweetpotato genotypes high B-carotene and high in DM perform reasonable in root yields and other desirable
characters. The trial was not established at Alemaya University in 2004 due to inadequate planting vines for the test
varieties. Instead the varieties were multiplied for possible experimentation in 2005. Expected out put will be at least
2 varieties are released. The activities are on going and detailed report will be provided in the end of year report.

ii) Variety Trial to validate the B-carotene content of OFSP varieties

Trials were established in different locations of Ethiopia to validate the B-carotene levels among different OFSP
varieties. These would then be recommended to serve as an inexpensive, year-round and sustainable dietary source
of vitamin A for population groups at risk. Guntutie exhibited maximum B-carotene equivalent (744 µg/mg)
followed by Koka-12 (310 µg/mg), Japon Tresmesino (202 µg/mg), LO-323 (172 µg/mg), Zapallo (155 µg/mg),
Damota (63.4 µg/mg) and TIS-8250 (32.7 µg/mg). All these clones can supply vitamin A, which is more than the
daily requirement for proper health and development. Local checks Kemb-10 & 192054-IV & 192040-I exhibited
nil to negligible B-carotene content. Significant differences have been also noticed among the genotypes for dry
matter content marketable and total root yield. The clone LO-323 exhibited the highest dry matter content of 29.8
percent followed by Zapallo (27.6%) and TIS-8250 (23.1%). Guntutie was found to have the least dry matter content
(14.7%). The clones TIS-8250, Zapallo and LO-323 gave higher root yields of 35.4, 28.5 and 27.0 t ha -1 respectively
on station and of 26.6, 25.5 and 25.6 t ha-1 under verification plots. The check variety recorded total root yield of
18.2 t ha-1 under research fields and 21.8 under farmers’ fields. Hence, these varieties were officially released by
NVRC and they are currently under multiplication for distribution to users.

iii) Multi-locational trial

Thirteen advanced orange and cream-fleshed sweetpotato varieties were tested nationally at Awassa, Kokate, Jinka,
and Sirinka. This is still on-going with HP support and a full report will be submitted upon completion of the


In Uganda the population development activities that were initiated late 2004 are reported under this progress

a) Seedling trial of progeny from high DM orange-fleshed seed families introduced from Lima was evaluated at
Namulonge between September and December 2005. Out of the 1980 seedlings from 45 seed families, only 278
materials were selected for further evaluation.

b) For internally generated breeding populations selection rates varied from 0 to 94% in seedling and observation
trials on-station and in participatory breeding trials on-farm. For on-station over 214,000 and 7,600 high density
seed from open-pollinated and specific crosses, respectively, generated at Namulonge in 2004/2005 are providing
the base population for seedling screening in 2005. In participatory breeding trials on-farm, the selection rate of 0 at
Namulonge (NAARI) in Uganda, Kyaka and Nyungwe in northern Tanzania was due to high virus pressure at
NAARI, monkeys at Kyaka, and drought at Nyungwe. The on-farm participatory breeding trials in northern
Tanzania are part of the collaborative project with the Natural Resources Institute (NRI), in the UK.

c) At the same time progress for the 2 nd batch of OFSP clones introduced from Lima is also reported. All the 20
crumbed to SPVD infection, produced low biomass, and low consumption preference by the farmers compared to
local checks. As such materials for the second batch have been terminated and a few clones (199004.2, 199035.1,
and 199062.1) have been selected as parents in the polycross nursery.


In Kenya, population development activities at different stages have been established during the period under
review. These include preliminary yield trials, advanced yield trials as well as National performance yield evaluation
trials. The trials have been established at KARI centers of Kakamega, Mtwapa, Katumani, Alupe and Kabete. The
entries consist both of white and orange-fleshed clones/cultivars.

 Two different AYTs were done in Kenya. The first consist of 9 entries [OP-TOR-3-07, OP-ARA-004-028, OP-NIS-
252-03, ANJ-29(f) X GAMBU(M)-026, OP-ARA-004-29, OP-TC9-015-04, OP-NKA-006-08, OP-NDUNG-014-
01, OP-TZ-003-1] were planted in Katumani, Kabete, Alupe and Embu. The 2 nd set consisting of 24 clones was
planted only at Alupe. These are selections from a clonal evaluation involving 140 high DM orange-fleshed
sweetpotato clones was carried out at KARI-Kakamega during the 2004/2005 short rains. The trial has not been
harvested but the data on virus infection showed that only 6 clones are moderate resistant to the disease.

NPTs – Twelve clone entries 91/192, 566703/02, 56693/03, New Kawogo, Cheglina Mowar, K057, SPK013,
Sweetie, 56682/02, 316/02, 11/52, and 91/218 were planted at Kabete and Kakamega. The trial has not been


In Madagascar advanced yield performance trials were established in two sites, Ihazolava and Andranomanelatra.
The materials included the 24 clones introduced from CIP Muguga Kenya. Only data on establishment and foliage
coverage rates has been collected.

South Africa

In South Africa population development activities at different stages of breeding program are reported. These
include the following
i)       Developing and testing a system for improved screening of flesh colour attribute at seedling level of
         screening before transplanting to the field.
ii)      Established breeding lines in the initial evaluation at Roodeplaat. This involves 95 dark orange-fleshed
iii)     Established a preliminary yield evaluation trial at Roodeplaat to select breeding lines and cultivars.
         Twenty-nine orange-fleshed lines are involved in the trial.
iv)      Established intermediate yield trial at Roodeplaat where breeding lines and cultivars have been advance for
         selection. The trial involves 15 cream-fleshed and 16 orange-fleshed lines/cultivars

Other related activities that have been initiated in SA include:

   Development of screening methods for virus and Fusarium wilt
   Testing rapid screening method for drought tolerance in wooden boxes


In Zambia. During the harvesting period, in May 2005, a group of 10 farmers (5 men and 5 women) were invited to
participate in the selection process. The attributes considered in the selection were; size, shape, colour (peel and
flesh), yield and water content of the tubers. 21 clones were subjected to this process and only 10 were selected and
these are being advanced in on-farm plots for further evaluation.

Conduct on-farm adaptability & acceptability studies for OFSP varieties through farmer participatory

The objective is to incorporate growers’ and consumers’ preferences in the development and release of new
varieties, especially the orange-fleshed sweetpotato varieties. Progress pf the activities is reported for the following


In Zanzibar on-farm trials were established with farmers from Kizimbani, Donge Muwanda, Fujoni and Maungani
villages, between April and May. The objective of the trials is to verify and test the 5 improved OFSP varieties and
two local varieties under farmer conditions in different agro-ecologies of Zanzibar. Five varieties Zapallo, TIB-4,
Sallyboro, W-151, and Tainung 65, plus Kizimbani Mayai and Shangazi as local checks were planted. The trials
were established between April and May 2005. Three of these materials (W-151, Zappallo and TIB- 4) are scheduled
for release in December 2005.


On-farm trials farmer-researcher managed or farmer-NGO managed (planting is in progress)

Superior OFSP clones (entries 1-9, 12-20) (Table 11) have been planted on farm for participatory evaluation in the
Districts of Mpigi, Wakiso, Nakasongola, Busia, and participating farmers in Kabale, and farmer field schools in
Soroti have been selected to host the trials to be planted later in the year.

Nine OFSP clones from AYTs were planted in over 40 on-farm trials for farmer participatory evaluation in Mpigi,
Wakiso (Central Uganda), Nakasongola (north/central Uganda) and Busia (eastern Uganda) and with farmer field
schools in Soroti (Eastern Uganda between May and June 2005 depending on the rains. Twenty-eight trials have so
far been harvested. Two clones SPK004/1/1 with a red-purple skin and orange flesh (yellow with orange), and
SPK004/6/6 with red-purple skin and orange flesh are the most promising. Farmer evaluation of the 9 clones will
continue in more districts and seasons to generate data for variety release in next two years.


Selection of varieties has been done both on station and on farm. Farmers around the research station including the
Agriculture Support Program (an NGO) were invited to participate in the selection of the OFSP according to their
preferences. Out of 20 clones, 6 were selected directly from the field and other tests will be conducted to support the
distribution of the clones. Two sites (Miponda and Washeni) were planted with farmers in Samfya district as
demonstration research plots. Each site had 4 OFSP varieties from the research station and 1 local variety. A total of
48 farmers were involved in the trials in the 2 locations. Both groups received training on cultural practices.
Unfortunately, the demonstration plots were devastated by a combination of drought and animals (goats and cattle).
The farmers in both areas expressed interest in the material and would like to repeat the activity in the coming


In Kenya various sweetpotato varieties have been planted on-farm in different locations with different farmer
groups. Eight varieties Sponge, K118, 420014, 440094, 420009, SPK004, 566682 and K135 were planted with
farmer field schools targeting different agro ecologies in three major districts of western Kenya namely; Kakamega,
Busia and Bungoma. In all the location farmers preferred K135 and yields averagely good.

Other 4 OFSP varieties Ejumula, SPK004, Salyboro and Nyawo have been planted with farmer groups in Ugunja
and Butula divisions in Siaya and Busia districts, respectively. A total of 20 farmers are involved in evaluation trials
which will be harvested in late December, 2005.

South Africa

In South Africa AYTs were established on farmers’ fields in 5 localities (Badplaas, Jagersfontein, Polokwane,
Nongoma and Lusikisiki) for 2nd season (Nov-Dec 2004). At harvest, data were collected for farmers, field and
sensory evaluations conducted. At Nongoma 75 people attended the farmer’s day after harvesting. The trial at
Jagersfontein was not maintained well by farmers causing close to 100% mortality. The trial was replanted in
February 2005 which was very late in the growing season. It is foreseen that the plants over winter as storage roots
and will only be harvested after re-growth and bulking in early summer.


In Ghana on-station and on-farm trials to evaluate the adaptability and acceptability of the high β-carotene, high DM
content and CIP introduced genotypes were planted during 2005. The locations are Kwadaso (forest agro-ecology)
and Legon-Accra (coastal savannah agro-ecology) for on station evaluation and Techiman (transition zone), Jukwa
(forest zone) and Ohawu (coastal savannah zones) for on farm evaluation. There are 3 farmer groups (1 mixed and 2
women groups) with at least 15 members per group involved in the evaluations. Ten best clones have been preferred
by the farmers and there have been considered for rigorous on farm selections during 2006. The selected materials
include Tainan No. 15, NC 1560 440093, 199005.1, Jukwa orange (local), Excel 440016, BP-SP 2 440293, Xushu
18 440025, CN317 440090, TIS 83/0138 and Tainung 64.


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