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									EXAMINATION GUIDELINE
LIFE SCIENCES - GRADE 11




       JUNE 2007           NCS
                                                         LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE




                                                                   INTRODUCTION


This document was designed to provide clarity on the information provided in the Learning Programme Guideline (LPG) document and is meant to
provide guidance on what should be assessed.

This examination guideline consists of the following two sections:

SECTION A (Pages 3-6)

This section unpacks/clarifies each assessment standard in each learning outcome. This guide is useful in the compilation of assessment tasks as it
clearly spells out the skills that should be assessed to demonstrate the achievement of the particular assessment standard.


SECTION B (Pages 7 -26)

This section outlines the scope and depth of what is to be assessed. The approach used is an integration of the various learning outcomes into a logical
sequence within each topic or sub-topic of each knowledge area. The sequence provided is only a suggested one. Teachers should feel free to
re- arrange the various items in a story-line that suits their learners.




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                                                                    LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE




SECTION A
                                                         UNPACKING THE ASSESSMENT STANDARDS
Table 1: LO 1 - SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY AND PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS
                                      GRADE 11                                                              Elaboration

                              Identify       phenomena       Experimental design
Assessment standard 1
                               involving one variable to be
The learner identifies and     tested                         Identify and question phenomena
questions      phenomena                                       through observation identify phenomena and formulate a question
and         plans       an    Design simple tests to          list all possible variables (factors)
investigation                  measure the effects of this     formulate a hypothesis (prediction)
                               variable
                                                              Plan/design an investigation without instructions
                              Identify advantages and         identify the variable to be tested (dependent variable)
                               limitations of experimental     identify the variables to be kept constant (independent variables)
                               design                          list appropriate apparatus
                                                               plan sequence of steps
                                                               set appropriate control
                                                               prepare materials

                                                              Identify advantages and limitations of experimental design

Assessment standard 2         Systematically        and      Collecting data
                               accurately collect data         Select instrument/method that is most appropriate for collection of data in an investigation
The learner conducts           using selected instruments      Scaling, measuring quantities, systematic counting, matching, differentiating, describing objects /
investigations     by          and/or techniques                  mechanisms/ processes, taking pictures, identifying problems and causes
collecting        and
manipulating data             Select a type of display       Recording results/ findings
                               that communicates the           Record results in the form of tables, drawings, descriptions, pictures etc.
                               data effectively
                                                              Re-organise data
                                                               Plotting graphs (line, bar graphs, histograms and pie charts),
                                                               Constructing flow charts, mind maps, concept maps, etc.
                                                               Identify patterns/relationships in the data



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                                                             LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE




                                 GRADE 11                                                             Elaboration

Assessment standard 3     Compare        data   and   Analysing data/information
                           construct     meaning  to    how and when the dependent variable change
The learner analyses,      explain findings               over time/ concentration changes (pH, light, carbon dioxide, etc.) during the experiment
synthesises, evaluates                                  looking for trends/patterns
data and communicate      Draw conclusions and           from graphs (line graphs, histograms, bar graph and pie charts) flow charts, descriptions, etc.
findings                   recognise inconsistencies    doing calculations
                           in the data                  looking for anomaly in results
                                                        comparing data (similarities and differences)
                          Assess the value of the
                           experimental process and    Makes deductions / conclusions
                           communicate findings         explains the data

                                                       Evaluates why these changes takes place
                                                        evaluate data to synthesise claims and counter-claims with warrants and backings (scientific
                                                          evidence) and rebuttals
                                                        verifying the results with that of the similar experiments (Critique faulty experiments / technical
                                                          problems)
                                                        recognise inconsistencies in data

                                                       Synthesis
                                                        synthesises an explanation of your results/findings supported with claims, counter-claims backed by
                                                          warrants and scientific evidence

                                                       Assess the value of the experimental process and communicate findings
                                                        prepares and submits a report on the research findings and its value to the community




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                                                                   LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE




Table 2:   LO 2 - CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION OF LIFE SCIENCES KNOWLEDGE

                                           GRADE 11                                                               Elaboration


                           Use various methods and sources to                  Use various methods and sources to access information
Assessment standard 1
                            access information                                  Use the index to identify the relevant parts from various sources
Accessing knowledge                                                             Evaluate the content from which to select key ideas from the various sources
                                                                                Use statistical and graphical data eg. tables and graphs to access information
                                                                                Use various resources such as reference books, text books, internet, experts,
                                                                                 teachers, peers, newspapers and magazines


Assessment standard 2      Identify, describe and explain concepts,            Evaluate the content to make a selection of key ideas from resources
                            principles, laws, theories and models by            Describe and explain in own words by using flow charts, diagrams, mind maps,
Interpreting and making     illustrating relationships                           paragraphs, etc.
meaning of knowledge in                                                         Evaluate different concepts, principles, laws, theories or models and alternate
Life Sciences              Evaluate    concepts,    principles,     laws,       explanations
                            theories and models.


Assessment standard 3      Analyse and evaluate the costs and benefits         List ways in which Life Sciences knowledge can be both useful and detrimental
                            of applied Life Sciences knowledge                  Make decisions/suggests solutions based on an evaluation of the useful and
Showing            an                                                            detrimental effects of Life Sciences knowledge
understanding of  the
application    of Life
sciences knowledge in
everyday life.




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                                                                    LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE




Table 3: LO 3 - LIFE SCIENCES, TECHNOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY

                                          GRADE 11                                                              Elaboration

                                                                    Scientific ideas:                                     Indigenous knowledge
                                Compare scientific ideas and       Scientific - conforming with the methods used in
Assessment standard 1
                                 indigenous knowledge of past       science                                                   Indigenous knowledge (not necessary
Explore and evaluating           and present cultures               Ideas - products of mental activities                      scientific methods)
scientific ideas of past and                                                                                                  "Testing" the ideas
present cultures                                                       Scientific ideas (science methods)                    From generation to generation
                                                                       Testing the ideas                                     Peer review
                                                                       Investigations                                        Verification by general community
                                                                       Peer review                                           From generation to generation - verbal
                                                                       Verification by science community                      communication
                                                                       Conferences                                           Acceptance by community
                                                                       Scientific Journals
                                                                       Acceptance by science community - theory


                                                                       Compare the scientific approach and traditional approach and ways in which each has
                                                                        changed in, for example, the treatment of diseases
Assessment standard 2
                                Compare different ways in             Comparing and evaluating the ways in which resources are used
Comparing and evaluating
                                 which resources are used in the       Comparing and evaluating the development of biotechnological products
the uses and development
                                 development                   of      Impact of resource utilisation and biotechnological product development on the environment
of resources and products,
                                 biotechnological products, and        Impact of resource utilisation and biotechnological product development on society
and their impact on the
                                 analyse the impacts on the
environment and society.
                                 environment and society

                                Compares, debates and argues          Compares the influence of different beliefs in the interpretation of scientific knowledge and its
Assessment standard 3
                                 the strengths and limitations of       application to society
Comparing the influence of       different beliefs, attitudes and      Compares the influence of different attitudes and values in the interpretation of scientific
different beliefs, attitudes     values in the interpretation of        knowledge and its application to society
and values on scientific         scientific knowledge and its          Debates and argues the strengths and limitations of different beliefs, attitudes and values in
knowledge                        application to society                 the interpretation of scientific knowledge and its application to society



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                                                                LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE




SECTION B
                                           TISSUES, CELLS AND MOLECULAR STUDIES

Introduction to Micro-organisms
CONTENT                                ELABORATION / SUGGESTED SEQUENCE
                                         Revise parts and functions of parts of the microscope (from Gr. 10)
Microscope Work
                                          Review microscope skills (from Gr. 10)
                                          Explain what is meant by the term ‘micro-organism’.
Introduction to micro-organisms
                                          Discuss the history of the discovery of micro-organisms.

                                          Review characteristics of the 5 kingdoms (from Gr. 10)


Viruses
CONTENT                                ELABORATION / SUGGESTED SEQUENCE
                                         Using charts, electron-micrographs etc investigate the structure of viruses as containing a nucleic acid core
Structure, Characteristics and value      surrounded by a protein coat.

                                          List general characteristics of viruses.

                                          Differentiate between plant and animal viruses.

                                          Explain why viruses are important.

                                          Describe the causes, prevention, symptoms, effects and management of
Diseases                                    HIV / AIDS
                                            Any one other disease eg. rabies, measles, mumps, flu.
                                          Describe the impact of the chosen diseases on the individual and on society.
                                          Discuss/research the existence of traditional treatment and modern treatment of the diseases studied.
                                          Discuss/research the beliefs, attitudes and values concerning the chosen diseases.


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                                                                LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE




Bacteria
CONTENT                                ELABORATION / SUGGESTED SEQUENCE
                                         Use charts, electron-micrographs, microscopes etc. to describe the general structure of bacteria.
Structure, Characteristics and value
                                          Study the basic shapes and arrangements of bacteria.

                                          List general characteristics of bacteria.

                                          Explain why bacteria are important economically and ecologically.

                                          Describe the causes, prevention, symptoms, effects and management in S.A. of
Diseases                                    Tuberculosis
                                            Any one other disease e.g. Cholera, blight, whooping cough, pneumonia
                                          Describe the impact of the chosen diseases on the individual and on society.

                                          Discuss/research the existence of traditional and modern treatment of the diseases studied.

                                          Discuss/research the beliefs, attitudes and values concerning the chosen diseases.


Protists
CONTENT                                ELABORATION / SUGGESTED SEQUENCE
                                         Using charts, electron-micrographs, describe the structure of protists.
Structure, Characteristics and value
                                          List general characteristics of protists.

                                          Explain why protists are important.
                                          Describe the causes, prevention, symptoms, effects and management in S.A. of
Diseases                                    Malaria
                                            Any one other disease eg. Amoebic dysentery, sleeping sickness

                                          Describe the impact of the chosen diseases on the individual and on society.

                                          Discuss/research the existence of traditional and modern treatment of the diseases studied.

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                                                                LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE

                                          Discuss/research the beliefs, attitudes and values concerning the chosen diseases

Fungi

CONTENT                                ELABORATION / SUGGESTED SEQUENCE
                                         Describe the general structure of fungi.
Structure, Characteristics and value
                                          Grow bread mould (Rhizopus) for microscopic study.

                                          Study bread mould under the microscope and make a labelled drawing of the parts that are visible

                                          List general characteristics of fungi.

                                          Explain why fungi are important.

                                          Describe the causes, prevention, symptoms, effects and management in S.A. of
Diseases                                    Rusts
                                            Any one other disease e.g. thrush, athletes foot

                                          Describe the impact of the chosen diseases on the individual and on society.

                                          Discuss/research the existence of traditional and modern treatment of the diseases studied.

                                          Discuss/research the beliefs, attitudes and values concerning the chosen diseases.




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                                 LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE




Immunity

CONTENT    ELABORATION / SUGGESTED SEQUENCE

Immunity      Explain / discuss what is meant by the term ‘immunity’ and how immunity is attained through a discussion of the
               following:
                Definition of immunity
                History of immunisation e.g. penicillin
                Passive and active immunity
                Role of white blood cells
                Role of antibiotics
                Immunisation – collect data from clinics regarding types of available vaccinations and the diseases they guard
                   against e.g. BCG, polio, measles.
                Immunisation legislation.

              Research/discuss the response of infecting organisms to the drugs used against them. i.e. how do pathogenic
               organisms protect themselves against the medication used to destroy them such as:
                the protective mucus/slime capsule around bacteria
                the ability to undergo mutations readily eg. HIV

              Research/discuss the immune responses of the infected organism (host) to the infecting organism (virus, bacteria,
               protists and fungi) such as the role of
                white blood cells
                antibodies
                antigens




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                                                              LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE



                                            STRUCTURE, CONTROL AND PROCESSES

Support System

CONTENT                        ELABORATION/SUGGESTED SEQUENCE
Introduction                      Investigate the structure of the skeletal system using models or charts

                               Axial skeleton
                                  Describe the structure and general functions of the skull (names of bones of the skull are not required)
                                  Explain how the teeth and jaws are structurally suited to their functions
                                  List the functions of the vertebral column and the rib cage

                               Appendicular skeleton
Structure                        List the components of the pectoral and pelvic girdles
                                 Describe the attachment of girdles to the axial skeleton
                                 List the main components of the limbs (names of individual carpals and tarsals not required)

                               Joints
                                  Define a joint as it relates to the skeletal system
                                  State, listing examples of each, that there are fixed and synovial joints
                                  Using a diagram, describe the structure of a synovial joint

                               Skeletal muscles
                                  Describe the antagonistic arrangement of skeletal muscles and their attachment to bones
                                  List examples of antagonistic muscles in the body
                                  Describe the functioning of muscles and the skeleton to raise or lower a limb

Disorders related to muscles      Discuss the causes, prevention, symptoms of any ONE disease such as rickets, osteoporosis, arthritis or muscular
and joints                         dystrophy
                                  Differentiate amongst the following injuries: sprains, cramps, dislocations, fractures
Ethics and beliefs                Discuss the use of bones by traditional people e.g. sangomas




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                                                               LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE


Transport
CONTENT                          ELABORATION/SUGGESTED SEQUENCE

Introduction                        Review briefly the composition of blood (from Grade 10)

                                    Dissect the heart of a sheep to investigate its structure
                                    Make a labelled drawing of structures observed in the dissected heart
                                    Using models/charts etc. draw and describe the structure in L/S of the heart showing the following:
Structure and functioning             Atria
                                      ventricles – and the nature of their walls
                                      tricuspid, bicuspid and semi-lunar valves
                                    State the function/s of each part labelled in the L/S of the heart
                                    Name the main blood vessels to and from the heart and state the function/s of each
                                    Explain how the heart pumps blood through a discussion of
                                      the cardiac cycle
                                      systole and diastole
                                    Explain how and why blood pressure rises and falls
                                    Describe the structure and draw a diagram of the T/S of the blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries) to compare their
                                     structure

Blood and heart disorders           Describe the causes, symptoms, effects, prevention and management of:
                                      Any ONE heart disorder/disease e.g. coronary thrombosis
                                      Hypertension and hypotension
                                      A blood disorder e.g. anaemia, leukaemia.

Historical developments/Ethics      Describe the history of the first heart transplant
and beliefs                         Outline advancements in heart surgery/transplants from the time of the first heart transplant/surgery
                                    Discuss the ethics, beliefs and legislation around organ transplants


                                    Using micrographs, microscope sections/slides or charts:
Transport/Support in plants           Describe the structure and draw the L/S and T/S of the transport tissues in plants (xylem and phloem)
                                      Study the structure of the T/S of roots, stems and leaves to show the location of the xylem and phloem
                                      Describe the structure and draw the T/S of support tissues in plants (xylem, sclerenchyma and collenchyma)
                                      Study the structure of the T/S of roots, stems and leaves to show the location of xylem, sclerenchyma and collenchyma
                                      State how each of the tissues studied play a role in transport or support
                                      Conduct a simple practical to show the path taken by water through a plant (eg. Plant in eosin solution)


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                                                               LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE



Excretion

CONTENT                                ELABORATION/SUGGESTED SEQUENCE

                                          Differentiate amongst egestion, secretion and excretion
Introduction                              Using models, charts, books etc., identify and name the different organs responsible for excretion in the human body
                                          Name the excretory products of each organ identified


Macroscopic structure of the urinary      Use charts and models to identify different parts of the urinary system
system                                    List the functions of the different parts of the urinary system and its associated blood vessels


                                          Dissect the kidney of a sheep to identify the different parts
                                          State the function of each part of the kidney
Structure and functioning of the          State the functions of the Kidney
kidney                                    Using slides, models and charts, identify the parts of a nephron
                                          State the functions of each part of the nephron identified
                                          Using charts and models, identify the blood vessels associated with the nephron
                                          Describe the functioning of a nephron with regards to:
                                            ultra-filtration
                                            tubular re-absorption
                                            tubular secretion/excretion
                                          Describe the role played by the kidney and ADH in osmoregulation
                                          Describe the role played by the kidney in pH regulation
                                          Explain the structural suitability of the nephron for its functions


                                          Describe dialysis and how it works with respect to kidney machines
Disorders of the kidney                   Compare the advantages and disadvantages of kidney transplants and dialysis treatment
                                          Discuss ethical issues concerning organ transplants
                                          Discuss the legislation surrounding organ transplants




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                                                         LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE




Nervous System and Sense Organs

CONTENT                           ELABORATION/SUGGESTED SEQUENCE

Introduction                         Construct a flow diagram to show the relationships amongst the various components of the nervous system


                                     Differentiate amongst the three types of neurons (sensory, motor and connector neurons) using charts or models
                                     Describe the structure of a neuron as consisting of the following: nucleus, cytoplasm, myelin sheath, axon and
Neuron/ Nerve cell                    dendrites
                                     State the functions and location of the three types of neurons
                                     State that impulses are transmitted electrically along a neuron and chemically between neurons (through a synapse)


                                     Define CNS as being composed of the brain and spinal cord
                                     Describe the external structure of the brain using animal specimens/diagrams/models
                                     Describe the functions of the following parts of the brain: cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata
Brain
                                     Indicate the position of the hypophysis/pituitary gland in the brain (to be studied in more detail under Chemical Co-
                                      ordination)
                                     Debate the issue of switching off the life support systems on ‘brain dead’ people.

                                     Using models, charts etc, identify and describe the external appearance of the spinal cord
Spinal cord and Reflex action        Use charts, models and prepared slides to describe the transverse section of spinal cord showing the pathway of
                                      impulses between the brain and organs
                                     Using an example, describe the reflex arc and reflex action


Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)      Define the PNS and list its components




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                                                            LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE




CONTENT                            ELABORATION/SUGGESTED SEQUENCE

                                      Discuss the causes, prevention, symptoms, treatment and legislation where applicable of ONE of the CNS related
CNS related diseases                   diseases or disorders or allergy, e.g. stroke, meningitis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy
                                      Discuss attitudes of people towards individuals with the chosen medical condition/ disorder


Sense Organs                          Identify and locate the following sense organs using charts, models or specimens: eye, ear, tongue, skin and nose

                                      Identify the parts of the eye using charts, models or specimens
Eye structure and functioning         State the function of each part identified
                                      Briefly explain the role of the various parts of the eye in forming images
                                      Explain how the eye adjusts for viewing near and distant objects (accommodation)
                                      Discuss corrective mechanisms for the treatment of long-sightedness and short-sightedness
                                      Explain how the eye adjusts for dim and bright light conditions (pupillary mechanism)
                                      Conduct an investigation to demonstrate the blind spot


Ear structure and functioning         Identify the parts of the ear using charts, models or specimens (structure of the organ of Corti not required)
                                      State the functions of the different parts of the ear
                                      Briefly explain the functioning of the ear in hearing and balance
                                      Briefly discuss provisions made to normalise living for the hearing impaired such as hearing aids and sign language


Tongue structure and functioning      State that groups of taste receptors are organised as taste buds on the tongue
                                      State that substances to be tasted must be in solution
                                      Identify the areas of the tongue that are responsible for the perception of the following tastes: sweet and salty, sour
                                       and bitter

Nose structure and functioning        State that receptors for smell (olfactory cells) are grouped to form the olfactory organ


Skin structure and functioning        List the common names of the various receptors of the skin (pain receptors, pressure receptors etc.)



Drug misuse                           List different types of drugs, e.g. stimulants, sedatives, painkillers, hallucinogens, anabolic steroids
                                      Explain the general effects of drugs on the nervous system
                                      Describe the relationship between drug misuse and social behaviour

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                                                             LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE




Chemical Co-ordination
CONTENT                          ELABORATION/SUGGESTED SEQUENCE
Introduction                        Differentiate between endocrine and exocrine glands.
                                    List characteristics of hormones as being the following:
                                      organic chemical messengers
                                      mostly protein in nature
                                      may have several specific effects on organs and thus control a wide variety of activities
                                      do not operate in isolation but form an integrated system
Glands                              State the position and the functions of the following endocrine glands in the body:
                                      pituitary (ADH, GH, TSH, FSH, LH)
                                      adrenal (adrenalin)
                                      pancreatic islets (insulin, glucagon)
                                      ovary (oestrogen, progesterone)
                                      testis (testosterone)
                                      thyroid glands (thyroxin)
                                    Describe the causes, prevention, symptoms, effects and management of any ONE disease caused by under-secretion or
                                     over-secretion from any of the endocrine glands studied eg. hyperthyroidism, diabetes, gigantism, dwarfism

Positive and negative feedback      Differentiate between positive and negative feedback
                                    Explain the mechanism of negative feedback that exists between the hypophysis/pituitary and the thyroid gland (TSH and
                                     thyroxin)
                                    Explain the mechanism of positive feedback between the adrenal gland and the pancreatic islets (adrenalin and glucagon)




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                                                            LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE




                                                         ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
Human influences on environment

CONTENT                              ELABORATION/SUGGESTED SEQUENCE
                                        Define a food pyramid
Food pyramids                           Distinguish between pyramids of numbers, biomass and energy
                                        Construct food pyramids involving humans as one of the consumers


                                        Overpopulation
Effect of environmental changes on        Analyse data on the changes in human population size over a period of time
food pyramids                             Using examples of food pyramids, describe the effects of human overpopulation on them
                                        Pesticides
                                          List THREE examples of situations where humans may use pesticides
                                          Using examples of food chains, describe the effects of pesticides on food pyramids
                                          Discuss advantages and disadvantages of using pesticides
                                        Culling
                                          Explain what is meant by culling
                                          List at least THREE reasons why animals are culled
                                          Using examples, describe the impact of culling on food pyramids
                                          Research attitudes of people towards culling
                                        Pollution
                                          Describe the effects on food pyramids of at least ONE example of each of the following types of pollution
                                                 o Air pollution
                                                 o Land pollution
                                                 o Water pollution
                                        Deforestation
                                          State what is meant by deforestation
                                          Explain why deforestation occurs
                                          Describe the effects of deforestation on food production and consumers

Some global environmental concerns      Explain global warming, the greenhouse effect, acid rain and ozone depletion in terms of …
                                          the causes of each
                                          their effects on the environment



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                                                              LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE



Sustaining / Management our Environment

CONTENT                              ELABORATION / SUGGESTED SEQUENCE
Management of cause and effects of     Review the causes and effects of examples of air, water and land pollution
pollution
                                        For each type of pollution:
                                          Explain ways in which that type of pollution can be prevented/controlled
                                          Explain how the effects of each type of pollution can be reduced / eliminated

                                        Research any one example of pollution in your school or local community to identify the causes of this pollution and list
                                         ways in which the incidence of pollution and its effects can be reduced.

                                        Discuss legislation relating to pollution

                                        Review factors that may lead to deforestation
Management of cause and effects of
deforestation                           Describe the effects of deforestation such as the impact on:
                                          Habitat of organisms
                                          Soil erosion
                                          Carbon cycle
                                          Water cycle

                                        Explain ways in which deforestation can be reduced such as through:
                                          Re-use of wood products eg. paper
                                          Re-cycling wood products
                                          Using alternate sources for fuel other than wood

                                        Explain ways in which the effects of deforestation can be managed such as through
                                          Harvesting forest products in a more sustainable way
                                          Replanting to replace the trees that have been removed/destroyed
                                          Encouraging tree planting in schools and in local communities

                                        Discuss issues around the need to balance the need for deforestation with the need to remove these forests to satisfy
                                         human needs eg. agriculture, houses etc.




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                                                              LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE



CONTENT                               ELABORATION / SUGGESTED SEQUENCE
                                        List some of the main ways in which land is used such as for:
                                          agriculture
                                          grazing
Management of the use of land             housing
                                          industries
                                          mining
                                        Discuss problems related to each of the above-mentioned land uses and possible solutions to the problems.
                                        Discuss the influence of past and present politics on the availability and use of land
                                         Eg.: Overgrazing results in erosion. To prevent this, the number of animals should be allocated to a grazing area
                                         according to the carrying capacity of that area.

                                         Draw a pie chart to represent the usage of your school property for each of the following purposes:
                                           School buildings
                                           Parking
                                           Cultivated gardens
                                           Natural vegetation
                                           Sports fields/Playgrounds

                                         Use the information from the pie chart to explain ways in which land use of the school property could be improved from
                                          an environmental point of view.
                                         List factors that may lead to the extinction of plant and animal species

                                         Describe the impact of the extinction of plant and animals species such as:
Management of the cause and effects        Disrupting food chains through loss of biodiversity
of extinction                              Loss of medicinal products derived from these plants and animals
                                           Loss of the valuable effect of the presence of plants and animals eg. loss of a particular species that is required as
                                             an agent of pollination or dispersal (insects, birds), or of a species that is an important participant in succession
                                             (eg. mosses and ferns) or in increasing soil fertility (leguminous plants that have nitrogen-fixing bacteria).

                                         Explain ways in which extinction of species can be prevented

                                         Conduct research on any one extinct animal with regard to:
                                           Where and when the organism existed
                                           What the organism ate
                                           The ecological role of the organism
                                           Circumstances that led to its extinction

                                         Describe any ONE current human activity that may contribute to the extinction of species, such as habitat destruction,
                                          over-exploitation for purposes of food, medicine etc., excessive use of pesticides etc.

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                                                   LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE



Air, land and water borne diseases
CONTENT                    ELABORATION / SUGGESTED SEQUENCE
Air borne diseases           Discuss ONE example of an air-borne disease (eg. influenza, polio, chickenpox, measles) with respect to its:
                               Causes and Transmission
                               Distribution
                               Symptoms
                               Effects
                               Treatment
                               Management
                             Analyse and interpret available data on the incidence of the disease chosen
                             Discuss ONE example of a land-borne disease (eg. roundworms, sleeping sickness) with respect to its:
Land borne diseases            Causes and Transmission
                               Distribution
                               Symptoms
                               Effects
                               Treatment
                               Management
                             Analyse and interpret available data on the incidence of the disease chosen
                             Discuss ONE example of a water-borne disease (eg. cholera, amoebic dysentery) with respect to its:
                               Causes and Transmission
                               Distribution
Water borne diseases           Symptoms
                               Effects
                               Treatment
                               Management
                             Analyse and interpret available data on the incidence of the disease chosen




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                                                                LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE


                                             BIODIVERSITY, CHANGE AND CONTINUITY
Population studies
CONTENT                          ELABORATION/SUGGESTED SEQUENCE
Introduction                        Define a population as a group of organisms of the same species which live in the same habitat so that random
                                     interbreeding takes place
                                    Define a species as a group of organisms which share the same characteristics and are capable of interbreeding
                                    Define a community as a group of populations living together in the same habitat.

Characteristics of populations      Outline characteristics of populations in terms of:

                                            Habitat
                                             o Outline the large variety of habitat types that are occupied by populations
                                             o Explain why particular populations can exist in certain habitat types only
                                             o Briefly explain the impact of habitat destruction on the survival of populations

                                            Size and Density
                                             o Differentiate between population size and population density
                                             o Explain the importance of determining population size such as in:
                                                  determining the extinction status of organisms
                                                  planning for the utilization of resources
                                                  making decisions on culling
                                                  setting limits for fishing
                                                  making decisions increasing the stock of grazing animals on a farm (based on carrying capacity)

                                             o List various factors that may influence the size of a population

                                            Distribution
                                             o State that populations are found in habitats that may be distributed in different parts of the world
                                             o State that the distribution of populations is mainly influenced by climate
                                             o Use one example of a plant and an animal population to show their distribution in different parts of the world




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                                                            LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE

CONTENT                       ELABORATION/SUGGESTED SEQUENCE
Population    growth   and       State that a population growth pattern/form refers to the pattern of change in the size of a population over a period of time
Determination of population      Explain what is meant by environmental resistance and carrying capacity
size                             Using graphs, outline the characteristics of the following growth patterns/forms
                                         Geometric growth form(j-shaped curve)
                                         Logistic growth form (s-shaped curve)

                                 Describe the pattern of human population growth from 1650 to the present to highlight the following:
                                         The rapid increase in the population size
                                         The time taken for each doubling of the population
                                         Making predictions about future growth of the human population

                                 Analyse given data and findings to evaluate growth of human populations eg. comparison of population growth in first- and
                                  third world countries.

                                 Describe the following methods that could be used to determine population size:
                                         Direct technique (census)
                                         Indirect technique – simple sampling
                                                              – mark recapture

                                 Conduct practical work, using any indirect technique, to determine the size of a population




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                                                       LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE



CONTENT                  ELABORATION/SUGGESTED SEQUENCE
Population fluctuation      Using examples, describe the influence of TWO or more external factors (factors related to the environment) on population
                             size such as:

                                    Earthquakes
                                    Volcanoes
                                    Earth slide
                                    Tornadoes                   (Density independent factors)
                                    Droughts
                                    Floods
                                    Extreme temperatures

                            Using examples, explain the influence of each of the following internal factors (factors directly related to the population) on
                             population size:
                                    Natality – definition, influence on population size, fertility and fecundity rate
                                    Mortality – definition, influence on population size
                                    Dispersal (immigration, emigration and migration) – definition, influence on population size
                                    Competition
                                    Disease            (Density dependent factors) – definition, impact on population size
                                    Predation

                            Analyse given data and findings to evaluate the impact of particular internal and external factors on population size

                            Analyse and evaluate any specific human behaviour (e.g. deforestation/culling/habitat destruction/pollution)            that will
                             influence population size




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                                                               LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE


Social behaviour
CONTENT                         ELABORATION/SUGGESTED SEQUENCE
Introduction                       Explain what is meant by each of the following concepts as it relates to the survival of populations
                                           Preservation
                                           Conservation
                                           Sustainability

                                   Differentiate between instinctive and socially learnt behaviour as it relates to the survival of populations

Examples of social behaviours      Explain how each of the following social behaviours contributes to the survival of populations:
                                           Predation
                                           Competition
                                           Courtship/Mating behaviour
                                           Altruism
                                        Territoriality
                                        Interaction of successive broods

                                   Analyse given data and findings to evaluate the impact of particular social behaviours on the survival of populations




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                                                                 LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE


Managing populations
CONTENT                            ELABORATION/SUGGESTED SEQUENCE

Significance   and    value   of      Discuss the significance and value of biodiversity to ecosystem function and human survival for each of the following:
biodiversity                            food
                                        materials for clothing and shelter
                                        energy for transport and everyday use
                                        medicines
                                        eco-tourism
Threats to biodiversity               Describe how any THREE of the following poses a threat to biodiversity:
                                        Deforestation
                                        Diseases
                                        Agricultural practices
                                        Natural disasters
                                        Pollution
                                        Desertification
                                        Alien invasive plants
                                        Over-exploitation of resources

                                      Name at least TWO plants and TWO animals that have become extinct over the past years
                                      Name at least TWO plants and TWO animals that are considered as endangered species in the red data list
                                      Discuss the impact of the over-use of plants and animals for muti and traditional purposes as well as for Western medicine
                                       and suggest strategies that could be used to manage this practice


Biodiversity of plants and            Conduct research on ONE example of a successful conservation strategy to address the following:
animals and their conservation          State which plant or animal resource was conserved
                                        Explain why there was a need for conservation
                                        List reasons for the success of the conservation strategy
                                        Describe some challenges experienced, if any
                                        Explain the impact of the selected strategy on biodiversity

                                      Discuss legislation pertaining to ONE example of conservation and sustainable use of indigenous fauna and flora such as:
                                        Permits for fishing
                                        banning the catching of undersized fish
                                        limiting numbers of fish caught
                                        permits for cycads
                                        hunting regulations

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                                                      LIFE SCIENCES – GRADE 11: EXAMINATION GUIDELINE

CONTENT                  ELABORATION/SUGGESTED SEQUENCE
Management of diseases      Discuss the management of any ONE disease such as
                              foot and mouth disease
                              TB in lions and buffalo
                              bird flu

                            Explain how each of the following plays a role in the management of disease:
                              Quarantine
                              Inoculations
                              Information dissemination
                              Legislation in preventing the spread of diseases nationally and globally

                            Collect and analyse data on ONE disease and explain how it can impact on the population and the community.




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