WESTERN CAPE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
TRANSITION PROGRAMME 2004
PHYSIOLOGY HG & SG
GRADES 10 & 11
IMPLEMENTATION DATE: JANUARY 2004 OCTOBER 2003
GRADE 10 & 11 TRANSITION PROGRAMME FOR PHYSIOLOGY
Educators will be able to:
1. Demonstrate an understanding of the necessity of assisting Grade 10 - 12 learners in 2003 -2005
in the transition process from C2005 Grade 9 to Grade 10 –12 interim syllabus.
2. Demonstrate an understanding of managing the process of curriculum change.
3. Demonstrate an understanding of infusing the principles of Outcomes Based Education into
Grades 10 & 11
4. Demonstrate an understanding of how to infuse the Critical Outcomes into the Physiology
curriculum in 2004-2007
5. Investigate suitable teaching and learning strategies
6. Apply suitable assessment strategies
The transformation of the entire South African education system began in 1994. The transformation of the school
syllabuses into a modern, high quality curriculum that meets international standards commenced in 1996.
Curriculum 2005 was introduced at the GET level in 1998. After a review of the first version was completed, a
revised version has been scheduled for introduction in 2004. The process of revising the FET curriculum has
started in June 2002. There are plans to introduce the new curriculum in 2006 and to phase out the existing
NATED 550 curriculum by 2007.
Transforming the curriculum is both exiting and challenging. It needs educators to learn new professional skills
and to manage the old and new curriculum at the same time during the period of transformation. These and other
challenges have already been recognised. Support systems and resources are already planned to help educators
to deal with all of these challenges. This infusion of OBE principles is part of the strategy to help educators to
prepare for and to manage the transition to the new curriculum. An outcomes based approach describes the skills,
knowledge, understanding and values that are the results of learning.
The present learners who are in grade 9 have been exposed to 8 learning areas within the GET band. One
learning area is Natural Sciences taught in an integrated way. Natural Sciences consist of THREE learning
outcomes and FOUR content strands, namely Earth and Beyond, Energy and Change, Matter and Material and
Life and Living. In the FET band in Report NATED 550 Natural Sciences transforms into Physiology, Biology,
Physiology and Physical Science in grade 10 in 2003 and in grade 11 in 2004.
The purpose of this guideline document is to help educators to manage the transition to OBE. It is intended to help
to become more familiar with OBE principles and methods in the context of the existing interim curriculum, and
to reflect on how OBE principles and methods apply to their current teaching.
The new FET NCS will be implemented only in the near future. By that time, educators would have had an
opportunity to learn much more about OBE and to try out some OBE methods in their daily teaching.
2. BENEFITS: VALUE-ADDED ELEMENTS OF C2005 FOR THE STUDY OF PHYSIOLOGY
In the senior phase (Grades 7 to 9) learners were exposed not only to learn certain core knowledge, but
also the development of the following skills, attitudes and values:
2.1 Process and problem-solving skills.
2.2 Management, use and development of natural resources.
2.3 Compilation of managing evidence in portfolios.
2.4 Development of cognitive skills by means of the enquiry approach and knowledge construction,
critical and logical thinking skills.
2.5 Different active learning/teaching strategies, for example group work, co-operative learning,
investigations, authentic learning, practical work, etc.
2.6 Using Continuous Assessment – a variety of assessment strategies/approaches was implemented,
e.g. group-, peer-, self-, formative and summative assessment.
2.7 The Critical Outcomes formed a new and valuable framework within which the subject and learners
developed, e.g. to be able to make an informed career and subject choice, being culturally and
aesthetically sensitive across a wide range of social contexts.
2.8 Working with different disciplines within a learning area brought new understandings to each learning
area, e.g. the four themes in Natural Sciences, namely Live and Living, Earth and Beyond, Matter
and Material and Energy and Change. Each theme contributed to an understanding of our world as
a set of related systems. This helped to broaden the vision of educators and learners.
2.9 Environmental education, social responsibility and human rights are foci of all learning areas that
enhance learners` participation as responsible citizens in the life of local, national and global
Natural Sciences in the GET band consist of four themes:
Energy and Change,
Life and Living,
Earth and Beyond,
Matter and Materials.
These four themes progress to Physical Science, Biology, Physiology, Agricultural Science and Geography
respectively. The content knowledge and approach followed for the Natural Science in the GET and FET band
aim to achieve the following outcomes.
Statements National Curriculum Statements FET
SO1 – Investigative process skills Scientific inquiry and
SO3 – Problem solving LO1 Scientific process LO1 problem-solving
SO5 – Decision making Skills
SO2 – Concepts ,principles,, constructed Construction and
knowledge LO2 LO2 application of life
SO7 – Contested nature science knowledge
SO4 – Management and development of
SO6 – Science and culture LO3 Science society LO3
SO8 – Ethical, Bias, Inequities
SO9 – Socio economic development
Teaching time must be used to teach certain content knowledge, important skills, values and attitudes.
The above-mentioned outcomes are linked to the Critical and Developmental Outcomes.
3. CRITICAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES AND OBE PRINCIPLES INTO FET SUBJECTS.
The 7 CRITICAL OUTCOMES (COs) and the 5 DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES (DOs) approved by the South
African Qualification Authority (SAQA) underpin the broad, generic cross-curricular outcomes of all education in
South Africa. The COs and DOs listed below should wherever possible, form the basis of all teaching, learning
and assessment in Grade 10 – 12 (FET).
3.1 THE CRITICAL OUTCOMES APPROVED BY SAQA
1. identify and solve problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative
thinking have been made;
2. work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation, and community;
3. organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively;
4. collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information;
5. communicate effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the different modes of oral and/or
6. use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and the
health of others;
7. demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not
exist in isolation.
3.2 DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES APPROVED BY SAQA
1. reflecting on and exploring a variety of strategies to learn more effectively;
2. participating as responsible citizens in the life of local, national and global communities;
3. being culturally and aesthetically sensitive across a range of social contexts;
4. exploring education and career opportunities;
5. developing entrepreneurial opportunities.
The following key outcomes-based principles together with the Critical Outcomes should underpin the teaching,
learning and assessment that take place in the Physiology classroom.
OBE PRINCIPLE IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING
High expectations, high standards Learners should be encouraged to perform at their highest level at all times.
Educators should create an enriching and stimulating environment.
Educators should expose learners to challenging and enriching learning experiences.
Educators should motivate learners and celebrate achievements.
Design down, deliver up Bear the critical outcomes in mind when design learning experiences.
Develop a strategy to guide and support the learner in working towards the achievement of the outcomes.
Clarity of focus Learners should know what the outcomes of lessons/learning experiences are and what they are working
The assessment process should be transparent whereby the criteria is made known to the learners.
Regular feedback should be given towards guiding and supporting the learners to develop their full
Educators should continuously reflect in order to improve the effectiveness of their teaching.
Expanded opportunities Educators should provide learners with multiple opportunities to achieve an outcome.
A variety of teaching and learning strategies should be used to accommodate the diversity of learners.
A variety of assessment strategies should be used.
3.3 THE CRITICAL OUTCOMES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING
Our education is based on the 7 critical and 5 developmental outcomes derived from the Constitution of the Republic of
South Africa. Each of them describes a vital characteristic of the type of South African citizen we hope to produce
through our education system. The seven critical and five developmental outcomes should therefore be reflected in the
teaching style and methodologies we as Physiology educators use, as well as the learning activities and experiences the
learners will be exposed to. Both educators and learners should be aware and focussed on the 7 critical and 5
CRITICAL OUTCOME IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATORS IMPLICATIONS FOR LEARNERS
1. Identify and solve problems in It calls for a teaching methodology other than The enquiry approach is an important strategy for
which responses display that simply transmitting facts and expecting learners learner’s learning. Learners must develop the skill of
responsible decisions using only to recall these in tests or other activities. asking key questions to direct the investigation and
critical and creative thinking Learners should instead be challenged with to be used as signposts on the path to
have been made. problems/issues for which they have to apply understanding. It is claimed that such an approach
their acquired knowledge and skills in order to helps learners to manage their own learning, handle
solve these problems/issues and make issues objectively and use skills purposefully.
responsible decisions. These problems/issues
The following are typical types of questions that
should be mainly of local or national relevance.
Physiologists ask. They may differ, depending on
the topic and the purpose of the investigation/inquiry.
What is the issue/problem?
Who/What is involved?
Where does it occur?
Why is it there?
How/Why did it happen?
What impact does it have?
What are the consequences?
How should it be dealt with/managed?
2. Work effectively with others as a As we are building our nation, we need to Working together challenges learners to talk and
member of a team, group, develop the skills to work together in different think like Physiologists. They take ownership for
organisation and/or community. spheres and on different levels. The school is the completing the task assigned. Learners feel free to
ideal place for this initiative to be nurtured. air their thoughts. Others can help them. Most
Learners learn best from one another. Working importantly, they learn that working together leads to
together in groups will provide the supportive growth for all those participating, but it also helps to
environment to give even the weaker learners the complete tasks or solve problems, which would have
opportunity to learn, to make their contribution otherwise been impossible for an individual.
and to experience success. Learners start to experience the joy of achievement
and success much easier and much quicker. This
helps towards nation-building and working together
to face the challenges that they will meet as South
Educators provide learners with the opportunity to
3. Organise and manage oneself
develop a range of skills that they can use and Regular co-operative learning activities will give
and one’s activities responsibly
apply throughout their lives. Some of them are learners practice in developing these skills
management skills, including planning,
organisation, time management and
4. Collect, analyse, organise and Educators endeavour to allow learners to As learners enquire, they will have to:
critically evaluate information observe or to expose learners to data and other collect information relevant to the investigation;
sources in order to construct biological organise the information in formats e.g. graphs,
knowledge themselves. Thereafter learners mind maps, flow charts, etc. that will enhance the
should be guided to record their observations or process of understanding the topic under
findings. From the recordings, inferences and investigation;
deductions should be made. analyse (break down in basic components) and
synthesise (put together) information;
evaluate the information.
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Learners should be exposed to different modes of
5. Communicate effectively using Learners should use different modes of
visual, mathematical and/or communicating their findings and insights. Writing
language skills in the modes of Visual: Posters, transparencies, drawings, paragraphs, plotting graphs with explanatory
oral and or written presentation. flow charts, graphs, video labels/notes, constructing diagrams with labels,
Mathematical: formulae, symbols, numbers, making presentations using posters and wall charts,
tables transparencies or Power Point presentations.
Language skills: written (summaries,
paragraphs, essays) and oral format (debate,
feedback, song, poem, role play,
The construction of scientific knowledge,
6. Use science and technology Learners debate and/or discuss the use of science
development of scientific skills and the use of
effectively and critically showing and technology in a responsible way to sustain the
technology impact in our living world.. Educators
responsibility towards the environment and the health of others.
should design activities that exposed learners to
environment and the health of
demonstrate their understanding of managing
and utilising natural resources wisely.
Educators should emphasise that: Learners must be encouraged to think:
Agricultural Scientists study patterns, processes,
mechanisms and interrelationships between Holistically.
these as well as between the natural and human The learner does not see topics as isolated entities,
environments. None of these components but views them as integral parts of an interrelated
function as an independent entity; they are all system. Learners integrate insights and
part of a set of related systems on local, national, understanding from the physical and life sciences in
continental or global scale. order to reach responsible solutions on problem
Physiology is a science of synthesis that
integrates insights and understandings from the
Ecologically. According to this way of thinking,
physical and life sciences in order to reach
learners should see humans as an integral part of
responsible solutions on problems facing us.
the ecosystem. Learners integrate insights and
understanding from the physical and life sciences in
order to reach responsible solutions on problem
IMPLICATIONS FOR LEARNERS
DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATORS
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1. Reflecting on and exploring a Learners have different styles of learning that Learners engage in different learning styles in
variety of strategies to learn will benefit them most. We should create as order to identify, which one will help them
more effectively. many opportunities as possible to expose develop an in-depth insight in Physiology.
learners to different learning styles, e.g. mind
mapping, authentic learning (outside the
classroom), action learning techniques, etc.
2. Participating as responsible The value of scientific knowledge and skills By starting in the local context learners should
citizens in the life of local, lie in their applications to e.g. local realities, get opportunities to become actively involved in
national & global communities. which can later be extended, to national, dealing with current and global problems.
continental and global issues and challenges.
3. Being culturally and South Africa has a multicultural society. Through the study of Physiology, learners can
aesthetically sensitive across Educators should provide opportunities for develop an understanding of the nature of
a range of social contexts. learners to explore indigenous knowledge science, the influence of ethics and biases, and
systems related to science to expose the interrelationship of science, technology,
learners to different world-views and allows indigenous knowledge, environment and
them to appreciate compare and evaluate society.
different scientific perspectives. Physiology is
ideally placed to develop learners` attitudes
and values regarding respect for others.
4. Exploring education and In order to sensitise learners to the career Attending career exhibitions and visiting tertiary
career opportunities. opportunities emanating from the study of and other training institutions have great value
Physiology, educators need to introduce for learners in order to experience in an
learners as much as possible to the different authentic way what career opportunities are
study fields in Physiology, to persons and available to them. It caters for careers such as
organisations working in related fields. farming industry, bioengineering, education, and
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5. Developing entrepreneurial Educators should exposed learners to Physiology deals with people, animals and
opportunities. different fields studied in Physiology to plants in places in the world, and so it is an ideal
support learners in understanding vehicle to develop entrepreneurial opportunities.
entrepreneurial skills. Eco-tourism is one example of the different
fields studied by Physiology.
4. IMPLEMENTING CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT (CASS) IN GRADES 10 - 12
A policy framework for a Physiology CASS practice has been developed and implemented in 2002. Continuous Assessment
(CASS) forms an integral part of the final assessment for the Senior Certificate examination and the promotion marks for Grades
10 and 11. All full-time learners must have CASS marks for each of their subjects, otherwise their results will be declared
Assessment should be an integral part of the learning and teaching process. Continuous Assessment should become part of a
teaching strategy and should not be considered as removed from the syllabus. When preparing a programme for the year,
planning of the assessment tasks, teaching and learning strategies and the development of the required skills should take place
simultaneously. It should be prepared in conjunction with the syllabus requirements and informed by the Critical Outcomes.
4.1 EVIDENCE FOR ASSESSMENT: ASSESSMENT PORTFOLIOS
A portfolio is a collection of a learner’s work used to calculate his/her CASS mark for the particular year. All learners will be
required to keep a portfolio of all of the work that makes up the CASS mark. The school must decide how best to manage these
portfolios, remembering that they will be required for moderation.
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The teacher’s portfolio will be a full record of the interaction between the teachers and learners throughout the year. This will
also be required during the moderation process. The file should include:
Copies of all examinations and tests,
Copies of the memoranda for all examinations and tests,
Copies of the assessment task and relevant assessment instruments,
Correspondences with regard to letters to/from parents, learners and medical records, and
School's moderation policy.
In Outcomes Based Education effective assessment will be underpinned by the following principles:
Appropriateness The methods and techniques must be appropriate to the knowledge, skills or attitudes to be
assessed as well as the developmental level of the learner.
Fairness The method of assessment does not present any barriers to achievements, which are not
related to the evidence.
Manageability The methods used are cost effective and do not interfere with learning.
Integration into Evidence collected is integrated into the learning process where this is appropriate.
Validity The assessment is fit for the purpose.
Authenticity The assessor is satisfied that the work being assessed is attributable to the person being
Systematic Planning and recording is sufficiently rigorous to ensure that assessment is fair.
Open Learners can contribute to the planning and accumulation of evidence. Learners understand
the purpose of assessment as well as the assessment process and the criteria that will apply.
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4.2 MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR CASS
From 2002 to 2007 these guidelines, time frames, assessment practices and moderation processes must be executed by all schools
in the province. For a detail description of the Continuous Assessment components refer to the Continuous Assessment
Guidelines for Physiology HG & SG.
4.3 SUMMARY OF THE PROMOTION MARK FOR GRADE 10-12
The final promotion mark consists of marks obtained in
Continuous Assessment (CASS), and
One examination paper at the end of the year.
In Grade 10 50% of the promotion mark is allocated to CASS. In Grades 11 and 12 25% of the promotion mark is allocated
to CASS. The tables below give a summary of the promotion marks for HG & SG.
Grade 10 (June, September and November)
Grade Total marks for Grand total Continuous Promotion
examination paper converted to assessment mark
HG 400 200 200 400
SG 300 150 150 300
Grades 11 & 12 (June, September and November)
Grade Total marks for Grand total Continuous Promotion
examination paper converted to assessment mark mark
HG 400 300 100 400
SG 300 225 75 300
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5. OBE METHODOLOGIES
INTEGRATING LEARNING/TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT
OBE is learner-centred and promotes active learning in the classrooms and laboratories. This means we have to
look for opportunities for learners to engage all their senses and thinking in the learning process for example co-
operative learning, group work, practical work, research assignments, presentations, reports, mind maps,
investigations, interviews, debates, authentic learning, etc.
Formative assessment has to be implemented in such a way that it raises the standard of learning. Learners are
informed beforehand what learning to demonstrate and during the process and afterwards giving constructive,
clear feedback to the learners about how to improve their learning. For example class work, assignments,
projects, homework, consultations, classroom questioning, open-ended tasks, etc. Formative assessment
(Assessment for learning) tends to be less structured and which allow us to record different kinds of evidence for
different learners at different times. It is a valuable tool in building up a holistic picture of the learner's
development. Benefits of assessment for learning are that
we can make it part of learning (assessment and learning become more integrated),
we assess what was done (product), how it was done (process) and values and attitudes, and
learners learn about their own learning (metacognition).
We want learners to consciously understand how they learn (metacognition) so that they can plan and manage
their own learning.
Test based assessment is more rigidly structured, so that we measure exactly the same evidence for all learners,
in the same way and at the same time (Assessment of learning). Test, examinations, cycle tests, practical
examinations remain an important part of OBE because they give evidence of what process and cognitive skills
have been learned. They, however, do not always give reliable evidence about the development of understanding
(metacognition) or skills or attitudes or the learners` ability to apply their learning in unfamiliar contexts or contexts
outside of the class room.
6. INTERIM SYLLABUS FOR PHYSIOLOGY
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The interim syllabus dated 1996 are used to select the content for learning/ teaching and assessment.
7. PRIOR LEARNING (KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS) REQUIRED BY LEARNERS, ESPECIALLY DURING THE
INITIAL STAGES OF GRADE 10
Only the cell theory and the use of the light microscope need attention and it can be accommodated within the Grade 10
syllabus. Learners take Physiology for the first time in Grade 10. The development of examination techniques can be
addressed throughout the year by means of writing standardised tests.
The following minor adjustments might be needed, namely, the
The use of the light microscope,
understanding of the basic concepts of the cell theory,
writing of longer paragraphs in tests and examinations,
writing of essays questions, and
writing of a three-hour question papers at the end of the year.
8. SUGGESTED IMPLEMENTATION PLAN TO INFUSE OBE IN GRADES 10 - 11
Topic or chapters from the report 550 Physiology syllabi are used to ensure that CO`s and OBE principles were
addressed through Continuous Assessment, learning and teaching as well as in the question paper at the end of
PHYSIOLOGY GRADES 10 & 11
CONCEPTS FROM CASS TASKS - CO`s OBE METHODOLOGY - QUESTION PAPERS
INTERIM SYLLABUS (Assessment ideas for (Learning and teaching ideas) - (Assessment ideas)
Cell division & Human Practical work, root tip 1, 2, , Group work, Individual work , Active Comparisons,
reproduction observations, Short 4, 9 learning, peer- self and teacher applications,
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Investigation on human assessment, descriptions, Plotting of
reproduction pregnancy graphs, Deductions from
related issues e.g. data given (tables, line
complications, and social graphs, histograms, pie
issues, Class work drawings, charts, flow charts),
flow charts Impact of homeostasis
on reproduction also
social behaviours e.g.
smoking, alcohol, coffee
Genetics Project about family tree, 1, 5, 6, Group work, Individual work Deductions from data
Practical work, Class work, 7, 11 given (drawings, tables,
drawings from observations, family tree), comparison,
Short investigations, mind applications and
maps, posters, DNA model, adaptations
Down`s syndrome, Siames
Blood supply & Lymph Class work, work sheets, mind 1, 2, 3, Group work, individual work, co- Application, deductions
maps, flow charts, drawings, 4, 5, 6, operative learning of data given,
posters for examples, Effect of 7, 9 comparisons, flow chart,
exercise on heart and drawings, Impact of
breathing rate, heart and lung behaviour pattern
diseases, short investigation
on Cholesterol and blood
Blood groups Class work, work sheets, mind 1, 2, 4, Group work, Individual work Deductions from data
maps, flow charts, practical 6 given, application to new
work, observations, project situation, comparison
Excretion Class work, work sheets, mind 1, 2, 4, Group work, individual work, co- Application, deductions
maps, flow charts, drawings, 7, 9, operative learning of data given,
posters for examples, 11 comparisons, flow chart,
Research tasks drawings, implications of
Co-ordination Practical investigations with 1, 2, 4, Group work, individual work, Comparisons,
(Chemical & Nerve models, Class work, drawings, 5, 6, 7, Presentations application of
system) Tabulate differences, work knowledge, deductions
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sheets, posters, presentations from data given
(drawings), flow charts,
Gaseous Exchange Comparison study thematic 1, 4, 5, Group work, individual work, Peer-, Classification,
approach on gaseous 7 self- and teacher assessment deductions from data
exchange & excretion, mind given, comparisons,
maps adaptations to
9. LINKS WITH GET, HIGHER EDUCATION AND CAREER PATHWAYS
o Physiology links with Technology, Natural Sciences, Mathematics, Social Sciences and Economic and Management
Sciences in the GET band.
o It can also leads to the following Higher education qualifications: Veterinary Medicine, Life and Physical Sciences,
Food Science, Food Technology, Consumer Science, Human nutrition, and Dietetics.
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EXAMPLE OF LESSON PLAN FORMAT
Duration of programme ____________Grade: ____ Class: _____
Critical Outcomes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Skills and sub-skills
Developmental outcomes 1 2 3 4 5
Topic Formal Informal
Teachers actions Learners activities Resources Assessment Strategies Estimated
Expanded opportunities / Enrichment
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