Encomienda System

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					            Social Classes of New Spain
(Mexico after the fall of Montezuma and the Aztec’s)
 Conquers Aztec’s and surrounding “Indian” people for
  the expansion of Spain
 Sets-up a social class situation that is primarily based
  on Blood and place of birth – Allegiance to Spain is
 Spain – wants to keep its colonial expansion without
  having to commit troops and money to defend against
 “how do we keep the new territory loyal to Spain”
 Top social class – Peninsulares granted large estates where
    they could grow crops, raise cattle and other farm animals
    for sale of products/trade. -Hacienda’s
   Farms had labor provided by Spain via the conquered
    peoples (Indians/Aztecs)
   Peninsulares were identified as Spanish Born, from Spanish
    Parents (pure bloods from the home country)
   Best chance to keep the peace by their allegiance to the
    crown of Spain.
   Were only ones who could hold high public office (mayor,
   System called Encomienda System
 Second class below the Peninsulares were the
  Criollos (Creoles) They were of pure Spanish Blood but
  were born in New Spain (Mexico) rather than in Spain.
 Could not hold the same level of public office, were
  not granted the Hacienda’s from the king, but could
  inherit the land from their Parents if they were
 The Peninsulares and Criollos were considered upper
 class, and supported the king based on their love for
 the “homeland” ……but as time went by the Criollos
 were less connected…… the 1st generation Criollos had
 parents born in Spain, but 2nd and 3rd generations
 were born in New Spain (Mexico) and their affection
 for Spain diminished every generation.
 Mestizos - Mixed ancestry blood, could be the child of
  a Peninsulares and a Native Indian (forbidden love)
 Because they had some “pure blood” they were
  considered above any “non-pure-blood” person.
 These were the working class people of the society,
  mainly in small towns and communities.
 Mulattos – Mixed blood of African Slaves and Mestizos
  rarely ever mixed with Creoles or Peninsulares. Took a
  slightly higher place in society because they were not
  purely slave.
 Captured Aztec , Native Indian Tribes, and Slaves from
 Used for labor with essentially no rights.
 Under Encomienda System, “labor” was to be treated
  fairly, with shelter, food, and living supplies.
 Spain wanted to reduce any chance of over-throw by
  rebellious groups
                                                  Based on Blood and birth location
  Granted land, political office and voting rts
                                                           Inherit land, still considered upper class

            Mestizos                                      Mulattos
           No inheritance                                          Lowest of the middleclass

                                                                     No rights whatsoever
No rights whatsoever

             Native Indians                       Black Slaves
Stop Here

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