Sex and Gender

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					Chapter 10

     Sex and Gender
Questions for You…
   How are issues of gender “socially constructed” in

   How do social institutions such as the family, the
    peer group, eductional institutions and the media
    facilitate social expectations of gender?

   Is there evidence that gender role socialization is
    becoming more “gender neutral?”
Chapter Outline
 Sex: The Biological Dimension
 Gender: The Cultural Dimension

 Gender Stratification in Historical and
  Contemporary Perspective
Chapter Outline
 Gender and Socialization
 Contemporary Gender Inequality

 Perspectives on Gender Stratification

 Gender Issues in the Future
Sex and Gender
   Sex refers to the biological differences between
    females and males.

   Gender refers to the culturally and socially
    constructed differences between females and
Society and Gender
   The organization and social structures within
    society significantly impact how power, property
    and prestige are distributed based on gender.

   Women make up the world’s largest minority
    population as women, collectively, do not have
    the sam degrees of power, property and prestige
    as men world wide.
The Pay Gap
   There is a “pay gap” that exists between men and
    women in virtually all professions.

   According to data published by the AFL-CIO,
    women earn approximately 80% of a man’s
    income. What social factors could account for the
    pay gap? Take a look at the link below.

Sex Characteristics
   At birth, male and female infants are
    distinguished by primary sex characteristics: the
    genitalia used in the reproductive process.

   At puberty, an increased production of hormones
    results in the development of secondary sex
    characteristics: physical traits that identify an
    individual’s sex.
How Much Do You Know
About Body Image and Gender?
   True or False?
       Most people have an accurate perception of their
        physical appearance.
How Much Do You Know
About Body Image and Gender?
   False
       Many people do not have a very accurate perception
        of their bodies.

       For example, many girls and women think of
        themselves as “fat” when they are not.

       Some boys and men believe that they need a well-
        developed chest and arm muscles, broad shoulders,
        and a narrow waist.
How Much Do You Know
About Body Image and Gender?
   True or False?
       Young girls and women very rarely die as a result of
        anorexia or bulimia.
How Much Do You Know
About Body Image and Gender?
   False.
      Although the exact number is not known, many
       young girls and women die as a result of starvation,
       malnutrition, and other problems associated with
       anorexia and bulimia.
Sexual Orientation
   An individual’s preference for emotional–sexual
    relationships with members of the opposite sex
    (heterosexuality), the same sex (homosexuality),
    or both (bisexuality).
Sexual Orientation
   Homosexual and gay are most often used in
    association with males who prefer same-sex

   Lesbian is used in association with females who
    prefer same-sex relationships.

   Heterosexual individuals, who prefer opposite-
    sex relationships, are sometimes referred to as
   Caused by a hormone imbalance, a
    hermaphrodite has a combination of male and
    female genitalia.

   Western societies acknowledge two sexes, other
    societies recognize three:
       Men
       Women
       Berdaches - males who behave, dress, work,and are
        treated as women.
Gender: The Cultural Dimension
   Most “sex differences” are socially constructed
    gender differences.

   Gender is embedded in the images, ideas, and
    language of a society.

   Gender is used as a means to divide up work,
    allocate resources, and distribute power.
Gender Socialization
 The process of learning to be male or female.
 Gender Scripts: The social expectations of gender
  assigned to males and females.
Learning Gender…Early
   The family introduces the child to an expectation
    of gender. Toys play a vital role in this process of
    gender socialization.

   Take a look at the following link to Toys R Us.

 Do you notice any patterns regarding
  stereotypical “gender roles?”

Sexism toward Women
   Three components:
       Negative attitudes toward women.
       Stereotypical beliefs that reinforce, complement, or
        justify the prejudice.
       Discrimination - acts that exclude, distance, or keep
        women separate.
Gender Stereotypes
   Men
       strong, rational, dominant, independent, less
        concerned with appearance
   Women
       weak, emotional, nurturing, dependent, anxious
        about appearance
Polling Question
   If you were taking a new job and had your choice
    of a boss, would you prefer to work for a man or a
       A. Man
       B. Woman

       C. No preference
Gendered Division of Labor
Three factors:
 Type of subsistence base.

 Supply of and demand for labor.

 The extent to which women's child-rearing
  activities are compatible with certain types of
Hunting and Gathering
    Economic          Hunting game, gathering roots and
  Characteristics     berries

 Control of Surplus   None

    Inheritance       None

   Control over

  Women’s Status      Relative Equality
Horticultural and Pastoral
    Economic          Planting crops, domestication of
  Characteristics     animals for food

 Control of Surplus   Men begin to control societies

    Inheritance       Shared—patrilineal and matrilineal

   Control over
                      Increasingly by men

  Women’s Status      Decreasing in move to pastoralism
                      Labor-intensive farming

 Control of Surplus   Men who own land or herds

    Inheritance       Patrilineal

   Control over
                      Men—to ensure legitimacy of heirs

  Women’s Status      Low
  Characteristics     Mechanized production of goods

 Control of Surplus
                      Men who own means of production


   Control over
   Procreation        Men—but less so in later stages

  Women’s Status
                      Information and service economy

                      Corporate shareholders and high-tech
 Control of Surplus   entrepreneurs

    Inheritance       Bilateral

   Control over

  Women’s Status      Varies by class, race, and age
Single Mothers with
Children Under 18
   Between 1990 and 2004,
    the number of U.S.
    families headed by single
    mothers increased by
    about 25%.
   This marks a change in
    the roles of many women,
    and may indicate that
    “traditional” households
    are in decline.
Parents and Gender Socialization
   Children's clothing and toys reflect their parents'
    gender expectations.

   Children are often assigned household tasks
    according to gender.
Peers and Gender Socialization
   Peers help children learn gender-appropriate and
    inappropriate behavior.

   During adolescence, peers often are more
    effective at gender socialization than adults.

   College student peers play an important role in
    career choices and the establishment of long
    term, intimate relationships.
Schools and Gender Socialization
   Teachers provide messages about gender through
    classroom assignments and informal interactions
    with students.

   Teachers may unintentionally show favoritism
    toward one gender over the other.
Sports and Gender Socialization
   From elementary school through high school:
       Boys play football.
       Girls are cheerleaders, members of the drill team,
        and homecoming queens.

   For many males, sports is a training ground for
Mass Media and Gender Socialization
On television:
 Male characters typically are more aggressive,
  constructive, and direct.

   Females are deferential toward others or use
    manipulation to get their way.
Polling Question
   If you could temporarily be the other gender,
    how long would you like to do so?
     A.   One day
     B.   One week
     C.   I have no desire to be the other gender
% of Women, African Americans, and
Hispanics in Selected Occupations
The Wage Gap – By Age
The Wage Gap – By Racial-Ethnic Group
The Wage Gap – By Occupation
The Wag Gap – By State
Views of Division of Labor by Gender

    Theory                      View

                 Women’s roles as caregivers are crucial
 Functionalism   in ensuring that societal tasks are

                 Division of labor within families and the
   Conflict      workplace results from male control and
                 dominance over women and resources.
The Human Capital Model
   According to this model, individuals vary in the
    amount of human capital they bring to the labor

   Human capital is acquired by education and job
    training; it is the source of a person’s
    productivity and can be measured in terms of the
    return on the investment (wages) and the cost
    (schooling or training) .
Sociological Perspectives on Gender

Perspective        Focus           Theory/hypothesis

                                   Traditional roles
                Macrolevel         ensure that important
Functionalist   analysis of        tasks will be
                gender roles.      performed.

                Power and          Unequal power
                economic           heightens gender-
  Conflict      differentials      based social
                between genders.   inequalities.
Sociological Perspectives on Gender

Perspective    Focus          Theory/hypothesis

                              1. Liberal
              Feminism can
                              2. Radical
 Feminist     reduce sexism   3. Socialist
Approaches    and gender
                              4. Multicultural
Quick Quiz
1. Primary sex characteristics are:
     A.   genitalia.
     B.   ones that are most important in a relationship.
     C.   clothing that a person wears.
     D.   characteristics such as facial hair and tone of voice that
          are obvious when meeting someone.
Answer: A
   Primary sex characteristics are genitalia.
2. A ________ is a person whom the sex-related
   structures of the brain that define gender
   identity are opposite from the physical sex
   organs of the person's body.
     A.   transsexual
     B.   hermaphrodite
     C.   transvestite
     D.   berdaches
Answer: A
   A transsexual is a person whom the sex-related
    structures of the brain that define gender
    identity are opposite from the physical sex organs
    of the person's body.
3. A ________ is a person in whom sexual
   differentiation is ambiguous or incomplete.
     A.   transvestite
     B.   transsexual
     C.   berdaches
     D.   hermaphrodite
Answer: D
   A hermaphrodite is a person in whom sexual
    differentiation is ambiguous or incomplete.
4. In hunting and gathering societies:
     A.   Neither sex is more dominant because neither has the
          ability to provide all the food necessary for survival.
     B.   males are more dominant because they hunt for game.
     C.   equality exists due to indigenous religions that state this
          is necessary.
     D.   females are more dominant because they collect fruits and
Answer: A
   In hunting and gathering societies neither sex
    is more dominant, because neither has the
    ability to provide all the food necessary for
5. Wage gap refers to:
     A.   the disparity between earnings of individuals based on
     B.   the disparity between classes of people in earned income.
     C.   the disparity in earnings between males and females.
     D.   the disparity between various racial and ethnic group
Answer: C
   Wage gap refers to the disparity in earnings
    between males and females.
6. In agrarian societies there is gender equality.
     A.   False.
     B.   True.
Answer: A
   There is not gender equality in agrarian
7. Gender socialization typically stops once one
   discontinues school.
     A.   False.
     B.   True.
Answer: A
   Gender socialization does not typically stop once
    one stops attending school.

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