08 August 2002 Page 1 of 354 THURSDAY, 8 AUGUST 2002 ____ PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY ____ The House met at 14:01. The Chairperson of Committees took the Chair and requested members to observe a moment of silence for prayers or meditation. ANNOUNCEMENTS, TABLINGS AND COMMITTEE REPORTS - see col 0000. NOTICES OF MOTION Ms S C VAN DER MERWE: Chairperson I shall move on behalf of the ANC on the next sitting day of the House: That the House - (1).notes that - 08 August 2002 Page 2 of 354 (a).the African Union was formally launched on 9 July 2002 in Durban; and (b).the President of the Republic of South Africa, the hon Thabo Mbeki, was elected the first chairperson of the African Union; (2).believes that the launch of the African Union represents the commitment of the African people to building unity, solidarity, peace and stability, good governance, economic development and a culture of human rights on the continent; (3).welcomes the launch of the African Union; and (4).congratulates President Thabo Mbeki on his election as the first chairperson of the African Union. [Applause.] Mr E K MOORCROFT: Chairperson, I give notice that on the next sitting day of the House I shall move: 08 August 2002 Page 3 of 354 That the House - (1).notes that former ANC activist Mkhuseli Jack, has requested President Mbeki to replace failed Eastern Cape Premier, Makhenkesi Stofile; (2).further notes that Mr Jack lists, among failures - (a).the nonpayment of 7 000 teachers; (b).the late or nondelivery of books to schools; (c).the failure of the school feeding scheme; and (d).chaos in the provision of health care; (3).expresses its support for this call to fire Mr Stofile; and (4).urges the ANC to put delivery and good governance ahead of personal and party loyalties. [Applause.] 08 August 2002 Page 4 of 354 Mr J H SLABBERT: Chair, I give notice that on the next sitting day of the House I shall move on behalf of the IFP: That the House - (1).notes that Transnet has awarded three major contracts worth more than R2,2 billion to start the development of the Ngqura port in the Coega industrial development zone near Port Elizabeth; (2).further notes that the new port is expected to receive its first ships by September 2004; and (3).acknowledges and congratulates Transnet on its commitment to socioeconomic upliftment by stipulating that black economic empowerment companies are to have a minimum of 30% participation in the awarded contracts. Mr D J SITHOLE: Chairperson, on the next sitting day of the House I shall move on behalf of the ANC: That the House - 08 August 2002 Page 5 of 354 (1).notes that - (a).President Joseph Kabila of the Democratic Republic of Congo and President Paul Kagame of Rwanda signed a peace agreement to end the military conflict between their two countries; and (b).the signing of this agreement is as a result of months of negotiations facilitated by the President of the Republic of South Africa, the hon Thabo Mbeki; (2).believes that - (a).the signing of this peace agreement represents an important milestone in the struggle for the realisation of peace and prosperity on the African continent; and (b).this agreement will contribute positively to making this century an African one and to the furtherance of the objectives of the New Partnership for Africa's Development; and 08 August 2002 Page 6 of 354 (3).the people of South Africa welcome the signing of the peace agreement as it ushers in a new era of solidarity and common purpose among the peoples of Africa. [Applause.] Dr B L GELDENHUYS: Chairperson, I hereby give notice that I shall move on the next sitting day of the House: That the House - (1).notes with concern that 2 900 commercial farmers in Zimbabwe will be forced to vacate their farms by midnight today with devastating consequences for the economy of the whole region; (2).expresses its deepest concern that the aforesaid evacuation will aggravate the plight of more than six million people in Zimbabwe facing starvation in the next 12 months; and (3).calls on the SA Government to do everything within its power to safeguard the investments and 08 August 2002 Page 7 of 354 property of SA citizens in Zimbabwe in terms of the bilateral agreement on the protection of investments and thanks it for its endeavours so far in this regard. [Applause.] Mr S ABRAM: Chairperson, I give notice that I shall move at the next sitting of the House: That the House - (1).notes the talks between the leader of the UDM, Mr Bantu Holomisa and Palestinian President, Yasser Arafat, as well as Israeli Deputy Foreign Minister Michael Melchlor; (2).acknowledges the escalating conflict inflicting loss of life, damage to infrastructure and the psychological and emotional trauma being suffered; (3).calls upon the UN to enforce its resolutions calling for the withdrawal of Israeli tanks and 08 August 2002 Page 8 of 354 forces from all occupied Palestinian territories; and (4).further calls upon all parties involved in the conflict to return to the negotiating table mediated by pragmatic, trustworthy and neutral internationally acclaimed personalities. Ms E THABETHE: Chairperson, on the next sitting day of the House I shall move on behalf of the ANC: That the House - (1).notes that - (a).David Potse was found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment and 18 years for indecently assaulting and raping baby Tshepang; and (b).the crime committed by this rapist is the most gruesome form of human rights violation and must be condemned by all; 08 August 2002 Page 9 of 354 (2).believes that women and children's rights must be consistently upheld and respected by all in our society; (3).commends the good work done by the SAPS and our criminal justice system in effecting justice in this case and welcomes the sentence thus meted out; and (4).calls on our youth to work towards the moral regeneration of our society and to protect and defend the rights and dignity of the girl child. [Applause.] Mrs R M SOUTHGATE: Mr Chairman, I hereby give notice I will move on behalf of the ACDP at the next sitting of the House: That the House - (1).notes with concern the plight of women in Bangladesh, in particular the more than 200 women who last year alone were brutally attacked by men 08 August 2002 Page 10 of 354 with sulphuric acid, which resulted in terrible scars; (2).commends these brave women for their strength and determination to continue to fight for their lives and their rights in the face of such adversity, especially in Bangladesh, where women have very low standing, even more so if they are married; (3).stands together with the ACDP, as we commemorate Women's Day in Parliament today, to salute not only these women, but women worldwide, from all walks of life, including all the abused women in South Africa who have endured physical, emotional or psychological abuse and have survived against great odds; and (4).calls on the Government to increase awareness of abuse against women and to instill justice where justice is due, to help put abusers behind bars and to make our nation a safer place for all. Mr I S MFUNDISI: Chairperson, on the next sitting day of the House I shall move on behalf of the UCDP: 08 August 2002 Page 11 of 354 That the House - (1).notes with concern that in this women's month the University of South Africa is faced with a situation of having to decide whether or not to pay the legal fees of their disgraced Chairman of Council, Mr McCaps Motimele, who has been ordered to pay R150 000,00 and legal costs for having sexually harassed a former lecturer at the university, Dr Margaret Orr; (2).notes that whatever he did was a personal matter; and (3).acknowledges that - (a).public funds should not be committed to this despicable conduct, as it would be supporting him against her; and (b).at best he should be relieved of the responsibility of being chairman of such a world-acclaimed centre of learning. 08 August 2002 Page 12 of 354 [Applause.] Mr L N DIALE: Chairperson, on the next sitting day of the House I shall move on behalf of the ANC: That the House - (1).notes that - (a).ANC stalwart and veteran of uMkhonto weSizwe, Comrade Justice ``Gizenga'' Mpanza, passed away on Tuesday, 30 July 2002, after a short illness; (b).Comrade Gizenga served in the Wankie military campaign as part of the Luthuli detachment and fought alongside comrades such as James April, Cletus Mzimela, Joseph Nduli, Chris Hani, Basil February and many others; and (c).comrade Gizenga served on Robben Island with Comrades Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Ahmed Kathrada and others; 08 August 2002 Page 13 of 354 (2).salutes this gallant fighter and giant of our revolution; and (3).the people of South Africa convey our deepest and sincerest condolences to the Mpanza family and friends, and vow to take forward the progressive values and principles to which he dedicated all his life. [Applause.] Mr S B FARROW: Chairperson, I hereby give notice that I shall move on behalf of the DP at the next sitting day of the House: That the House - (1).notes that - (a).today is the last day on which Zimbabwean commercial farmers and farmworkers may legally be on their land; 08 August 2002 Page 14 of 354 (b).the disastrous directive by Zanu-PF will displace 1,5 million people who will be left destitute by this wilful destruction of the agricultural economy; and (c).famine will affect 6,5 million people in Zimbabwe and a further 6 million people in countries which relied on food imports from Zimbabwe; and (2).recognises that it is only the 50 000 large and small commercial farmers in South Africa who stand between food and famine in the Southern African region. [Applause.] Mr H J BEKKER: Mr Chairman, I hereby give notice that on the next sitting day of the House I shall move on behalf of the IFP: That the House - 08 August 2002 Page 15 of 354 (1).notes the contents of the report of the Myburgh commission in respect of the severe devaluation of the rand earlier this year; (2).further notes that the IFP at the time of the appointment of the commission indicated that this investigation would be a costly exercise, which would do no more than give the Government a greater understanding of market forces and exchange rate fluctuations; and (3).therefore urges Government Ministers and spokespersons to give careful consideration to statements issued by them in order that such statements do not impact negatively on the market place and lead to the volatility in the value of the rand, so clearly demonstrated by the recent Government fiasco regarding mining rights and the future ownership and shareholding of mines. Ms N L HLANGWANA: Chairperson, I hereby give notice that on the next sitting day of the House I shall move on behalf of the ANC: 08 August 2002 Page 16 of 354 That the House - (1).notes that - (a).Natalie du Toit was presented with the David Dixon Award for the most outstanding athlete of the Commonwealth Games on 4 August 2002; and (b).Natalie du Toit made history when she swam against able-bodied swimmers in the 800 metres in the Commonwealth Games on Friday, 2 August, in Manchester, in the process earning two gold medals; (2).believes that - (a).her achievements serve as an honour to all South Africans and women in particular; and (b).this achievement further demonstrates the strength and resilience of women who, throughout our history, have been in the forefront of our social transformation 08 August 2002 Page 17 of 354 processes, aimed at realising a truly free, nonsexist, nonracial, democratic South Africa; and (3).notes that - (a).the ANC and the people of South Africa congratulate Natalie du Toit on her sterling performance during these games; and (b).her achievements serve as an inspiration to all young people in South Africa. [Applause.] Mr J DURAND: Chairperson, I hereby give notice that on the next sitting day of the House I shall move on behalf of the New NP: That the House - (1).notes with concern the appalling working conditions that some factory workers are exposed to on a daily basis; 08 August 2002 Page 18 of 354 (2).finds it shocking and totally unacceptable that some employers can be so careless about their workers' general well-being; (3).believes that workers are businesses' most valuable asset and are entitled to safe and healthy working conditions; and (4).notes that the New NP welcomes the Department of Labour's decisive action against employers who are not adhering to prescribed labour legislation and calls on the department to expand their investigation, because illegal labour practices must be stopped. [Applause.] Ms N C NKABINDE: Mr Chairman, I will move on behalf of the UDM at the next sitting of this House: That the House - (1).notes - 08 August 2002 Page 19 of 354 (a).the disconnection of water and electricity supplies to numerous schools in the Blue Crane Municipality; and (b).the debt of R1,4 million following a payment of R81 000 earlier this week; (2).expresses its utter frustration at the unacceptable schooling conditions in which students had to ask neighbouring communities to use basic services such as toilets and water; and (3).calls on the Minister of Education to ensure that such deplorable education conditions do not repeat themselves and to guarantee the creation of a suitable learning environment for all our children. DEATH OF MARIA MAMODUPI RANTHO (Draft Resolution) The CHIEF WHIP OF THE MAJORITY PARTY: Chairperson, I hereby move without notice: 08 August 2002 Page 20 of 354 That the House - (1).notes that - (a).Maria Mamodupi Rantho, a former ANC member of the National Assembly, passed away on 12 July 2002; (b).Ms Rantho served in Parliament between 1995 and 1998 and that during this term she served in the Portfolio Committee on Public Service and Administration and the Portfolio Committee on Reconstruction and Development Programme; and (c).she was later appointed as a commissioner in the Public Service until her untimely death; (2).acknowledges her immense contribution to the struggle for justice in South Africa and her relentless commitment to advocating the rights of persons with disabilities and building a new democratic, nonracial, nonsexist and prosperous South Africa; and 08 August 2002 Page 21 of 354 (3).mourns the loss of this patriot and extends its sincere condolences to her family and friends. Agreed to. CONGRATULATIONS TO SOUTH AFRICAN COMMONWEALTH GAMES TEAM (Draft Resolution) Mr M J ELLIS: Chairperson, I hereby move without notice: That the House - (1).welcomes home the South African Commonwealth Games team who, together, won 46 medals; (2).congratulates them on their achievements and the manner in which they participated in the Games, which brought credit to their country; and (3).commends Natalie du Toit on receiving the first David Dixon Award as the outstanding athlete of the Commonwealth Games and symbolising the 08 August 2002 Page 22 of 354 determination of South Africans to overcome adversity and succeed. Agreed to. SHOPRITE-CHECKERS WOMAN OF THE YEAR 2002 (Draft Resolution) The CHIEF WHIP OF THE MAJORITY PARTY: Chairperson, I hereby move without notice: That the House - (1).notes that Ms Fhawutani Ramabulana from the Northern Province was voted the Shoprite-Checkers Woman of the Year 2002; (2).believes that - (a).Ms Ramabulana serves as an inspiration to young women to work hard; and 08 August 2002 Page 23 of 354 (b).her achievement is consistent with the political programme of the Government and the people of South Africa to create an enabling environment for the empowerment of women as we celebrate national Women's Day; and (3).congratulates Ms Ramabulana on receiving this important and prestigious award. Agreed to. CELEBRATING WOMEN'S DAY (Draft Resolution) Mr M J ELLIS: Chairperson, I hereby move without notice: That the House - (1).notes that - (a).Friday, 9 August, is Women's Day which will be celebrated throughout our country; and 08 August 2002 Page 24 of 354 (b).the struggle for full equality for women has still not been won and that in almost every sphere of our national life women still do not enjoy the equality which is their right in terms of our Constitution; and (2).while celebrating the advances made and the real achievements of women in our country, nevertheless commits itself to achieving that which our Constitution promises. Agreed to. OUTSTANDING PERFORMANCE OF ERNIE ELS IN BRITISH OPEN (Draft Resolution) Mr J DURAND: Chairperson, I hereby move without notice: That the House - (1).notes with pride the outstanding performance of Ernie Els during the British Open and congratulates him on his victory; and 08 August 2002 Page 25 of 354 (2).also wishes all the participants in the African Games the best of luck and believes that they will follow in Ernie Els' footsteps and do South Africa proud. Agreed to. MURDER OF MR JOAS BAKER MOGALE (Draft Resolution) Dr M S MOGOBA: Chairperson, I move without notice: That the House - (1).notes - (a).with sadness, the murder of Mr Joas Baker Mogale of Atteridgeville, Pretoria; (b).that Baker was a former Robben Island veteran, a member of the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania and a leading light in black economic empowerment; 08 August 2002 Page 26 of 354 (c).that he was one of the founder members of the Foundation for African Business and Consumer Services (Fabcos) in 1988, became General Secretary (Administration and Public Liaison) of Nafcoc and was one of the first directors of Future Bank; and (d).that he was also a founder member of Tsogo Sun, a director of Business Beat (a Deloitte and Touche subsidiary) and a board member of Business Partners; (2).expresses condolences to his wife, Sheba, and family; and (3).hopes that criminal violence, that robs us of the cream of our nation, can be contained or rooted out completely. Agreed to. APPOINTMENT OF PUBLIC PROTECTOR (Draft Resolution) 08 August 2002 Page 27 of 354 The CHIEF WHIP OF THE MAJORITY PARTY: Madam Speaker, I move the motion as it appears on the Order Paper as follows: That, notwithstanding the resolution adopted by the House on 24 June 2002, the date by which the Ad Hoc Committee on Appointment of Public Protector must complete its task be extended from 8 August 2002 to 30 August 2002. Agreed to. RECOMMITMENT OF SOUTH AFRICAN MARITIME AND AERONAUTICAL SEARCH AND RESCUE BILL TO PORTFOLIO COMMITTEE (Draft Resolution) The CHIEF WHIP OF THE MAJORITY PARTY: Madam Speaker, I hereby move the motion on the Order Paper as follows: That the House recommits the South African Maritime and Aeronautical Search and Rescue Bill [B 23B - 2002] to the Portfolio Committee on Transport for further consideration and report. 08 August 2002 Page 28 of 354 Agreed to. EXTENSION OF TIME ALLOTTED TO THE MINISTER OF ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS AND TOURISM (Draft Resolution) The CHIEF WHIP OF THE MAJORITY PARTY: Madam Speaker, I hereby move the motion printed in my name on the Order Paper as follows: That, notwithstanding Rule 106, the time allotted to the Minister of Environmental Affairs and Tourism for his statement today, be extended to 30 minutes. Agreed to. The SPEAKER: Hon members, I have received a request from the Minister of Environmental Affairs and Tourism to make a statement on the World Summit on Sustainable Development. I will now grant the Minister an opportunity to make his statement. WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 08 August 2002 Page 29 of 354 (Statement) The MINISTER OF ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS AND TOURISM: Madam Speaker and hon members, Southern Africa is the cradle of humankind. About 120 000 years ago, human beings began the journey from here to occupy the other continents and the furthest corners of planet earth. For most of this period, our ancestors lived in harmony with nature. Over the millennia, human beings advanced socially, economically and culturally, never once facing self-destruction. All that changed in the last 100 years. Human beings, for the first time, started destroying the very earth which we need for our survival. Much of the world's fish stocks have been depleted. Large quantities of carbon dioxide pumped into the atmosphere by industrial and motor vehicles has led to global warming. Many plant and animal species are becoming extinct. Rivers and underground water resources are being polluted, and forests are being destroyed. The last century can be characterised as the era of unsustainable development. 08 August 2002 Page 30 of 354 Our world is on a development path that is unsustainable. If we all consume as much as the average US citizen does, this world will implode. But the patterns of consumption are not just unsustainable, they are also unfair. The entire continent of Africa is responsible for a mere 3% of carbon emissions into the atmosphere, yet pays the same high price for climate change as the rest of the world. So, poor Africans are subsidising rich Americans, Europeans and Japanese. The first United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was held in 1972 in Stockholm. Speaking in Rio de Janeiro in June this year, President Mbeki said, and I quote: Today, thirty years later, we have fewer fish in the sea, more carbon dioxide being pumped into the atmosphere, more desertification, more soil erosion, and more species extinction. Our very development model is questioned daily by the earth's ecosystem, on which all life and all economic activity is dependent. Our patterns of consumption and production cannot be left unchecked. If the Chinese 08 August 2002 Page 31 of 354 citizen is to consume the same quantity of crude oil as his or her US counterpart, China would need over 80 million barrels of oil a day - slightly more than the 74 million barrels a day the entire world now produces. If annual paper use in China of 35kg per person were to climb to the US level of 342kg, China would need more paper than the world currently produces. The period since the Rio Earth Summit was one of unprecedented global economic growth. Growth in the world economy in the year 2000 alone exceeded that during the entire 19th century. Yet people continue to die of hunger; babies are born, grow up and die without being able to read or write; many fellow humans do not have clean water to drink; and people die of curable diseases. The gulf between the rich and poor members of the human race widens as we speak. The Johannesburg World Summit must take further our pledge at the Millennium Summit to eradicate poverty. It must focus on implementation and action. Its outcome must make sense to she who has to walk for kilometres to fetch drinking water and to she who spends hours 08 August 2002 Page 32 of 354 gathering firewood for energy. It must also speak to he who consumes more than the earth can give. The quest for sustainable development cannot and should not be separated from the struggle for the emancipation of women. The burden of women in developing countries is compounded by poverty, malnutrition, lack of access to fresh water, inadequate sanitation and desertification. The dominance of men in global decision-making must change. Something is wrong when, even in the year 2002, the entire world only has 22 woman environment Ministers. The Johannesburg World Summit is now only two weeks away. We are nearing the end of a long preparatory period spanning the past two years. At the beginning of the process, it was not possible to say with any degree of certainty what the scale, agenda or outcomes of the summit would be. But now, on the eve of the event, the stage is set and the agenda is clear. As the world begins to gather in Johannesburg over the next few weeks, they will build on the far-reaching consensus that was generated during an extremely rich and comprehensive global preparatory process. 08 August 2002 Page 33 of 354 What are the main areas of agreement? Firstly, there is consensus that the central focus of the summit should be on the eradication of poverty. Secondly, there is consensus that the summit must be primarily about implementation and delivery. Thirdly, it is agreed that there should be a balanced emphasis on all three pillars of sustainable development: social development, economic development and the protection of the environment. Fourthly, it is agreed that the main areas of action should be access to water and sanitation; access to energy, health care, food security, and biodiversity and ecosystem management. Fifthly, there is consensus that implementation must involve partnerships between governments of the North and the South, and between governments and the private sector and civil society. Sixthly, there is agreement that Africa must enjoy priority in the action plans, with Nepad serving as the delivery vehicle. Seventhly, there is consensus that that summit must endorse and rededicate itself to the decisions of the Rio Earth Summit, including agenda 21. There are outstanding areas on which agreements have not been reached. These include the application of the principle of common but differentiated responsibility 08 August 2002 Page 34 of 354 among countries for sustainable development; the setting of targets for the provision of adequate sanitation and the setting of targets for renewable forms of energy; the phasing-out of environmentally harmful and trade- distorting subsidies; the mobilisation of already committed funds and the need for new and additional resources, and the link between sustainable development and good governance. In order to explore solutions to the outstanding issues, President Mbeki and Secretary-General Kofi Annan decided to convene a meeting of a select but representative group of countries referred to as `the friends of the chair'. These countries include Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Mexico, Nigeria, Norway, the Russian federation, Senegal, Sweden, Uganda, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and Venezuela. The meeting was held on 17 July in New York. At the meeting it became clear that while tough negotiations will take place at the summit, there is a genuine commitment on the part of most countries to a 08 August 2002 Page 35 of 354 constructive search for solutions. As a result of these consultations, South Africa accepted a proposal made by, among others, the G77 group that negotiations should begin two days before the actual start of the summit. So, these informal negotiations will now take place on 24 and 25 August. We are confident that all outstanding matters can be resolved. All indications are that the summit will be attended by a large number of heads of state and government. This, together with the presence in Johannesburg of global leaders of all sectors of society, promises to make this event one of deep significance to humanity. The official United Nations Summit will, in addition to governments, provide for the active participation of representatives of, amongst others, youth, women, trade unions and business organisations. Representatives of these groups will also have the opportunity to interact directly with heads of state and government in a series of relatively intimate round-table meetings. 08 August 2002 Page 36 of 354 In addition to the events at the Sandton Convention Centre, hundreds of parallel events will take place elsewhere in Johannesburg and other South African cities. The Civil Society Global Forum involving tens of thousands of delegates will take place at the Nasrec Expo Centre from 23 August to 4 September. A number of civil society pre-summit conferences will take place from 19 August to 23 August. Among these, the International Youth Summit will be held at Sun City in the North West, and the Indigenous People's International Summit will be held in Kimberley. The International Local Government Conference will be held at the Sandton Crowne Plaza Hotel. Judges and chief justices from around the world-will meet at the Global Judges Symposium from 18 to 20 August. Private-sector leaders will attend the Business Forum Lekgotla at the Hilton Hotel. The Interparliamentary Union will be holding a two-day event entitled ``Sustainable Development: The role of parliaments in ensuring implementation and accountability'' on 29 and 30 August at the Sandton Convention Centre. Over the same two days, the 08 August 2002 Page 37 of 354 Parliamentarians Workshop on Clean Air and Clean Water, organised by Parliamentarians for Global Action, will be held at the Summer Palace Hotel. In order to provide for the worldwide request to exhibit sustainable development best practice projects, a tented city, called Ubuntu Village, has been constructed. At the centre of Ubuntu Village is the 11 000 square metre Tensile One, the world's biggest tent. Ubuntu Village will be a hive of activity, with exhibitions, talks, conferences, launches and cultural events. Among the exhibitions will be an extensive display of renewable and clean energy technology. The village will also be open to the public. The Randburg Dome will be transformed into the Water Dome by the Global Water and Sanitation Sector. This will be the gathering place for governments and nongovernmental organisations involved in water and sanitation. The Water Dome will house exhibitions, talks, meetings and conferences on the subject. South Africa's vibrant culture will also play a role in enriching the event. Johannesburg's Newtown precinct 08 August 2002 Page 38 of 354 will be the epicentre of a large number of theatrical, musical and other cultural performances. The Global Forum opening ceremony will be held on 23 August at the Johannesburg Stadium. The South African Government official welcome ceremony will be held on 25 August at Ubuntu Village. On the day before the heads of state and heads of government segment of the WSSD takes place, President Mbeki and Secretary-General Kofi Annan will visit the cradle of humankind in order to pay homage to our origins. Both the Gauteng province and the Johannesburg metro are leaving no stone unturned to make the event a success. The province is engaged in the ``greening of the summit'' project. The aim is to establish an international benchmark in the minimisation of waste and the minimisation of the environmental impact of huge events. Ninety per cent of the waste generated by the summit will be recycled, and an innovative scheme would compensate for the emissions of carbon resulting from energy used in summit activities. The Johannesburg metro has spruced up the city to give a warm African welcome to our visitors. 08 August 2002 Page 39 of 354 In response to a call for volunteers, the citizens of Johannesburg responded in a spirit of Vukuzenzele. Five thousand volunteers have been recruited to perform a range of tasks. I would like to extend my thanks to these patriots. All South Africans should share in the pride of acting as hosts to the world's presidents, prime ministers, kings and queens, judges, representatives of workers and business; youth and women; religious leaders, and representatives of communities from all corners of the earth. This will be a massive gathering of representatives of humanity under the slogan ``People, planet, prosperity''. Humanity returns to Africa, our common birthplace, to open a new chapter in human solidarity. All will be united in the pursuit of one single overriding imperative: the adequate provision for the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. [Applause.] The SPEAKER: Hon members, we will be returning to the issues raised by the Minister and others that are linked 08 August 2002 Page 40 of 354 to the World Summit when this House debates the summit and the issues next Thursday. As hon members are aware, we will also be participating in the meetings at the World Summit organised by us and the Interparliamentary Union. As we are having a debate, there will be no statements from parties on the Minister's statement. Before we proceed to the subject for discussion, I would, firstly, like to greet hon members as tomorrow is Women's Day. I want to greet the men and the women, and urge them to focus on a certain number of issues that will be raised, I hope, not a moment too soon. I particularly want to welcome the large number of women whom I see in the public gallery. [Applause.] I want to greet all of them and, of course, on behalf of this House, all women in South Africa. I also want to draw attention to the fact that we are celebrating our achievements as a society, particularly those of the women. But we should also be focusing on what we still need to do to create the nonsexist society that is reflected in our Constitution. So we need to be focusing on both. 08 August 2002 Page 41 of 354 Part of achieving that is for women in the country to engage much more with Parliament, in the public gallery, on the floor of this House and, of course, in our committees. I hope we will see many more women engaging with Parliament, and many more men speaking on issues of how to create a nonsexist society. [Applause.] I wait to see in the forthcoming debate how many of those cheers are translated into actual speeches. [Interjections.] I now look forward to the Chief Whips promptly changing their speakers' lists. The MINISTER OF HOUSING: Malibongwe! [Praise] Madam Speaker, hon members of the House, the Minister of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology, the hon Dr Ben Ngubane, and the Deputy Minister, the hon Brigitte Mabandla requested me to pass on a message of thanks and gratitude to all members of the House, to the dignitaries and the South African citizenry for gracing the symbolic occasion of the enrobement of Sarah Baartman which took place on Sunday, 4 August, at the Civic Centre here in Cape Town. 08 August 2002 Page 42 of 354 A woman named Sarah Baartman was taken away from her home country, South Africa, to London in 1810. The African continent at the time was not regarded by Europe as a place of historical entity. Its people, religion, tradition and culture only made sense when interpreted through the eyes and consciousness of Europe. Africa was regarded as a continent divided by civilisation, which could be described as white Africa and black Africa. That was a time when Africa was vulnerable. Colonialism took advantage of this unfortunate circumstance and moved in to rob Africa of its dignity. Sarah became one of those who suffered under colonial prejudice, who became the victims of racism which embodied the superiority of a people whose culture and norms operated on the basis that what they could not understand or comprehend had to be inferior since they regarded themselves as the better race. What they believed in had to be better than anyone else's, and that was colonialism at play. The sole purpose of Sarah's abductors was to exhibit her in the Piccadilly Circus as an item of interest, basically viewed as a creature to be paraded to the 08 August 2002 Page 43 of 354 European audiences for jest and entertainment. Her captors saw in her a commodity they could use for making profit from the circus. Rational analysis makes us doubt if the exact intention of her being taken to Europe was explained when she was led out of her country of birth. All we are told is that she was promised a share of the profits which would be generated through the ``wonder'' that she was. How sad! A so-called civilised class debased itself to levels of disgrace and disregard for human dignity and respect - abuse at the highest level. The story of Sarah Baartman reveals the saddest part of our history as a country and the humiliation that was meted out by colonial forces to the people of Africa. From the top of the continent to south of the Sahara, colonialism ravaged the culture of the peoples of this continent. It accelerated the erosion of the unity of the groups and communities on this continent. When one reads the balance sheet in the political- cultural field one sees that by the 1800s colonialism found itself strong enough to intensify and accelerate the state of instability, characterised by violence, wars and disorder emerging from the insecurity of the 08 August 2002 Page 44 of 354 Mfecane conflicts; the Fulbe jihads; the rise of the Tukulor and Mande empires in the western Sudan; the disintegration of the Oyo and the Asante empires in West Africa. This situation is comparable to the Napoleonic wars, the intellectual revolutions and the German and Italian wars of unification. The problems in Africa were not peculiar to the continent, but were a reflection of the disagreements and expansions of kingdoms. South of the Sahara we found the San and the Khoi being driven out of their lands and exterminated or assimilated into colonial society. Sarah Baartman, a woman of Khoi origin, was identified as a subject of scorn and humiliation. She was exported to Europe, a continent far away from her homeland, divided from her continent by the sea. How could she, even if she longed for home, be able to swim back to the shores of the Cape over the seas? How would she run away, back to her home of warm summers and green fields? She was encaged, enslaved and marketed in the circus as a strange creation of nature. Sarah must have felt lost, desolate and lonely. Those who tried to fight for her freedom in the British courts 08 August 2002 Page 45 of 354 - the abolitionists - were told that Sarah signed a contract willingly, implying that she signed up for humiliation, degradation, scorn, prejudice, exclusion, racism and sexism. Did Sarah really willingly agree to be paraded naked along a stage two feet high to be exhibited like a wild beast, forced to walk, stand or sit as ordered? We have heard the following before, haven't we? ``The slaves are happy with the treatment the masters and madams give them. These people would rather be here than anywhere else.'' So said the masters trying to justify their acts. Sarah is one of us. She is back home. She is here to receive the burial that human beings are accorded by their families, communities and countries. Sarah is back to remind humanity that human rights, respect and dignity befit all persons, no matter who they are, where they come from and what they are called and named because they belong to someone. They belong to a community, to a family. They have relatives who love them. We love Sarah for who she was, one of us shipped off, in a diaspora to confirm the prejudices of colonial 08 August 2002 Page 46 of 354 masters, to satisfy the curiosity of a French scientist, who could not resist cutting up her body when she died and dissecting it to conduct experiments and as a way of investigating whether she was real enough to be classified as human, or whether she actually belonged to the circus as part of the animal kingdom tamed to entertain circus-goers. Sarah's brain and other soft tissues were preserved. Her skeletal remains were put on a museum display until the 1970s. Sarah Baartman's debasement in both life and death came to reflect, in a very confirmed practical manner, the voracity of an unfounded racial superiority complex. We are here today to initiate, through this debate, the reburial of one of us, the interment of Sarah Baartman, and not the ``Hottentot Venus'', as she was derogatorily dubbed. A French print entitled La Belle Hottentot depicts Sarah, the African miracle, as a woman standing on a box pedestal with her buttocks exposed. Several figures bend, straining for a better look, while a male figure 08 August 2002 Page 47 of 354 at the right of the image even holds his eyeglass up to better behold the woman's body. Some remarks were made, including, ``Oh! Goddamn, what roast beef'' and ``Ah! How comical is nature.'' We are here not to mourn Sarah's death, but to celebrate the strength of our people who made sure that she is not forgotten, who made sure that we negotiated with the French government to repatriate her remains. This is the triumph of our people, the belief in human rights and respect for the entire humanity. We have risen as a country and as a people from the ashes of oppression, from the scourge of apartheid and colonialism, firmly convinced that safeguarding human rights and women's rights is a struggle we must all continue to wage to ensure that human beings are treated equally and with dignity. This is the affirmation of our Constitution, of our history, of a people determined and prepared to uphold the principles of human rights. To achieve genuine equality in our country, our programmes must be based on a real understanding of what gender oppression can do to a nation. Sarah's history of persecution and humiliation is but an illustration of 08 August 2002 Page 48 of 354 what happens to those who are discriminated against on the basis of colour, sex or geographic exclusion. We are one nation that cannot afford to accept any form of discrimination after what we have gone through as a collective. Oppression is rooted in a material base, it is expressed in sociocultural attitudes, all of which are supported and perpetuated by an ideology which subordinates women. The history of oppression in our country has clearly demonstrated the fact that women became the instrument through which the strength and the resilience of our people was tested. They were thrown onto the lowest ladder of economic structures, turned into breeders of labour for the mines and farms, and forced to do the dirty and humiliating work churned out for the institutionalised systems that relegated them to the level of subhumans. Women in this country, particularly African women, were subjugated, deprived and marginalised in many different ways. They were regarded as junior and inferior to the male species. They make up the majority of the unemployed, the disempowered. They were not in decision- 08 August 2002 Page 49 of 354 making structures, but our democratic approach to human beings today is to change such patterns of discriminatory practice. Sarah Baartman will be laid to rest at her place of birth tomorrow, 9 August, in the Gamtoos River Valley. The women and men of this country salute Sarah Baartman, who faced and fought the worst form of racism all by herself, without the immediate collective effort that has seen our country freed from apartheid colonialism. Sarah's burial will be a response to the late Comrade President O R who said in 1985, and I quote: We do not consider our objectives achieved, our tasks completed or our struggle at an end until the women are fully liberated. Sarah Baartman is finally free from humiliation and scorn. This gives us hope that the struggle for the liberation of this nation, from a painful past of 300 years of oppression and repression, hunger and exclusion, will gradually redress the evils of the past. 08 August 2002 Page 50 of 354 We stand here today to thank all those who made sure that we got the opportunity to bury Sarah Baartman in honour. They are the ambassadors of South Africa to France, the former ambassador, Ms Barbara Masekela; the current ambassador, Mrs Thuthukile Skweyiya; the French government; members of the French National Assembly for the unanimous vote that upheld the principles of human rights, the vote for her repatriation to her people; and the reference group of 12 members - Y Abrahams, Prof H Bredekamp, Chief J Burgess, Ms D Ferrus, hon member of Parliament Mrs Bertha Gxowa, Mr J Kollapen, hon member of Parliament Mrs Makho Njobe, Dr Adelaide Tambo, Prof P V Tobias, Prof H Soodyall and Ms S Williams. Sarah Baartman's dignity has been reclaimed. Through her reburial, we may begin to say the images of women in Africa will reflect those of people who are respected, and the many facets of inequality brought about by colonial influences may finally be dealt a final blow. Sarah belongs to the women of Africa. Although Sarah came from the womb of the Khoi people, she belongs to all of us. She belongs to Africa. She belongs to humanity. 08 August 2002 Page 51 of 354 Malibongwe igama la makhosikazi! [Kwaqhwatywa.] [Praise the name of women! [Applause.]] Mrs P W CUPIDO: Madam Speaker, I would also like to join you in greeting all the women on the gallery, and extend a warm word of welcome to all of them. Suid-Afrika is voorwaar een nasie met vele volkere, 11 amptelike tale, vele kulture en uiteenlopende geloofsbeginsels; inderdaad 'n veelsydige nasie, en tog kleurryk en interessant in sy diversiteit. Nog meer interessant is die feit dat 'n eg Suid-Afrikaanse vrou, Saartjie Baartman, ons land se politieke leiers tot stilstand bring op die vooraand van Suid-Afrika se nasionale dag vir vroue. Saartjie is vir ons 'n herinnering aan erge koloniale misbruik, gruwelike menseregteskending, rassistiese uitbuiting en misbruik van en disrespek vir die vroulike liggaam. (Translation of Afrikaans paragraph follows.) [South Africa is indeed a nation with a multitude of peoples, 11 official languages, many cultures and diverse religious principles; indeed a multi-faceted nation, and yet colourful and interesting in its 08 August 2002 Page 52 of 354 diversity. Even more interesting is the fact that a true South African woman, Saartjie Baartman, on the eve of South Africa's national day for women, is bringing our country's political leaders to a standstill. To us Saartjie is a reminder of severe colonial abuse, gross human rights violation, racist exploitation and abuse of, and disrespect for, the female body.] My question today is whether women in this country are better or worse off since Saartjie's experiences. [Interjections.] I recall the four very young girls of this country who were apparently abducted by the paedophile Gert van Rooyen and have never since been found. Have they perhaps been raped, abused, murdered or sold into prostitution in other countries? How many women and children in this country have suffered gross humiliation, abuse, neglect, rape and assault, intimidation and unfair labour practices only because they are women and vulnerable? Even though this Government has a portfolio committee in place that looks at the rights and status of women, it still lacks the will to put structures and resources in place to empower women sufficiently. Internationally, 08 August 2002 Page 53 of 354 South Africa ranks very high as far as illiteracy amongst women is concerned. This is a sore point for women's groups, who claim that current efforts and opportunities are weak and ineffectual. Why does the ANC Government keep South African women poor and illiterate? [Interjections.] I believe that improving literacy amongst women is the key to improving women's political awareness and hence their status in society. [Interjections.] A literate woman would know the difference between a good and a weak government, and that is why some governments keep their women poor and illiterate. They do so so that they remain dependent on the government of the day. Kaapstad Uniestad onder beheer van die DA is 'n leier op die gebied van geslagsgelykheid en die bemagtiging van vroue. Agt vrouedirekteure is pas aangestel as hoofde van sleutelportefeuljes in die Kaapstad-administrasie. Kaapstad-munisipaliteit is voorwaar meer suksesvol as ander metro's omdat dit nie deur die ANC geregeer word nie. [Tussenwerpsels.] [Applous.] (Translation of Afrikaans paragraph follows.) 08 August 2002 Page 54 of 354 [Cape Town Unicity, under control of the DA, is a leader in the field of gender equality and empowerment of women. Eight female directors have just been appointed in the Cape Town administration as heads of key portfolios. The municipality of Cape Town is indeed more successful than other metros because it is not governed by the ANC. [Interjections.][Applause.]] Marthinus van Schalkwyk's dishing out of jobs for pals and the abuse of taxpayers' moneys have once again proved that association brings resemblance. How many New NP women did he appoint to his cabinet? [Interjections.] Not one! Ek wil vandag vroue aanmoedig om op te staan en hulle regmatige plek in die samelewing in te neem. [Tussenwerpsels.] (Translation of Afrikaans paragraph follows.) [Today, I would like to encourage women to stand up and take their rightful place in society. [Interjections.]] Without further ado, I suppose that there is a time to come and a time to go. Today it is my turn to greet this 08 August 2002 Page 55 of 354 House and also to say farewell to colleagues and friends of the past eight years. [Interjections.] It has indeed been an honour for me to be a part of the transition of this country, especially at this level of government. [Interjections.] Al het dit nie altyd so gelyk of geklink nie, kan ek agb lede verseker dat ek 'n groot respek opgebou het vir kollegas aan albei kante van hierdie Raad. Dit is die gebed van my hart dat God werklik vorentoe vir ons 'n nuwe generasie leiers sal stuur, en dat hier werklike transformasie sal plaasvind sodat ons eendag kan terugkyk na vandag as deel van ons land se geskiedenis. [Tussenwerpsels.] (Translation of Afrikaans paragraph follows.) [Even if it did not always look or sound like it, I can assure hon members that I developed huge respect for colleagues on both sides of this Council. It is my heart's prayer that somewhere down the road, God would send us a new generation of leaders, and that true transformation will take place here so that one day we can look back to this day as part of our country's history. [Interjections.]] 08 August 2002 Page 56 of 354 We can only rise up if we have experienced lows. Thank you, Madam Speaker, for your excellent leadership. Thank you to all the staff members. May God bless South Africa. [Applause.] Mr M F CASSIM: Madam Speaker, I rise on behalf of the IFP to take part, on this very solemn occasion, in a very important debate. I wish to identify myself with the hon Minister and the remarks she made on this topic. I wish to address this topic under the title ``the enrobing of Sarah Baartman''. Stripped of the covers of modesty, stripped of her identity and the real name given to her by her parents, stripped of friends, family, community, tribe, nation, belonging, motherland, dignity, political rights, humanity, love, happiness, understanding, sympathy, empathy, communion and everything else, how can Sarah Baartman be enrobed adequately to compensate for everything that she was shorn of and all the humiliation heaped on her by the former colonialists that held sway here and who dispossessed her and her people of so many things? 08 August 2002 Page 57 of 354 Shakespeare made King Lear observe: ``Unaccommodated man is no more but such a poor, bare, forked animal.'' Indeed, Sarah could vouch for that seeing just how unaccommodated she was, a mere exotic object to the type that the Minister described as those who trampled all over her humanity. But our unique miracle as a nation is to see hope where it could not possibly exist and light where darkness is at its most intense. This is our miracle. Since 1994 we have begun to reverse the process of the endless stripping by colonialists that damaged our people, our flora, fauna and our country's resources. When we enrobe Sarah Baartman, metaphorically and symbolically, we once again invest in ourselves all our rights, dignity and humanity. I want to begin by saying the following to Madam Speaker, all the women in the Chamber, the gallery and the nation: In this extraordinary task of enrobing, we, as that gender portion known as men, wherever we are and whoever we are, should commit ourselves to supporting gender equality implicitly and without any reserve. [Applause.] The enrobing of Sarah Baartman is not one ceremony and certainly no single occasion. Sarah 08 August 2002 Page 58 of 354 Baartman is every woman in our land and, very particularly, every black woman in the land [Applause]. When we consciously and with dedication educate each young girl to the level of her potential; when we uplift each rural woman to become economically independent; when we respect the right of each woman to her bodily integrity; when we protect each girl-child and each woman against rape and violence; when we allow each woman to come into her own and to make choices and to have those choices respected, even if that choice means that she insists on the use of a condom during intimacy; when we elevate suitable women candidates to the most prestigious offices in the land so that there is a systemic emancipation and empowerment of women, then we would have fully enrobed Sarah Baartman and her ceremony would have been complete. [Applause.] Sarah Baartman is a direct and powerful challenge to former colonialists, men and boys, all of us now living here in our country in the new dispensation. In Africa the leadership role of women is as ancient as history itself. I will cite only two examples. Queen Hatshepsut ruled Egypt 3 300 years ago and Queen Cleopatra also 08 August 2002 Page 59 of 354 ruled over Egypt as far back as 2 030 years ago. It is nothing unusual in Africa for women to have led their countries with great distinction and honour. In enrobing Sarah we affirm the truth that everything in our political lives comes full circle. Those that were once degraded and dehumanised are now raised up in honour and are celebrated. Those who were taken by force and compulsion in virtual chains are now being brought back home with love and fond remembrance. Today we, who sit on these seats as power brokers, will enrobe Sarah if we harken to Nkosi Buthelezi when he implores us, regardless of where we belong, to commit passionately to a revolution of goodwill, or if we were to make it our mantra, in tone with the elder statesman Madiba, the incantation ``never and never and never again''. Power is a corrosive thing; it is a potent acid. The Bible promises that the meek shall inherit the earth. Believers who have God in their hearts understand the power of love, the power of good will, the power of faith. That is the power we should seek to develop and that is the power we must use and encourage to be used 08 August 2002 Page 60 of 354 as proselytes for genuine and untrammelled democracy here and everywhere else in the world. Each of us, more than anyone else in the world, needs to enrobe Sarah; the poor and the destitute; the weak and the helpless; the uneducated and the unskilled; the homeless and the hungry; men and women; boys and girls - then, and only then, will power work for the betterment of society, instead of just for the gratification of big and petty tyrants and dictators. North of us and in many other places, tyranny and despotism are common things. In such countries colonialism ended, but true freedom is as absent now as it has been for a very long time. When we participate in the enrobing of Sarah, we are symbolically also enrobing all the girls and women of our land who are ravaged by hunger, joblessness, violence and intimidation. The impact of HIV/Aids on women is considerably more dramatic than on men, and if we fail women at this critical juncture, our society, in less than two decades, will have a severe imbalance in the ratio between the gender groups on account of the higher mortality rate among women through HIV/Aids. 08 August 2002 Page 61 of 354 Today we have an opportunity to commit ourselves to the gender-equal society in the world and to freeing women from oppression, violence, rape and abuse. Let us together enrobe Sarah and in doing so let us act in unison against the degradation of our fellow beings, mother earth and those who are most precious to us, namely our daughters, mothers and wives, our equal partners in the journey of life. Let the coming Woman's Day be a watershed. Sarah, sister, we embrace you to ourselves. May God similarly embrace you and raise you! [Applause.] Ms L M T XINGWANA: Madam Speaker, I believe that this day is a day of mourning. We are burying Sarah Baartman who died 200 years ago and I therefore believe that we should bury her with the dignity and respect that she deserves. Ngoko ke andisayi kungena emxhentsweni nasemtshotshweni wokuba i-ANC ayilunganga okanye ilungile. Ndicinga into yokuba namhlanje yimini yokuba sihloniphe. Xa singcwaba eAfrika, singcwaba ngesithozela. Nokuba umntu lutshaba lwakho umngcwaba ngothando; umngcwaba ngentlonipho. 08 August 2002 Page 62 of 354 Ndiya kucela ke ukuba oomama nootata kule Ndlu namhlanje bathethe ... (Translation of Xhosa paragraph follows.) [I am not going to enter the debate about whether the ANC is good or not. I think that today is a day to show respect. When we bury the dead in Africa, we do it in dignity. Even if a person was your enemy; you bury them with love. I will therefore, ask women and men in this House today to speak ...] ... in unity and with the dignity that Sarah deserves. UMphathiswa wethu wezeZindlu sele esivulele ngokunika imbali kaSarah Baartman. USarah Baartman ube kokuveliswe kukuhlupheka, ebesebunzimeni bocinezelo phantsi kwe colonialism nobuhlanga. (Translation of Xhosa paragraph follows.) [The Minister of Housing has given an introduction to the history of Sarah Baartman. Sarah Baartman was a product of poverty and was oppressed and exploited under colonialism and racism.] 08 August 2002 Page 63 of 354 Sarah Baartman, like all African women in this country, suffered all forms of exploitation and oppression. Baye bafika ke kweli lizwe bayitshabalalisa inkcubeko yethu, bazitshabalalisa iilwimi zethu. Yiyo loo nto abanye bethu bengazi ukuba umntu uziphatha njani na emngcwabeni. Umntu uye afike emngcwabeni eze kudelela ngathi ucinga ukuba kusemtshotshweni. Ngoko ke xa sikhumbula, eAfrika sasingenayo imida. Sasingenaye umSuthu nomTswane; sasingabantu sonke. Siyazi ukuba amakhosi ethu ayephuma aye kuzeka kwamanye amazwe akude, kungekho calu-calulo. Masikhumbule kwakhona ukuba bona oomama aba bamaKhoi namaSan babezekwa ngootata bethu. Kwakusithi xa kuyiwa emfazweni amakhosikazi angabulawa. Amakhosikazi ebehlonitshwa, abuyiswe, agcinwe, azekwe, abe ngabanye babantu besi sizwe. Nabantwana babo bebegcinwa, behlonitshiwe. Thina kwaXhosa nolwimi lwethu lunazo izinto oluzifumeneyo phaya koluya lwimi lwamaKhoi namaSan. Siyayazi into yokuba nabeTswana ngokunjalo bahleli kunye bephilisana kusendiselwana namaKhoi namaSan, simntu mnye. 08 August 2002 Page 64 of 354 Sitsho ke sisithi, siyayazi into yokuba abeLungu bafika bayitshabalalisa yonke into, baqala baseka imida, benza ucalu-calulo, basahlula. Bathabatha amakhosikazi bawatshabalalisa bawenza ayinto yokudlala emhlabeni. Ngoko ke ndifuna ukuthi uthe sele efile uSarah Baartman ... (Translation of Xhosa paragraphs follows.) [They arrived in this country and destroyed our culture and languages. That is the reason some of us do not know how they should conduct themselves at funerals. A person would come to where a funeral is being held and take people for granted as if it were at a Xhosa dance ceremony. When we try to remember, in Africa we never had boundaries. There was no Sotho or Tswana; we were just human beings. We know that traditional leaders sought wives from far countries and there was no discrimination. Let us again remember that our fathers took Khoi and San women as wives. During times of war, women would be spared. Women were respected and treated with dignity, would be brought back, cared for and well looked after, be married and be part of that nation. Their children were also saved and treated with dignity. We as amaXhosa 08 August 2002 Page 65 of 354 as well as our language, have things that we gained from the language of the Khoi and the San. We also know that the Tswanas too lived together with them, exchanged marriages, and were united. These things were destroyed when the white people came as they introduced boundaries and discrimination and racism, and divided us. They killed women and made fun of them. Even when Sarah Baartman had died ...] ... she continued to endure this degradation and suffering because the colonial and racist rulers believed that she was not a human being. She was kept naked in a cave; when she died they were very much interested in her body. They were very much interested in her brain, because they believed that she was not human, that she was an animal. They did their research, they did an inspection and analysis of her body and, in the end, they found that she was a human being. But because she was black, they kept her there for 200 years, continuing to humiliate her and make her an object of their entertainment. 08 August 2002 Page 66 of 354 Therefore, ... ... sifuna ukuthi namhlanje sikhahlela ... [... today we want to salute ...] ... it is the Government of the ANC that has gone and brought back Sarah Baartman and made sure that they organised a dignified burial for her after 200 years. Ndifuna ukuthetha ngentsingiselo yomhla we-9 ka-Agasti. [I want to talk about the significance of 9 August.] The day 9 August is a significant and historic day for the people of South Africa, in particular women. It is a day on which we remember our struggles, the women's struggle in South Africa. It is a day on which we remember our victories. Therefore, it is very significant that Sarah Baartman is buried on this day, the day of women in South Africa, because Sarah Baartman is a symbol of all African women in this country. In fact, she is a symbol of all women who suffer degradation, exploitation, harassment, violence and abuse. We, therefore, want to say, ``Let all of us 08 August 2002 Page 67 of 354 honour this day, let all of us go and bury Sarah Baartman.'' The ANC has declared the month of August as the month for women's emancipation as part of the Letsima programme. The ANC Women's League's theme for this month is, ``Restore our dignity, respect our human rights and together let's work for sustainable development''. The burial of Sarah Baartman tomorrow, therefore, signifies and heralds a new era, when women's dignity and women's human rights will be respected and restored. It is a new era during which we must call for unity and peace in our country. We therefore commit ourselves, during this month, to continue with our programmes to mobilise and unite women, and also with our programmes to fight for women's rights and for peace in our country. We also call on men and women to fight violence and abuse of women and children. We say enough is enough. Let us not have another baby Tshepang. We also salute and commend baby Tshepang for her record healing and 08 August 2002 Page 68 of 354 also say she has also shown a spirit of resilience during her traumatic time because of the hope and the prayers of our women, as well as the contribution of our Government to ensuring that the issues of child abuse and women's abuse are addressed. Today the person who is responsible for what happened to Tshepang has finally been brought to book. Therefore we believe that this will be a lesson to all those men out there who still want to abuse women, who still want to abuse our children and who still do not believe that women must be respected. We hope that this will show them that our Government is serious and our Government means business in protecting our women and fighting all this abuse and corruption. We also call on all of us to recommit ourselves to the programme to fight the spread of HIV and Aids. We call, especially, on those who have started home-based care programmes. We ask our Government to put more resources into these programmes and also provide more resources for the orphans who need our support and protection. We must also regenerate our energy and make sure that we support the moral regeneration campaign, because all 08 August 2002 Page 69 of 354 these evils would not be there if we were committed to this campaign. With regard to poverty alleviation, I also want to call on all of us, it is not just the responsibility of the Government. I believe that our Government has opened up opportunities. There are various programmes and schemes that have been opened up by this Government to ensure that we are able to start small businesses, that we are able to organise ourselves, and therefore I call on women, in particular, who mostly bear the brunt of poverty, to organise themselves and to take advantage of these opportunities. I also want to call on our Government and our NGOs to take up support of the literacy programme, because we know that most of the people who are illiterate today are women, especially women in the rural areas. I think, during this year of the volunteer, let us volunteer during our time, our recess, and let us go out to the rural areas and make sure that we initiate meaningful literacy programmes that will empower our women with skills, not only to be able to read and write, but to be 08 August 2002 Page 70 of 354 able to set up developmental programmes that will sustain them and their families. As women we are also committing ourselves to the African Union. We know that most of the programmes and the processes of the AU have left women behind. But we are saying we are going to take over and take up the programme of the AU and Nepad. We are calling for a monitoring body within Nepad that will ensure that there is gender mainstreaming in all the programmes and structures of Nepad. Our Parliament has already committed itself, so that we have 60% representation in all Nepad structures, because Nepad is about development and without women, we believe, there can never be development in Africa. With regard to the World Summit on Sustainable Development, WSSD, we are again saying that women must participate in that programme. The ANC Women's League, together with women NGOs in South Africa, has organised a programme, an international women's tent that will be based in Nasrec, where various programmes to empower women will be presented. We are also organising a train that will be departing from the Great Lakes region, move 08 August 2002 Page 71 of 354 to Uganda, down South, touching on all the countries of Africa, which will highlight the HIV/Aids campaign and peace and stability in Africa. Therefore, we are asking women in South Africa to make sure that they are involved in these programmes and also receive the women and the people who will be coming to participate in the UN conference, so that when they go back home they have a good a picture and have learnt from and shared our own experiences and our democracy. [Time expired.] Mrs S M CAMERER: Madam Speaker, I would also like, on behalf of the New NP, to extend a welcome to the women in the gallery, many of whom, I am aware, are prominent in local government. It is an honour and a pleasure as a woman to speak in this debate on Sarah, or Saartjie, Baartman. Let me deal with her name first. According to the Khoisan legal advisor, on her birth and marriage certificates she appears as Sarah Baartman, but in the ``volksmond'', as an expression of love and affection, she is referred to as ``Saartjie.'' I have been asked by our caucus on this occasion, on the advice of our 08 August 2002 Page 72 of 354 Khoisan members, to refer to her as ``Saartjie'' in my speech today. The interment of Saartjie Baartman tomorrow in her homeland nearly 200 years after she was lured to Europe with the promise of fame and fortune, holds lessons for South Africa and the Western World - lessons unfortunately learned too late to benefit Saartjie and the multitude of her fellow Africans who had at that time, and during the intervening period, endured untold suffering. Saartjie was, allegedly at any rate, a free woman when she got to England, though she was exploited and humiliated as a freak and a mere object by a prurient and voyeuristic European audience. Her human dignity was ignored and demeaned and she had previously been enslaved like millions of her fellow Africans, who were enslaved in horrific circumstances, and of whose suffering we should also be mindful at a time like this. As South Africans we should be proud of the Government action to retrieve Saartjie Baartman's remains from France, where they were insultingly on display for years and then stored at the Museum of Mankind in Paris. Former President Mandela, who initiated the request for 08 August 2002 Page 73 of 354 her remains to be handed back in 1994, and Deputy Minister Brigitte Mabandla who negotiated the return, should be congratulated on their initiative. It is extraordinary that Saartjie Baartman's remains continued to be displayed in France until 1974, in contravention of all tenets of human rights applicable in France, Europe and the rest of the world, and in spite of the international adoption of the United Nations' Declaration on Human Rights 30 years previously. ``Why''? we must ask. And the answer must lie in the fact that people and their attitudes are conditioned by their history, as written or handed down. Accordingly, the most important lesson to be learned from Saartjie Baartman's story is that our received history needs to be reassessed, re-examined and, if found wanting, challenged and rewritten. Europe's interest in women like Saartjie Baartman was aroused originally by writers like Le Valiant, the French explorer and hunter, who wrote about his travels and exploits in Southern Africa in the eighteenth century. He wrote about Hottentots and Khoisan women in a section of his writings and drawings entitled ``Behind 08 August 2002 Page 74 of 354 the Hottentot Apron'' in which he described certain physical peculiarities allegedly possessed by these women. Now this was not regarded then as eighteenth century porn or even as something insulting to the dignity of these women or their nations as a whole, but merely as a valid commentary on the so-called natives of the dark continent, which then became part of received history and subsequently went unquestioned. When Saartjie Baartman was brought to England and France and displayed as more or less a wild animal or subhuman, no one regarded it as strange. The history that many of us in this House have learned at school, and even at university, was predicated on, or even derived from, records of this nature, manifesting attitudes that are completely in conflict now with our respect for human rights, our commitment to equality for women and the human dignity of all people as guaranteed in our Constitution and in international conventions. Accordingly, it is up to us to ensure that our documents and our history reflect our values and that such attitudes, completely inimical to our values today, are not retained or passed on to our children. 08 August 2002 Page 75 of 354 Saartjie Baartman was not the oddity. The attitudes of Le Valiant and others, almost exclusively male and European writers and commentators of the previous era, are indeed the oddity. Saartjie Baartman had a short and tragic life. She was only 27 when she died in 1816. Because she made the mistake of going to Europe where, as the Dutch poet Dianna Ferrus has depicted in her touching poem, she was subject to ``the poking eyes of the man-made monster who lives in the dark with his racist clutches of imperialism, who dissects your body bit by bit.’’ Now she has been brought home to be laid to rest, but she must not be forgotten. She must become a symbol, not only for the Khoisan, but for all the women of Africa who during this millennium are reclaiming their dignity and their human rights. On the eve of national Women's Day, we must also be mindful that the impairment of, and the disregard for, human dignity and the rights of women of our continent do not only derive from an imperialist and colonial heritage, but also from our own cultural and societal practices. Where these impact negatively on women they 08 August 2002 Page 76 of 354 must be revised or removed. Let Saartjie Baartman be a reminder to us all of where we want to go in reclaiming the human dignity of African women. [Applause.] Ms ANNELIZÉ VAN WYK: Madam Speaker, the dedication of this debate to the memory of Sarah Baartman is both fitting and inspirational. We cannot undo the suffering of Sarah Baartman and the many others who suffered a similar fate, but the return of and the laying to rest of Baartman's remains is a victory for human dignity, and serves as encouragement to ensure that we do everything in our power to reclaim the dignity and rights of all women. The South African Constitution enshrines the rights and dignity of all people in South Africa. It ensures that women will have equal rights to their male counterparts and that they will never again have to suffer the humiliation that Sarah Baartman experienced. Today, we must, however, ask ourselves whether we are doing enough so that these guaranteed rights in the Constitution become a living reality for the majority of South African women. I believe that none of us can stand 08 August 2002 Page 77 of 354 here today and say with a clear conscience that we have achieved equality, upliftment and empowerment for all women in South Africa. There are still too many women in every corner of South Africa who are not yet aware of their rights, and who certainly have no access to their constitutional guarantees. It is only once women can achieve a certain level of independence that the dignity of women will be restored and that they will be able to take up their rights completely. Women must be enabled to break free from their current circumstances. Their inability to do so is as a result of their economic and emotional dependence. If we empower women in these spheres, we will begin the process of restoring dignity. Women bear the brunt of poverty. Too little is done in order to focus specifically on the economic empowerment of women. Ironically, it is left to women to find ways to feed and care for their families in the face of utter despair and, miraculously, they do so with little available. 08 August 2002 Page 78 of 354 The UDM believes that, given the necessary support and encouragement, women will take that resolve and turn it into economically viable opportunities. Women are not asking for hand-outs. They simply must be given the necessary opportunity and encouragement. Programmes must be developed that aim to give specifically women access to land and capital. Too many women remain the victims of rape, abuse and violent crimes. Many of these crimes are committed against women by family members, their partners, or people known to them. This also demonstrates the desperate situation that many of these women find themselves in and who, because of their economic dependency, are unable to break free from these situations. Living in a crime-ridden society with no access to capital, little or no basic education or skills training, and not owning any land or other productive resources leave women with very little opportunity of becoming economically active and breaking free from the circumstances that they currently find themselves in. 08 August 2002 Page 79 of 354 The role of women in our community cannot be overemphasised. Women, mothers, sisters and wives form the backbone of our society. It is on the lap of his mother that a baby learns about life. It is at the hand of his mother that he learns about what is wrong and right. It is through the words spoken by her that he learns to speak. Why then do we imagine it to be possible to talk about the upliftment and empowerment of the nation when we do not put in place the basic foundation required? Our priority, undoubtedly, must be to reclaim the dignity and rights of our women as individuals and as an entity. It is only once this is achieved that success for the nation will follow. Just as the return of Sarah Baartman symbolises the strength of women in the face of despair, let her return encourage us to work in unity to achieve dignity for women throughout South Africa, not only for those in cities, but specifically for those in the deepest rural areas who are, in all modesty, simply being mothers to a nation, for it is only once women can take up their rightful place in society without fear that we will be 08 August 2002 Page 80 of 354 able to say that we have achieved freedom and dignity at last. May Sarah Baartman rest in peace. May her memories inspire us to make Africa a warm Mother Africa for all her children, including the girl child, both in dignity and in right. [Applause.] Ms J MOLOI: Madam Speaker, hon members, ladies and gentlemen, we have gone a long way in the liberation of women and transformation of gender relations, and we still have a long way to go for the total liberation of women from apartheid and colonialism to a just and egalitarian society based on social security, economic prosperity and equal justice. In observing August as women's month and in celebration of national Women's Day, that is tomorrow, 9 August, we have to congratulate the Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology, particularly Deputy Minister Bridgette Mabandla, on a job well done in bringing home a woman of this South African soil, Sarah Baartman, for proper burial as part of restoring women's dignity and human rights, thus symbolising a new beginning. 08 August 2002 Page 81 of 354 We salute all the women who were bold enough to take to the streets in 1956, fighting against the oppressive pass laws and, therefore, paving the way for the basis for a gender struggle. Without any doubts, that beginning has borne the many fruits that we are reaping today. It is important to take stock of the impact on the progress made by this young South African democracy, lest we forget. We created the national gender machinery that asserts women within all spheres of governance, for instance the Office on the Status of Women, in Government; the Joint Monitoring Committee on the Improvement of Quality of Life and the Status of Women, in Parliament; independent bodies such as the Commission on Gender Equality; in civil society, with various community-based organisations, political organisations and NGOs that deal with gender issues. As South Africans, we are proud to realise that many countries envy our gender management system, and we are recognised as having the most advanced instrument in the implementation and mainstreaming of gender. Therefore, we feel that we have made quite a significant impact. 08 August 2002 Page 82 of 354 We salute our efforts of ensuring that the gender programme exists at international level where the Beijing Platform for Action and Cedaw serve as international instruments utilised in the implementation of the gender programme. We have succeeded in coming up with the gender and development programme for SADC, and we have to ensure that we continue with the integration of gender on the whole African continent by engendering the Nepad programme as a challenge facing us. In a short space of time, we have managed to assert women within the political and decision-making processes, both in Government and in Parliament, though much still has to be done and will be achieved through the implementation of the Employment Equity Act, which is currently in place. We have noticed that only the ANC as political organisation here in Parliament has come up with a quota system to involve women in decision-making. We are, therefore, challenging other parties to follow the example of the ANC to ensure that they have a clear mechanism to involve women and not depend on the ANC. In fact, we would prefer to have binding legislation that 08 August 2002 Page 83 of 354 will ensure continuous women's representation in Parliament. Private institutions in our country are not an exception in respect of this issue. They have to implement the policies of this country. Therefore, this means that they also have to show an integration of gender and involvement of women in decision-making, and ensuring that all other provisions are being implemented, particularly the Employment Equity Act. On the aspect of violence against women, there is a lot to be done, because we have a lot of problems in this area. There are achievements, and most of the laws have been enacted, like the Maintenance Act and the Domestic Violence Act, and serious attention is drawn to sexual harassment. It is no longer loose and just running itself and not being attended to. The tightening up of the criminal justice system is yet another factor that needs to be applauded. We still raise, with serious concerns, the high rate of child molestation and rape cases, and we feel that they still need quite a lot of attention. If the whole society 08 August 2002 Page 84 of 354 could join together, we could be able to come up with a mechanism of making sure that we restore the dignity of our society. Many more areas of focus on the Beijing Platform for Action and Cedaw have been integrated in the Government programme and are currently being implemented. We will be able to produce the country's report reflecting our progress in these two areas. In other words, the integration of these programmes is quite visible in a number of other areas that are identified by the Beijing Platform for Action and Cedaw. As a matter of fact, as a country we must be proud to have a report that reflects the significant progress that we have made. Part of what can restore women's dignity is the eradication of poverty that degrades women to the level of beggars. We need to come up with a strategy that will impact on the economic lives of poor women. It is impossible to speak of dignity whilst we are unable to put food on the table for our children. To remind ourselves of what was said by women on 9 August 1956, whilst they were marching to the Union Buildings, I would like to quote: ``We shall not rest until we have 08 August 2002 Page 85 of 354 won for our children their fundamental right to freedom, justice and security''. In order for us to achieve this, we need to consolidate all the efforts and ensure that we really work hard as a nation to fulfil those aspirations of freedom, justice and security for the young ones. Government has initiated the integrated rural development strategy, and the Presidency has identified nodal points countrywide for the implementation of this strategy. Through the rolling programme of the integrated rural development strategy located within local government, the poor communities will benefit from this programme. In addition to the integrated planning process undertaken by Government, cluster programmes are initiated in order to ensure that the collective approach to planning and implementation is worked on. Gender programmes are integrated and mainstreamed within this approach, and all heads of various clusters are expected to report on the gender progress. Whilst doing this, they would be within the auspices of the administration and cluster heads. 08 August 2002 Page 86 of 354 What becomes a major challenge at this point in time, which we feel has not quite made a major impact, is the integration of gender at the level of procurement management, financial systems and the Public Finance Management Act's implementation and the co-ordination located within the national Treasury. If this could be done correctly and well, it would take care of mainstreaming gender in the office of the state's Tender Board, procurement management, the public finance management implementation unit, and in the entire financial system. The Presidency has a role to co-ordinate gender activities, and we feel and believe that that role is correctly placed and should continue that way. We also have to make sure that the Public Service develops a mechanism of monitoring and evaluation to assist the implementation of the gender programmes within the departments. In fact, we do not want to leave this area to the officials whose focus is not on gender. But, if they are taken up by heads of department and heads of various clusters, we are sure that we would be able to analyse its impact and the integration of the gender programme. 08 August 2002 Page 87 of 354 In conclusion, I would like to say that whilst we are engaged with various gender activities in this Women's Month, it will be proper for all societies, both women and men, actively to deal with the HIV/Aids programmes in order to fight the scourge. We have to focus on home- based programmes, on counselling of the affected and the infected, and to engage in education programmes, as well as awareness campaigns. As women, we have to challenge men to play an active role in HIV/Aids, because Aids is not an area that is only concentrated on women, but faces the whole of society. By saying so, we really appeal to men to be at the forefront of dealing with HIV/Aids. I also wish to congratulate the community of Orange Farm, currently named Palestine, for joining hands on the girl-child programme that pays particular attention to HIV/Aids sensitisation amongst the youth, and to countering gender violence that ravages society, with specific reference to a number of programmes that deal with gender violence. [Applause.] 08 August 2002 Page 88 of 354 Ms C DUDLEY: Father, Jesus, Holy Spirit, I acknowledge You. Madam Speaker, ACDP Women of Destiny, ladies and gentlemen, loss of person, place, potential, future and pride - today trafficking in women is a multibillion dollar market and in Sarah's days someone was also profiting from her being demeaned, ridiculed, shamed and degraded. Traffickers and pimps, past and present, prey on the dreams and vulnerabilities of women seeking employment and opportunities for the future. Research shows the most popular destinations for traffic in women are countries where prostitution is legal. And now, South Africa is brazenly, knowingly and wilfully contemplating decriminalising and legalising prostitution and joining their ranks. South Africa will no longer be a transit country as it is today, but a legalised and official destination. Legalisation of prostitution not only causes an increase in trafficking in women to meet the demand created by a legalised sex industry, but makes it difficult to hold traffickers accountable for their activities, as traffickers and pimps evade prosecution by claiming the women knew what they were getting into. 08 August 2002 Page 89 of 354 Prosecutors have a hard time establishing the line between voluntary and forced prostitution when it is legal, as their case depends on proving that the woman did not consent. Women like Sarah will have no more protection in South Africa, once prostitution is decriminalised, than she had in Europe. Slavery was a hot topic at the time when Sarah was being exploited and a young Jamaican pressured government to intervene in her situation, but the courts ruled that Sarah had entered into a contract of her own free will and the exploitation went on. The head of operations for the UN Centre for International Crime Prevention says that the laws help gangsters. Prostitution is semi-legal in many places and that makes the enforcement tricky. Sweden recently passed a law to combat violence against women that created a new offence, the gross violation of a woman's dignity. Prostitution is included as a type of violence against women and the purchase of sexual services is now prohibited and punishable. Sweden's approach recognises the harm done to women under conditions of sexual exploitation. It is premised on the belief that women have the right to dignity, integrity and equality. In 08 August 2002 Page 90 of 354 holding users accountable this new law effectively targets the demand for trafficking in women. This example should be commended and emulated. South Africa has rightly judged the actions of those who trafficked, pimped and aided and abetted these heinous, inhuman crimes against Sarah and should not now condemn itself by decriminalising these same actions within our own boundaries. Prostitution, sex tourism, trafficking in women and other practices that reduce women to sexual commodities have had a particularly devastating impact on women in developing countries and oppressed groups of women in so-called developed countries. The sexual exploitation of any woman is cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment, establishes the standard of treatment for all women and is incompatible with the inherent dignity and worth of the human person. The ACDP welcomes the return of Sarah Baartman's remains to South Africa as significant in a process of reclaiming dignity and identity and the healing of a people and a nation who have experienced the deep hurt. 08 August 2002 Page 91 of 354 However, sadly, even in death Sarah is being paraded and gawked at if one watches television and the little inserts that are meant to salute her. The father heart of God breaks. She was made in His image. As far as I know, Government is not putting money at any level toward homes where women who have been in prostitution try to take themselves out of that lifestyle and make a new life for themselves. There are homes like the house in Hillbrow and Beauty for Ashes here in the Western Cape who desperately need our help and assistance, because they are doing an incredible work at this time. Beauty for Ashes, a home for women who choose to turn from prostitution and make a new life is right here in the centre of Cape Town and they are on www.giveandgain.com. Members can also get their details from our offices. [Applause.] Mr I S MFUNDISI: Madam Speaker and hon members, the Sarah Baartman story epitomises the lack of dignity accorded to African women and this by people who claim to be proclaiming the word of God. Sarah's story is a real manifestation of man's inhumanity to man that causes countless to mourn. 08 August 2002 Page 92 of 354 With the advent of imperial power, indigenous culture was thrown out of the window. Inferiority was imposed on Africans. The so-called master race decided what to do and when to do it with the African folk. While Africans were subjected to servitude, the women carried a double burden. They were kept at the bottom of the social and economic hierarchy and were employed in low-paying unskilled jobs. We appreciate that in the midst of all the humiliation and degradation, African women stood up and spoke out. They have shown their mettle in a maze of adversity. Despite the debasement of Sarah, we have icons we can look up to, and we note the half-full rather than the half-empty glasses at our disposal. Charlotte Maxeke, born Manye, comes to mind. This jewel of Africa went to study at the Wilberforce University in the United States of America. On her return, she not only brought back her deserved degree, she also learnt about the African Methodist Episcopal Church. This church was founded by slaves of African origin staging a walkout from the Methodist Church because of the inhuman 08 August 2002 Page 93 of 354 treatment meted out to them by the supremacist whites during worship service. It is important that we look forward in life and not remain bitter about what happened to Sarah Baartman. That is past. We should concentrate on how to restore dignity and respectability to African women. All we have to know is that women have an equal right to dignity, integrity and life. They have not been created from the crumbs that fell off the Master's table as He was creating men. Women have rights that should not be violated in any way. We should acquaint ourselves with instruments such as the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action of 1995, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women as adopted by the United Nations in 1979, and pieces of legislation passed by this Parliament such as the Domestic Violence Act in order to appreciate that all gender-based violence has to be frowned upon regardless of who the perpetrator is. Surely we have to contain the spiral of violence in South Africa? Intervention strategies have to be sought 08 August 2002 Page 94 of 354 to eradicate this pervasive problem. There is truth forever in the words: ``The first shall be the last, and the last shall be the first.'' Sarah Baartman, a woman once degraded, has since been placed on a pedestal of glory. She is an icon with whom all yearn to be associated. [Applause.] Dr M S MOGOBA: Madam Speaker, the struggle to bring the remains of Sarah Baartman back to her motherland is a great victory for human rights. She belongs here, and the soil of Africa wanted her back here. Those who enslaved her and deported her to a foreign country and then dehumanised her and made a public spectacle of her are psychologically sick and in need of healing. Many years ago a celebrated member of this House, the hon Sam Khan, described racism as a mixture of biological ignorance and racial superstition. And so it is. It makes some people develop a superiority which is completely unjustified and baseless. The heroic and dignified burial of Sarah Baartman on Women's Day should send a message to all and sundry that human dignity is a God-given attribute and that those 08 August 2002 Page 95 of 354 who violate it violate God, in whose image human beings are created. The only unfortunate thing is that Sarah Baartman is being buried in a country where, lately, there has been unacceptable levels of violence and indignity inflicted on our womenfolk. The message from this House and from the burial service of Baartman should be clear: Violence against women comes from sick men who are also cowards. Real men should engage other men in brutal fights in which they will get what they deserve - blow by blow. There is no heroism whatsoever in subjecting your beloved wife to physical torture, brutality and savagery. In African society of old a family court, representing both families, would meet and condemn this behaviour and attempt to do some counselling. If this did not work, a tribal court would be appealed to. Their judgment and verdict would result in public punishment that would be so severe that very few would want to repeat the crime. One can contrast this with our modern form of imprisonment in hotel-type prisons. We have a lot to learn from African jurisprudence, particularly the element of peer and societal rejection of antisocial and inhuman behaviour. This African lifestyle was not 08 August 2002 Page 96 of 354 inferior or uncivilised. It was a society and lifestyle which should be the envy of many civilised men and women. We salute Sarah Bartman. Mnr J P I BLANCHÉ: Mevrou die Speaker, die Federale Alliansie is dankbaar dat die Parlement 'n paar uur wy aan die geskiedenis van Saartjie Baartman. Maklik sal politici haar treurige lewensverhaal misbruik vir eie gewin, want reeds het ons gesien dat haar liggaamsbou tydens haar leeftyd misbruik is deur hartelose individue om hul verwronge rasse-vooroordele te regverdig. Die vraag is waarom maghebbendes deur die geskiedenis van die mens die magteloses en dikwels die fisiek benadeeldes misbruik het vir hul eie magsposisies, om hulself sodoende te versterk. Waarom kan ons nie nederig voor die Skepper staan, dankbaar dat ons in posisies geplaas is om reg te laat geskied teenoor die benadeeldes in ons gemeenskap en ons nasie nie? Ek glo dat die terugbring van Saartjie Baartman se stoflike oorskot na haar vaderland 'n boodskap inhou vir die moderne wêreld: 'n Boodskap van versoening van rasse eerder as 'n geleentheid waar verwyte geslinger word oor wandade van voorgeslagte wat lank gelede begrawe is. 08 August 2002 Page 97 of 354 Saartjie se tragiese geskiedenis het min te doen met rassisme, dit het alles te doen met die mens se beheptheid met ander mense se fisieke voorkoms en ons verwaandheid om benadeeldes as minderwaardige mense te etiketteer. Ons, wat die voordeel van geleerdheid, tegnologie en die moderne wetenskap het, moet Saartjie se herbegrafnis aangryp om Suid-Afrikaners te leer dat elke mens, ten spyte van sy of haar fisieke voorkoms, 'n gelyke reg op eerbied en respek het, maak nie saak van sy of haar staanplek in ons nasie of in ons gemeenskap nie. Deur die eeue heen was daar vroue wat leidende rolle in die geskiedenis gespeel het. Dink maar aan Helen van Troje, Kleopatra en die Koningin van Skeba. Meer onlangs was daar Eva Peron, Golda Meir, Indira Gandhi, Margaret Thatcher, en hier tuis, Helen Suzman en vele ander vroue. Selde nog het ons nasie hom so sterk vereenselwig met die onreg wat teenoor 'n vrou gepleeg was soos wat ons nou doen oor Saartjie Baartman en wat aan haar gedoen is nie. 'n Honderd jaar gelede is die Afrikanervrou leed aangedoen en het ons vir haar en haar kinders 'n monument opgerig. Hierdie naweek en vandag sê 08 August 2002 Page 98 of 354 ek namens die Afrikaners, ons is nie bereid om toe te laat dat die Saartjie Baartmans van Afrika agtergeblewe bly in ons eerbetoon aan vroue en dogters van Afrika nie. [Tussenwerpsels]. Ons dank die Skepper dat ons so kort na die skepping van die nuwe Suid-Afrika ook hierdie onreg gepleeg teenoor 'n vrou van Afrika kan regstel. Daarom wil ons by hierdie geleentheid vir die vroue van Suid-Afrika sê: ``Julle het 'n unieke rol om in die Afrika-renaissance te speel. Bly nederig, liefdevol, sagmoedig en vroulik, dan sal jy as vrou met agting en respek bejeën word en sal ons en ons nageslag vir julle monumente bou''. Ons is bly dat die onreg wat teenoor Saartjie gepleeg is, reggestel word. Die DA sal help om vroue en ander benadeeldes se regte in Afrika te verdedig en vestig, want ons is trots op die vroue en die dogters van ons land. Ek wil afsluit met die opmerking: Politieke aktiviste is snaakse ``mense. Net gister nog het sommige van hulle vroue'' ge-necklace'' om politieke redes, môre daag 08 August 2002 Page 99 of 354 hulle dalk by die begrafnis op.[Tussenwerpsels]. (Translation of Afrikaans speech follows.) [Mr J P I BLANCHÉ: Madam Speaker, the Federal Alliance is grateful to Parliament for dedicating a few hours to the story of Saartjie Baartman. Politicians will misuse her sad life story with ease for personal gain, because we have already seen that in her lifetime her physique was abused by heartless individuals to justify their warped racial prejudice. The question is why, throughout man's history, the powerful that be have abused the powerless and often the physically challenged to further their own positions of power, in order thereby to fortify themselves. Why can we not stand humbly before the Creator, grateful to have been placed in positions to let justice be done to the aggrieved within our society and our nation? I believe that the return of Saartjie Baartman's mortal remains to her land of birth holds a message for the modern world: A message of reconciliation of races rather than an occasion at which slurs are hurled about regarding the atrocities of previous generations that have long since been buried. Saartjie's tragic story has little to do 08 August 2002 Page 100 of 354 with racism and everything with man's obsession with other people's physical appearance and our conceitedness in labelling those who have been aggrieved as being inferior people. We, who have the advantage of learning, technology and modern science, must seize Saartjie's reburial as an opportunity to teach South Africans that everyone, despite his or her physical appearance, has an equal right to reverence and respect, irrespective of his or her standing in our nation or society. Through the ages there have been women who have played leading roles in history. Think about Helen of Troy, Cleopatra and the Queen of Sheba. More recently we had Eva Peron, Golda Meir, Indira Gandhi, Margaret Thatcher, and here at home, Helen Suzman and many other women. Seldom before has our nation identified itself so intensively with the injustice perpetrated against a woman as is now the case with Saartjie Baartman and what was done to her. One hundred years ago the Afrikaner woman was ill-treated and we erected a monument for her and her children. This weekend and today I will say on behalf of the Afrikaners that we refuse to let Saartjie 08 August 2002 Page 101 of 354 Baartman lag behind in our tribute to the women and girls of Africa. [Interjections.] We thank our Creator that, so soon after the creation of the new South Africa, we can also rectify this injustice perpetrated against a woman of Africa. That is why on this occasion we want to say to the women of South Africa: ``You have a unique role to play in the African Renaissance. Remain modest, loving, gentle and feminine, then as a woman you will be treated with esteem and respect and we and our descendants will build monuments for you’’. We are glad that the injustices perpetrated against Saartjie Baartman are being rectified. The DA will help to establish and protect the rights of women and other wronged persons in Africa, because we are proud of the women and the girls of our country. I want to conclude with this remark: Political activists are strange people. Only yesterday some of them were necklacing women for political reasons, but tomorrow they may turn up at the funeral. [Interjections.]] 08 August 2002 Page 102 of 354 Mrs M S MAINE: Madam Speaker, hon members, the Beijing Platform of Action of 1995 defines violence against women as any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to, result in physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty. Whether occurring in public or private life, violence against women is one of the most brutal consequences of the economic, social, political and cultural inequalities that exist between men and women. It is also perpetuated by legal and political systems that have historically discriminated against women. The international community has recognised that sexual violence against women constitutes a violation of their human rights and fundamental freedoms. Sexual violence further constitutes violation of a woman's reproductive rights, particularly her right to bodily integrity and to control her sexuality and reproductive capacity. Rape, female circumcision, female genital mutilation and forced sterilisation are among the types of violence that violate women's reproductive rights. 08 August 2002 Page 103 of 354 Sexual violence occurs in both the private and public spheres of women's lives. It constitutes a human rights violation whether the perpetrator is an agent of the state or a private citizen. Sexual violence can occur against individuals of any age, within the family or any other relationship, within the community or in the workplace, during situations of armed conflict or any other time or place. The international community has specifically recognised women's and girls' rights to be free from sexual violence in various international human rights treaties. For example, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, called Cedaw, was adopted by the United Nations in 1979, and compels states to prohibit trafficking in women. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the Women's Convention protects a woman's right to health, including her physical, psychological, reproductive and sexual health. In addition, the 1998 Rome Treaty forming the International Criminal Court states, for the first time under international law, that rape, sexual slavery, 08 August 2002 Page 104 of 354 enforcement, prostitution, forced pregnancy and forced sterilisation and other forms of sexual violence are each to be considered a crime against humanity and a war crime. The era, and bodies of knowledge around sexual violence, of women Granny Sarah Baartman and other enslaved women's time was narrow. During this time, the creation of the constructed symbols applying to black women demonstrate that notions of gender, race and sexuality were limited in overarching structures of political domination and economic exploitation. However, the advances made by and for the women at present, with the creation progressive international and domestic human rights laws, bear testimony to the achievements made by women activists the world over who articulate unacceptable forms of subjugation, exploitation and oppression. Whilst much work is still needed to be done to ensure substantive equality for all women at all levels, the shift from Nkoko [Granny] Sarah Baartman's time to the present is immense. 08 August 2002 Page 105 of 354 The process illustrated by the treatment of the bodies of enslaved African women and of women such Nkoko [Granny] Sarah Baartman encompass useful examples of all women objectified and degraded by acts of sexual and physical violence. Rape and other acts of overt violence that women have experienced, such as physical assault, domestic abuse, incest and sexual extortion further exacerbate women's subordination and oppression. Mo nageng ya rona re fitlheletse go le gontsi jaaka Puso. Melawana e le mentsi e e busetsang seriti sa bomme e fetisitswe. Nka bala mengwe ya yona jaaka ... [In our country, we have achieved a lot as Government. Many laws which recall our dignity as women have been passed. I can mention some of them; like ...] ... the Domestic Violence Act, the Maintenance Act, the Recognition of Customary Marriage Act and the Equality Act ... ke e mengwe ya tse di diragalang. [... are some of those that exist.] Mme le fa tsotlhe tse di dirilwe re setse ka namane e tona ya tiro jaaka bomme. Setlhogo se se dirilweng mo go Nkoko Sarah Baartman se santse se diragala ka gore bomme 08 August 2002 Page 106 of 354 gammogo le bana ba basetsana ba betelelwa ka palo e e kwa godimo. Lehuma le santse le rena mo gare ga Afrika yotlhe mme batho ba ba amegang thata ke bomme. Botlhokatiro bo iponatsa thata mo difatlhegong tsa bomme ka ke bona ba bonang gore ba malapa a bona ba a apara le go ja sentle. Ka jalo ya rona kgaratlho ga e ise e fele. Go tliswa ga marapo a ga Nkoko Sarah Baartman ke maiphitlhelelo a magolo mo go rona Maafrika. Re dira boikuelo mo matoneng otlhe a Afrika le a naga ya rona gore ka nako ya bogolo jwa tekanyetsokabo ya matlole a bone e lebisiwe mo go lwantsheng lehuma gore bomme ba nne le seriti. Re na le mannane a kontinente kgotsa ``Continental Programmes''. Re itumeletse go fetolwa ga OAU go nna AU. Se se raya gore ditlhabologo tsa Afrika di tlaa nna le isagwe, fela motho o tshwenngwa ke palo e e kwa tlase ya bomme mo dipuisanong le mo tsamaisong ya tsona. Re dira boikuelo mo boeteledingpele jotlhe jwa Afrika gore ke tlhoka go nna teng ga palo e e namatsang pelo ga bomme gore ba kgone go thusa le go thibela dintwa tse di mo 08 August 2002 Page 107 of 354 Afrika, gore bomme le bana ka ba amega segolo ba bolokesege. Gompieno re ipofa jaaka bomme gore re ikana ka leina la ga Nkoko Sarah Baartman gore ga re kitla re emisa go lwa go fitlhela tsotlhe tse re di umakileng di baakangwa. (Translation of Setswana paragraphs follows.) [Even if all of these have been done we still have a big task as women. The cruelty that was done to Granny Sarah Baartman is still happening because women as well as girls are raped at a high rate. Poverty still prevails in the whole of Africa and people who are affected most are women. Unemployment shows on the women's faces because they are the ones who see to it that their families are clothed and eat properly. As such our struggle is not yet over. Bringing back the remains of Granny Sarah Baartman is a big achievement to us as Africans. We appeal to all the leaders of Africa and that of our country that at a time of their budget allocation they should ensure that funds 08 August 2002 Page 108 of 354 are directed to fighting poverty so that women should have dignity. We have Continental Programmes. We are happy about the changing of OAU to AU. This means that developments in Africa will have a future, but one is worried about the low number of women in negotiations and in its running. We are appealing to the whole leadership of Africa that we need a satisfactory number of women to help in curbing the wars in Africa, so that the women and children who are mostly affected, be safe. Today we commit ourselves as women that in the name of Granny Sarah Baartman, we will never stop fighting until all that we have mentioned is corrected.] We commit ourselves to ending sexual violence against women, to eradicating poverty and systematically reducing the impact of HIV/Aids on women in our communities. [Applause.] Mr C AUCAMP: Madam Speaker, I have three minutes, and would like to make three remarks. Firstly, newspaper headlines read: ``The Dignity of Saartjie Baartman 08 August 2002 Page 109 of 354 Restored''. Is that really true? Yes the dignity of her memory might have been restored, but was her person restored? She died in a foreign country as an object of abuse; a spectacle stripped of all dignity whatsoever. Let us not fool ourselves: Real respect for a human being and the bestowing of real dignity cannot be backdated. Yes, it soothes the conscience, but it does not heal the person. Let our generation never act in a way that compels a future generation to try to restore the dignity of those whom we have marginalised, abused and dehumanised. Real dignity and real respect must be bestowed by our generation to all peoples of our generation - living persons created in the image of God. There is a popular song with the title ``Living Years''. It is about the regrets of a son who was too late to heal his relationship with his father. A part of the lyrics says: It is too late when you die to admit we don't see eye to eye; I am sure I heard his echo in my baby's 08 August 2002 Page 110 of 354 newborn tears; I just wish I could have told him in the living years. Whether it is Saartjie Baartman, Hansie Cronje, your parents or your wife, it is too late ``when we die''. Do it ``in the living years''. Tweedens, ons mag nooit die vrou degradeer tot 'n blote seksobjek nie. Dít gebeur in verhoudings, in toneelstukke, in rolprente en in gesprekke. Vrouens mag nie gesien word as 'n kombinasie van liggaam, vlees, kurwes en hormone nie, maar as volledige mense: hart, siel, verstand en emosies. Seksuele verhoudings moet nie gebaseer word op blote lus nie, maar op respek, waardering en liefde. Daarom word ons oproep om die herstel van die waardigheid van die vrou 'n klug as ons antwoord teen HIV bloot is om kondome uit te deel, eerder as om respek en eerbied vir die huwelik te bevorder. 'n Debat oor die waardigheid van ons vroue word 'n klug as die raad van Unisa besluit om die eis te betaal wat toegestaan is teen een van sy lede weens seksuele teistering van 'n vrou. Dit word 'n klug wanneer ek as 08 August 2002 Page 111 of 354 man my vrou sien as my besitting oor wie se lewe ek die sê het. Dit word 'n klug wanneer gesprekke onder die belt, meestal ten koste van ons vroue, die braaivleisvure domineer. Derdens, Saartjie Baartman is 'n simbool van gemarginaliseerd wees. Sy was 'n randfiguur van die samelewing. Die boodskap vir vandag is: Geen mens en geen gemeenskap mag gemarginaliseer word nie. Marginalisering wanneer groot massas in haglike omstandighede verkeer sonder die mees basiese vereistes vir 'n menswaardige bestaan, maar ook marginalisering van die verlede, mag nie vervang word met nuwe marginalisering nie: Marginalisering wanneer blanke boere in Zimbabwe beskou word as tweedehandse indringers, en juis vandag hulle plase moet ontruim ná jare se sweet en arbeid; marginalisering wanneer in 'n nuwe Suid-Afrika, sekere gemeenskappe weer eens uitgeskuif word na die rand van die samelewing. (Translation of Afrikaans paragraphs follows.) [Secondly, may we never degrade women to mere sex objects. This happens in relationships, in stage plays, in films and in conversations. Women should not be seen 08 August 2002 Page 112 of 354 as a combination of body, flesh, curves and hormones, but as complete people: heart, soul, mind and emotions. Sexual relationships must not be based on mere desire, but on respect, appreciation and love. Therefore our call for the restoration of the dignity of women becomes a farce if our response to HIV is merely to hand out condoms, rather than to promote respect and honour for marriage. A debate on the dignity of our women becomes a farce if the council of Unisa decides to pay the claim allowed against one of its members as a result of sexual harassment of a woman. It becomes a farce when I as a man view my wife as my possession over whose life I have the say. It becomes a farce when conversations below the belt mostly at the expense of our women, dominate the braaivleis fires. Thirdly, Saartjie Baartman is a symbol of marginalisation. She was an outsider in society. The message for today is: No person and no community should be marginalised. Marginalisation in which large masses live in desperate conditions without the most basic requirements for a dignified existence, but also 08 August 2002 Page 113 of 354 marginalisation of the past, must not be replaced with new marginalisation: Marginalisation in which white farmers in Zimbabwe are viewed as second-hand intruders, and have to vacate their farms precisely today after years of sweat and toil; marginalisation in which in the new South Africa certain communities are once again pushed out to the periphery of society.] My message is: Every person is valuable and dignified. Every community is valuable. Let us live out and bestow real human dignity in every sphere of life ``in the living years''. Mnr S E OPPERMAN: Mevrou die Speaker, daar was baie emosiebelaaide debatte die afgelope aantal weke rakende Saartjie, of Sarah, Baartman. Niemand kan ontken dat die pyn en die hartseer van hierdie vrou, en wat sy moes deurmaak, ons opnuut aan die hart gegryp het nie. Daar is ook by tye egter balans verloor deur kenners en woordvoerders met verskillende agendas, wat mekaar duidelik met uitsprake probeer oortref het om die oog te vang. (Translation of Afrikaans paragraphs follows.) 08 August 2002 Page 114 of 354 [Mr S E OPPERMAN: Madam Speaker, there have been numerous emotional debates over the past weeks in respect to Saartjie, or Sarah, Baartman. No one can deny that the pain and the sorrow of this woman, and what she had to endure, have once again touched our hearts. At times, however, balance has been lost by experts and spokespersons with different agendas, who clearly attempted to outdo one another with their statements in order to be noticed.] Dr Cyril Hromnik, an expert on the early history of Southern Africa, in an article, ``A Place called Paradise'' says: While true history is a source of inspiration and confidence, it is also true that a history that is muddled-up is a source of confusion. Daarom is dit vir my persoonlik belangrik dat daar ook 'n ander dimensie op die debat rakende hierdie vrou, wat soveel pyn verduur het, en haar mensegroep geplaas word. ``Saartjie Baartman is die grootmoeder van ons almal'', het iemand onlangs gesê. Ek het groot simpatie met 08 August 2002 Page 115 of 354 Saartjie se verlede, maar ons verlede strek veel verder as Saartjie self terug. Iemand anders het haar die mees geëksploiteerde en vernederde vrou ooit in Afrika genoem - asof die verhaal van elke vrou uit Afrika deur al die eeue heen aan ons bekend is. Is ons seker dat haar regte naam Saartjie, of Sarah, Baartman was, of dra ons by tot die miskenning van haar ware identiteit deur haar Sarah of Saartjie te noem? Krotoa het hulle immers ``Eva'' genoem, en Autsumao het hulle ``Harry die standloper'' genoem. Tussen al hierdie uitsprake deur het provinsies tougetrek oor waar sy eintlik hoort, asof haar geboorte- en leefwêreld begrens en in provinsies afgebaken was. Die feit dat die oorblyfsels van Saartjie Baartman, of wie sy ook al was, môre in die Gamtoosvallei onder groot belangstelling begrawe sal word, het ten minste een tergende vraag begin beantwoord ten opsigte van hierdie vrou, en ten opsigte van elkeen van ons wat op een of ander wyse aan hierdie inheemse groep verbind word. Saartjie Baartman het behoort, en om te behoort is 'n integrale deel van haar waardigheid, en van elkeen van 08 August 2002 Page 116 of 354 ons s'n. Dit is deel van ons identiteit. Dit is deel van ons menswees. As ons wil bou aan die identiteit en die waardigheid van enige individu, enige gemeenskap, enige mensegroep, dan is dit belangrik dat daar feitelike substansie hieraan gegee word. Historici, argeoloë, paleontoloë, kenners en almal van ons wat deur feitelike substansie geaffekteer sal word, behoort te help dat duidelikheid gebring word, want enige persoon, gemeenskap of mensegroep wat onseker is oor sy histories gefundeerde verlede, sal in 'n see van konflikterende spekulering na enige boei gryp om voort te drywe na 'n onsekere en 'n vae toekoms. (Translation of Afrikaans paragraphs follows.) [Therefore, it is of personal importance for me that there should also be another dimension to the debate with regard to this woman, who endured so much pain, and her race. ``Saartjie Baartman is the grandmother of us all'', someone remarked recently. I have great sympathy for Saartjie's past, but our past stretches back much further than Saartjie herself. Someone else called her the most exploited and degraded woman ever in Africa - 08 August 2002 Page 117 of 354 as if the story of every woman from Africa throughout the ages were known to us. Are we certain that her real name was Saartjie, or Sarah, Baartman, or are we contributing to the disregard of her true identity by calling her Sarah or Saartjie? After all, they named Krotoa ``Eva'', and Autsumao they named ``Harry the Strandloper''. Among all these statements the provinces took part in a tug of war as to where she in fact belonged, as if the realm of her birth and existence were surrounded by a border and demarcated in provinces. The fact that the remains of Saartjie Baartman, or whoever she was, will be buried in the Gamtoos Valley tomorrow amid much interest, has at least begun to answer one challenging question with regard to this woman and with regard to every one of us who is in one way or another connected to this indigenous group. Saartjie Baartman belonged - and to belong is an integral part of her dignity and the dignity of every one of us. It is part of our identity. It is part of our humanity. 08 August 2002 Page 118 of 354 If we want to develop the identity and the dignity of any individual, any community, any race, then it is important that factual substance is given to this. Historians, archaeologists, paleontologists, experts and all of us who may be affected by factual substance should assist in ensuring that clarity is brought forth, because every person, community or race that is unsure of its historically based past will grab at any life buoy in a sea of conflicting speculation in order to drift to an uncertain and distant future.] What shall we call her? A Khoi woman? If Khoi means ``man'', does it imply that she was a man-woman? Or shall we call her a San woman? If San means ``naked'', does it imply that she was a naked woman? Or shall we refer to her as a Khoisan woman, as some prefer? Of was sy dalk 'n Quena-vrou? Quena verwys onder andere na 'n spesifieke godsdiens wat beoefen is, en wat noue bande gehad het met Oosterse gelowe. Dit lewer bewys dat kontak met handelaars uit Indië reeds eeue aan die gang was, lank voordat die Portugese en die Hollanders op die toneel verskyn het. Die heilige plekke waar die Quena aanbid het, is steeds sigbaar in groot dele van Suid- 08 August 2002 Page 119 of 354 Afrika. Kenners wys op die duidelike ooreenkomste met Oosterse gelowe en Stonehenge in Engeland. (Translation of Afrikaans paragraph follows.) [Or was she perhaps a Quena woman? Quena refers, inter alia, to a specific religion that was practised, and that was closely connected to Eastern religions. This provides evidence that contact with merchants from India had already been ongoing for centuries, long before the Portuguese and the Dutch arrived on the scene. The holy places where the Quena worshipped are still visible in large parts of South Africa. Experts highlight the significant similarities to Eastern religions and Stonehenge in England.] Is the name ``autentotoe'' synonomous with the name ``hottentot''. ``Autentotoe'' means ``we are related'', and was used in communication with strangers when trading took place. ``Autentotoe'' is a name that was later corrupted by early Europeans into the well-known and later abrasively used name ``Hottentot''. Hierdie is die begin van indringende vrae wat nou gevra moet word. Die mensegroep waaraan Sarah behoort het, en 08 August 2002 Page 120 of 354 waarvan ek deel is, maak aanspraak op eerste-nasie status en alles wat daarmee gepaard gaan. Daar is verkose hoofmanne en -vroue van verskillende stamme wat saamgestel is uit mense wat soek na hulle gister, die Atakwas, die Gonokwas, die Inkwas, die Gorikwas en andere wat daarop aanspraak maak dat daar vir hulle voorsiening in die Grondwet gemaak moet word, met alles wat daarmee gepaard gaan. Indien hierdie aansprake net op emosie gegrond is, en nie histories gefundeer kan word nie, sal enige aanspraak op regsgronde verwerp kan word, en saam met die verwerping van ons aansprake sal ons toekoms, ons identiteit en ons waardigheid verwerp word. Die Regering moet dringend bydra dat hierdie fundamentele deel van die geskiedenis van ons land die regmatige plek en erkenning kry wat dit verdien. Ons moet duidelikheid kry oor ons verlede sodat die lig helder kan skyn op ons toekoms. (Translation of Afrikaans paragraphs follows.) [This marks the beginning of some incisive questions that must now be asked. The race to which Sarah belonged, and of which I am part, lays claim to first- 08 August 2002 Page 121 of 354 nation status and everything associated with that. There are elected chiefs, both men and women, from several clans which comprise people searching for their yesterday: the Atakwas, the Gonokwas, the Inkwas, the Gorikwas, and others who claim that provision should be made for them in the Constitution, together with everything associated with that. If these claims are based only on emotion and have no historical basis, any claim will be rejected on legal grounds and, together with the rejection of our claims, our future, our identity and our dignity will be rejected. The Government must urgently see to it that this fundamental part of the history of our country receives the rightful place and recognition that it deserves. We must have clarity with regard to our past in order for the light to shine brightly on our future.] Prof H NGUBANE: Madam Speaker and colleagues, our national Women's Day tomorrow will be uniquely celebrated by an event which arouses in most of us contradictory feelings; feelings of joy, as well as of pain. It is only a pity that she will be buried under the name of Sarah Baartman; a name that was a mark of 08 August 2002 Page 122 of 354 subordination and humiliation. If we consider that it was her physical appearance which put her in such a humiliating situation, we should stop and think about who we ourselves are in Southern Africa. Most of us as women in South Africa have wide bums, wide hips and padded backs. We should not be ashamed of that. In order to honour Sarah Baartman we should see to it that the designers - those with dresses for women in their shops - have dresses that are made to suit African woman. [Applause.] We should not be ashamed of who we are. We should be proud and hold our heads up high, because there is a reason for our being what we are. The prejudices which affected Sarah Baartmann still exist - even today. Our young girls, when they enter a beauty competition, will be rejected because they have wide hips and they are not slim. [Applause.] Hardly any designers cater for us and in the end we are brainwashed by constantly being shown beautiful pictures of women in magazines that reflect figures of women in the dominant culture. Sarah Baartmann's story should actually make us think seriously of who we are in South Africa and Southern Africa, and about how these things still 08 August 2002 Page 123 of 354 happen, but in a clever way, one which is not so obvious. The point that I want to focus on, which is the leading theme of this debate, is reclaiming the dignity and the rights of African women. The very topic implies that there is something to be reclaimed, that there is something which has been lost by African women. We need to look at those things even in day-to-day communication among ourselves, and see what was there that was good and is now being eroded. For instance, today people sing the song: ``Igama lamakhosikazi malibongwe.'' [The women's name should be praised.] The very term ``inkosikazi'' [a woman] is elevating a woman because a suffix is added to ``inkosi'' [a king] and a woman is now a great ``inkosi'' [king] and various other words like that are used to refer to women: ``inkosazana'' [maiden], ``indodakazi'' [daughter] and others like them. All these things were meant to enhance the dignity of women. What is spoken goes with the conceptual value and morality of a society. The instance of the erosion of the dignity of African women is also visible in the context of marriage. As we 08 August 2002 Page 124 of 354 all know, on marriage in Africa, especially Southern Africa, women never changed their names. They retained their names and they held the status of a mother, while the man held the status of a father, which made them partners in parenting. At the same time, however, the woman had her domain, the domestic domain, where she had all sorts of control over that domain in the agrarian culture. Hon members can imagine that the women had control of all crop-yielding land, while the man had control of the livestock land. All this balance meant that women were not dependent on men, but that there were checks and balances which saw to it that there was equity in the gender relationship. [Time expired.] [Applause.] Mr D A A OLIFANT: Madam Speaker and hon members, let me start by saying: ``Malibongwe! [Let it be praised!] [Interjections.] Malibongwe! [Let it be praised!] [Interjections.] Sarah Baartman is uit die Kaap weggelok onder voorwendsels dat sy 'n goeie werk sou kon kry, baie geld sou kon verdien en natuurlik 'n lekker gemaklike lewe 08 August 2002 Page 125 of 354 sou lei. Dit was nie so nie en sy het eerder 'n lewe van hel, pyn en vernedering ervaar. Jong meisies word net so van die platteland gelok om in die stede te kom werk. Hulle beland dan hier onder die indruk dat hul lewens aansienlik gaan verbeter. In baie gevalle moet hulle dan met die onmenslikste omstandighede tevrede wees. Hulle slaap in motorhuise, werk ongoddelike ure in die huis en by die winkel, en dan moet hulle vanaand nog kinders oppas wanneer die baas en die miesies hul vriende oornooi vir 'n geselligheidjie. Hulle kan nie naweke uitgaan nie, kry nooit af nie, kry slegter kos as die hond en verdien minder geld as wat belowe is. 'n Ander aspek is dat hierdie dames mense met behoeftes is. Hulle gaan mans ontmoet, verhoudings aanknoop en soms erg mishandel word. Dan is daar diegene wat besluit, of soms gedwing word, om as prostitute te werk om geld te verdien. Dit is dikwels as gevolg van ekonomiese omstandighede, asook van pure manipulering deur mans wat bloot die teergevoeligheid van vroue uitbuit. Selfs op plekke waar die swak ekonomiese omstandighede 'n geweldige negatiewe impak het op die 08 August 2002 Page 126 of 354 sosiale vesel van ons gemeenskappe, is uitbuiting, mishandeling en geweld teen vroue en kinders aan die orde van die dag. Ons ken natuurlik die voorbeeld van baba Tshepang in Louisvale. Ek is baie dankbaar daar geskied reg in ons regstelsel en dat David Potse - ons neem aan hy was die kind se pa - lewenslank tronk toe gestuur is vir hierdie onmenslike daad. Verder wil ons ook 'n sterk waarskuwing aan pa's rig. Dit is altyd elke ouer, en in die besonder die pa, se plig om die kinders en die huisgesin te beskerm en net die beste vir hulle te gee. Dit is die onmenslikste ding wanneer 'n kind, wat haar hele lewe aan haar vader toevertrou, deur hom verkrag en onsedelik aangerand word. Ons spreek ons simpatie uit met alle vroue en kinders wat op die walglikste en onmenslikste maniere verkrag en onsedelik aangerand word, en wat deesdae in die meeste gevalle ook wreed vermoor word. So ook gaan my simpatie uit na die ouers van Edwina Booysen, 'n vyftienjarige dogter van Atlantis wat vermis geraak het nadat sy en haar 30-jarige vriendin gaan stap 08 August 2002 Page 127 of 354 het. Hulle is deur vier mans gegryp en die bosse ingesleep. Edwina se vriendin was gelukkig om te ontsnap, maar sy was nie en het op die wreedste moontlike manier met haar lewe geboet. Sy is verkrag en met meer as 300 meswonde in 'n vlak graf begrawe. Daar word beweer dat sy in daardie stadium nog kon gelewe het. 'n Kind van baie eenvoudige ouers, maar met 'n blink toekoms, is deur 'n spul walglike barbare verhoed om haar ideale te verwesenlik. Ek wil ook die mense, en veral die vroue, van Atlantis, Mamre, Pella, Witsand en ander gebiede in die Weskaap en die res van ons land prys vir die manier waarop hulle baklei om die skuldiges wat hierdie dade pleeg agter tralies te probeer kry. Geen man het die reg om vroue te verkrag nie. Hulle moet ook nie met die twak verskoning kom dat die dade gepleeg word as gevolg van die uitlokkende kleredrag van vrouens nie. Dit is onaanvaarbaar. Ek is ook baie trots op die mans wat onlangs aan die ``Men's March'' deelgeneem het met die boodskap, ``Real men don't rape''. Dit beteken dat die uitbuiting, vernedering en slegte behandeling waaraan Sarah Baartman 08 August 2002 Page 128 of 354 200 jaar gelede blootgestel is, vandag steeds voortduur onder haar nakomelinge. Dit kan nie, dit mag nie, moet nie en dit durf nie meer geduld word nie. Terwyl ons dus gereedmaak vir die teraardebestellling van haar oorskot môre, op Vrouedag, moet ons ook dink aan die voortgesette ontmensliking van die Sarah Baartmans van vandag. Vroue gaan nog baie gebuk onder groot diskriminasie in ons samelewing. Op die fabrieksvloer verdien vroue steeds minder as mans en het hulle baie minder voordele as mans. By sekere werksplekke is daar vroue wat nie eens afkry om vir 'n eenvoudige papsmeer te gaan nie. Op ander plekke word vroue se swangerskap nie eens erken nie. Dit is ook so dat veral die swart vroue wat die meeste swaarkry juis enkelouers is wat boonop werkloos is. Ek rig 'n ernstige versoek aan die Departement van Welsyn om al die probleme met die uitbetaling van toelaes vir vroue en kinders so gou as moontlik uit die weg te ruim. Ek weet nie of agb lede al by die uitbetaalpunte was nie, maar die grootste vernedering is 08 August 2002 Page 129 of 354 die tipe taal waarin vroue toegesnou word wanneer hulle daar staan en wag vir die toelaes om uitbetaal te word, maar hul name is nie daar nie en hulle wil dit nie aanvaar nie. Dit moet asseblief end kry. Die departement moet verder sy amptenare opvoed om hierdie mense beter te behandel. Hierdie mense is nie daar om te bedel nie. Hulle gaan daarheen om 'n toelae te ontvang waarop hulle geregtig is. (Translation of Afrikaans paragraphs follows.) [Sarah Baartman was lured away from the Cape on the pretext that she would get a good job, could earn lots of money and would obviously lead an easy life. This was not the case and she experienced a life of hell, pain and humiliation. In the same way young girls are lured from the rural areas to come and work in the cities. They end up here under the impression that their lives would improve considerably. In many cases they have to be satisfied with the most inhuman circumstances. They sleep in garages, work ungodly hours in the house and at the shop, and then in the evenings they still have to look after children when the boss and the madam invite their 08 August 2002 Page 130 of 354 friends over for a get-together. They cannot go out over weekends, never get time off, receive worse food than the dog and less money than what they were promised. Another aspect is that these ladies are people with needs. They are going to meet men and have relationships and sometimes even be badly abused. Then there are those who decide, or are sometimes forced, to work as prostitutes in order to earn money. This is often as a result of economic circumstances, as well as of pure manipulation by men who merely exploit the sensitivity of women. Even at places where poor economic circumstances have a severely negative impact on the social fabric of our society, exploitation, abuse and violence against women and children is the order of the day. We of course know the example of baby Tshepang in Louisvale. I am very grateful that justice is prevailing in our justice system and that David Potse - we assume that he is the father of the child - will receive a lifelong prison sentence for this inhuman deed. 08 August 2002 Page 131 of 354 We would furthermore also like to issue a strong warning to fathers. It is always every parent's duty, and in particular that of the father, to protect his children and family and only give them the very best. It is the most inhuman thing when a child, who trusts her father with her life, is raped and indecently assaulted by him. We express our sympathy to those women and children who are raped and indecently assaulted in the most repulsive and inhuman manner, and who, these days, are also murdered in most cases in the most brutal manner. So also my sympathy goes to the parents of Edwina Booysen, a fifteen-year-old daughter of Atlantis who went missing after she and her thirty-year-old girlfriend went for a walk. They were grabbed by four men and were dragged into the bushes. Edwina's friend was lucky enough to escape, but she was not and paid with her life in the most brutal manner possible. She was raped and was buried in a shallow grave with more than 300 knife wounds. It is alleged that at that stage she might still have been alive. A child of very simple parents, but with a bright future, was prevented from realising her ideals by a bunch of vile barbarians. 08 August 2002 Page 132 of 354 I also want to praise all the people, and especially the women from Atlantis, Mamre, Pella, Witsand and other areas in the Western Cape and the rest of our country for the manner in which they are fighting to get the perpetrators of these deeds behind bars. No man has the right to rape any woman. They should also not come with their stupid excuse that these crimes are committed as a result of the provocative clothing of these women. This is unacceptable. I am also very proud of the men who recently participated in the men's march with the message ``Real men don't rape''. This means that the exploitation, humiliation and bad treatment to which Sarah Baartman was exposed to 200 years ago is still continuing today amongst her descendants. This cannot, should not, may not and dare not be tolerated any longer. While we are getting ourselves ready for the burial of her remains tomorrow, on Women's Day, we should also think of the continued dehumanisation of the Sarah Baartmans of today. 08 August 2002 Page 133 of 354 Women still suffer a lot under major discrimination in our society. On the factory floor women still earn less than men and have much fewer benefits than men. At certain places of work there are women who do not even get off to go for a simple papsmear. At other places women's pregnancies are not even recognised. It is also a fact that especially black women who struggle the most are, in fact, single parents who are also unemployed. I am making an earnest appeal to the Department of Welfare to deal with all the problems regarding the payouts of grants for women and children, as soon as possible. I do not know whether hon members have been to these payout points, but the biggest humiliation is the type of language in which these women are snarled at when they stand there and wait for the grants to be paid out, but their names are not there and they do not want to accept this. This should please come to an end. The department should further educate its officials to treat these people better. These people are not there to beg. They go there to receive a grant to which they are entitled.] 08 August 2002 Page 134 of 354 On a more positive note, although a lot needs to be done, women are taking control of their lives. On the political front South Africa boasts the largest number of female Cabinet Ministers and more than 25% of its members of Parliament are women. Of course, 30% of the ANC's members are women. That is, of course, the example. On the economic front we should seriously consider the shockingly low participation of women in the economy. In the private and public sectors black women, meaning African, Coloured and Indian, are still positioned at the extreme low end of management structures. We hope that the Government will soon be able to evaluate the country's employment equity policies, so that the law can be enforced more harshly if there is an insufficient improvement in these figures. In the Western Cape we have an outstanding role model in the form of Zulfah Alli, who successfully tendered for a building contract worth an unprecedented R7,2 million. She had to overcome lots of obstacles and, at times, insults to get this particular contract. It was only when she wrote to President Mbeki and also took a 08 August 2002 Page 135 of 354 complaint to the Western Cape Racism Conference early last year, that her problems with the DA and the Western Cape government came to light. She was threatened with legal action and the withdrawal of her tender, but she continued this fight. In the Western Cape there was a law called the Preferential Procurement Act, whereby they would only give black empowerment companies contracts with a ceiling of R2 million. Well done, Zulfah, that is the spirit of women. We also sing praise to Natalie du Toit, who is not only an outstanding athlete, but who is also disabled. She has won the highest honour for the people of South Africa with her outstanding achievement at the Commonwealth Games. [Applause.] Ons sing 'n loflied aan 'n maatskappy in Atlantis, naamlik Atlantis Forge, wat gestremde vroue in diens het wat hoogs tegnologiese masjiene bedien en wat produksie van uitstaande kwaliteit lewer vir maatskappye soos Daimler-Chrysler, BMW en Volkswagen. Na ek verneem beoog dié maatskappy dat ongeveer 5% van sy poste uiteindelik deur liggaamlik gestremdes gevul sal word. (Translation of Afrikaans paragraph follows.) 08 August 2002 Page 136 of 354 [We sing a song of praise to a company in Atlantis, namely Atlantis Forge, where disabled women are employed who service highly technological machines and who deliver products of outstanding quality for companies such as Daimler-Chrysler, BMW and Volkswagen. After I enquired, this company eventually aims to fill approximately 5% of its post with disabled people.] We sing praise to all of those women in our country who have been abused, raped, indecently assaulted and discriminated against, but who have stood up to fight for their rights and have ensured that the perpetrators of these deeds were successfully put behind bars. The fight for the emancipation of women in our country and in the world still has a long way to go. However, we men can help to shorten this particular fight. The sooner we realise that women are our equals and not just the bearers of our children, who must also prepare our food, the sooner we can be a successful society, a successful country and a successful world. [Applause.] Debate concluded. 08 August 2002 Page 137 of 354 The House adjourned at 16:35. __________ ANNOUNCEMENTS, TABLINGS AND COMMITTEE REPORT ANNOUNCEMENTS: National Assembly and National Council of Provinces: 1. The Speaker and the Chairperson: (1) Assent by the President of the Republic in respect of the following Bills: (i) Electronic Communications and Transactions Bill [B 8B - 2002] - Act No 25 of 2002 (assented to and signed by President on 31 July 2002); and (ii) Taxation Laws Amendment Bill [B 26 - 2002] - Act No 30 of 2002 (assented to and signed by President on 31 July 2002). 08 August 2002 Page 138 of 354 National Assembly: 1. The Speaker: (1) Message from National Council of Provinces to National Assembly: Bill, subject to proposed amendments, passed by National Council of Provinces on 7 August 2002 and transmitted for consideration of Council's proposed amendments: (i) Planning Profession Bill [B 76B - 2001] (National Assembly - sec 75) (for proposed amendments, see Announcements, Tablings and Committee Reports, 24 July 2002, p 1213). The Bill has been referred to the Portfolio Committee on Agriculture and Land Affairs of the National Assembly for a report on the amendments proposed by the Council. 2. The Speaker: 08 August 2002 Page 139 of 354 The following papers have been tabled and are now referred to the relevant committees as mentioned below: (1) The following papers are referred to the Portfolio Committee on Water Affairs and Forestry: (a) Government Notice No R 980 published in Government Gazette No 23636 dated 19 July 2002: Regulations tabled in terms of section 71(2) of the Water Services Act, 1997 (Act No 108 of 1997). (b) Proclamation No 242 published in Government Gazette No 23180 dated 8 March 2002: Board of Bloem Water: Extension of Service Area, tabled in terms of section 28(1)(c) of the Water Services Act, 1997 (Act No 108 of 1997). (2) The following paper is referred to the Portfolio Committee on Transport. The Report of the Auditor-General is referred to the Standing 08 August 2002 Page 140 of 354 Committee on Public Accounts for consideration and report: Annual Report and Financial Statements of the South African Roads Agency Limited for 2000- 2001, including the Report of the Auditor- General on the Financial Statements for 2000- 2001 [RP 65-2002]. (3) The following paper is referred to the Portfolio Committee on Transport: Annual Report and Financial Statements of the Air Traffic and Navigation Services Company Limited for 2001-2002. (4) The following paper is referred to the Portfolio Committee on Trade and Industry. The Report of the Auditor-General is referred to the Standing Committee on Public Accounts for consideration and report: Annual Report and Financial Statements of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research 08 August 2002 Page 141 of 354 for 2001-2002, including the Report of the Auditor-General on the Financial Statements for 2001-2002 [RP 98-2002]. (5) The following paper is referred to the Portfolio Committee on Trade and Industry. Report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research on the Technology Impact for 2002. (6) The following paper is referred to the Portfolio Committee on Justice and Constitutional Development. The Report of the Auditor-General is referred to the Standing Committee on Public Accounts for consideration and report: Annual Report and Financial Statements of the Independent Electoral Commission regarding the Management and Administration of the Represented Political Parties' Fund for 2000-2001, including the Report of the Auditor-General on the Financial Statements for 2000-2001 [RP 15-2002]. 08 August 2002 Page 142 of 354 (7) The following paper is referred to the Portfolio Committee on Labour. The Report of the Auditor- General is referred to the Standing Committee on Public Accounts for consideration and report: Annual Report and Financial Statements of the Compensation Fund for 2001-2002, including the Report of the Auditor-General on the Financial Statements for 2001-2002 [RP 118-2002]. TABLINGS: National Assembly and National Council of Provinces: Papers: 1. The Minister for Justice and Constitutional Development: Annual Report and Financial Statements of the Independent Electoral Commission regarding the Management and Administration of the Represented Political Parties' Fund for 1999-2000, including the Report of the Auditor-General on the Financial 08 August 2002 Page 143 of 354 Statements for 1999-2000 [RP 14-2002]. COMMITTEE REPORTS: National Assembly: 1. Report of the Portfolio Committee on Education on Visits to Institutions of Higher Learning, dated 6 November 2001: The Portfolio Committee on Education, having sent delegations to institutions of higher learning in May and August 2001, reports as follows: A. Objective of visits In a meeting on 28 February 2001, the Committee unanimously agreed that delegations undertake provincial visits to institutions of higher learning to assess the rate at which transformation was taking place and to give special attention to the following issues: 08 August 2002 Page 144 of 354 1. Implementation of the National Student Financial Aid Scheme (NSFAS), to ensure that access by the poorest of the poor to higher education is improved. 2. Adaptation of entry requirements, bridging programmes and the manner in which entrance requirements are made public to all people, irrespective of language and cultural background. 3. How much the tradition and ethos of the institutions have adapted to new ethnically and culturally integrated student bodies, so that all students form an integral part of these institutions. 4. How much institutions have adapted their curricula to ensure appropriate output to satisfy the country's goals of economic renewal. B. Delegations 08 August 2002 Page 145 of 354 1. Peninsula Technikon The delegation was under the leadership of the Committee chairperson, Prof S M Mayatula (ANC), and included Dr J Benjamin (ANC), Ms D G Nhlengethwa (ANC), Ms E Gandhi (ANC), Mr R P Z van den Heever (ANC), Prof S S Ripinga (ANC), Mr S J Mohai (ANC), Mr K Moonsamy (ANC), Ms N C Manjezi (Committee Secretary) and Ms N Borotho (Committee Assistant). 2. University of Fort Hare, University of Transkei and University of Natal The delegation, under the leadership of the Committee chairperson, Prof S M Mayatula (ANC), included Mrs M A A Njobe (ANC), Ms E Gandhi (ANC), Mr A M Mpontshane (IFP), Dr B L Geldenhuys (New NP), Ms N C Manjezi (Committee Secretary), Ms N Borotho (Committee Assistant) and Mr B Ntsong (Departmental Official). 08 August 2002 Page 146 of 354 Prof L M Mbadi from the UDM joined the delegation at the University of Transkei. 3. Wits University, Potchefstroom University and University of the North The delegation, under the leadership of Ms P K Mothoagae (ANC), included Mr S B Ntuli (ANC), Ms P N Mnandi (ANC), Mr R S Ntuli (DP), Mr C Aucamp (AEB), Ms A Jojozi (Committee Secretary), Ms D Martin (Committee Assistant) and Mr M Mampuru (Departmental Official). Mr L I Maphoto (ANC) joined the delegation at the University of the North. C. Peninsula Technikon - 22 May 2001 1. Official view by Prof B Figaji, Vice- Chancellor On arrival at the Peninsula Technikon, the delegation was warmly welcomed by the Vice- 08 August 2002 Page 147 of 354 Chancellor, Prof B Figaji, and the Management Board. At the Technikon, they focus on providing an environment conducive to learning and on programmes that promote academic success for those serious about using the opportunity to obtain a tertiary qualification. The institution takes pride in providing for the holistic development of students - academically, spiritually, physically and culturally. Students are provided with technological education that prepares them for the world of work through experiential programmes. The Senate deals with academic staff. The Student Representative Council (SRC) runs its own budget and meets with the Management Board on a six-weekly basis. There are good students and a very supportive staff. At the time of the visit, they were building the R26 million Information Technology 08 August 2002 Page 148 of 354 Centre, with 1 450 computers. They needed more funding to complete the project. The Technikon shall be a centre of excellence for career education, to be recognised by the community, commerce and industry, as well as the public sector, as being responsive to the needs of society. It will be non-racial, non-sexist and democratic. 2. Implementation of National Student Financial Aid Scheme (NSFAS) - official view by Mr G Reynecke, Head: Financial Aid, and Mr T Titus, Head: Student Affairs The Technikon has historically served a student population coming from socially, educationally and economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Providing financial aid to students to ensure access of the poor to higher education has always been a priority. It is important to ensure sustained support to such students during their academic life. 08 August 2002 Page 149 of 354 The scheme administers all financial aid - institutional funds from donors, nominated awards and work study programmes. (a) Processes and procedures Institutional policies governing the distribution of financial assistance is developed and reviewed by the Financial Aid Committee and the Financial Aid Forum. The committee consists of academics, support services and student leadership. The forum is a working committee representative of staff in the Financial Aid Office and the SRC. The input of students is canvassed through the forum to review, develop and implement policies governing the distribution of NSFAS funds. The forum has regular meetings to focus on the implementation of criteria developed and the assessment of appeals from student applications on matters related to the allocations of NSFAS funds. 08 August 2002 Page 150 of 354 Students are involved in all committees in the institution and participate fully in them. The Technikon at all times ensures the sustainability of the system. (b) Criteria Key elements in the selection of students are academic ability or potential and financial need. These elements are guided by an NSFAS policy document. Students are expected to pass at least 50% of their courses in order to qualify. They are also allowed one year longer than the prescribed minimum duration to qualify. Financial need is broadly based on the income of the household and the number of dependants. Students or their families are generally expected to contribute towards their study costs, with the poorest making the smallest or 08 August 2002 Page 151 of 354 no contribution at all. A maximum amount of household income is determined annually. Upon registration, a student must pay R940 upfront (this increases the next year). Only registered students are allocated money from the scheme. (c) Costing of awards The method of determining the size of awards is based on the NSFAS guideline: Study cost minus own contribution minus other awards equals NSFAS award. Study cost is made up of tuition fees, accommodation and meals (or private boarding) and books. As 60% of the students are from rural areas, there are systems to assist them. (d) Application and selection process Senior students apply during October/November. Once data is captured on the mainframe computer, selection is 08 August 2002 Page 152 of 354 done as soon as possible after registration, usually during March. Upon completion of the required contracts, selected students are assisted by means of access to meals, books, photocopies and study material, even though it takes a while before funds are transferred to the institution. First-year students apply during registration. Selection is done during May/June. The same process for senior students applies to them upon receipt of completed contract forms required. Only registered students can access the funding. The selection process is systems-driven. Initial screening assesses basic academic ability and financial need of applicants. Further manual assessments are done to ensure that students have been treated fairly. All the processes 08 August 2002 Page 153 of 354 and procedures are progressive, democratic and transparent. (e) NSFAS allocations 1997 - 2 138; 1998 - 3 020; 1999 - 2 396; 2000 - 3 199. (f) Challenges and positive aspects A challenge shared with the SRC and other student bodies is to limit the abuse of funding on the one hand and on the other to congratulate the government for introducing this. 3. Entry requirements, student development and integrated language development - official view by Ms C Jacobs, Language Co-ordinator, and Mr L Himunchul Peninsula Technikon is a higher education institution and the standard requirement is a matriculation certificate. It also has a 08 August 2002 Page 154 of 354 Recognition of Prior Learning policy that facilitates access of mature students who do not meet the formal entry requirements, but bring a wealth of learning acquired via experience in the workplace and other learning environments. The institution has also been involved in alternative admission processes like Headstart and Access Programme. These initiatives aim at preparing students for higher education by providing foundation work in areas like mathematics and science. Access Programme was also a vehicle for training and education of returning cadres in the early 1990s, to enable their reintegration into post-apartheid South Africa. They do not have any bridging/foundation programmes. Compensatory programmes are integrated into the academic offering of departments. All departments have one or more of the following programmes: 08 August 2002 Page 155 of 354 supplementary instruction/tutorial support; laboratory/practical assistants; language development tutorials; and academic consultation. The effectiveness of peer collaborative learning has been well researched and documented. Early theories - Dewy, Piaget and Bruner - provided clear direction that led to the much valued peer collaborative learning. Developmental psychologists carried on the early research, and recent research in college student development and retention lent further empirical support. The fact that only 24% of the students have English as their first language, presents a teaching and learning challenge for educators. Experience has shown that the only way to improve the success rate, is to recognise and confront the issue of language. Unfortunately, there is no easy or rapid, yet effective, remedial programme to correct the extent of the linguistic 08 August 2002 Page 156 of 354 disadvantage the majority of students experience when they enter higher education. The Technikon has adopted a short-term support strategy for students and a longer- term change strategy for staff. These strategies are implemented together, but the two sets of outcomes are measured independently. (a) Purpose of short-term strategy for students The purpose is to improve their language skills by providing structured tutorials, offering computer-aided language learning courses, establishing and supporting peer study groups and providing more student-centred learning material. (b) Purpose of long-term change strategy for staff 08 August 2002 Page 157 of 354 The purpose is to involve lecturers, through capacity-building training programmes and material development projects, to consciously think about how they teach, about the appropriateness of the material they use and about the need to consider the linguistic ability of their learners. The US has donated R1 million for student support and staff development initiatives. 4. Curriculum change - official view by Prof H Fransman, Director: Educational Development Centre The Technikon commits itself to develop academically, socially and technologically competent students, who are responsive to the broader need of society, by: * Promoting an environment conducive to human development 08 August 2002 Page 158 of 354 * Facilitating appropriate tuition, co- operative education and support according to the academic needs of the students * Encouraging staff commitment to quality education and service * Offering programmes for educationally disadvantaged students * Fostering lifelong learning. The centre is intimately involved in providing support to teaching staff so that their efforts may lead to elevating the quality of student learning. Part of the support is given through intensive research into student learning. Research has shown that at school students learn too much detail, they have no time to think. The 08 August 2002 Page 159 of 354 Technikon want to see students use their analytical ability more often. It was emphasised that students should become more concerned with the nature of evidence on which they base an argument. Students learn a multitude of techniques in the different disciplines. These techniques are used to solve problems related to the discipline and the industry. Very often students do not question these techniques, as they believe that the lecturer is right. In the early stage of their career in higher education, students treat staff as the ultimate authority from whom they expect the answers. In order to cope with the workload, surface approaches to learning are adopted, i.e. the memorising of facts. The other issue is: HOW did the lecturer engage with the students and the learning material? The new approach to curriculum development via outcomes, modularisation and continuous assessment, hopes to alleviate some of these 08 August 2002 Page 160 of 354 problems. It was found by the centre that students preferred teachers with a similar cognitive style as their own. For example, students who are very dependent on the lecturer, would require more structural support provided by articulated forms of teaching. If the lecturer has not been able to determine the extent to which students are dependent, he/she will not know how to adapt the teaching. The centre does research on student learning as an extension of previous research in an attempt to discover in greater detail what students' conceptions of learning are. While many students study, especially during examination or test time, very few learn. Areas to be covered, are: What does learning mean to the student? What are their preferences for different courses? What are their preferences for different styles of learning (e.g. a holistic style, a 08 August 2002 Page 161 of 354 serialist style, a deep approach, a surface approach or strategic approach to learning)? The research is based on work done in the UK, Sweden, Denmark and the USA, and it has also been extended to the Technikon Northern Gauteng, the Eastern Cape Technikon and M L Sultan Technikon. The findings of the research will inform their curriculum development processes and the manner in which the Technikon teach. 5. Curriculum development - official view by Mr J Garraway The curriculum development process has involved changing teaching in step with government policy. According to the National Plan for Higher Education (2001:9), one of the challenges facing higher education is the "mobilisation of human talent and potential through life-long learning to contribute to social, economic, cultural and intellectual life of a rapidly changing 08 August 2002 Page 162 of 354 society". This is to be done through improving teaching programmes so as to produce students with critical competencies necessary to function in modern society, students who are information- and computer- literate, who are effective communicators, who possess analytical, problem-solving and knowledge reconfiguration skills, and who are team builders and networkers with negotiating skills. Overarching these developments are the policies of redress and equity outlined in the White Paper on Higher Education of 1997. The Technikon has set about responding to the challenges laid down by the Department by changing teaching in the following two ways: (a) Designing an outcomes-based curriculum In 1999 technikons submitted outcomes- based, rather than subject-based, qualifications to SAQA for interim 08 August 2002 Page 163 of 354 registration. This was a joint effort by all technikons. During 2000 lecturers in every Peninsula Technikon department worked on these qualification outcomes, as follows: They broke the qualification outcomes down into smaller outcomes more specific to teaching and learning, in that they reflected the Technikon's particular teaching and learning fields of expertise. They then included the above critical competencies in the wording of the outcomes. The lecturers added outcomes which reflected passing judgement on actions and changing behaviour to adapt to new circumstances. The outcomes were levelled so as to reflect the stage of learning of the learner. 08 August 2002 Page 164 of 354 (b) Designing integrated assessments In 2001 lecturers began designing integrated projects so that learners could achieve the outcomes described above. These projects were characterised as workplace simulation activities, integrated across subjects and involving critical competencies. Projects were criterion-referenced, meaning that what lecturers were looking for in an ideal answer, including the critical competencies, was made clear to learners before they started the project. Furthermore, learners were expected to assess and monitor their progress in the project against the criteria as a method of encouraging life-long learning. All programmes have advisory committees on course content. Most students are given the opportunity to look for jobs. 08 August 2002 Page 165 of 354 According to the President of the SRC, Mr T Damoyi, there are in-service training programmes for students. The academic board reviews programmes offered so as to update the curriculum. 6. Student development - official view by Mr E Sebokedi, Deputy Head: Student Affairs A major challenge for the leadership development and student governance support segment was to develop capacity to train student leadership in accordance with identified needs, whilst at the same time continuing to provide support to student structures. Within the context of limited resources, they offer students leadership development programmes and give support to structures on campus. The operation of the leadership development and student governance support segment was translated into key performance areas and key performance indicators. 08 August 2002 Page 166 of 354 The KPAs and KPIs for the SRC Administration office (Student Governance Support) were never finalised. (a) Areas identified as scope of work * Dealing with general student enquiries (providing information and referrals) * Typing correspondence and reports for the SRC and student structures * Mailing and registering correspondence, reception of calls and messaging * Other related matters. (b) Student leadership training and evaluation The office organised 17 workshops during the year under review. The total number of participants in training workshops 08 August 2002 Page 167 of 354 during the year was 510. The target groups for the workshop were divided into two cohorts, namely elected student leaders and non-elected leaders. The participants evaluated four workshops, namely those held for class representatives (Faculty Councils) and house committee members (Central Residence Committee). The workshops conducted during the period of review partially met the two objectives: * To facilitate learning about the roles and responsibilities of elected student leaders * To train students in problem-solving skills. The focus areas of problem-solving and systems orientation were adequately met. 08 August 2002 Page 168 of 354 (c) Leadership consultations Over the past five years, an open-door policy for student leaders wishing to consult on a range of problems/challenges, was established. The general approach is to listen to the problem statement, to ask questions of clarification and to suggest possible options to deal with the matter at hand. It is consistently communicated to student leaders that it is their responsibility to take decisions and act upon them. To accurately account for the impact of such consultations, presented a problem. It was therefore decided to get more accurate data on such consultations. The practice of recording data was not consistently followed during the period under review. The consultation focus areas were: 41% workshop planning; 17% 08 August 2002 Page 169 of 354 enterprise opportunities; 41% project conceptualisation; and 17% others. (d) Institutional promotion and student development This office is currently engaged in three initiatives to promote student development: * Drafting an institutional development plan * Co-ordinating the first-year orientation forum * Contributing to the establishment of a new IT Centre. These activities relate to the department's objective of maximising resources for skills development on campus. 08 August 2002 Page 170 of 354 On drafting the student development plan, the student affairs division complements the concerted efforts for both students and staff. D. University of Fort Hare - 6 August 2001 1. History and microscopic view of previous 18 months - official view by Prof D Swartz, Vice-Chancellor The University of Fort Hare was established in 1916 and includes the Alice and Bisho campuses, with 5 200 students and 570 staff members. It is a rural, agricultural and research university with a huge potential, central to the political economy of the Nkonkobe region. The name "Fort Hare" is internationally and nationally known and envisaged to be known as a Centre for Liberation Studies, a Centre for Leadership Development, and a Centre for 08 August 2002 Page 171 of 354 Agriculture, Rural and Environmental Technology. (a) Decline and crisis of 1990s There was a massive structural and strategic shift in higher education due to the impact of globalisation on higher education and serious leadership weaknesses. (b) Institutional crisis of 1998-99 The institutional crisis of 1998-99 revolved around three sources: * A financial deficit of R90 million * Academic viability - student numbers declined (in 1999 there were 2 500 students, which affected the macro- economic viability and university finances because of a radically reduced government subsidy) 08 August 2002 Page 172 of 354 * The failure of leadership at all levels. (c) New beginning - 2000 The crisis led to the departure of the management and the appointment of an Interim Management Team and a New Council after six months. The university had remarkable stability on campus, with no boycotts or strikes. The six-point plan was drafted, which included a stabilisation process, short- term liquidity, institutional review (to understand what was happening on campus), the advent of Strategic Plan 2000 (SP 2000), and management and leadership implementation. SP 2000 sets out in broad strategic terms a new vision, mission, corporate goals and institutional activities aimed at laying a basis for comprehensively 08 August 2002 Page 173 of 354 restructuring and developing the university in the 21st century. It was launched by the Deputy President, Mr J Zuma, in May 2000. (SP 2000 is available on website email@example.com.) (d) Vision Fort Hare aspires to become a vibrant, equitable and sustainable African university committed to teaching and research excellence, building on its unique historical role and rural location to provide an enriching education service to its graduates and scholars. (e) Mission Its mission is to provide high quality education of international standard, contributing to the advancement of knowledge that is socially and ethically relevant, and applying that knowledge to 08 August 2002 Page 174 of 354 the scientific, technological and socio- economic development of our nation and the wider world. (f) Corporate goals * Securing long-term sustainability and viability * Becoming the Centre for Leadership Development * Achieving teaching and research excellence Addressing the development challenges of the region and the nation * Becoming a world-class university. (g) Strategic objectives 08 August 2002 Page 175 of 354 The 10 strategic objectives, as mentioned by the Vice-Chancellor, are to diversify and expand the revenue base, to offer high quality and competitive programmes, to sharpen the teaching and research skills base, to refocus and realign academic programmes, to make strategic use of Fort Hare's human capital resources, to improve the quality of student and staff life, to increase the capacity, quality and efficiency of support systems, to forge new educational partnerships, to promote rural development in Nkonkobe and the Eastern Cape region, and to raise rural and development support for local industry, agriculture and development sectors. (h) Implementation strategy - core interventions * Vision, governance and leadership 08 August 2002 Page 176 of 354 Prof D Swartz is of the view that Fort Hare needs to involve people in order for them to be responsible. There is a need for corporate commitment to SP 2000 values and ethics, to promote service ethos, performance management and link- shared governance with individual responsibility. * Academic restructuring In January 2000, eight faculties were closed. Fort Hare had created four new faculties: Agriculture and Environmental Sciences; African and Democracy Studies; Science and Technology; and Management, Development and Commerce. The Govan Mbeki Research and Development Centre was also established. Their respective focuses would be: 08 August 2002 Page 177 of 354 Agriculture and Environmental Sciences: The science of free- ranging animals, agronomics sciences, environmental science and land use planning, agricultural economics and rural development African and Democracy Studies: Liberation studies, Eastern Cape studies, music and arts academy, Nelson Mandela Law School, theology of empowerment Science and Technology: Indigenous resources management and development, developmental technologies, community health sciences, and analytical sciences Management, Development and Commerce: Education management, public policy and management, business and accounting, 08 August 2002 Page 178 of 354 developmental studies, and co- operative studies The Govan Mbeki Research and Development Centre will play a very important role in promoting research culture, building strategic research linkages, improving quality of research management, and developing rural and development infrastructure. They also appointed Executive Deans and granted VSPs to 112 surplus staff. They phased out non-viable programmes and introduced new ones. * Finance and revenue This would involve updating financial records, introducing a new FMS, programme-based budgeting, training financial management, restructuring the Fort Hare 08 August 2002 Page 179 of 354 Foundation and starting a major capital fund campaign to boost income. * Support services This would involve the refurbishing of buildings, modernising administration systems, improving student services, outsourcing non- core services, and upgrading IT infrastructure. * Human resources This would include introducing new HR policies, redeploying staff to new operational divisions and faculties, a skills development plan, performance-based management and an equity plan. * Strategic partnerships 08 August 2002 Page 180 of 354 This would include the Nkonkobe Development Plan, the Agripart Initiative, the Daimler/Chrysler partnership, co-operative businesses, leadership (students at work), and the Rhodes and Unitra partnerships. (i) Current plans Fort Hare had plans on some important matters, according to Prof Swartz: * Three-year rolling plan * Business plan for new faculties * Financial growth plan: five years * Risk profile and risk management plan * Establishment of consulting arm 08 August 2002 Page 181 of 354 * Major capital campaign. (j) Achievements There has been unprecedented institutional stability at Fort Hare. Their overdraft/deficit was reduced from R90 million to R49 million in one year, and they hope to be completely out of the red by the end of 2004. They did it on their own, without any help from consultants. For the university to be a successful centre of academic excellence, it has to be smaller and more focused. There has been a major increase in student numbers: from 2 500 in 2000 to 5 200 in 2001 - growing market confidence in the future of Fort Hare and beginning of investment flows. (k) Weaknesses and threats 08 August 2002 Page 182 of 354 The financial fundamentals are still weak - the income side requires serious attention. Further growth in student numbers imposes serious budget constraints. New faculties and programmes require time for consolidation and development. The management systems and processes still need to undergo major changes. (l) Major challenges facing Fort Hare * Maintaining internal support for SP 2000 * Securing financial support for SP 2000 (key role of the government, donors and alumni) * Policy certainty (no mixed signals to the market) 08 August 2002 Page 183 of 354 * Consolidation gains made since 2000 and delivering on critical reform path. (m) Regional collaboration, core and strategic missions Prof Swartz said that key challenges in regional collaboration were stability, strategic orientation of the sector, viability and sustainability and meeting policy objectives. The higher education sector could be improved significantly - many changes have already taken place in respect of selecting the most appropriate instrument to meet particular challenges. Higher education has two roles: a formal educational mission and a strategic educational mission. * Formal educational mission 08 August 2002 Page 184 of 354 They can produce graduate skills for the economy and do research to advance the frontiers of knowledge * Strategic educational mission This includes the direct application of knowledge to socio-economic development, human capital development, technological innovation and valorisation of the economy The core and strategic missions in respect of regional collaboration include the rationalisation of serious duplication, the audit process, the creation of common support services (IT, joint admission and on-line registration), the sharing of costly staff and courseware, joint enrolment and accreditation, and inter- 08 August 2002 Page 185 of 354 institutional capacity building (research, management and teaching). The strategic mission will also include striking long-term partnerships with the government and industry in the province, aligning the development strategy from sector to human capital in the province, directly stimulating the economic development process via strategic knowledge application, and accessing untapped revenue sources. (n) Strategic clusters Agriculture and biotechnology; Marine Conservation and Aquamarine Culture; Public Service Capacity Building; Development and Rural Management; Education Management; and Heritage and Cultural Tourism. 08 August 2002 Page 186 of 354 (o) Approach of Fort Hare on issue of "merger" Fort Hare does not support a "merger" vis-à-vis UNITRA/Rhodes/Fort Hare. However, they are in favour of structured partnerships around strategic goals that are realistic, efficient and effective. Fort Hare has numerous proposals on structured partnerships: * To synergise core teaching and research missions or audit institutions in the region * To expand the remittance of institutional resource-sharing * To develop a strategy linked to regional economic development 08 August 2002 Page 187 of 354 * To establish an inter-institutional mechanism for ensuring commitment. 2. Fort Hare profile - official view by Prof R Bally, University Planner (a) Introspection and goals for new Fort Hare The present management of Fort Hare was appointed early in 1999. A strategic planning committee was formed, and existing staff rather than consultants were used in a participative, capacity- building process. The ruthless introspection culminated in the Review Report of 1999. Fort Hare, as one of its main goals, aims for long-term sustainability and viability, being a world-class university with emphasis on leadership training, excellence in pertinent 08 August 2002 Page 188 of 354 teaching and research, and contributing to national development. The SPC implementation control centre, co-ordinated by Dr B Walter, has six implementation areas, each headed by a staff member: (b) Vision and governance - Mr J Ruthman Academic - Mr M Silinga Support services - Ms Y Kambule-Soul Human resources - Mrs N Mpete Revenue and finance - Ms Z Ndlovu Partnerships - Mr S Kobese Approximately four to eight faculties, based on niche areas, were identified in SP 2000. The new faculty management structure is being implemented and Executive Deans have been appointed in the new faculties. 08 August 2002 Page 189 of 354 The new faculties represent a very significant step in the implementation process and the new levels of implementation (i.e. strategic plans/business plans are being produced at various levels - faculty, academic unit, institute and administrative unit level). (c) Academic transformation A new programme, driven by newly appointed Executive Deans in each faculty in line with SAQA requirements and SP 2000, interdisciplinary models, academic and financial viability, market and social needs and a viability template were developed, ready for application by the end of August 2001. The new programme was completed and submitted in terms of SAQA and CHE requirements. (d) University support systems 08 August 2002 Page 190 of 354 These systems include marketing and communication, information technology, student support, and the quality of life of students, library and archives, residences, and sport and physical planning, as well as developing the two campuses. (e) Projects and funding It has been noted that much of the transformation should come from external funds. The SP 2000 identifies areas where funding is needed. The funding projects include: Renovation: upgrading of residences, university frontage and sports facilities New projects: proposed music academy and student computer laboratories (f) Human resources 08 August 2002 Page 191 of 354 The entire new organisational structure had started with the faculty structure. There are totally new job descriptions and reporting lines involving union and staff negotiations and Labour Relations Act compliance. Fort Hare envisages improved service provision to students and encourages staff capacity development. (g) Finance and revenue strategies There is expansion and diversification of the revenue base, with a view to: * Increase student numbers, and retention * Maximisation of subsidy * Improved availability of financial assistance and revenue through research and consultancy 08 August 2002 Page 192 of 354 * Fundraising * Alumni mobilisation * Incentive packages for payment of fees * Selling of excess capital stock * Better use of under-utilised resources. (h) Community issues An integrated development plan was developed with Nkonkobe, based on the community and Fort Hare's need to support Alice as a university town. There is also a research action programme, funded from the Premier's Office for developing community projects. (i) Partnerships 08 August 2002 Page 193 of 354 Fort Hare has partnerships with local and provincial governments, NGOs and communities to improve the quality of rural livelihood, specifically to reduce poverty. They have also earmarked the business development centre as a community-based project. 3. Fort Hare: forward to viability - official view by Mr P Cole (a) Context of challenges The major challenges are seen to be the rural setting, changing demographics and degree selections, students mostly coming from the low-income sector of society, and rapid changes in respect of student catchment areas. (b) Rural setting - economy As the university is located in the former Ciskei homeland, the local 08 August 2002 Page 194 of 354 infrastructure is poor. There is a high rate of unemployment and local costs, and some student catchment areas experience declines in per capita income. 16% of the population lives in the Eastern Cape. 77% of those employed in the Eastern Cape earn a monthly salary of less than R2 501 (approximately R30 000 per annum). An average income per household per month in the Eastern Cape is R1 479 (R17 748 per annum). Of the total students currently registered at Fort Hare, 4 131 come from the Eastern Cape. The total annual cost of an undergraduate law degree at Fort Hare is R20 000. (c) HIV/AIDS There is a high percentage of HIV/AIDS in the Eastern Cape, and life expectancy is down to 40. This clearly means that 08 August 2002 Page 195 of 354 graduates in the province can expect a working life of 15 to 20 years. The epidemic impacts both on graduates and on the university workforce. (d) Areas of recruitment These are: South Africa - 4 779; Zimbabwe - 235; Lesotho - 130; other SADC countries - 21; rest of Africa - 25; other - 11. (e) Changes since 1999 1999: less than 1% were foreign students and over 70% were from the "Border Corridor". Student recruitment declined and female student ratios were low in some faculties. 2001: foreign students count over 9%, and students are recruited more widely (nationally). Student recruitment is 08 August 2002 Page 196 of 354 increasing and gender ratios are achieving equity. (f) Opportunities and risks These are characterised by the funding formula tabled by the Department of Education in March 2001. This formula is driven by the cost factor and uses FTE (full-time equivalent) enrolment with a two-year lag, as FTE is always counting ahead. The 2001 subsidy was calculated from 1999's enrolment figure, and the cost-driven budget is adjusted downward. At the time of the visit, the funding formula for the 2001-02 subsidy was R86,992 million. The view was that if 2001's enrolment was used, rather than 1999's, the subsidy would be R102,9 million. These are funds lost due to the lagged formula. 08 August 2002 Page 197 of 354 Fort Hare is not satisfied about how the funding formula is structured and implemented. Proposed new funding formula: this formula will be driven by FTE enrolment, teaching and research outputs. It is not cost-driven - prices are set within budget resources. It is heavily weighted to higher degrees, not humanities. NSFAS funding formula: the funds divided between institutions based upon enrolment are weighted by race. The awards allocated to students by institutions are based on a means test. In Fort Hare, there are more students and lesser funds. In 2000, the smallest average award was R3 757 - 55% of the average size for universities and 1,5% of all NSFAS funds. There is a need for equity in respect of the NSFAS funding formula. NSFAS funds 08 August 2002 Page 198 of 354 to Fort Hare have been and will be allocated as follows: 1999 - R7,91 million; 2000 - R7,2 million; 2001 - R7,9 million; 2002 - R10,12 million; 2003 - R13,7 million. The main problem with the NSFAS is that it is very tough on students, many being turned away. There is an upfront payment of R1 500 for all students, and the student joins the system based on the arrangement with the NSFAS. Fort Hare needs extra support from the government, as it is financially viable. (g) Student enrolment and staff 1997 - 4 591; 1998 - 4 068; 1999- 3 903; 2000 - 4 459; 2001 - 5 190. Postgraduates comprise 9% of the student population (450), and include Honours students, 20 PhDs and 120 Masters students. 08 August 2002 Page 199 of 354 There is an increase in postgraduates at Fort Hare, and there is a need for bigger institutions in the country. Student ethnicity: African - 5 158; White - 23; Coloured - 19; Indian – 1 Student gender: females - 62%; males - 38%; B Prim Ed (mostly female) - 1 200. Academic staff equity: Black - 55% (non- academic staff mostly black); White - 45%. Women remain under-represented at senior level, both in the academic and non- academic sectors. (h) Personnel The salary bill was drastically reduced over the previous two years. They have limited salary increases until 2003, with low average salary increases and rates in recent years. Fort Hare needs 08 August 2002 Page 200 of 354 to attract and retain key academics with competitive salaries. (i) Student debt Students drop out for financial reasons. Fort Hare envisages a need for reform of NSFAS allocations. Although it is difficult to collect debt from students who have left the university, they have done major work on student debts. They targeted an increase in debt collection from registered students: 50% in 2001 to 70% in 2002 and 2003. (j) Strategies - Fort Hare Viability Strategies on Fort Hare Viability aim to: * Accommodate the recent increases in enrolment in the existing formula * Phase in the new formula 08 August 2002 Page 201 of 354 * Attain equitable NSFAS funding * Continue control of personnel costs and student debt management * Seize opportunities for additional income * Manage improved performance and set targets for own income. (k) Research and development Research activity on masters and doctorate graduates, publications, patents, reports and artifacts was slow at the time of the visit. Postgraduate studies was being restructured, and the research and development function was centralised in the Govan Mbeki Research and Development Centre. Areas of research excellence included Agriculture (several nodes), Chemistry, 08 August 2002 Page 202 of 354 Life Sciences (several nodes), Psychology, Languages, Theology and Law. 4. Residences and refurbishment of hostels - official view by Ms L T Ngalo-Morrison, Dean of Students They have started renovations in an attempt to improve residences, as hostels must be conducive for learning. Students work on the hostel refurbishment project, for which R800 000 had been budgeted. Students took it upon themselves to repair and clean dilapidated hostels. Six student residences which had to be closed down, have been reopened and renovated to meet booming student accommodation needs. They need to raise funds from donors to refurbish buildings. 5. Alumni - official view by Mr L Jacobs 08 August 2002 Page 203 of 354 For the past three years, alumni stood central to transformation work. Mr L Jacobs had visited North America, Gauteng, Cape Town and interim structures to provide information on a continuous basis. 6. Visit to archives - official view by Mr M Synders (a) Solomon Mahlangu Freedom College: (SOMAFCO) This school, opened in Tanzania in 1972, aimed to train young, black men and women to be the leaders, teachers and professionals of the new South Africa, after the end of apartheid. The main subjects during that time were politics, drama and art. When the school was closed in 1992, the ANC entrusted Fort Hare with caring for its archives. Along with papers from its missions around the world came a collection of papers, 08 August 2002 Page 204 of 354 artefacts and student works from SOMAFCO. The Hon G A M Mbeki donated his guitar from Robben Island. Documents, like SOMAFCO papers, audio- visual material, federal seminary archives (the school closed in 1974) and university documents of the 1980s, are kept in a locked office. (b) Meeting with institutional forum The dlegation was welcomed by Mr Kobese, Community Partnership Co-ordinator. The institutional forum consists of political structures and stakeholders, like the SRC, student organisations, labour structures, members of academic structures, members of the Council, members of Nkonkobe municipality, members of Buffalo City, and members of 08 August 2002 Page 205 of 354 management. It is viewed as Fort Hare's parliament. Prof Mayatula gave a brief overview of the key functions of the Committee and the objectives of the visit. (c) Challenges of national plan "to merge or not to merge" - official view by Mr A Gwabeni The CHE report suggests a combination of some institutions; a combination of Fort Hare and Rhodes University was specifically mentioned. The national working committee, led by Mr S Macozama, visited Fort Hare prior our visit to advise the Minister of Education on how to minimise the number of tertiary institutions. A merger, according to Fort Hare, is a strategic and internally generated 08 August 2002 Page 206 of 354 decision taken by organisations, not a superimposed solution. It is dependent on the sharing of a common vision. Regarding their experience in South African institutions, the Silo mentality requires institutions to collaborate - with uneven distribution of resources, the funding formula must prioritise redress; sharing resources through the funding formula should be encouraged; and with artificial competition, institutions must focus on specific niche areas. (d) Fort Hare views to merger The institution is opposed to a merger, and feels that mergers must be decisions of individual institutions. Incremental and organic evolution of mergers are preconditions for success in the public sector. There is a strong view that collaboration is the short- to the 08 August 2002 Page 207 of 354 medium-term solution, and there have been discussions with UNITRA, Rhodes and other institutions outside the Eastern Cape on concrete programmes for collaboration. (e) Current and future areas of collaboration Current programmes include library services, an IT infrastructure and health programmes, while future areas include a central admission office, course development, quality assurance and presentation of courses. (f) Why opposed to merger? * Fort Hare transformation project: The good work done may be undone, and its vision (which includes multiculturalism, new values concommittant with the new society they are building and nation 08 August 2002 Page 208 of 354 building, which addresses socio- economic development and racial and gender equity) may be clouded * Micro-economics of project: There is a possibility of the system imploding as a result of too much being loaded on it (a question of its ability to absorb new challenges) * Economic implications of merger: It may cost more to set up and maintain the administrative systems, and there will be implications for local economies, which will have a direct impact on the shifting of the administration. Fort Hare sees the higher education system in South Africa and in the Eastern Cape evolving organically on an incremental basis, with full support from the government, and collaboration 08 August 2002 Page 209 of 354 as the short-term solution. A clear regulatory system must help align institutions to national priorities. 7. Student funding - official view by Mr L O Mabuyane, SRC president Mr Mabuyane saw no need to compare Fort Hare's political context in respect of student funding with institutions that have been advantaged historically, like UCT and WITS. The maximum number of 411 students for tuition (i.e. R4 120 per student) is seen as a serious threat, and the funding formula is also a problem at Fort Hare. Many matriculants with exemption who reside in the rural areas are sitting at home without any form of assistance because their parents are uneducated and unemployed and cannot provide any form of financial assistance for their children to further their education at 08 August 2002 Page 210 of 354 tertiary level. R29 million is expected from the NSFAS. Student quality of life also needs to be taken on board; it must be checked whether residences are user-friendly to all students. The government and the NSFAS need to re- examine the funding formula to provide financial assistance for needy students. Fort Hare needs to attract academic staff. The more students on campus, the more funding the institution receives from the NSFAS. Student debt The SRC played a major role in convincing and encouraging those who were able to pay their fees, to do so. This made the SRC unpopular on campus. Student debt results from two main reasons: 08 August 2002 Page 211 of 354 * Dropouts are unable to pay the university, as most of them are unemployed * No certificate is issued if outstanding fees are not paid in full, and students leave the system. In this respect, the NSFAS has its own way of tracing persons. 8. Conditions of employment - official view by Mr N R Mboniswa There was a very intensive bargaining process between Fort Hare and stakeholders. They compared salaries of academic and non- academic staff with those of UPE, UniVenda and UWC, and it appeared that their salaries were competitive in neither the labour market nor compared with other institutions of higher learning. The salary of the Vice- Chancellor is equivalent to that of a Dean at UPE. The implication of this was that the 08 August 2002 Page 212 of 354 economy of Nkonkombe would be affected, should people leave the area. Staff turnover Reasons for staff turnover: * Most staff were deployed by the government * Fort Hare was unable to retain staff * Salaries were not competitive. E. University of Transkei - 7 August 2001 On arrival, the delegation was warmly welcomed by Prof N Morgan (the Administrator) and his management. The University of Transkei was established in 1975, and the medical school started in 1986. The Minister had visited the institution five weeks before the delegation's visit. The nursery 08 August 2002 Page 213 of 354 school and in-service centre were destroyed by a tornado. Due to financial constraints they were never repaired and were collapsing. Renovations will start with residences, which would cost R1,5 million. 1. Medical School In 2001, there were 74 registered students at the medical school, and they were expecting an increase to 95 in 2002. The medical faculty had 749 medical students, of whom 34 were postgraduates. These figures formed the anchor of the university. They had also checked on which units were not viable, not giving a unit a chance to use the surplus of another unit. Biochemistry laboratory: The building is a pre-fabricated structure consisting of two big rooms, used both as biochemistry and physiology laboratories. Due to insufficient space, students are divided into groups for lecture sessions, attending on different 08 August 2002 Page 214 of 354 times each day. During examination times, both rooms are converted into examination rooms. It only accommodates 10 students. Some students are from the Technikons, doing in- service training for six months. There is no air conditioning in the laboratory, and there is always an unbearable smell. The Head of Anatomy, Prof N Baguma, appealed to the government to provide the institution with facilities to produce the best doctors in the country. Despite the conditions, the lecturers want to produce good quality doctors. 2. Science Faculty - official view by Mr B R Madikizela The delegation visited the cold room, which had a fresh-water laboratory. Mr B R Madikizela, a P.HD student, worked on the water research commission project, doing 08 August 2002 Page 215 of 354 water quality and faunal studies in the Umzimvubu catchment, with particular emphasis on species as indicators of environmental change. It was part of his Ph D. They produced the report for the water commission, indicating their observations. The primary aim of the project was to establish a water quality database and an inventory of aquatic fauna in the Umzimvubu and its main tributaries. A secondary aim was identification of species sensitive to environmental threats which might be used as future indicators of environmental change. (This report is available on request from the Committee Secretary, Ms N C Manjezi.) 3. Zoology Museum This museum was established in 1998. The high schools in the area visit it regularly and familiarise themselves with certain species. In the Botany Department, they have collected 4 000 indigenous plants. 08 August 2002 Page 216 of 354 4. African Archive This Department has a wide range of South African indigenous and popular music. The equipment and about 30 000 records were donated to the Department. The video machine, television and computers were donated by the University of Maiz in Germany. 5. Unitra Sasol Library This R3 million project was donated by Sasol, built in 1997, officially opened on 18 May 2000. It operates 24 hours a day. It houses literature for five faculties. There is an on-line digital catalogue, seminar and video conferencing, and students can access literature anytime. The former President, Dr R N Mandela, has his own reading room, which he uses when he visits the university. 6. Meeting with Administrator, Management, Deans, Representatives from labour 08 August 2002 Page 217 of 354 structures and SRC - official view by Prof N Morgan, Administrator (a) Vision UNITRA aimed to be a leading university in Africa, focusing on innovative programmes addressing rural development needs. (b) Mission UNITRA is committed to excellence by offering relevant and effective teaching, research and community outreach programmes with specific emphasis on the promotion of sustainable rural development, while providing service to its clientele through optimal resource utilisation. (c) Location 08 August 2002 Page 218 of 354 It is located in the poorest and most densely populated region of the Kei, Wild Coast and Drakensberg areas. The Eastern Cape has a rural population of six million people, and 65% live in rural areas. The rural Kei and Wild Coast districts have a population of three million, half the population of the province. 54% are females, and 60% of the rural people are female. In rural communities, youths make up to 60% of the population. UNITRA is thus in a poverty-stricken area, households having an income of less than R352,52 per month. The rural catchment area of UNITRA has inadequate access to social and economic infrastructure and services: only 24% have running water; only 31% have flush toilets; 31% do not have electricity; 4% have access to telecommunications; there are 0,3 medical officials per 1 000, compared to the national figure of 6%; 08 August 2002 Page 219 of 354 educational levels are the lowest in the whole of South Africa. 7. Institution indicators for financial sustainability Future financial sustainability depends on State funding, diverse income streams (including consultancy and contract research), adequacy of student financial aid, based on NSFAS criteria, the ability to collect fees, and the ability to adjust budgets. (a) Key issues and challenges faced by UNITRA * Reducing fixed costs * Ensuring full cost recovery * Introducing financial discipline through devolved budgeting 08 August 2002 Page 220 of 354 * Fee strategies and collection. In 1999, the university had a R100 million overdraft until March 2000. They received a subsidy of R104 million, which was regarded as insufficient. (b) Some realities There are limited funds from the Treasury. Restructuring will have to be deliberately engineered and managed if success is to be achieved. The notion of reducing the number of institutions does not mean reducing access to higher education. The sensibility of each arrangement must be determined on how it responds to the goals of the National Plan for Higher Education. Comprehensive technical intelligence about every regional site is a pre-requisite for the project to succeed. 08 August 2002 Page 221 of 354 Prof Morgan met with the Minister of Education on 4 June 2001, and the budget issue was discussed. Due to budget constraints, academic staff and 282 workers were retrenched. The Department of Labour was contacted for the social plan, especially for those students who were registered at the university. UNITRA also made a commitment to re- employ the workers who were retrenched. (c) NSFAS funding The university is underfunded by NSFAS. As a result, they intend to request a supplementary amount. The affordability in respect of the region is different from that of any other region. Applying the criteria for those who have applied, would require R24 million. As a huge amount of R39 million is still owed by students, the SRC also assists 08 August 2002 Page 222 of 354 with the collection of fees by broadcasting on UNITRA community radio. (d) Viability in finances The working committee needs to be assisted with technical expertise and quality technical information. The health centre needs to realise its current status in terms of viability. Viability assessments were to be completed by the end of August 2001. Various departments could be closed and some could be strenghtened. The view is that if some departments are to be closed, there should be other forms of restructuring, and students can be transferred to other universities to complete their studies. 8. Faculty of Health Sciences - official view by Prof E L Mazwai 08 August 2002 Page 223 of 354 This faculty has 749 students in the School of Medicine, the School of Nursing and the School of Allied Health Professions. Teaching takes place at three campuses in Umtata, East London and Port Elizabeth, which form part of the Academic Health Service of the Eastern Cape. In 14 years, UNITRA has graduated more than 200 medical doctors of a quality equal to, if not better than, many medical schools in the country. (a) Teaching Their strength has been their teaching philosophy, being problem-based learning and community-based education. This is now world-recognised - the faculty is a WHO collaborating centre. Students are exposed to community issues early in training (first year), including indigenous knowledge systems, such as traditional healers. In addition to the teaching standard, they have developed a computer-based teaching laboratory, a 08 August 2002 Page 224 of 354 telemedicine unit and a professional skills laboratory to improve quality of teaching and graduates' competencies. (b) Service By its very nature, community-based education and training are decentralised from tertiary through to secondary and primary health care centres, and with teaching comes service. The teaching hospital in Umtata serves a population of 2,9 million, with more than 100 specialists. They have also initiated a postgraduate programme and training specialists in eight medical fields - they are trained at centres in Port Elizabeth, East London and Umtata. Medical registrars also improve the quality of care given to patients. UNITRA and UCT have an agreement on training registered students in medicine and postgraduate courses. 08 August 2002 Page 225 of 354 (c) Research As most tertiary institutions are judged on the basis of research output and publications, the faculty has had a limited output in this area. This has been mostly due to developmental and infrastructure restrictions in terms of laboratory and equipment. However, they do have an MRC unit (on carcinoma of oesophogus, with research in molecular biology). The university collaborates with the Department of Health and overseas universities on HIV/AIDS research. Most of the research is community-based and service-oriented. (d) Infrastructure The university plan was to increase the number of medical students from 90 to 120 per class over the following three years, and they wanted to add six Allied Health Professions - Occupational 08 August 2002 Page 226 of 354 Therapy, Physiotheraphy, Speech and Hearing Therapy, Nutrition and Dietetics, Radiotherapy and Medical Technology. They have plans and the potential to increase the number and mix of health sciences they train, but the major constraint is infrastructure, which needs financial input. Discussions with the Department of Education on a new medical campus adjacent to the hospital at a cost of R120 million have been put on hold to see what facilities could be developed on the existing campus at a reduced cost. As a matter of urgency, the development of the in- service training centre for laboratories for students and research, and also teaching, would be the most appropriate. UNITRA was able to achieve with very limited funding because of chronic under-funding nationally. In the last four years, conditional grants from the Provincial 08 August 2002 Page 227 of 354 Administration have helped to alleviate the situation. There has never been any major injection of capital for infrastructural development, either at inception of the medical school in 1986 or after the new democracy in 1994. There are infrastructure issues that have not been attended to, and a merger will bring additional costs in the short term. Money needs to be injected for infrastructure. Staff never received increments, now they have become demotivated. (e) Academic restructuring All the programmes are complying with the mission. They revisited it in 1999 and in 2000, but there were no substantive shift. As UNITRA is the largest single employer in the region, they have spent R160 million per annum. 08 August 2002 Page 228 of 354 (f) Student enrolment The student numbers in 2001 have grown to 4 500, compared to 3 800 in 2000. (g) Governance There is no council at UNITRA. There is an administrator who is in support of the management team of the university. There is a need to appoint a new Vice- Chancellor and a new council. Due to the turmoil in 1999, the council resigned. Meetings were held with community and parents to inform them of ongoing progress. The Department of Education did not have any faith in the university and nothing happened to establish the council. By the end of August, they were to start the process to establish a governance council. Prof Morgan informed the 08 August 2002 Page 229 of 354 delegation that the Auditor-General's report and other reports formed the basis of the issue to be attended to on two levels: * An intention to provide residence for students and lecture halls - a decision was taken to build the structures, as this money was not taken from the operational budget * Internal controls - new policies to exercise discipline. (h) Hospital A positive development is the commissioning of the new Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital. It has 480 beds at a cost of R350 million. It will attract specialists to the area, especially South Africans, to teach and offer specialised services. There is hope to establish new specialities such as 08 August 2002 Page 230 of 354 cardiology and cardiac surgery, radio physics and radiotherapy, vascular surgery and renal transplantation. There was great concern that what they have achieved so far, has been done at great sacrifice in human cost, with no improvement in salaries or promotions for the last four years. If they are to prevent diminishing morale and retain staff against competition from outside institutions, capital injection is absolutely urgent. This way they feel that they can reverse the downward spiral, stabilise the Faculty, attract more specialists for specialised services, and improve on research and publications. With the increase in the medical student class and addition of the six departments in the School of Allied Health Professions, they have a capacity for 1 000 students over the next three years. All this can be done at a very modest cost, which the 08 August 2002 Page 231 of 354 university management is currently formulating and calculating. The delegation visited the massive site to see the new academic hospital, still under construction. This training hospital is built by the Department of Health (50% national and 50% provincial), and is expected to be completed by the end of March 2002. The estimated budget to run the hospital is R196 million per annum. (i) Merger The merger in a classic sense purposely targets areas of synergistic benefits - people seek deliberate benefits and synergies and manage these to new organisations. In respect of certain private companies, this was a failure. In creating a merger, according to Prof Morgan, the institution needs to address 08 August 2002 Page 232 of 354 the issues with Rhodes, as they have a governance council. * Negative aspects Other areas of excellence, apart from medical science, which, because of the financial turmoil, have been neglected. Staff members had been abused for the previous five years in respect of promotion, increments and the taking away of other benefits. Everything the university is busy doing in this respect, will disappear if there is a merger. * Businesses supporting UNITRA or other sources to improve finances They had established links with the business community and received huge support from the community. There were ongoing meetings with business to address the finance issue. 08 August 2002 Page 233 of 354 Some historically disadvantaged institutions helped to improve the financial position. There was a need to equalise funding in order to address the gap between Gauteng, the Western Cape and their region. (j) Payment of fees Discussions were held with the student leadership about the commitment of students to pay fees. This was broadcast on the community radio, and there was a good response. Decisions were taken by parents and students to make arrangements to pay outstanding fees, but some did not honour this commitment. (k) Retrenchments These came about because of a shortfall in respect of the pension fund. The university made specific arrangements to develop retrenched staff and reskill 08 August 2002 Page 234 of 354 them for new jobs. They also committed to the social plan those who wanted to study at the university. (l) Issue of redress They cannot tackle the issue of redress if there are institutional, financial and regional problems. This needs serious attention. (m) Management of institution There are few fundamentals and policies in respect of running the system. There is a need for strengthening middle management, training and capacity development of staff. Human resource and technical issues need attention. Although there is no council, they have an audit committee performing that managerial function. 08 August 2002 Page 235 of 354 Rev E Guwa had a very strong view of not closing historically disadvantaged universities down, as he was a product of those universities. (o) Institutional forum This forum was set up according to the statutory requirements, and was composed of all internal structures of student associations, labour and community structures. (p) NEHAWU input NEHAWU endorsed what Prof Morgan had said, and expressed disapproval on certain issues: * Transformation was viewed as a most painful and difficult process. NEHAWU was not against retrenchment with benefits, but in support of 08 August 2002 Page 236 of 354 change. There were structures in place to address those problems * They viewed the sustainability and viability of the institution as very important. (q) SRC input The extent of the problems mentioned impacted very negatively on students. The SRC have made efforts to persuade students to pay their fees. The gravity of the problem has caused them to make history - it was indeed unusual to find a situation whereby the management and the students agreed that the latter would pay 50% of their debt before the beginning of the new term. This has shown the level of maturity of the SRC in understanding the dynamics of co- operative governance, particularly in regard to pulling the institution out of its financial mess. 08 August 2002 Page 237 of 354 They were against closure of the university, and moreover, not in support of a merger - it was not deemed as beneficial to the institution. They also asked the NSFAS to increase the grant because most people in the area were unemployed and there was no industry to support the institution financially. The SRC's view was that a merger would adversely affect those from historically disadvantaged areas. F. University of Natal - 8 August 2001 The Vice-Chancellor, Prof B M Gourley, warmly welcomed the delegation at the Pietermaritzburg campus. 1. Overview - Prof B M Gourley 08 August 2002 Page 238 of 354 The University of Natal, located in KwaZulu- Natal and established in 1910, has an enrolment of 22 000 students, of whom over 15 000 are undergraduates. As such, it is the second largest residential university in South Africa. It comprises two centres, one in Durban on the coast and the other in the provincial capital, Pietermaritzburg, some 80 km inland. The Nelson Mandela School of Medicine is part of the university, and is located on the Durban campus. In total, there are four campuses - Durban, Pietermaritzburg, Medical and Edgewood. During the 1990s most students were white - approximately 13 500. Now almost 76% are black students. It is one of the top-rated universities in South Africa in terms of research output and independent ratings by the National Research Foundation, and has formal links with some 08 August 2002 Page 239 of 354 240 leading universities in the USA, Europe and the Far East. It is known as a centre of excellence in Africa and is doing significant research into HIV/AIDS. Many international students are studying here. The governing structures are in hands of the academics on the Durban campus. In the early 1990s the Durban campus alone housed 84 different NGOs, most of them refugees from the apartheid regime. Their presence on the campus profoundly affected the nature of the university and the conversation about its role in South Africa at this point in its history. Students were involved in working with the NGOs. (a) Vision The university's strategy is one of Quality with Equity. It dedicates its 08 August 2002 Page 240 of 354 excellence in teaching, research and development to progress through reconstruction. It serves South Africa, and KwaZulu-Natal in particular, by delivering quality teaching, which enables students from all backgrounds to realise their academic potential and to obtain degrees of an international standard. It undertakes quality research up to national and international standards, and provides development services which meet community needs. It is a socially responsive organisation. At the time of the visit they were condusting an HIV research project (160 different projects), and many are placed in the networking centre. KwaZulu-Natal has 80 000 teachers, of whom 30% are HIV-positive. They really 08 August 2002 Page 241 of 354 need to launch a substantive campaign to attend to this issue. (b) Mission They strive to serve all sections of the community through excellence in scholarship, teaching, learning, research and development. (c) Student numbers and composition The size of the university has changed substantially over the last 10 years. There has been planned growth in the face of virtually no State support in respect of infrastructure. It has been made possible by making provision for loan funding for students with the potential to succeed but not the money to afford the fees. (d) Research profile 08 August 2002 Page 242 of 354 The profile has changed over the years, as an entirely different set of policies came into effect to support new directions. These policies were designed to encourage not only a more entrepreneurial approach to research but also a more nuanced approach. They emphasise potential links between research and development and aim to find ways in which the research agenda could be influenced by development issues that are fed by the research agenda. Initiatives that support the goals of regional and national agendas are actively encouraged. HIV/AIDS is a good example. There is huge capacity for research and postgraduate studies in the region, and the percentage of undergraduate studies has increased. Most students are in the open learning mode on the Pietermaritzburg campus. 08 August 2002 Page 243 of 354 (e) Staff profile The staff profile has not been changed as much as one would have liked. Both availability of staff and labour law considerations impact on this. Equity plans are in place. (f) Race in 1990 and in 2000 There have been enormous disparities in respect of gender and race. 1990 - 54% White; 30% African; 3% Coloured; 13% Indian 2000 - 49% White; 25% African; 4% Coloured; 22% Indian (g) Gender in 1990 and in 2000 1990 - 34% female and 66% male 2000 - 44% female and 56% male 08 August 2002 Page 244 of 354 A higher percentage of female students registered between 1990 and 2000 than males. An age/race profile of students in 2000 showed that undergraduate Coloureds, Indians and whites were younger than blacks. Registration by area or specialisation - many study business and commerce. By 2001 the number of students pursuing a career in humanities had increased; the number in science and technology grew by 10%. The university also encourages foreign students to enrol in order to improve the standard of education. It is important for the educational learning experience to have international students on campus. (h) Distance education 08 August 2002 Page 245 of 354 They want to retain and control quality distance education. At present, there are between 4 000 and 5 000 involved in distance learning, of whom 2 500 are Africans. (i) Merging The university is opposed to a merger. They strongly believe they need to equalise the conditions of service and grant generous retrenchment packages, should there be a merger with Durban- Westville. As the two institutions have different scales, a merger will be disruptive to their administrative way of doing things, as they will have more students. The university does not want to put donor and research funding at risk which it receives from the international community. The entire process has to 08 August 2002 Page 246 of 354 focus on producing a better higher education system. 2. Transformation process - official view by Prof E A Ngara, Deputy Vice-Chancellor, Students and Transformation Prof Ngara played an advocacy role and sought to promote transformation in areas where they seemed slow to achieve the desired objective in respect of certain aspects of development. He had attended conferences and seminars where the view was expressed that the last group of universities to be transformed would be those that called themselves "liberal universities". What is transformation? The White Paper on Higher Education outlined the framework for change, making it clear that the higher education system had to be planned, governed and funded as a single co- 08 August 2002 Page 247 of 354 ordinated national system. It identified the areas in which transformation should take place and outlined the principles that should guide the process of transformation, but stopped short of defining the concept. It referred to a complete and fundamental change for the better, and suggested that transformation had to entail change from what was the norm to a new norm, from a culture and set of values and practices that prevailed in the past to a new culture and set of values and practices. He identified four principal domains in which transformation should take place: (a) Governance - it referred to the development of a more democratic system of power relations between the various sectors of the institution by, for instance, seeing to it that fundamental changes occur to ensure adherence to the principles of democratic governance, 08 August 2002 Page 248 of 354 accountability, transparency and inclusiveness in decision-making. This was underpinned by compliance with the requirements of the Higher Education Act, the Employment Equity Act and other relevant legislation and policy documents. (b) Demographics and equity - it referred to changes taking place in an institution to reflect the demography of the nation and the region. Enrolment figures and staff statistics should change to ensure diversity, race and gender equity, as well as representation of people with disability. (c) Institutional/organisational culture - it referred to the degree of transparency and openness in the communication system and decision-making processes of the institution, the extent to which linguistic and cultural diversity was recognised, accepted and 08 August 2002 Page 249 of 354 celebrated, the degree of sensitivity to diversity issues (i.e race, gender, sexual orientation and disability) and the extent to which there was a culture of debate and democratic disputation, as opposed to violent demonstration by students and decrees by authorities. (d) The core functions domain - it referred to fundamental changes made in teaching, research, the community and national service to facilitate national, economic, social and political transformation, the key elements being curriculum, quality and growth, student development, knowledge production and responsiveness to national and community needs. Transformation in respect of all these domains should be relatively easily achievable in organisations with a tradition of openness in their decision-making processes. 08 August 2002 Page 250 of 354 Prof Ngara further mentioned that while the university was normally classified as a historically white university, the Faculty of Medicine was historically black; it was the only medical faculty in a long time that was training African, Indian and Coloured doctors, before MEDUNSA was established. Student numbers broadly represented the demographics of KwaZulu-Natal. These numbers, as at 24 July 2001, read as follows: Race.................Number .....................Percentage African..............10 620........ 44,81% Indian............... 7 404........ 31,24% White................ 4 995........ 21,07% Coloured............. 665........ 2,76% Other................ 25........ 0,10% ...................................------- Total................23 700........ 99,80% ...................................------- 08 August 2002 Page 251 of 354 The university was not doing well in respect of the racial composition of staff. However, a few years ago a programme funded by the Mellon Foundation was put in place to help promising academics from previously disadvantaged backgrounds to acquire postgraduate degrees to render them suitable for appointment to academic positions. Not all management members believed that this programme would help them move fast enough to accelerate the appointment of blacks, especially Africans, to the academic staff. They produced a document which they believed could help accelerate the process - it was still to be considered by the verious structures. 3. Curriculum development and access programmes - official view by Prof A C Bawa, Deputy Vice-Chancellor: Academics Curriculum development is a defining characteristic of the university. It has constantly been supported through strategic 08 August 2002 Page 252 of 354 investment of resources, the highest level of innovation in curriculum development and through teaching and learning. Every year, they make three Distinguished Teacher Awards, which celebrate its excellence. Curriculum development is at the heart of the education process in that it is centrally linked to developing good citizens of a democratic South Africa. It is therefore critical that students have a sense of their role in the reconstruction and development of the nation and possess the skills and framework to lead ethical lives as they embark on careers requiring leadership and entrepreneurship. The Strategic Initiatives Document states that student should not leave the University without a keen appreciation of: * The values and concerns of the different communities in which they will be living and working 08 August 2002 Page 253 of 354 * Where they are in history and what responsibilities and leadership roles they may be expected to fulfil * The ethics of their particular chosen careers and of making choices at this moment in history. To facilitate this, they have created an Ethics Centre, a Leadership Centre and a Centre for Entrepreneurship. They have also established a significantly large Service Learning Project, which allows students to spend part of their study time working in communities and reflecting on that work. About 20% of the students have some form of exposure to service learning. The university has committed itself to developing a set of core basic competencies in every student - these are taught through a set of core foundational modules. 08 August 2002 Page 254 of 354 The curriculum development process is strongly influenced by the need for multi- discipline, which is evident in undergraduate programmes. They have led the way in this regard in South Africa. They have also established a Centre for Information Technology in Higher Education, which facilitates the optimisation of the role of IT in learning and teaching. They are ensuring that they have sufficient computers on an outstanding network to facilitate the development of a new learning paradigm, which involves the use of constructivism as a philosophy of learning. The university has serious concerns about the impact of traditional learning paradigms on the underdevelopment of the "right brain", and has a large project under way to ensure more holistic left brain/right brain learning. Access programmes 08 August 2002 Page 255 of 354 They have three kinds of access programmes: * Students with matriculation exemption but without a sufficiently satisfactory pass for admission to degree programmes - they would wish to study science, engineering or medicine but do not have satisfactory passes in Mathematics and Science. * Students with a senior certificate but without matriculation exemption and who show potential to succeed in higher education - they would generally be placed in one-year foundation or access programmes which would lead to access to degree programmes. * Adult learners without senior certificates - they have not had the opportunity to complete their schooling but demonstrate a satisfactory level of numeracy and literacy. 08 August 2002 Page 256 of 354 The university also offers a number of undergraduate and graduate programmes in a mixed-mode format for working people. In 2001 there were about 500 new students in access programmes in respect of science and engineering, 200 in humanities and social sciences, 500 in management sciences, 150 adult learners in open learning programmes and 5 000 workers in programmes designed for them. 4. Integrated student body - official view by Mr T Wills, Dean of Students, and Dr D Rajab, Dean of Social Development The students fully embrace integration. 18% of them are married. The SRC is present at all levels of student governance - about 10 to 12 students for 10 000 students (they need to review this). The institution has also been seen to encourage integration in sport. There is a 08 August 2002 Page 257 of 354 wide range of sports, and students adhere to the sports policy. They opened their residences in 1984; house committees see to the welfare of students. 25% to 30% live in residences, which were full at the time of the visit. Many come from metropolitan areas. There is no gender segregation. The number of white students declined because mostly blacks live in the residences. The whites left because they felt uncomfortable staying with black students and could not afford the residential costs, which were expensive. Some black students who could not afford the costs, moved to cheaper places. (a) Student Development Student Development is located in the Division of Student Services, and is responsible for the conceptualisation, 08 August 2002 Page 258 of 354 implementation and quality assurance of all student development programmes offered by the division. These include Student Counselling and Careers, Campus Health Clinics, Residences, Student Leadership Development, Sport, Administration, Student Governance, Clubs and Societies, Student Academics Affairs and Financial Aid. They put in a huge effort to support students. Student Development aims to address development needs of all students at the university through professional services of the division. This involves an analysis of the special need of students within the context of higher learning. It calls for strategic planning and implementation of systems that support developmental growth of all students in a dynamic and changing context. 08 August 2002 Page 259 of 354 The task of student service providers in the various sections is to set up structures that will provide opportunities for life skills learning in curricular and co-curricular activities. (b) Student Development Plan - rationale The rationale for the development of a strategic plan arose from the following realities: * The university has a duty to address national needs. South Africa requires well-trained professionals who are well-rounded, critical and independent thinkers. * The job market is competitive and demands excellent graduates with strong interpersonal and leadership skills and high levels of 08 August 2002 Page 260 of 354 accountability, integrity and commitment to industry. * It is a world-class institution with its reputation at stake when it comes to production of its graduates. Universities are also under pressure to maintain a competitive edge over other institutions. * The imperative to address the diverse needs of students warrants a repositioning of student development initiatives from periphery to mainstream. * The HIV/AIDS pandemic has widespread implications for student intakes, financial aid, health and support services, and training and counselling. (c) Guiding principles 08 August 2002 Page 261 of 354 To address the developmental needs of a diverse and dynamic student population, the plan will encompass the following guiding principles: * The holistic development of students involves a partnership with all sectors of the university community. This includes Academics, student affairs professionals, students and the general community. * The application of a multi-pronged, multi-disciplinary and multi- cultural perspective in the development of all programmes to address the needs of a diverse and dynamic student population. * The introduction of systemic interventions encompassing institutional changes to facilitate the development of a new type of 08 August 2002 Page 262 of 354 graduate in keeping with the changing demand of society. * Quality with Equity. Effective utilisation of resources and the provision of support to enable learners from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds to succeed. The Office of the Dean of Student Development is offering a new 10-week winter semester certificate course in collaboration with other academics and administrative departments on the Durban and Pietermaritzburg campuses for student services staff and graduate students who may wish to pursue a career path in student services. They have already trained 39 students in these courses. 5. Financial support - official view by Rev J Ngomane, Director: Financial Aid Service 08 August 2002 Page 263 of 354 The establishment of the NSFAS by the new democratic government is one of the most important initiatives that underpin the transformation of educational access in South Africa. The stability the scheme has brought to campuses nationwide has been evidenced by the lack of educational boycotts and student unrest during the past three to four years. The government's visionary thinking regarding the NSFAS and continued support of these endeavors should be applauded. The appearance of the delegation from the Committee charged with consultation with all stakeholders indicates the dedication to the cause of educational justice for all in the new democratic South Africa. (a) Background The university has always been involved with the needs of poor students. Prior to the early days of transformation from 08 August 2002 Page 264 of 354 1984, the bursaries and scholarship office administered a means test to award the few bursaries from various sources at its disposal (e.g. bequests, deceased estates). By 1988 that office was receiving 5 000 applications a year from needy students. The university responded by allocating funds from its limited budget (about R13 million in 2001) to the annual budget of the newly constituted Financial Aid Service. This was supplemented during the early 1990s by organisations such as Kagiso Trust, the IDT (Independent Development Trust), the South African Institute of Race Relations (SAIRR) and the Kelloggs Foundation. By 1996 they had to limit the intake of needy entrants to 500 per year in order to manage the budgetary requirements responsibly. The number of active financial aid applications settled at 08 August 2002 Page 265 of 354 about 3 500 per year. They are currently funding about 2 000 undergraduates. About 13% of the student body is deemed sufficiently financially disadvantaged to receive benefits from the NSFAS. Therefore there is immense pressure on the university to increase funding for needy entrant. 50% of them are not paying any family contribution - the university and government are funding R22 000 per year. Some key areas have been fundamentally important in the success of the NSFAS: * The creation of the NSFAS as a statutory body and the subsequent establishment of its Board with representatives from higher education stakeholders and the community. 08 August 2002 Page 266 of 354 * The NSFAS loan recovery system and the quality of the administrative systems. * The involvement of the Financial Aid Services/Bureaux of Tertiary Institutions in the administration of NSFAS loans is important. Financial Aid Officers process enquiries and applications forms from potential students. This can involve dealing with more than 1 000 students per officer. * The NSFAS in consultation with Financial Aid Officers designed a tool called "The Means Test", which enables them to determine the relative financial need of any student applicant. This is very helpful in the administration and selection of students. (b) Financial Aid Budget for 2001 08 August 2002 Page 267 of 354 The allocated budget for the NSFAS is R56 million, divided as follows: Bursaries - R5 million (needy students); scholarships - R12 million; and loans - R39,5 million. (c) Challenges Selection criteria related to the NSFAS hinder students from the poorest backgrounds from accessing tertiary education. The more immediate challenges are: * Criteria focus on academic excellence and do not take into account rural school and family background. Alternative selection methods must be developed for educationally disadvantaged students. * Hidden costs related to applying (e.g. access to phones, the post, 08 August 2002 Page 268 of 354 photocopying of documents and direct costs (between R135 and R2 000 per application) average about R500, which the poorest of the poor cannot afford. A further R500 acceptance deposit is required after academic selection; even more if a residence deposit is required, which is often the case with rural students. * A lack of consultation in respect of review and implementation of NSFAS policy and procedures, taking into consideration that the institution and officers are the backbone of the NSFAS success story. * A lack of uniformity and monitoring of policies instituted by the NSFAS, while the university has aligned its financial aid policy to suit the implementation of NSFAS policies and procedures. 08 August 2002 Page 269 of 354 * Fund entrants only in the second semester. * Only half of the recommended maximum is given, that has led to students withdrawing from studies before completion. The maximum limit of R16 000 for 2001 according to government guidelines was not being adhered to. In one institution the average size of an award to an applicants is R3 000. * They do not use the means test to identify needy students and determine award sizes. (d) Profile of South African student White students live in houses close to the campus and are studying away from home by choice. They are usually not on financial aid, and invariably have part- time jobs as waitressws, shop 08 August 2002 Page 270 of 354 assistants, etc, to earn pocket money and to contribute towards paying expenses. They are independent and self- assured. They are found in all disciplines, especially males in Science, Engineering and Architecture. There is some racial friction in clubs and societies, and to a limited extent in student government bodies, where blacks dominate. They participate a lot in sport. Indian students live at home some distance from campus; they travel by public transport or by family car. Many privileged students have their own cars. Few are on financial aid. The wealthy ones study away from home by choice. They study and "play" in groups (good gender mix), and hardly participate in clubs and societies or student government bodies. They mainly study Commerce, Law and Medicine (both genders). 08 August 2002 Page 271 of 354 95% of black students live in residences, mainly on financial aid. They mainly study Law, Social Science and Humanities. Females study Nursing and Teaching. Especially the males participate in student government bodies. There is a high attrition rate. The white student population has decreased because of perception that NSFAS funding targets the poorest. Middle-class families experience problems to qualify for NSFAS funding. (e) Student debt When assisting the poorest of the poor with financial aid, it is important to note that the Finance Division has reported that more than 704 students owed more than R100 000. The highest debt of any one student was R177 128. 08 August 2002 Page 272 of 354 (f) Existing administrative mechanisms for disbursement of NSFAS funds The university has not experienced any difficulties with existing NSFAS administrative systems. The problem alluded to in a letter from the Minister of Education to the chairperson of the NSFAS Board (time between registration and disbursement of funds) was not a serious issue, as, according to the university's assessment, the scheme was being run in a very professional and highly competent manner. (g) Size and coverage of loan The maximum limit of R16 000 of an NSFAS loan did not adequately accommodate the actual study costs experienced by students at a residential university. Tuition and accommodation fees alone could be near R20 000 at 2001 rates, while the full costs, books and other 08 August 2002 Page 273 of 354 necessary living expenses, could be nearer to R30 000. This clearly prejudiced the neediest students, who required loan funding from other sources to meet their obligations - funding which might not be offered on the favourable terms and repayments conditions applicable to NSFAS awards. A loan should be able to cover all fees at any of the institutions. They have received petitions from students who were unable to repay loans due to unemployment, owing to them being black-listed by credit bureaux. (h) Eligibility criteria Based on their experience, they would like attention to be given to the following: * Expand the range of post-graduate courses for which NSFAS awards may 08 August 2002 Page 274 of 354 be made, while acknowledging the commitment of the NSFAS to assist talented and needy students to enter tertiary institutions. * Consider making awards to permanent residents who are not South African citizens. The restriction prejudices students from other African countries who have South Africa as their home and have been accorded permanent resident status. * Staff and students have experienced that while the most needy students benefit greatly from the application of the means test, certain categories of students are placed in a difficult position - small families with an income above R50 000 (often single parents with one breadwinner) often find that assessed funds are beyond their 08 August 2002 Page 275 of 354 reach, and that they are effectively ineligible for funding. Eligibility criteria should look at funding postgraduate students, in accordance with the National Plan outlined by the Minister. There must be uniformity in the monitoring and implementation of the policy at all institutions, and NSFAS policies should be be reviewed continuously. (i) Targeting priority fields of study According to Rev Ngomane, it will be more appropriate and more effective for institutions themselves, rather than the NSFAS, to target priority fields of study in line with national policy. The discretion and flexibility that will be needed to successfully implement this aspect of national policy, would be very 08 August 2002 Page 276 of 354 difficult to accommodate if driven by a centralised funding agency such as the NSFAS. 6. Excellence and relevance in research - official view by Prof S S Abdool Karim (a) Research grants and contracts The increase in grants is built largely on the university's reputation and on donations attracted by it: 1995 - R4 million; 1996 - R50 million; 1997 - R65 million; 1998 - R83 million; 1999 - R105 million; and 2000 - R165 million. International research grants amounted to R30 million. (b) Research strategy In response to a rapid changing research environment, their research support strategy reflects the imperatives of the South African national system of 08 August 2002 Page 277 of 354 innovation within which the higher education system is located. The university's research committee provides support to: * Outstanding academics that undertake high quality basic and applied research and other creative work that produces academic publications or their recognised equivalent, like Dr N Ggaleni, Prof P Berjak (on seed technology); Prof J Moodley (on mothers dying during child birth because of hypertension); and Prof K Durrheim (racism and identity - geographies of racial exclusions). * The centre of research excellence, which enjoys national and international recognition and draws on researchers in a broad range of disciplines across the university. 08 August 2002 Page 278 of 354 * Increased investment in attracting, retaining and training young academics to provide a new generation of researchers. * Research with community partners. Collaborations such as these strengthen the research ethos because they contribute to the university's commitment to socially responsive science and scholarships. They are now trying to address local demand to develop new knowledge. (c) HIV/AIDS They actively support AIDS research, both through the Africa Centre for Population Studies and Reproductive Health and the Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division. It has been noted with concern that HIV/AIDS will have a serious impact on the ability of 08 August 2002 Page 279 of 354 a large number of people to access higher education. The age group 18 to 24, traditional cohort of university students, is seriously at risk and disadvantaged communities particularly will be affected. There is a great deal of student awareness programmes on the pandemic. G. University of the Witwatersrand - 6 August 2001 1. Official overview by Vice-Chancellor, Prof N Reid Prof Reid joined WITS in 2001. The institution's priority is transformation and it has made progress, particularly with staff. They are working on schemes to fast- track the appointment of blacks to managerial positions. 50% of academic appointments have been blacks, but they were appointed to middle management. There are vacancies in some faculties but WITS is struggling to get South Africans to fill 08 August 2002 Page 280 of 354 them (e.g. they are looking for a Zoology lecturer with a Ph D, but most applicants are from Asia). WITS is committed to supplementing and assisting disadvantaged students and to ensuring that this be accessible to them. 57% of the students are black and 47% are female. 70% come from Gauteng and 30% from outside. There are students from SADC countries and from the rest of Africa. They hope to expand and admit students from beyond Africa so as to embrace the spirit of globalisation. The curriculum has to incorporate Africanism, bearing in mind the colonialism that Africa had experienced. (a) Financial assistance WITS has received R27 million from the government for 2000-01. (b) Bridging programmes 08 August 2002 Page 281 of 354 WITS has for many years been concerned about student access to various faculties and about problems that students from a disadvantaged background experience when they are accepted into the university. This has resulted in a number of bridging programmes, some of which were initiated 25 years ago. These programmes were initially designed to bridge the great divide between school and university. The bridging courses served the purpose and helped many students who had been admitted. More recently, with the changing demographics of WITS' student population, the fact that there were many students from a disadvantaged background and a very poor primary and secondary educational system, WITS realised that there was an urgent need to reassess student access to a tertiary education qualification. The faculties 08 August 2002 Page 282 of 354 were restructured and reduced from nine to five. (c) Faculties The five new faculties are: Commerce, Law and Management Engineering and the Built Environment Health Sciences Humanities, Social Sciences and Education Science Each faculty has educational officers who establish mechanisms to facilitate and allow students into their academic programmes, students who would not automatically gain access because of their secondary school achievements. 2. Commerce, Law and Management 08 August 2002 Page 283 of 354 Mathematics and Science are entrance requirements for B Com Accounting. Few students enroll for this degree. Those who do not qualify to study B Com Accounting, are allowed to do a two-year bridging course. (a) Commerce Development Programmes Since 1996, the Commerce Faculty has experienced significant change in the constitution of its student body. Increasing numbers of African, Coloured and Indian students are being admitted, some of whom do not meet the automatic entry requirements and a number of whom are from previously disadvantaged educational backgrounds. The Commerce Development Programmes unit (CDP unit) was formally established in 1997 to facilitate and co-ordinate the anticipated transformation in academic development needs of both students and 08 August 2002 Page 284 of 354 staffing of the faculty. Thus far it has accommodated about 430 students, registered for the extended curriculum B Com degree. The registration figure for the Commerce Skills course for 2001 was 81 students. (b) Graduation rate of CB402 students: 1997 intake Data was collected and collaborated in a longitudinal study of students registered for CB402 for the first time in 1997, 1998, 1999 and 2000. The first CDP-extended curriculum students completed their four-year degrees in 2000. The student intake for CB402 in 1997 was 113. According to statistics supplied, 14 graduated, 64 dropped out, 12 students were excluded, 11 moved to other faculties and 18 were still completing their degrees. (c) Extended Curriculum B Com degree 08 August 2002 Page 285 of 354 In contrast to other tertiary CDP initiatives, a bridging course for previously educationally disadvantaged students seeking entry to the faculty was not considered appropriate, hence a formal four-year extended curriculum B Com degree structure has been introduced. It is structured in such a way that first-level courses are split over two years. During the first year, a student is required to take a specially designed course in Commercial Skills. The CDP assists with academic development of the annual intake of extended curriculum students. It also functions as a research and advisory resource for academic staff in teaching departments to address mainstream teaching and learning problems. (d) Entry requirements 08 August 2002 Page 286 of 354 To meet the automatic admission requirements for B Com, an applicant needs: * A total of 23+ points for matric subjects. * Mathematics at higher grade or 60% (C) at standard grade. To be accepted for the extended curriculum degree, an applicant needs: * A total of 17+ points for matric subjects. * To have come from a previously disadvantaged educational background. Preference is given to applicants from ex-DET schools. * Those who do not meet the minimum mathematics requirements, are required to register for and pass 08 August 2002 Page 287 of 354 Foundation Mathematics, a course designed to provide students with the knowledge and confidence to proceed to computational Mathematics. (e) School of Law The School of Law does not have a formal bridging programme, but offers an extended LLB to a limited number of disadvantaged students. This LLB is normally offered over four years. Courses offered are in line with the demand in the economy. 3. Engineering and the Built Environment Learners are admitted into this faculty on the basis of their Grade 12 results. Common requirements for admission include mathematics and competency in English. With most of the schools, Physical Science is a further requirement for admission. 08 August 2002 Page 288 of 354 The faculty ensures that learners from disadvantaged backgrounds have a wide range of career opportunities. Selection and placement tests and interviews are held by the faculty to ensure that alternative admission is administered. If learners have lower points than required, this alternative admission system allows them to enter a different school in the faculty. In some schools though, they can enter the Foundation Programme directly, while in others they can enter into the main stream directly and then be directed to the Foundation Programme after the first series of tests written in April. These programmes take the form of an extended curriculum, where the first year of academic study is extended over two years with a wide range of academic development programmes to develop competencies. The faculty does recognise that Mathematics has a restricted number of candidates, 08 August 2002 Page 289 of 354 especially from disadvantaged backgrounds, for entry. It also recognises that Mathematics at secondary school level has not necessarily provided the required competencies for academic success. At the beginning the success rate of the special selection tests was 23%; now it has increased to 60%, especially for students from disadvantaged communities. 4. Health Sciences There is a new curriculum for medical students doing practical in Primary Health Care. Arrangements have been made with North West, the Northern Province and Mpumalanga. (a) Problems experienced * Students from a disadvantaged background are not prepared to deal with the high pressures of tertiary institutions. 08 August 2002 Page 290 of 354 * First- and second-year students experience a 50% failure rate, due to the fact that they have a poor background in Mathematics and Science. WITS has had to change its entry requirements to medical school and this has changed the number of years one has to study for a medical degree to four intensive years. The curriculum has been changed as well. * Students from disadvantaged schools have difficulty in asking questions in a large lecture hall. This makes it difficult to pick up problems they may experience. WITS has decided to make group small - about 8 students per class. * WITS has developed contact with hospitals in Mpumalanga and the Northern Province for graduates to work there. 08 August 2002 Page 291 of 354 (b) College of Science The College of Science was started in 1991. Every year about 130 students are admitted to the stream that leads to Science. The two-year programme also offers computer skills, library skills, etc. More students can be admitted, but most students do not do well in Mathematics. 5. Humanities, Social Sciences and Education Entry requirements in this faculty have been changed. Curriculum specialists are located in the different faculties, who are involved in curricula review and restructuring of education diplomas and degrees. Many of the staff are involved in producing text books across the spectrum. Five computer centres have been set up to allow teachers and students to have access to computers. Teachers have been allowed to 08 August 2002 Page 292 of 354 upgrade themselves in their area of study or interest. For example, teachers without matric (PTC) but with many years of working experience may study certain courses. Applicants older than 23 who do not meet the entry requirements, may study for the four- year degree or three-year diploma. 6. Faculty of Science The faculty has the following branches: Biological Science; Molecular Science; Geo- Science; and Pure Mathematics. An E in higher grade Mathematics is the entry requirement. Should applicant not have this, a special selection test is offered to allow them to gain access. Those who pass the selection test, are interviewed and potential is identified. 60 to 80 students are allowed to study through a foundation programme to improve their success rate. 08 August 2002 Page 293 of 354 WITS encourages organisations like Eskom to allow their bursars to do a two-year postgraduate degree in Engineering while being paid 75% of their salary. 7. University Institutional Forum The forum has about 45 members (four members of the SRC; SASCO is also represented), and meets once a quarter or whenever there is a need. The term of office is three years. It advises the Council on issues affecting the university i.e. transformation and HIV/AIDS. Most students are not aware of how the forum can assist them. It is planning on improving communication with students. Plan of action The Forum needs: To redefine the university's role. 08 August 2002 Page 294 of 354 To improve its communication strategy. To improve staff morale. 8. Student Representative Council The SRC has 15 members, five white, six black and four others. Issues that students deal with, are different from issues dealt by students in previous years. Some of these are HIV/AIDS, second language learning and media on campus. The SRC has delivered on their manifesto of promises. It has solved some of student governance problems. Students have been involved in restructuring and transforming the university. The SRC also ensures that the university does not exclude students. 9. HIV/AIDS The SRC initiated the HIV/AIDS tests at WITS. Members of the Council have gone for HIV/AIDS tests but have not released their 08 August 2002 Page 295 of 354 results. Their main goal is to have students go for HIV/AIDS tests. Enough condoms have been distributed and the university has been involved in formulating an HIV/AIDS policy. 10. Sexual harassment WITS has employed a part-time sexual harassment officer; they cannot afford a full-time one. Those who feel that they have been sexually harassed, can consult the office. There are statistics available that suggest sexual harassment and rapes do occur. 11. Language WITS is addressing the language problem and foundation courses are offered for disadvantaged students. A language survey to determine the language problem experienced by students has been conducted. The Department of Education does not consider sign language an entrant requirement. 08 August 2002 Page 296 of 354 12. Racism Students are not willing to come forward and report incidences of racism, as they are scared of being victimised. WITS does not allow initiation of students. 13. Postgraduate students They do not have a platform from which to raise their concerns, and they do not receive adequate funding for their studies. 14. Key people from bridging and foundation programmes The needs of the students who do not meet entry requirements, are addressed. Students who experience personal and academic problems, are counselled. 15. Unversity Research Committee 08 August 2002 Page 297 of 354 Research in South Africa is funded by Science Councils. WITS is trying to identify black women academics. The research committee has proposed a capacity development scheme to support and promote blacks, women and the youth. Challenges in increased involvement of Blacks/women Academics are not paid well and this makes it difficult to attract them to the university. The pressure is on black graduates to contribute to their families financially once they are qualified. The Faculty of Science, followed by Engineering, produces a number of publications. WITS has a system of senior mentorship, where experienced scientists are funded from outside to train young scientists. The Nuclear Physics Institute has signed agreements for exchange students with Zimbabwe. 08 August 2002 Page 298 of 354 It is difficult to access funds for a publication, as you have to be on a list of Research Journals, which have not been updated for five years. The Faculty of Engineering is fully committed to research, but it is difficult for the university in general to retain black students to enter postgraduate studies, as they prefer to work after completing their junior degree, due to the fact that their parents or families expect them to pay towards the studies of siblings still at school. They either join the public or private sector because education institutions offer lower salaries. 16. National Plan Co-ordinating Committee - merging of institutions The institution is not scared of change, and for the past three years has engaged in transformation. Informal discussions are taking place on a possible merger. However, 08 August 2002 Page 299 of 354 international experience shows that a merger of institutions succeeds when there is enough time to do it, but does not succeed when forced. It has shown that institutions like WITS should strengthen its strategic alliance rather than merge. WITS does acknowledge that Johannesburg needs more than one university, but is not sure whether a merger will address this need. The merger could be done at programme level. Their concern is that if pushed to merger, they will end up not addressing their problems and will not be able to focus on transformation. Nevertheless, WITS is willing to engage in policy discussions. 17. Postgraduate Association Previously there was no way for postgraduate students to channel their grievances. The Postgraduate Association does not have a seat in the Senate. There are not enough funds to promote research at WITS, as the 08 August 2002 Page 300 of 354 government is no longer funding the institution properly. This makes it impossible for WITS to sustain itself without proper promotion of research. 18. National Student Financial Aid Scheme For many years funds have been allocated to needy students registering at institutions of higher learning. Since the inception of the NSFAS, WITS has administered these funds in accordance with criteria laid down by the NSFAS as well as WITS's General Rules of Practice for awarding University Administered Bursaries and Loans (for 2001). (a) Size allocation per student The maximum allocation to each student has increased steadily each year from R10 000 in 1996 to R16 000 in 2001. The maximum income level has been increased to R130 000 per year to assist middle- income students who face financial 08 August 2002 Page 301 of 354 constraints. Lower income levels were from R10 000 to R15 000 per year. This enabled the extremely needy students to be assisted. (b) Eligibility * Students cannot access NSFAS funds unless they are registered. It is the Department of Education that has set this criteria. However, WITS does waver registration fees if a students is on the NSFAS, while other universities do not allow that. * The duration of financial assistance is equal to the length of the degree plus one year (up to a maximum of seven years in the case of medical students). * In certain circumstances where a student has already qualified for an 08 August 2002 Page 302 of 354 undergraduate degree, he or she may not receive additional funding. However, WITS and the Oppenheimer Trust have established a loan scheme to be administered by the NSFAS. * Difficulty is experienced by students who do not qualify for maximum funds but require additional funding for accommodation and subsistence. If a student is in a residence, the allowance pays for accommodation, so there are no surplus funds available for subsistence. If the student uses private accommodation, the allowance is used to payment the rent, and therefore no subsistence is available. * In 2001 there were roll-over funds, which assisted 690 students who otherwise would have been excluded. 08 August 2002 Page 303 of 354 (c) Disabled students WITS encourages access of disabled students, regardless of a lack of resources. * These students experience specific problems as a result of their disabilities. In most cases they are enrolled on special/extended curricula which require that the period of study and thus the loan period be extended. The difficulty comes in where a student has surpassed the number of years allowed but has not finished the degree. Although they are denied funding, it is felt that a disabled student should be assisted to study further. However, there have been no funds allocated for this purpose. In addition, disabled students often require specialised material, which at this stage are not funded by the NSFAS. 08 August 2002 Page 304 of 354 * The Dean of Student Affairs discussed these points with Mr R Jackson, Chief Executive Officer of the NSFAS, who agreed to take the matter up with the NSFAS Board. * Disabled students are assisted by the university's Roll-over Loan Programme. This programme was started in 1993 to assist needy students on financial aid who were unable to pay fees not covered by their packages. Since then the programme has grown from assisting only a handful of students to assisting 690 students in 2000-01. It includes the granting of additional NSFAS loans and is aimed at students who are unable to pay the balance of their fees at the end of the academic year. Provided they have passed and have not received the maximum NSFAS loans, these students' applications are 08 August 2002 Page 305 of 354 reassessed and they are granted additional loan funding according to their financial need rating. Foreign students, including those with refugee status, SADC students (unless they become South African citizens) and part-time students are not eligible for loans. The NSFAS requires that all students make some contribution towards their costs. Because of this requirement, all students applying for the Roll-over Loan Programme must have made a contribution towards their fees accounts, according to their individual circumstances. WITS also provides a Service Bursary Scheme, whereby students may work in departments within the university to assist them to make their own contributions. Wits also receive donated funds and funds from the University Council. These funds are used to top up student packages with 08 August 2002 Page 306 of 354 bursaries. Students are not required to repay this portion to the university. H. Potchefstroom University (PU) - 7 August 2001 1. Traditional ethos and transformation The School of Theology was founded in 1869 in Burgersdorp. In 1919 the institution became a University College for Christian Higher Education (CHE). It became a University of South Africa College in 1921, being called a University College in 1951. The university has had one satellite campus since 1966. More blacks started studying at PU since 1967. Residences were opened to all races in 1990. There are about 2 000 students on the Vaal Triangle Campus. 2. Vision A university of high quality with a Christian foundation, entrepreneurally orientated and responsive to the 08 August 2002 Page 307 of 354 requirements of the age, the country and the nation. 3. Transformation The transformation process started early in the 1990s. Prior to 1994 they met with different stakeholders, and various issues were discussed. Before transformation took place, there was tension and uncertainty among staff, and there is still tension. In the mid-90s the composition of the council was changed, as it was dominated by whites. It contained 17 white males. 30% of the members were internal members and 70% were external. Three were Senate members. In 1993 the council consisted of one principal, four vice-principals, two Senate members, one employee, one student and external members. An agreement was reached to enlarge the council to 23 members, 08 August 2002 Page 308 of 354 consisting of 14 white males, seven black males and two white females. In 1999 further changes with regard to gender and the number of employees were made in respect of the council. It consisted of 17 whites, six blacks and five females. Principal - 1; Vice-Principal - 2; Management Committee; Senate - 2; Other employees - 1; Institutional Forum - 1; Students - 2. (a) Student numbers 1919-1965 - students numbered about 2 000. In 2001 there were 13 327 students at PU and the Vaal Triangle - 75% white, 25% black, 43% males and 57% females. 45% are from North West and 55% from other provinces and other countries. Postgraduate students are 3 490 (about 26%) and undergraduate students are 9 837 (about 74%). 08 August 2002 Page 309 of 354 (b) Massification The number of students increased as the years went by and telematic learning systems have been developed. PU's telematics results have been better than the results of students studying on campus (contact students). They are also better than those of students studying at UNISA, probably due to the fact that the majority of distance learners are mature and dedicated. Telematic, distant and contact students all write the same examinations. PU has been used to develop a telematics learning system, and its learning centres quite often operate in concert with other institutions to enhance education. These institutions are all over South Africa: Northern Province - 7; Mpumalanga - 21; North West - 13; Northern Cape - 5; Eastern Cape - 12; 08 August 2002 Page 310 of 354 Western Cape - 12; KwaZulu-Natal - 12; Gauteng - 1. This programme is meant for students who, for whatever reason, cannot attend residential institutions. PU is trying to attract more black students to balance with the country's demographics. Black students who qualify for admission are not turned away. PU does not prevent students from other denominations (not Christian) to study there. They are satisfied with the results of telematic learning systems, and has taken steps to ensure that private providers make the programme a success. PU has nine faculties and 13 research focus areas. They also offer outreach programmes - postgraduates engaged in community services. Research is conducted to assist communities in respect of nutrition, legal aid, etc. 08 August 2002 Page 311 of 354 The Theology Faculty has more black students than any other faculty. Twice a year school teachers enroll for diploma and postgraduate diploma courses offered by PU to upgrade them in Mathematics and Science. About 1 000 black teachers have been upgraded by them over the past four years. These teachers are allowed to use the university's laboratory facilities, as most of their schools do not have laboratories. (c) Institutional culture The language medium of PU is Afrikaans. About 6 000 students study in English. 90% of all textbooks are in English and lectures are in Afrikaans. All examination papers are in Afrikaans and English, and students may answer questions in the language of their choice. In the Vaal Triangle, 50% of the 08 August 2002 Page 312 of 354 lectures are in Afrikaans and 50% in English. Prof Zibi organised morning classes to teach management Setswana, which helped them to be sensitive to other languages. PU is opposed to the merger of institutions. They have a negotiated statute, which came about as a result of transformation. The statute will be revisited in some technical respects once the private acts are scrapped. Lectures have never been disrupted due to unrest. (d) Disabilities PU has developed material to enable blind students to study. Different buildings have been made to cater for persons with disability (e.g. toilets, off-ramps, lecture halls, etc). Disabled 08 August 2002 Page 313 of 354 staff members who cannot drive or use the computer, are assisted. (e) Language PU attempts to ensure that language is not a barrier for students. A language- assisting facility has been installed to assist students with reading skills. Computer courses are offered for all students. The university feels very strongly about Afrikaans, but will not exclude or discriminate against other languages. There are students trained to assist students who cannot cope with the content of courses. (f) Satellite campus: telematic/distance programmes Most students attending the satellite campus and distance programmes are working people with their own families 08 August 2002 Page 314 of 354 to support, and thus cannot afford to attend full-time lectures. (g) Student affairs There is a high level of representation of students on different committees. PU regards students as equals in all committees they are serving on. SRC members are members of the Senate, the Executive Council and the Council. The management does not interfere with student politics, and students independently deal with their affairs. (h) SRC SASCO was not part of the meeting, as its members were picketing outside the premises when the delegation arrived. The delegation met with members of the Vaal Triangle's SRC and PU's SRC. There was tension on campus when the SRC chairperson started studying at Vaal 08 August 2002 Page 315 of 354 Triangle. No one was prepared to address issues. Change began when students started questioning what was happening. Finances Many measures are in place to assist students financially. It has always been a problem for students to pay for registration. Language Students tried to establish a forum to discuss issues - a student parliament. This parliament sits once a term, depending on the need. Some programmes are offered in English. Evening lectures are mainly for part-time students, but full- time students are allowed to attend them. Study material is in both languages. Sometimes, at Vaal Triangle, students are allowed to 08 August 2002 Page 316 of 354 decide on the language they prefer to be lectured in. They participate in lectures in a language of their choice. Each campus has its own SRC. Potch has 18 portfolios and Vaal Triangle eight. The student body has eight portfolios, among others Sport, Culture, PRO, Secretary, Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson. It is directly involved in assisting students. NSFAS Funds are only made available to students after they have registered at Potch or Vaal Triangle. Students cannot access funds if their fees have not been paid. Students do not abuse the NSFAS, as the NSFAS targets needy students. Vaal Triangle is a small campus and it is easy to detect needy students. Both 08 August 2002 Page 317 of 354 SRCs assist in identifying needy students. Residences At Vaal Triangle, residence students are allowed to stay where they want. Most of them socialise with students of their own culture. Black students (five years ago) pressurised management to be accommodated in their own residences, but it was refused. Allegations exist that there is an element of racial discrimination at university residences. At Potch students are allowed to stay where they want, taking cognisance of the fact that mono-cultural residences have not been allowed to develop. HIV/AIDS 08 August 2002 Page 318 of 354 There is a support group that deals with AIDS. There are no condoms available on campus, as the distribution of condoms is regarded as contrary to a Christian value system. (i) Dropouts PU does not have readily available statistics on the number of academic dropouts. It has no record of students who dropped out because of financial reasons. Those who usually drop out after the first year, do not report or come back, which makes it difficult to trace them. (j) Orientation/initiation Initiation is done in a fashion that is comfortable to the students - it is a programme owned by the students. 08 August 2002 Page 319 of 354 3. NSFAS The Financial Support Services Department at PU is the vital link between the NSFAS and students. (a) State of NSFAS IN 2001 In 2001 PU received R14 133 522, and R11 209 355 was allocated. NSFAS 2001: R11 140 000; NSFAS Teachers Education 2001: R2 484 522; NSFAS x 2000: R412 000; NSFAS Thintana 2001: R97 000. Total number of students assisted: 1 096; population distribution: 65% whites and 35% blacks receive the funds. 20% of black students and 7% of white students receive NSFAS funds. 96% of black first- year students studying towards a degree in education receive NSFAS funds for teacher education. (b) Management of NSFAS at PU 08 August 2002 Page 320 of 354 The NSFAS is managed on a three-system approach - marketing, production and financial strategy. To market the NSFAS, the university: * Advertises in the student newspaper, Die Wapad. * Holds meetings with Deans, Directors of Schools, lecturers, house committee members and the SRC to sensitise on financially needy students. * Uses the Internet, e-mail and groupwise to inform students who have access to electronic media. * Liaises with the Financial Department (Accounts) to identify students with financial problems. * Makes first-year students aware of the NSFAS. 08 August 2002 Page 321 of 354 * Liaises with individual students to identify more financially needy students. Students who receive NSFAS funds, receive funds that cover all academic costs. PU does not return roll-over funds to the NSFAS, as they are aware that at the beginning of every year there are students who need financial assistance. These students are allowed to access roll-over NSFAS funds for registration. Only students who meet the academic requirements, can access these funds. PU allocates between R9 000 and R12 000 to each student, but priority is given to the needy. The NSFAS is satisfied with the way in which their funds are administered. 2. Entry requirements, bridging programme and publication of requirements for access 08 August 2002 Page 322 of 354 (a) PU offers a Technical College Programme for students who do not meet entry requirements. These access programmes are offered in Rustenburg, Vereeniging, Van der Bijl Park, Springs, Benoni, Potchefstroom and Sasolburg. (b) They offer Saturday classes (and has been doing so for a number of years) to assist Grade 12 pupils to pass so that they may meet the university's entry requirements. (c) PU has Student Counselling Services responsible for selecting students, career guidance using psychometric tests, assisting students to cope with their studies psychologically, and offering special administrative tests for students who do not meet entry requirements. Students who qualify to be admitted to study Engineering have a minimum of 21 points. 08 August 2002 Page 323 of 354 Students who do not qualify are allowed to write a special admission test in Mathematics. Those who do not pass the test, are allowed to study a two-year course in order to register. About 20 students are allowed to register for a one-year course that will enable them to study Engineering. This course is expensive and costs the university a lot of money. Tests are used to select students to study Pharmacy, Theology and Social Work. 3. SADC students PU does admit students from SADC countries, but their matric results have to be evaluated by the Matriculation Board. These students are from Zaire, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Namibia. The university has students from Korea and Britain, who study through telematics. PU has prepared study guidelines that assist distance-learning students. Distance-learning programmes are good programmes, not secondary. 08 August 2002 Page 324 of 354 I. University of the North (UNIN) - 8 August 2001 UNIN is a rural university within a predominantly black population. The ratio is 99% black, other races making up the remaining 1%. 55% of the student body are female. 1. Academic sector There are more females in the top managerial levels. There are more males (321) than females (141), more blacks (296) than whites (147), and only five coloureds and four Indians on the permanent staff of the main campus. On 1 July 2001, a new academic structure was established. (a) Programmes UNIN has various formative degrees and diplomas in the following directions: Arts and Health Sciences Humanities and Social Sciences 08 August 2002 Page 325 of 354 Law Agriculture, Health and Natural Sciences Management Sciences UNIN offers programme-based study directions within two faculties. These programmes will be housed in schools: Faculty of Arts and Humanities Arts Social Sciences Education Law Management and Leadership Studies Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences Natural and Environmental Sciences Mathematical Sciences, Computer Studies and Information Technology Health Sciences Applied Agriculture Sciences Mining and Manufacturing Engineering 08 August 2002 Page 326 of 354 Research Development A programme-based study direction was developed in response to the needs in community - UNIN has four research units. To date the focus has been on undergraduate programmes. Postgraduate programmes as well as research have always taken a backseat. UNIN now intends to increase efforts towards greater student intakes at postgraduate level. There are still more males than females, and UNIN wants to put mechanisms in place to attract more females into the research arena. UNIN has experienced a drastic drop in overall student enrolment and is now in the process of developing strategies to deal with the situation. It identified the following as factors that caused the dramatic drop in enrolment: 08 August 2002 Page 327 of 354 * Instability within the institution as a result of the active involvement of its student body in national politics. * Lack of viable marketable academic programmes. * The opening of alternative institutions of higher learning, especially white universities and technikons, since 1994. * The development of an increased interest in technikons, compared to universities. Lack of adequate financial support for students in need, especially first-time entrant and postgraduate levels. * Low matriculation results, especially at university entry level in the Northern Province. 08 August 2002 Page 328 of 354 * Lack of student retention mechanisms. * Lack of competitive recruitment strategies. * Poor image of the institution. (b) Disabled students UNIN caters for disabled students and partially sighted students. It has the best equipped and running disabled students unit, which will accommodate the needs of the disabled. Plans are afoot to put up a special building to house the unit. Physical facilities around the main campus have been improved to meet the needs of this sector of the student community. UNIN has a good programme for the deaf, visually and mobile impaired students. Funds have been raised to build a unit 08 August 2002 Page 329 of 354 for disabled students. However, UNIN cannot afford to buy furniture for them, and appeal to the government to assist. (c) Recruitment To attract students, UNIN advertises in both the printed and the electronic media. It is difficult for the university to attract postgraduate students, as it cannot afford to offer bursaries in competition with traditional white universities. (d) NSFAS - implementation and limitations * Ideally the funding should enable needy students to overcome their financial difficulties and further their education. Regrettably this is not the case, as the NSFAS is not able to fund students to the full tune of what they require, since there are minimum and maximum 08 August 2002 Page 330 of 354 allocations prescribed by the NSFAS Board. This means then it does not cater for all students' needs. Since its inception, the NSFAS has never been able to pay all fees for that particular year for students because of the limited funding and the number of students who qualify for financial assistance according to NSFAS requirements. * NSFAS funds are allocated to 60% females and 40% males. Students who do not meet NSFAS requirements are not allowed access to the funds. NSFAS allocations are made after a student has registered. * The success rate of students receiving NSFAS funds is about 60%. (e) NSFAS -implication for UNIN 08 August 2002 Page 331 of 354 UNIN depends mainly on the NSFAS to fund students, as it does not have reserves like other institutions, especially historically advantaged institutions. It has been a trend that, since the establishment of the NSFAS, UNIN has not been able to pay the allocation prescribed by the NSFAS because of limited funding. The amount allocated to an institution is divided by the number of students who qualify for financial assistance. For example, in the academic year 2000, the maximum allocation recommended by the NSFAS was R14 600, but the maximum allocation that the university could make available, was R8 500 per student. This amount does not even cover the fees fully, let alone meals and book allowance. The fact that students do not get an allowance for books, could lead to them failing or dropping out. 08 August 2002 Page 332 of 354 (f) Means test * Most institutions use the means test; others use their internal local software as the cut-off point for income. This creates a problem in a sense that the means test is not compulsory, and thus funding to students is not uniform. * It is not clear whether funding is really received by deserving (poor) students or not, since students do not provide true information about their parents' or guardians' income status. This makes it difficult to assess the authenticity of information given. There is no system which institutions could use to access the parents/guardians information. Most students submit pension slips, and UNIN depends on these submissions to select students. 08 August 2002 Page 333 of 354 * Students studying for a two-year diploma at UNIN, do not qualify for financial assistance. They struggle to get financial assistance, as UNIN does not have funds to allocate to them. * The NSFAS sponsors undergraduate students and only a few postgraduate degrees and diplomas. UNIN has to cater for students who do not qualify for NSFAS funds. (g) UNIN'S contribution UNIN has its own Student Financial Aid Trust, established in 1996. The trust awards bursaries to needy students in Pharmacy, Optometry, Agriculture, Natural Sciences, Management Sciences and Medical Sciences. Since 1999, the trust has allocated bursaries to the tune of R600 000. At the time of the 08 August 2002 Page 334 of 354 visit the trust hoped to raise R1 million before the end of 2001. (h) Student Representative Assembly * Students are not happy with the way NSFAS funds are allocated - these are allocated to students after they have registered. This means that students who cannot afford to pay registration fees, are unable to access funds and are not admitted. * Funds (about R2 million) have been withdrawn from UNIN because they were not utilised by the university. UNIN's Finance Section did not have a mechanism to allocate NSFAS funds to students. This happened even though students were sent home because they could not pay the registration fee. 08 August 2002 Page 335 of 354 * Funding is allocated mostly to students studying Science and Technology - students studying other courses are neglected. * Most students are black. * UNIN has a programme to ensure that SADC students are recruited and attracted. * The SRC is now referred to as the Student Representative Assembly, and its constitution has been changed. * There is no clear mechanism to ensure that university debts paid by students go to the university and not to lawyers. * UNIN is apprehensive of paying for first-year students, as there is no guarantee that those students will get a 50% pass. 08 August 2002 Page 336 of 354 (i) Administration and technical staff * Funding allocated to UNIN is not adequate, and thus some students have to drop out. * About 4 000 students applied to study at UNIN, but not all could register, as most of them could not afford registration fees. This has resulted in a significant drop in the numbers of students registered. Some staff members had to be retrenched, because there were not enough students to lecture. * UNIN is unable to attract students with good matric results. It is only the funded traditional white universities that are able to attract such students, as they can offer them bursaries. 08 August 2002 Page 337 of 354 * UNIN is unable to attract students of colour, as meals offered at the univer+sity are not of good quality. * 300 Pharmacy applicants were turned away because pharmacy laboratories were small and could not cater for many students. * UNIN has 600 computers but not enough trainers to train students, as there are not enough funds to pay trainers. (j) Concerned Lecturers and Academic Staff Support Group (CLASSG) * Students are unable to access the NSFAS for registration. Most academically qualifying students cannot afford to pay registration fees, which makes it difficult for UNIN to attract academically viable students. 08 August 2002 Page 338 of 354 * UNIN offers a good bridging programme, UNIFY. The Senate has agreed to expand the programme to other fields of study. * UNIN adheres to the National Plan on Higher Education. * Students registered in 2001 are committed in studying because they are encouraged to make a contribution towards their studies. They have to make some payment to register. * Politicians should assist UNIN to improve its culture of learning. * UNIN offers a community outreach programme -students cannot graduate without doing community work. * UNIN conducts research for the government. 08 August 2002 Page 339 of 354 (k) Entry requirements It is important for students to understand the language used in different courses. For example, students studying Science have to attend a language course for Science to enable them to understand the course. This course has been offered since the 1970s. UNIN addresses issues of language and culture in cases where the medium of instruction is a second or third language. 2. Visit to experimental farm - offical view by Prof Fritzgerald, Administrator: UNIN There is tension between UNIN and the Administrator. Prof Fritzgerald is working hard to ensure that this does not affect UNIN's functioning. According to him, the culture of learning has to be improved, and politicians could assist in this regard. 08 August 2002 Page 340 of 354 J. Recommendations 1. In keeping with the objective of specialist schools, centres of excellence and a focused vision, the above-mentioned institutions should look at placing greater funding and resources in the particular speciality towards which they seem to be moving: (a) Peninsula Tecnikon is moving towards digital technology and engineering, thus it should specialise and make this their priority, with advanced courses being offered so that they can produce not only computer operators but also software and hardware technologists. (b) To protect the valuable work kept in the Research Centre at the University of Fort Hare, it should be microfilmed and digitised. (c) The funding formula for universities should be reviewed; the current year 08 August 2002 Page 341 of 354 enrolment should be used as a yardstick, not the enrolment of two years ago. The formula should also provide for financial assistance for needy students. (d) The Department of Education should review the formula for funding institutions of higher learning with the aim to find ways in which to address the neglect of previously disadvantaged institutions and to empower them to fulfil their missions. (e) Special financial assistance to UNITRA is of the essence to upgrade their medical faculty. (f) The Department of Education should substantially increase the NSFAS budget to accommodate more students and to effectively and realistically open the doors of higher learning. 08 August 2002 Page 342 of 354 (g) As students from SADC countries are not eligible for NSFAS funds, a clear policy in respect of assisting them should be developed. (h) The University of the North needs to open a Mining Engineering Department or Faculty, as the entire Northern Province has a mining potential not fully utilised. (i) History as a discipline needs to be prioritised to realise the authentic and correct history of our people in South Africa. (j) African Languages need to be revitalised in our institutions of higher learning. (k) The National Research Foundation should facilitate research and training of postgraduate students at historically disadvantaged institutions. 08 August 2002 Page 343 of 354 (l) Special focus should be given to Potchefstroom University in respect of language, gender, religion and representativity in order to speed up the process of transformation there. K. Concluding remarks The Committee observed with appreciation the general stability in the institutions visited. There seems to be relative co-operation between stakeholders, with institutional forums working together well. Most of them seem to be making significant strides in keeping up with transformation policies. All agree that the NSFAS plays a big role in facilitating many students from poor communities to access institutions of higher learning. L. List of participants Peninsula Technikon Mrs V Elissac, Public Relations Officer 08 August 2002 Page 344 of 354 Prof B Figaji, Vice-Chancellor Prof J Tromp, Deputy Vice-Chancellor Mr G Reynecke, Head: Financial Aid Prof H Fransman, Director: Educational Development Centre Mr M Clarke, Chief Director: Finance and Administration Ms C Jacobs , Language Co-ordinator: Engineering Mr E Sebokedi, Deputy Head: Student Affairs Mr S Ndabezitha, Chief Director: Human Resources and Support Services Mr J Garraway, Educational Development Centre Mr L Himunchul, Educational Development Centre Mr T Titus, Head: Student Affairs Mr B Jodwana, SRC: Engineering Officer Mr T Damoyi, SRC: President Adv L Harper, Special Assistant to Vice- Chancellor University of Fort Hare Prof D Swartz, Vice-Chancellor 08 August 2002 Page 345 of 354 Prof D O Okeya, Executive Dean: Science and Technology Mr M S Silinga, Academic Cluster Leader Mr N Ruthman, Co-ordinator: Vision, Mission and Governance Ms Z Ndlovu, Co-ordinator: Finance and Revenue Strategies Prof R Bally, University Planner Ms L T Ngalo-Morrison, Dean of Students Mr S Kobese, Community partnership co-ordinator Mrs A H N Mbete, Director: Human Resources Mr L Jacobs, Director: Marketing and Communications Mr L Sogayise, Rural Action Programme Co- ordinator Mr M Moodley, Technology Support Centre Mr A Gwabeni, Institutional Forum Administrator: Academic Cluster Mr P Cole, Economic Development Consultant Mr N Dladla, Dean; Management, Development and Commerce Mr L Mabuyane, SRC President Mr N R Mboniswa, Administrator 08 August 2002 Page 346 of 354 Mr M W Magwa, SPC member Institutional Forum Represented by General Student Council, South Africa Student Congress, United Democratic Students' Movement Organisation, National Tertiary education staff union, Pan Africanist Student Movement Association, Azanian Student Congress, NEHAWU Ms Memani-Balani, Mr S Muzamba, Mr S Vamva, Mr N L Lufefe, Mr S P Sitole, Mr V T Gqube, Ms L D Khoabai, Mr M P Mhlanti, Mr V Peter, Mrs Bokwe, Ms T Heshlula, Mr L M Jakatyana, Mr S R Matshoba, Mr A B Magoloba, Mr E Maki, Mr S M Goqwana, Mr B Sixaba, Mr T L Bhengu, Mr L M Bara, Mr S Tini, Mr L S Toti University of Transkei Prof N Morgan, University Administrator Mr P O Chabane, Special Assistant to Administration 08 August 2002 Page 347 of 354 Prof C Z Gebeda, Manager: TELP Dr S M Matoti, Planner Prof J M Noruwana, Vice Principal Prof E L Mazwai, Dean: Health Sciences Prof N J N Mijere, Acting Dean: Faculty of Arts Prof A Coetier, Acting Vice Dean: Arts Prof M Mahabir, Dean: Faculty of Economic Sciences Mr P K Gqulu Mr L H Kentane, Vice Dean: Education Prof S V S Ngubentombi, Dean: Education Rev Dr W M Guwa, Dean of Students Mr F H Mbali, Member of IF Dr W M Kwetana, NTESU Ms S N Nkanyuza, President: NTESU Prof J A Faniran Prof B S Nikani, Dean: Science Ms K Kirishanlal-Gopal Mr B Mabentsela Mr A W Anderson, UASA Mr N P Tyamzashe, Nehawu Mr Z Madlongolwane, Nehawu Mr M Somkoko, Nehawu Mr M Mboni, SRC 08 August 2002 Page 348 of 354 Mr V P Zoko, SRC Mr M Sodlodla, SRC University of Natal Prof B M Gourley, Vice-Chancellor Mr P M Malgas, Registrar Dr D Rajab, Dean of Student Development Prof S S Abdool Karim, Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research) Mr T M Willis, Dean of Students Prof E A Ngara, Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Students and Transformation) Prof A Bawa, Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academics) Rev J Ngomane, Director: Financial Aid University of the Witwatersrand Prof Max Price, Dean: Faculty of Health Sciences Mr Makhukhu Mampuru, National Department of Education Ms Wendy Orr, Wits Transformation and Employment Equity 08 August 2002 Page 349 of 354 Prof Charles Landy, Acting Dean, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment Mr Tony Lelliott, Acting Dean: Faculty of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education Prof Colin J Wright, Dean: Faculty of Science Prof David Solomon, Acting Dean: Commerce, Law and Management Prof Norman Reid, Vice Chancellor Mr John Kuhn, SRC UF Deputy Chairperson Mr Steve Lebelo, Wits Foundation Prof James Fisher, Senate Ms Jillian Carman, UF Secretary: Convocaetion Executive Ms Barbara Buntman, Lecturer: Art History Ms Margaret Orr, Director: Centre for University Learning, Teaching and Development Ms Kathy Munro, Director: Wits Plus Centre for Part-time Studies Ms Michele Aucock, Director: Commerce Development Programme 08 August 2002 Page 350 of 354 Ms L Murray, Academic Planning Officer (Registrar's Office) Prof C Eales, Representative: Faculty of Health Sciences Prof F Maraicano, Representative: Faculty of Science Representative (National Plan Co-ordinating Committee) Prof L Nongxa, Chairperson: University National Plan Co-ordinating Committee Prof J Feddenhe, Faculty of CLM Prof H Janks, Faculty of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education Prof H M Marques, Faculty of Sciences Prof Y Ballim, Faculty of Engineeering and Built Environment Mr D Young, Lecturer and Member of Senate Ms N Jappie, Support Services, Member of Senate and Dean of Students Mr A Adamjee, SRC Treasurer Ms S Goga, SRC Media Officer 08 August 2002 Page 351 of 354 Mr I G T Moroeng, Internal Vice-President Mr J Huddle, SRC Secretary Mr J Kuhn, SRC Vice-President Mr N Letshoene, Deputy Chairpersoon: PSA Mr T Odhiambo, PGA: Projects and Campaigns Mr M Y Cajee, SRC President Mr V Black, Head: Financial Aid Mr A de Wet, Executive Director: Finance University of Potchefstroom Mr T Eloff, Principal Designate Mr A J Viljoen, Vice-Principal Mr W E Scott, Vice-Principal Prof M S Zibi, Vice-Principal Mr Theo Venter, Institutional Forum Mr P J J Prinsloo, Vice-Principal Prof H J Reyneke, Dean of Students Mr J S du Plooy, Head: Financial Support Service Prof P du Plessis, Director: Academic Services Prof H N Kotze, Head: Student Counselling Services Mr T Cato - Deputy Director - Academic Administrator 08 August 2002 Page 352 of 354 Mr H Stavast, Director: Student Affairs, Vaal Triangle Campus Mr S Nsibanyani, SRC Chairperson: Vaal Triangle Ms H Mulder, SRC Chairperson: Potchefstroom Ms B Basson, SRC Vice-Chairperson: Potchefstroom Ms C Dikotsi, SRC: Social Intergration Prof P Potgieter University of the North Prof A L Mawashe, Assistant to the Administrator Ms K M A Hlane, Acting University Registrar Ms N O Kwenaite, Public Relations Co-ordinator Prof P Fritzgerald, Administrator Mr M C Makhambula, Academic Administrator Prof N M Mollel, Caretaker Director: School of Social Sciences Prof S Louw, Languages and Communication Studies Prof P F Breed, Caretaker Director: Management Sciences 08 August 2002 Page 353 of 354 Dr P W Mashela, Caretaker Director: Physical and Mineral Sciences Adv Phindela, Caretaker Director: Law Prof G T Mncube, Quality Assurance Manager Mr W E S Thema, Acting Executive Director: SD and SS Dr D S Hiss, Caretaker Director: School of Health Sciences Prof P E Franks Dr N M Mokgalong, University of the North Academic Staff Association (UNASA) Mr M J Theman, Caretaker Dean: Humanities Mr M E Thangeni, Caretaker Director: Mathematics and Sciences Mr M F Ralenala, School of Education Mr M M Lemao, NEHAWU Mr M P Madidimao, NEHAWU Mr Eric Maimela, Post-Graduate Society Chairperson Mr T Musolwa, SRA Secretary-General Ms Sheila Mmusi, National Tertiary Education Staff Union 08 August 2002 Page 354 of 354 (NTESU) Mr K D Malele, Deputy President: Internal SRA Ms N Pitje, Administration and Technical Staff Mr V D Mabuza, BSA Mr C I Khanye, Administration and Technical Staff Mr G M JJIA, National Tertiary Education Staff Union (NTESU) Prof NL Nkantini, National Tertiary Education Staff Union Prof P R Franks, University of the North Academic Staff Association (UNASA) Mr M A Ngoepe, Concerned Lectures and Academic Staff Support Group (CLASSG) Report to be considered.
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