THURSDAY AUGUST by liaoqinmei

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									08 August 2002                                   Page 1 of 354

                 THURSDAY, 8 AUGUST 2002




The House met at 14:01.

The Chairperson of Committees took the Chair and

requested members to observe a moment of silence for

prayers or meditation.



                     NOTICES OF MOTION

Ms S C VAN DER MERWE: Chairperson I shall move on behalf

of the ANC on the next sitting day of the House:

  That the House -

  (1).notes that -
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     (a).the African Union was formally launched on 9

         July 2002 in Durban; and

     (b).the President of the Republic of South Africa,

         the hon Thabo Mbeki, was elected the first

         chairperson of the African Union;

  (2).believes that the launch of the African Union

     represents the commitment of the African people to

     building unity, solidarity, peace and stability,

     good governance, economic development and a

     culture of human rights on the continent;

  (3).welcomes the launch of the African Union; and

  (4).congratulates President Thabo Mbeki on his

     election as the first chairperson of the African



Mr E K MOORCROFT: Chairperson, I give notice that on the

next sitting day of the House I shall move:
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  That the House -

  (1).notes that former ANC activist Mkhuseli Jack, has

     requested President Mbeki to replace failed

     Eastern Cape Premier, Makhenkesi Stofile;

  (2).further notes that Mr Jack lists, among failures -

     (a).the nonpayment of 7 000 teachers;

     (b).the late or nondelivery of books to schools;

     (c).the failure of the school feeding scheme; and

     (d).chaos in the provision of health care;

  (3).expresses its support for this call to fire Mr

     Stofile; and

  (4).urges the ANC to put delivery and good governance

     ahead of personal and party loyalties.

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Mr J H SLABBERT: Chair, I give notice that on the next

sitting day of the House I shall move on behalf of the


  That the House -

  (1).notes that Transnet has awarded three major

       contracts worth more than R2,2 billion to start

       the development of the Ngqura port in the Coega

       industrial development zone near Port Elizabeth;

  (2).further notes that the new port is expected to

       receive its first ships by September 2004; and

  (3).acknowledges and congratulates Transnet on its

       commitment to socioeconomic upliftment by

       stipulating that black economic empowerment

       companies are to have a minimum of 30%

       participation in the awarded contracts.

Mr D J SITHOLE: Chairperson, on the next sitting day of

the House I shall move on behalf of the ANC:

  That the House -
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  (1).notes that -

     (a).President Joseph Kabila of the Democratic

         Republic of Congo and President Paul Kagame of

         Rwanda signed a peace agreement to end the

         military conflict between their two countries;


     (b).the signing of this agreement is as a result

         of months of negotiations facilitated by the

         President of the Republic of South Africa, the

         hon Thabo Mbeki;

  (2).believes that -

     (a).the signing of this peace agreement represents

         an important milestone in the struggle for the

         realisation of peace and prosperity on the

         African continent; and

     (b).this agreement will contribute positively to

         making this century an African one and to the

         furtherance of the objectives of the New

         Partnership for Africa's Development; and
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  (3).the people of South Africa welcome the signing of

     the peace agreement as it ushers in a new era of

     solidarity and common purpose among the peoples of



Dr B L GELDENHUYS: Chairperson, I hereby give notice

that I shall move on the next sitting day of the House:

  That the House -

  (1).notes with concern that 2 900 commercial farmers

     in Zimbabwe will be forced to vacate their farms

     by midnight today with devastating consequences

     for the economy of the whole region;

  (2).expresses its deepest concern that the aforesaid

     evacuation will aggravate the plight of more than

     six million people in Zimbabwe facing starvation

     in the next 12 months; and

  (3).calls on the SA Government to do everything within

     its power to safeguard the investments and
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     property of SA citizens in Zimbabwe in terms of

     the bilateral agreement on the protection of

     investments and thanks it for its endeavours so

     far in this regard.


Mr S ABRAM: Chairperson, I give notice that I shall move

at the next sitting of the House:

  That the House -

  (1).notes the talks between the leader of the UDM, Mr

     Bantu Holomisa and Palestinian President, Yasser

     Arafat, as well as Israeli Deputy Foreign Minister

     Michael Melchlor;

  (2).acknowledges the escalating conflict inflicting

     loss of life, damage to infrastructure and the

     psychological and emotional trauma being suffered;

  (3).calls upon the UN to enforce its resolutions

     calling for the withdrawal of Israeli tanks and
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     forces from all occupied Palestinian territories;


  (4).further calls upon all parties involved in the

     conflict to return to the negotiating table

     mediated by pragmatic, trustworthy and neutral

     internationally acclaimed personalities.

Ms E THABETHE: Chairperson, on the next sitting day of

the House I shall move on behalf of the ANC:

  That the House -

  (1).notes that -

     (a).David Potse was found guilty and sentenced to

           life imprisonment and 18 years for indecently

           assaulting and raping baby Tshepang; and

     (b).the crime committed by this rapist is the most

           gruesome form of human rights violation and

           must be condemned by all;
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  (2).believes that women and children's rights must be

     consistently upheld and respected by all in our


  (3).commends the good work done by the SAPS and our

     criminal justice system in effecting justice in

     this case and welcomes the sentence thus meted

     out; and

  (4).calls on our youth to work towards the moral

     regeneration of our society and to protect and

     defend the rights and dignity of the girl child.


Mrs R M SOUTHGATE: Mr Chairman, I hereby give notice I

will move on behalf of the ACDP at the next sitting of

the House:

  That the House -

  (1).notes with concern the plight of women in

     Bangladesh, in particular the more than 200 women

     who last year alone were brutally attacked by men
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     with sulphuric acid, which resulted in terrible


  (2).commends these brave women for their strength and

     determination to continue to fight for their lives

     and their rights in the face of such adversity,

     especially in Bangladesh, where women have very

     low standing, even more so if they are married;

  (3).stands together with the ACDP, as we commemorate

     Women's Day in Parliament today, to salute not

     only these women, but women worldwide, from all

     walks of life, including all the abused women in

     South Africa who have endured physical, emotional

     or psychological abuse and have survived against

     great odds; and

  (4).calls on the Government to increase awareness of

     abuse against women and to instill justice where

     justice is due, to help put abusers behind bars

     and to make our nation a safer place for all.

Mr I S MFUNDISI: Chairperson, on the next sitting day of

the House I shall move on behalf of the UCDP:
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  That the House -

  (1).notes with concern that in this women's month the

     University of South Africa is faced with a

     situation of having to decide whether or not to

     pay the legal fees of their disgraced Chairman of

     Council, Mr McCaps Motimele, who has been ordered

     to pay R150 000,00 and legal costs for having

     sexually harassed a former lecturer at the

     university, Dr Margaret Orr;

  (2).notes that whatever he did was a personal matter;


  (3).acknowledges that -

     (a).public funds should not be committed to this

           despicable conduct, as it would be supporting

           him against her; and

     (b).at best he should be relieved of the

           responsibility of being chairman of such a

           world-acclaimed centre of learning.
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Mr L N DIALE: Chairperson, on the next sitting day of

the House I shall move on behalf of the ANC:

  That the House -

  (1).notes that -

     (a).ANC stalwart and veteran of uMkhonto weSizwe,

         Comrade Justice ``Gizenga'' Mpanza, passed

         away on Tuesday, 30 July 2002, after a short


     (b).Comrade Gizenga served in the Wankie military

         campaign as part of the Luthuli detachment and

         fought alongside comrades such as James April,

         Cletus Mzimela, Joseph Nduli, Chris Hani,

         Basil February and many others; and

     (c).comrade Gizenga served on Robben Island with

         Comrades Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Ahmed

         Kathrada and others;
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  (2).salutes this gallant fighter and giant of our

     revolution; and

  (3).the people of South Africa convey our deepest and

     sincerest condolences to the Mpanza family and

     friends, and vow to take forward the progressive

     values and principles to which he dedicated all

     his life.


Mr S B FARROW: Chairperson, I hereby give notice that I

shall move on behalf of the DP at the next sitting day

of the House:

  That the House -

  (1).notes that -

     (a).today is the last day on which Zimbabwean

         commercial farmers and farmworkers may legally

         be on their land;
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     (b).the disastrous directive by Zanu-PF will

         displace 1,5 million people who will be left

         destitute by this wilful destruction of the

         agricultural economy; and

     (c).famine will affect 6,5 million people in

         Zimbabwe and a further 6 million people in

         countries which relied on food imports from

         Zimbabwe; and

  (2).recognises that it is only the 50 000 large and

     small commercial farmers in South Africa who stand

     between food and famine in the Southern African



Mr H J BEKKER: Mr Chairman, I hereby give notice that on

the next sitting day of the House I shall move on behalf

of the IFP:

  That the House -
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  (1).notes the contents of the report of the Myburgh

     commission in respect of the severe devaluation of

     the rand earlier this year;

  (2).further notes that the IFP at the time of the

     appointment of the commission indicated that this

     investigation would be a costly exercise, which

     would do no more than give the Government a

     greater understanding of market forces and

     exchange rate fluctuations; and

  (3).therefore urges Government Ministers and

     spokespersons to give careful consideration to

     statements issued by them in order that such

     statements do not impact negatively on the market

     place and lead to the volatility in the value of

     the rand, so clearly demonstrated by the recent

     Government fiasco regarding mining rights and the

     future ownership and shareholding of mines.

Ms N L HLANGWANA: Chairperson, I hereby give notice that

on the next sitting day of the House I shall move on

behalf of the ANC:
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  That the House -

  (1).notes that -

     (a).Natalie du Toit was presented with the David

         Dixon Award for the most outstanding athlete

         of the Commonwealth Games on 4 August 2002;


     (b).Natalie du Toit made history when she swam

         against able-bodied swimmers in the 800 metres

         in the Commonwealth Games on Friday, 2 August,

         in Manchester, in the process earning two gold


  (2).believes that -

     (a).her achievements serve as an honour to all

         South Africans and women in particular; and

     (b).this achievement further demonstrates the

         strength and resilience of women who,

         throughout our history, have been in the

         forefront of our social transformation
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         processes, aimed at realising a truly free,

         nonsexist, nonracial, democratic South Africa;


  (3).notes that -

     (a).the ANC and the people of South Africa

         congratulate Natalie du Toit on her sterling

         performance during these games; and

     (b).her achievements serve as an inspiration to

         all young people in South Africa.


Mr J DURAND: Chairperson, I hereby give notice that on

the next sitting day of the House I shall move on behalf

of the New NP:

  That the House -

  (1).notes with concern the appalling working

     conditions that some factory workers are exposed

     to on a daily basis;
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  (2).finds it shocking and totally unacceptable that

     some employers can be so careless about their

     workers' general well-being;

  (3).believes that workers are businesses' most

     valuable asset and are entitled to safe and

     healthy working conditions; and

  (4).notes that the New NP welcomes the Department of

     Labour's decisive action against employers who are

     not adhering to prescribed labour legislation and

     calls on the department to expand their

     investigation, because illegal labour practices

     must be stopped.


Ms N C NKABINDE: Mr Chairman, I will move on behalf of

the UDM at the next sitting of this House:

  That the House -

  (1).notes -
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     (a).the disconnection of water and electricity

         supplies to numerous schools in the Blue Crane

         Municipality; and

     (b).the debt of R1,4 million following a payment

         of R81 000 earlier this week;

  (2).expresses its utter frustration at the

     unacceptable schooling conditions in which

     students had to ask neighbouring communities to

     use basic services such as toilets and water; and

  (3).calls on the Minister of Education to ensure that

     such deplorable education conditions do not repeat

     themselves and to guarantee the creation of a

     suitable learning environment for all our



                   (Draft Resolution)


hereby move without notice:
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  That the House -

  (1).notes that -

     (a).Maria Mamodupi Rantho, a former ANC member of

         the National Assembly, passed away on 12 July


     (b).Ms Rantho served in Parliament between 1995

         and 1998 and that during this term she served

         in the Portfolio Committee on Public Service

         and Administration and the Portfolio Committee

         on Reconstruction and Development Programme;


     (c).she was later appointed as a commissioner in

         the Public Service until her untimely death;

  (2).acknowledges her immense contribution to the

     struggle for justice in South Africa and her

     relentless commitment to advocating the rights of

     persons with disabilities and building a new

     democratic, nonracial, nonsexist and prosperous

     South Africa; and
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  (3).mourns the loss of this patriot and extends its

     sincere condolences to her family and friends.

Agreed to.


                     (Draft Resolution)

Mr M J ELLIS: Chairperson, I hereby move without notice:

  That the House -

  (1).welcomes home the South African Commonwealth Games

     team who, together, won 46 medals;

  (2).congratulates them on their achievements and the

     manner in which they participated in the Games,

     which brought credit to their country; and

  (3).commends Natalie du Toit on receiving the first

     David Dixon Award as the outstanding athlete of

     the Commonwealth Games and symbolising the
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     determination of South Africans to overcome

     adversity and succeed.

Agreed to.


                     (Draft Resolution)


hereby move without notice:

  That the House -

  (1).notes that Ms Fhawutani Ramabulana from the

     Northern Province was voted the Shoprite-Checkers

     Woman of the Year 2002;

  (2).believes that -

     (a).Ms Ramabulana serves as an inspiration to

         young women to work hard; and
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     (b).her achievement is consistent with the

         political programme of the Government and the

         people of South Africa to create an enabling

         environment for the empowerment of women as we

         celebrate national Women's Day; and

  (3).congratulates Ms Ramabulana on receiving this

     important and prestigious award.

Agreed to.

                 CELEBRATING WOMEN'S DAY

                     (Draft Resolution)

Mr M J ELLIS: Chairperson, I hereby move without notice:

  That the House -

  (1).notes that -

     (a).Friday, 9 August, is Women's Day which will be

         celebrated throughout our country; and
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     (b).the struggle for full equality for women has

         still not been won and that in almost every

         sphere of our national life women still do not

         enjoy the equality which is their right in

         terms of our Constitution; and

  (2).while celebrating the advances made and the real

     achievements of women in our country, nevertheless

     commits itself to achieving that which our

     Constitution promises.

Agreed to.


                     (Draft Resolution)

Mr J DURAND: Chairperson, I hereby move without notice:

  That the House -

  (1).notes with pride the outstanding performance of

     Ernie Els during the British Open and

     congratulates him on his victory; and
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  (2).also wishes all the participants in the African

     Games the best of luck and believes that they will

     follow in Ernie Els' footsteps and do South Africa


Agreed to.


                      (Draft Resolution)

Dr M S MOGOBA: Chairperson, I move without notice:

  That the House -

  (1).notes -

     (a).with sadness, the murder of Mr Joas Baker

         Mogale of Atteridgeville, Pretoria;

     (b).that Baker was a former Robben Island veteran,

         a member of the Pan Africanist Congress of

         Azania and a leading light in black economic

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     (c).that he was one of the founder members of the

         Foundation for African Business and Consumer

         Services (Fabcos) in 1988, became General

         Secretary (Administration and Public Liaison)

         of Nafcoc and was one of the first directors

         of Future Bank; and

     (d).that he was also a founder member of Tsogo

         Sun, a director of Business Beat (a Deloitte

         and Touche subsidiary) and a board member of

         Business Partners;

  (2).expresses condolences to his wife, Sheba, and

     family; and

  (3).hopes that criminal violence, that robs us of the

     cream of our nation, can be contained or rooted

     out completely.

Agreed to.


                   (Draft Resolution)
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move the motion as it appears on the Order Paper as


  That, notwithstanding the resolution adopted by the

  House on 24 June 2002, the date by which the Ad Hoc

  Committee on Appointment of Public Protector must

  complete its task be extended from 8 August 2002 to 30

  August 2002.

Agreed to.



                   (Draft Resolution)


hereby move the motion on the Order Paper as follows:

  That the House recommits the South African Maritime

  and Aeronautical Search and Rescue Bill [B 23B - 2002]

  to the Portfolio Committee on Transport for further

  consideration and report.
08 August 2002                                   Page 28 of 354

Agreed to.



                    (Draft Resolution)


hereby move the motion printed in my name on the Order

Paper as follows:

  That, notwithstanding Rule 106, the time allotted to

  the Minister of Environmental Affairs and Tourism for

  his statement today, be extended to 30 minutes.

Agreed to.

The SPEAKER: Hon members, I have received a request from

the Minister of Environmental Affairs and Tourism to

make a statement on the World Summit on Sustainable

Development. I will now grant the Minister an

opportunity to make his statement.

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Speaker and hon members, Southern Africa is the cradle

of humankind. About 120 000 years ago, human beings

began the journey from here to occupy the other

continents and the furthest corners of planet earth. For

most of this period, our ancestors lived in harmony with

nature. Over the millennia, human beings advanced

socially, economically and culturally, never once facing


All that changed in the last 100 years. Human beings,

for the first time, started destroying the very earth

which we need for our survival. Much of the world's fish

stocks have been depleted. Large quantities of carbon

dioxide pumped into the atmosphere by industrial and

motor vehicles has led to global warming. Many plant and

animal species are becoming extinct. Rivers and

underground water resources are being polluted, and

forests are being destroyed. The last century can be

characterised as the era of unsustainable development.
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Our world is on a development path that is

unsustainable. If we all consume as much as the average

US citizen does, this world will implode. But the

patterns of consumption are not just unsustainable, they

are also unfair. The entire continent of Africa is

responsible for a mere 3% of carbon emissions into the

atmosphere, yet pays the same high price for climate

change as the rest of the world. So, poor Africans are

subsidising rich Americans, Europeans and Japanese.

The first United Nations Conference on the Human

Environment was held in 1972 in Stockholm. Speaking in

Rio de Janeiro in June this year, President Mbeki said,

and I quote:

  Today, thirty years later, we have fewer fish in the

  sea, more carbon dioxide being pumped into the

  atmosphere, more desertification, more soil erosion,

  and more species extinction.

  Our very development model is questioned daily by the

  earth's ecosystem, on which all life and all economic

  activity is dependent. Our patterns of consumption and

  production cannot be left unchecked. If the Chinese
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  citizen is to consume the same quantity of crude oil

  as his or her US counterpart, China would need over 80

  million barrels of oil a day - slightly more than the

  74 million barrels a day the entire world now

  produces. If annual paper use in China of 35kg per

  person were to climb to the US level of 342kg, China

  would need more paper than the world currently


The period since the Rio Earth Summit was one of

unprecedented global economic growth. Growth in the

world economy in the year 2000 alone exceeded that

during the entire 19th century. Yet people continue to

die of hunger; babies are born, grow up and die without

being able to read or write; many fellow humans do not

have clean water to drink; and people die of curable

diseases. The gulf between the rich and poor members of

the human race widens as we speak.

The Johannesburg World Summit must take further our

pledge at the Millennium Summit to eradicate poverty. It

must focus on implementation and action. Its outcome

must make sense to she who has to walk for kilometres to

fetch drinking water and to she who spends hours
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gathering firewood for energy. It must also speak to he

who consumes more than the earth can give.

The quest for sustainable development cannot and should

not be separated from the struggle for the emancipation

of women. The burden of women in developing countries is

compounded by poverty, malnutrition, lack of access to

fresh water, inadequate sanitation and desertification.

The dominance of men in global decision-making must

change. Something is wrong when, even in the year 2002,

the entire world only has 22 woman environment


The Johannesburg World Summit is now only two weeks

away. We are nearing the end of a long preparatory

period spanning the past two years. At the beginning of

the process, it was not possible to say with any degree

of certainty what the scale, agenda or outcomes of the

summit would be. But now, on the eve of the event, the

stage is set and the agenda is clear. As the world

begins to gather in Johannesburg over the next few

weeks, they will build on the far-reaching consensus

that was generated during an extremely rich and

comprehensive global preparatory process.
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What are the main areas of agreement? Firstly, there is

consensus that the central focus of the summit should be

on the eradication of poverty. Secondly, there is

consensus that the summit must be primarily about

implementation and delivery. Thirdly, it is agreed that

there should be a balanced emphasis on all three pillars

of sustainable development: social development, economic

development and the protection of the environment.

Fourthly, it is agreed that the main areas of action

should be access to water and sanitation; access to

energy, health care, food security, and biodiversity and

ecosystem management. Fifthly, there is consensus that

implementation must involve partnerships between

governments of the North and the South, and between

governments and the private sector and civil society.

Sixthly, there is agreement that Africa must enjoy

priority in the action plans, with Nepad serving as the

delivery vehicle. Seventhly, there is consensus that

that summit must endorse and rededicate itself to the

decisions of the Rio Earth Summit, including agenda 21.

There are outstanding areas on which agreements have not

been reached. These include the application of the

principle of common but differentiated responsibility
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among countries for sustainable development; the setting

of targets for the provision of adequate sanitation and

the setting of targets for renewable forms of energy;

the phasing-out of environmentally harmful and trade-

distorting subsidies; the mobilisation of already

committed funds and the need for new and additional

resources, and the link between sustainable development

and good governance.

In order to explore solutions to the outstanding issues,

President Mbeki and Secretary-General Kofi Annan decided

to convene a meeting of a select but representative

group of countries referred to as `the friends of the

chair'. These countries include Argentina, Brazil,

Canada, China, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Ghana,

India, Indonesia, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Mexico,

Nigeria, Norway, the Russian federation, Senegal,

Sweden, Uganda, the United Kingdom, the United States of

America and Venezuela.

The meeting was held on 17 July in New York. At the

meeting it became clear that while tough negotiations

will take place at the summit, there is a genuine

commitment on the part of most countries to a
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constructive search for solutions. As a result of these

consultations, South Africa accepted a proposal made by,

among others, the G77 group that negotiations should

begin two days before the actual start of the summit.

So, these informal negotiations will now take place on

24 and 25 August.

We are confident that all outstanding matters can be

resolved. All indications are that the summit will be

attended by a large number of heads of state and

government. This, together with the presence in

Johannesburg of global leaders of all sectors of

society, promises to make this event one of deep

significance to humanity.

The official United Nations Summit will, in addition to

governments, provide for the active participation of

representatives of, amongst others, youth, women, trade

unions and business organisations. Representatives of

these groups will also have the opportunity to interact

directly with heads of state and government in a series

of relatively intimate round-table meetings.
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In addition to the events at the Sandton Convention

Centre, hundreds of parallel events will take place

elsewhere in Johannesburg and other South African

cities. The Civil Society Global Forum involving tens of

thousands of delegates will take place at the Nasrec

Expo Centre from 23 August to 4 September.

A number of civil society pre-summit conferences will

take place from 19 August to 23 August. Among these, the

International Youth Summit will be held at Sun City in

the North West, and the Indigenous People's

International Summit will be held in Kimberley. The

International Local Government Conference will be held

at the Sandton Crowne Plaza Hotel. Judges and chief

justices from around the world-will meet at the Global

Judges Symposium from 18 to 20 August. Private-sector

leaders will attend the Business Forum Lekgotla at the

Hilton Hotel.

The Interparliamentary Union will be holding a two-day

event entitled ``Sustainable Development: The role of

parliaments in ensuring implementation and

accountability'' on 29 and 30 August at the Sandton

Convention Centre. Over the same two days, the
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Parliamentarians Workshop on Clean Air and Clean Water,

organised by Parliamentarians for Global Action, will be

held at the Summer Palace Hotel.

In order to provide for the worldwide request to exhibit

sustainable development best practice projects, a tented

city, called Ubuntu Village, has been constructed. At

the centre of Ubuntu Village is the 11 000 square metre

Tensile One, the world's biggest tent. Ubuntu Village

will be a hive of activity, with exhibitions, talks,

conferences, launches and cultural events. Among the

exhibitions will be an extensive display of renewable

and clean energy technology. The village will also be

open to the public.

The Randburg Dome will be transformed into the Water

Dome by the Global Water and Sanitation Sector. This

will be the gathering place for governments and

nongovernmental organisations involved in water and

sanitation. The Water Dome will house exhibitions,

talks, meetings and conferences on the subject.

South Africa's vibrant culture will also play a role in

enriching the event. Johannesburg's Newtown precinct
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will be the epicentre of a large number of theatrical,

musical and other cultural performances.

The Global Forum opening ceremony will be held on 23

August at the Johannesburg Stadium. The South African

Government official welcome ceremony will be held on 25

August at Ubuntu Village. On the day before the heads of

state and heads of government segment of the WSSD takes

place, President Mbeki and Secretary-General Kofi Annan

will visit the cradle of humankind in order to pay

homage to our origins.

Both the Gauteng province and the Johannesburg metro are

leaving no stone unturned to make the event a success.

The province is engaged in the ``greening of the

summit'' project. The aim is to establish an

international benchmark in the minimisation of waste and

the minimisation of the environmental impact of huge

events. Ninety per cent of the waste generated by the

summit will be recycled, and an innovative scheme would

compensate for the emissions of carbon resulting from

energy used in summit activities. The Johannesburg metro

has spruced up the city to give a warm African welcome

to our visitors.
08 August 2002                                   Page 39 of 354

In response to a call for volunteers, the citizens of

Johannesburg responded in a spirit of Vukuzenzele. Five

thousand volunteers have been recruited to perform a

range of tasks. I would like to extend my thanks to

these patriots.

All South Africans should share in the pride of acting

as hosts to the world's presidents, prime ministers,

kings and queens, judges, representatives of workers and

business; youth and women; religious leaders, and

representatives of communities from all corners of the

earth. This will be a massive gathering of

representatives of humanity under the slogan ``People,

planet, prosperity''.

Humanity returns to Africa, our common birthplace, to

open a new chapter in human solidarity. All will be

united in the pursuit of one single overriding

imperative: the adequate provision for the needs of the

present generation without compromising the ability of

future generations to meet their needs. [Applause.]

The SPEAKER: Hon members, we will be returning to the

issues raised by the Minister and others that are linked
08 August 2002                                   Page 40 of 354

to the World Summit when this House debates the summit

and the issues next Thursday. As hon members are aware,

we will also be participating in the meetings at the

World Summit organised by us and the Interparliamentary

Union. As we are having a debate, there will be no

statements from parties on the Minister's statement.

Before we proceed to the subject for discussion, I

would, firstly, like to greet hon members as tomorrow is

Women's Day. I want to greet the men and the women, and

urge them to focus on a certain number of issues that

will be raised, I hope, not a moment too soon.

I particularly want to welcome the large number of women

whom I see in the public gallery. [Applause.] I want to

greet all of them and, of course, on behalf of this

House, all women in South Africa. I also want to draw

attention to the fact that we are celebrating our

achievements as a society, particularly those of the

women. But we should also be focusing on what we still

need to do to create the nonsexist society that is

reflected in our Constitution. So we need to be focusing

on both.
08 August 2002                                   Page 41 of 354

Part of achieving that is for women in the country to

engage much more with Parliament, in the public gallery,

on the floor of this House and, of course, in our

committees. I hope we will see many more women engaging

with Parliament, and many more men speaking on issues of

how to create a nonsexist society. [Applause.]

I wait to see in the forthcoming debate how many of

those cheers are translated into actual speeches.

[Interjections.] I now look forward to the Chief Whips

promptly changing their speakers' lists.

The MINISTER OF HOUSING: Malibongwe! [Praise] Madam

Speaker, hon members of the House, the Minister of Arts,

Culture, Science and Technology, the hon Dr Ben Ngubane,

and the Deputy Minister, the hon Brigitte Mabandla

requested me to pass on a message of thanks and

gratitude to all members of the House, to the

dignitaries and the South African citizenry for gracing

the symbolic occasion of the enrobement of Sarah

Baartman which took place on Sunday, 4 August, at the

Civic Centre here in Cape Town.
08 August 2002                                Page 42 of 354

A woman named Sarah Baartman was taken away from her

home country, South Africa, to London in 1810. The

African continent at the time was not regarded by Europe

as a place of historical entity. Its people, religion,

tradition and culture only made sense when interpreted

through the eyes and consciousness of Europe. Africa was

regarded as a continent divided by civilisation, which

could be described as white Africa and black Africa.

That was a time when Africa was vulnerable. Colonialism

took advantage of this unfortunate circumstance and

moved in to rob Africa of its dignity.

Sarah became one of those who suffered under colonial

prejudice, who became the victims of racism which

embodied the superiority of a people whose culture and

norms operated on the basis that what they could not

understand or comprehend had to be inferior since they

regarded themselves as the better race. What they

believed in had to be better than anyone else's, and

that was colonialism at play.

The sole purpose of Sarah's abductors was to exhibit her

in the Piccadilly Circus as an item of interest,

basically viewed as a creature to be paraded to the
08 August 2002                                  Page 43 of 354

European audiences for jest and entertainment. Her

captors saw in her a commodity they could use for making

profit from the circus. Rational analysis makes us doubt

if the exact intention of her being taken to Europe was

explained when she was led out of her country of birth.

All we are told is that she was promised a share of the

profits which would be generated through the ``wonder''

that she was. How sad! A so-called civilised class

debased itself to levels of disgrace and disregard for

human dignity and respect - abuse at the highest level.

The story of Sarah Baartman reveals the saddest part of

our history as a country and the humiliation that was

meted out by colonial forces to the people of Africa.

From the top of the continent to south of the Sahara,

colonialism ravaged the culture of the peoples of this

continent. It accelerated the erosion of the unity of

the groups and communities on this continent.

When one reads the balance sheet in the political-

cultural field one sees that by the 1800s colonialism

found itself strong enough to intensify and accelerate

the state of instability, characterised by violence,

wars and disorder emerging from the insecurity of the
08 August 2002                                  Page 44 of 354

Mfecane conflicts; the Fulbe jihads; the rise of the

Tukulor and Mande empires in the western Sudan; the

disintegration of the Oyo and the Asante empires in West

Africa. This situation is comparable to the Napoleonic

wars, the intellectual revolutions and the German and

Italian wars of unification. The problems in Africa were

not peculiar to the continent, but were a reflection of

the disagreements and expansions of kingdoms.

South of the Sahara we found the San and the Khoi being

driven out of their lands and exterminated or

assimilated into colonial society. Sarah Baartman, a

woman of Khoi origin, was identified as a subject of

scorn and humiliation. She was exported to Europe, a

continent far away from her homeland, divided from her

continent by the sea. How could she, even if she longed

for home, be able to swim back to the shores of the Cape

over the seas? How would she run away, back to her home

of warm summers and green fields? She was encaged,

enslaved and marketed in the circus as a strange

creation of nature.

Sarah must have felt lost, desolate and lonely. Those

who tried to fight for her freedom in the British courts
08 August 2002                                Page 45 of 354

- the abolitionists - were told that Sarah signed a

contract willingly, implying that she signed up for

humiliation, degradation, scorn, prejudice, exclusion,

racism and sexism. Did Sarah really willingly agree to

be paraded naked along a stage two feet high to be

exhibited like a wild beast, forced to walk, stand or

sit as ordered? We have heard the following before,

haven't we? ``The slaves are happy with the treatment

the masters and madams give them. These people would

rather be here than anywhere else.'' So said the masters

trying to justify their acts.

Sarah is one of us. She is back home. She is here to

receive the burial that human beings are accorded by

their families, communities and countries. Sarah is back

to remind humanity that human rights, respect and

dignity befit all persons, no matter who they are, where

they come from and what they are called and named

because they belong to someone. They belong to a

community, to a family. They have relatives who love


We love Sarah for who she was, one of us shipped off, in

a diaspora to confirm the prejudices of colonial
08 August 2002                                Page 46 of 354

masters, to satisfy the curiosity of a French scientist,

who could not resist cutting up her body when she died

and dissecting it to conduct experiments and as a way of

investigating whether she was real enough to be

classified as human, or whether she actually belonged to

the circus as part of the animal kingdom tamed to

entertain circus-goers.

Sarah's brain and other soft tissues were preserved. Her

skeletal remains were put on a museum display until the

1970s. Sarah Baartman's debasement in both life and

death came to reflect, in a very confirmed practical

manner, the voracity of an unfounded racial superiority


We are here today to initiate, through this debate, the

reburial of one of us, the interment of Sarah Baartman,

and not the ``Hottentot Venus'', as she was derogatorily


A French print entitled La Belle Hottentot depicts

Sarah, the African miracle, as a woman standing on a box

pedestal with her buttocks exposed. Several figures

bend, straining for a better look, while a male figure
08 August 2002                                Page 47 of 354

at the right of the image even holds his eyeglass up to

better behold the woman's body. Some remarks were made,

including, ``Oh! Goddamn, what roast beef'' and ``Ah!

How comical is nature.''

We are here not to mourn Sarah's death, but to celebrate

the strength of our people who made sure that she is not

forgotten, who made sure that we negotiated with the

French government to repatriate her remains. This is the

triumph of our people, the belief in human rights and

respect for the entire humanity. We have risen as a

country and as a people from the ashes of oppression,

from the scourge of apartheid and colonialism, firmly

convinced that safeguarding human rights and women's

rights is a struggle we must all continue to wage to

ensure that human beings are treated equally and with

dignity. This is the affirmation of our Constitution, of

our history, of a people determined and prepared to

uphold the principles of human rights.

To achieve genuine equality in our country, our

programmes must be based on a real understanding of what

gender oppression can do to a nation. Sarah's history of

persecution and humiliation is but an illustration of
08 August 2002                                   Page 48 of 354

what happens to those who are discriminated against on

the basis of colour, sex or geographic exclusion. We are

one nation that cannot afford to accept any form of

discrimination after what we have gone through as a


Oppression is rooted in a material base, it is expressed

in sociocultural attitudes, all of which are supported

and perpetuated by an ideology which subordinates women.

The history of oppression in our country has clearly

demonstrated the fact that women became the instrument

through which the strength and the resilience of our

people was tested. They were thrown onto the lowest

ladder of economic structures, turned into breeders of

labour for the mines and farms, and forced to do the

dirty and humiliating work churned out for the

institutionalised systems that relegated them to the

level of subhumans.

Women in this country, particularly African women, were

subjugated, deprived and marginalised in many different

ways. They were regarded as junior and inferior to the

male species. They make up the majority of the

unemployed, the disempowered. They were not in decision-
08 August 2002                                   Page 49 of 354

making structures, but our democratic approach to human

beings today is to change such patterns of

discriminatory practice.

Sarah Baartman will be laid to rest at her place of

birth tomorrow, 9 August, in the Gamtoos River Valley.

The women and men of this country salute Sarah Baartman,

who faced and fought the worst form of racism all by

herself, without the immediate collective effort that

has seen our country freed from apartheid colonialism.

Sarah's burial will be a response to the late Comrade

President O R who said in 1985, and I quote:

  We do not consider our objectives achieved, our tasks

  completed or our struggle at an end until the women

  are fully liberated.

Sarah Baartman is finally free from humiliation and

scorn. This gives us hope that the struggle for the

liberation of this nation, from a painful past of 300

years of oppression and repression, hunger and

exclusion, will gradually redress the evils of the past.
08 August 2002                                 Page 50 of 354

We stand here today to thank all those who made sure

that we got the opportunity to bury Sarah Baartman in

honour. They are the ambassadors of South Africa to

France, the former ambassador, Ms Barbara Masekela; the

current ambassador, Mrs Thuthukile Skweyiya; the French

government; members of the French National Assembly for

the unanimous vote that upheld the principles of human

rights, the vote for her repatriation to her people; and

the reference group of 12 members - Y Abrahams, Prof H

Bredekamp, Chief J Burgess, Ms D Ferrus, hon member of

Parliament Mrs Bertha Gxowa, Mr J Kollapen, hon member

of Parliament Mrs Makho Njobe, Dr Adelaide Tambo, Prof P

V Tobias, Prof H Soodyall and Ms S Williams.

Sarah Baartman's dignity has been reclaimed. Through her

reburial, we may begin to say the images of women in

Africa will reflect those of people who are respected,

and the many facets of inequality brought about by

colonial influences may finally be dealt a final blow.

Sarah belongs to the women of Africa. Although Sarah

came from the womb of the Khoi people, she belongs to

all of us. She belongs to Africa. She belongs to

08 August 2002                                  Page 51 of 354

Malibongwe igama la makhosikazi! [Kwaqhwatywa.] [Praise

the name of women! [Applause.]]

Mrs P W CUPIDO: Madam Speaker, I would also like to join

you in greeting all the women on the gallery, and extend

a warm word of welcome to all of them.

Suid-Afrika is voorwaar een nasie met vele volkere, 11

amptelike tale, vele kulture en uiteenlopende

geloofsbeginsels; inderdaad 'n veelsydige nasie, en tog

kleurryk en interessant in sy diversiteit. Nog meer

interessant is die feit dat 'n eg Suid-Afrikaanse vrou,

Saartjie Baartman, ons land se politieke leiers tot

stilstand bring op die vooraand van Suid-Afrika se

nasionale dag vir vroue. Saartjie is vir ons 'n

herinnering aan erge koloniale misbruik, gruwelike

menseregteskending, rassistiese uitbuiting en misbruik

van en disrespek vir die vroulike liggaam. (Translation

of Afrikaans paragraph follows.)

[South Africa is indeed a nation with a multitude of

peoples, 11 official languages, many cultures and

diverse religious principles; indeed a multi-faceted

nation, and yet colourful and interesting in its
08 August 2002                                   Page 52 of 354

diversity. Even more interesting is the fact that a true

South African woman, Saartjie Baartman, on the eve of

South Africa's national day for women, is bringing our

country's political leaders to a standstill. To us

Saartjie is a reminder of severe colonial abuse, gross

human rights violation, racist exploitation and abuse

of, and disrespect for, the female body.]

My question today is whether women in this country are

better or worse off since Saartjie's experiences.

[Interjections.] I recall the four very young girls of

this country who were apparently abducted by the

paedophile Gert van Rooyen and have never since been

found. Have they perhaps been raped, abused, murdered or

sold into prostitution in other countries? How many

women and children in this country have suffered gross

humiliation, abuse, neglect, rape and assault,

intimidation and unfair labour practices only because

they are women and vulnerable?

Even though this Government has a portfolio committee in

place that looks at the rights and status of women, it

still lacks the will to put structures and resources in

place to empower women sufficiently. Internationally,
08 August 2002                                Page 53 of 354

South Africa ranks very high as far as illiteracy

amongst women is concerned. This is a sore point for

women's groups, who claim that current efforts and

opportunities are weak and ineffectual.

Why does the ANC Government keep South African women

poor and illiterate? [Interjections.] I believe that

improving literacy amongst women is the key to improving

women's political awareness and hence their status in

society. [Interjections.] A literate woman would know

the difference between a good and a weak government, and

that is why some governments keep their women poor and

illiterate. They do so so that they remain dependent on

the government of the day.

Kaapstad Uniestad onder beheer van die DA is 'n leier op

die gebied van geslagsgelykheid en die bemagtiging van

vroue. Agt vrouedirekteure is pas aangestel as hoofde

van sleutelportefeuljes in die Kaapstad-administrasie.

Kaapstad-munisipaliteit is voorwaar meer suksesvol as

ander metro's omdat dit nie deur die ANC geregeer word

nie. [Tussenwerpsels.] [Applous.] (Translation of

Afrikaans paragraph follows.)
08 August 2002                                 Page 54 of 354

[Cape Town Unicity, under control of the DA, is a leader

in the field of gender equality and empowerment of

women. Eight female directors have just been appointed

in the Cape Town administration as heads of key

portfolios. The municipality of Cape Town is indeed more

successful than other metros because it is not governed

by the ANC. [Interjections.][Applause.]]

Marthinus van Schalkwyk's dishing out of jobs for pals

and the abuse of taxpayers' moneys have once again

proved that association brings resemblance. How many New

NP women did he appoint to his cabinet? [Interjections.]

Not one!

Ek wil vandag vroue aanmoedig om op te staan en hulle

regmatige plek in die samelewing in te neem.

[Tussenwerpsels.] (Translation of Afrikaans paragraph


[Today, I would like to encourage women to stand up and

take their rightful place in society. [Interjections.]]

Without further ado, I suppose that there is a time to

come and a time to go. Today it is my turn to greet this
08 August 2002                                Page 55 of 354

House and also to say farewell to colleagues and friends

of the past eight years. [Interjections.] It has indeed

been an honour for me to be a part of the transition of

this country, especially at this level of government.


Al het dit nie altyd so gelyk of geklink nie, kan ek agb

lede verseker dat ek 'n groot respek opgebou het vir

kollegas aan albei kante van hierdie Raad. Dit is die

gebed van my hart dat God werklik vorentoe vir ons 'n

nuwe generasie leiers sal stuur, en dat hier werklike

transformasie sal plaasvind sodat ons eendag kan

terugkyk na vandag as deel van ons land se geskiedenis.

[Tussenwerpsels.] (Translation of Afrikaans paragraph


[Even if it did not always look or sound like it, I can

assure hon members that I developed huge respect for

colleagues on both sides of this Council. It is my

heart's prayer that somewhere down the road, God would

send us a new generation of leaders, and that true

transformation will take place here so that one day we

can look back to this day as part of our country's

history. [Interjections.]]
08 August 2002                                Page 56 of 354

We can only rise up if we have experienced lows. Thank

you, Madam Speaker, for your excellent leadership. Thank

you to all the staff members. May God bless South

Africa. [Applause.]

Mr M F CASSIM: Madam Speaker, I rise on behalf of the

IFP to take part, on this very solemn occasion, in a

very important debate. I wish to identify myself with

the hon Minister and the remarks she made on this topic.

I wish to address this topic under the title ``the

enrobing of Sarah Baartman''. Stripped of the covers of

modesty, stripped of her identity and the real name

given to her by her parents, stripped of friends,

family, community, tribe, nation, belonging, motherland,

dignity, political rights, humanity, love, happiness,

understanding, sympathy, empathy, communion and

everything else, how can Sarah Baartman be enrobed

adequately to compensate for everything that she was

shorn of and all the humiliation heaped on her by the

former colonialists that held sway here and who

dispossessed her and her people of so many things?
08 August 2002                                   Page 57 of 354

Shakespeare made King Lear observe: ``Unaccommodated man

is no more but such a poor, bare, forked animal.''

Indeed, Sarah could vouch for that seeing just how

unaccommodated she was, a mere exotic object to the type

that the Minister described as those who trampled all

over her humanity. But our unique miracle as a nation is

to see hope where it could not possibly exist and light

where darkness is at its most intense. This is our

miracle. Since 1994 we have begun to reverse the process

of the endless stripping by colonialists that damaged

our people, our flora, fauna and our country's

resources. When we enrobe Sarah Baartman, metaphorically

and symbolically, we once again invest in ourselves all

our rights, dignity and humanity.

I want to begin by saying the following to Madam

Speaker, all the women in the Chamber, the gallery and

the nation: In this extraordinary task of enrobing, we,

as that gender portion known as men, wherever we are and

whoever we are, should commit ourselves to supporting

gender equality implicitly and without any reserve.

[Applause.] The enrobing of Sarah Baartman is not one

ceremony and certainly no single occasion. Sarah
08 August 2002                                  Page 58 of 354

Baartman is every woman in our land and, very

particularly, every black woman in the land [Applause].

When we consciously and with dedication educate each

young girl to the level of her potential; when we uplift

each rural woman to become economically independent;

when we respect the right of each woman to her bodily

integrity; when we protect each girl-child and each

woman against rape and violence; when we allow each

woman to come into her own and to make choices and to

have those choices respected, even if that choice means

that she insists on the use of a condom during intimacy;

when we elevate suitable women candidates to the most

prestigious offices in the land so that there is a

systemic emancipation and empowerment of women, then we

would have fully enrobed Sarah Baartman and her ceremony

would have been complete. [Applause.]

Sarah Baartman is a direct and powerful challenge to

former colonialists, men and boys, all of us now living

here in our country in the new dispensation. In Africa

the leadership role of women is as ancient as history

itself. I will cite only two examples. Queen Hatshepsut

ruled Egypt 3 300 years ago and Queen Cleopatra also
08 August 2002                                 Page 59 of 354

ruled over Egypt as far back as 2 030 years ago. It is

nothing unusual in Africa for women to have led their

countries with great distinction and honour.

In enrobing Sarah we affirm the truth that everything in

our political lives comes full circle. Those that were

once degraded and dehumanised are now raised up in

honour and are celebrated. Those who were taken by force

and compulsion in virtual chains are now being brought

back home with love and fond remembrance. Today we, who

sit on these seats as power brokers, will enrobe Sarah

if we harken to Nkosi Buthelezi when he implores us,

regardless of where we belong, to commit passionately to

a revolution of goodwill, or if we were to make it our

mantra, in tone with the elder statesman Madiba, the

incantation ``never and never and never again''.

Power is a corrosive thing; it is a potent acid. The

Bible promises that the meek shall inherit the earth.

Believers who have God in their hearts understand the

power of love, the power of good will, the power of

faith. That is the power we should seek to develop and

that is the power we must use and encourage to be used
08 August 2002                                Page 60 of 354

as proselytes for genuine and untrammelled democracy

here and everywhere else in the world.

Each of us, more than anyone else in the world, needs to

enrobe Sarah; the poor and the destitute; the weak and

the helpless; the uneducated and the unskilled; the

homeless and the hungry; men and women; boys and girls -

then, and only then, will power work for the betterment

of society, instead of just for the gratification of big

and petty tyrants and dictators. North of us and in many

other places, tyranny and despotism are common things.

In such countries colonialism ended, but true freedom is

as absent now as it has been for a very long time.

When we participate in the enrobing of Sarah, we are

symbolically also enrobing all the girls and women of

our land who are ravaged by hunger, joblessness,

violence and intimidation. The impact of HIV/Aids on

women is considerably more dramatic than on men, and if

we fail women at this critical juncture, our society, in

less than two decades, will have a severe imbalance in

the ratio between the gender groups on account of the

higher mortality rate among women through HIV/Aids.
08 August 2002                                Page 61 of 354

Today we have an opportunity to commit ourselves to the

gender-equal society in the world and to freeing women

from oppression, violence, rape and abuse. Let us

together enrobe Sarah and in doing so let us act in

unison against the degradation of our fellow beings,

mother earth and those who are most precious to us,

namely our daughters, mothers and wives, our equal

partners in the journey of life.

Let the coming Woman's Day be a watershed. Sarah,

sister, we embrace you to ourselves. May God similarly

embrace you and raise you! [Applause.]

Ms L M T XINGWANA: Madam Speaker, I believe that this

day is a day of mourning. We are burying Sarah Baartman

who died 200 years ago and I therefore believe that we

should bury her with the dignity and respect that she


Ngoko ke andisayi kungena emxhentsweni nasemtshotshweni

wokuba i-ANC ayilunganga okanye ilungile. Ndicinga into

yokuba namhlanje yimini yokuba sihloniphe. Xa singcwaba

eAfrika, singcwaba ngesithozela. Nokuba umntu lutshaba

lwakho umngcwaba ngothando; umngcwaba ngentlonipho.
08 August 2002                                Page 62 of 354

Ndiya kucela ke ukuba oomama nootata kule Ndlu namhlanje

bathethe ... (Translation of Xhosa paragraph follows.)

[I am not going to enter the debate about whether the

ANC is good or not. I think that today is a day to show

respect. When we bury the dead in Africa, we do it in

dignity. Even if a person was your enemy; you bury them

with love. I will therefore, ask women and men in this

House today to speak ...]

... in unity and with the dignity that Sarah deserves.

UMphathiswa wethu wezeZindlu sele esivulele ngokunika

imbali kaSarah Baartman. USarah Baartman ube kokuveliswe

kukuhlupheka, ebesebunzimeni bocinezelo phantsi kwe

colonialism nobuhlanga. (Translation of Xhosa paragraph


[The Minister of Housing has given an introduction to

the history of Sarah Baartman. Sarah Baartman was a

product of poverty and was oppressed and exploited under

colonialism and racism.]
08 August 2002                                Page 63 of 354

Sarah Baartman, like all African women in this country,

suffered all forms of exploitation and oppression.

Baye bafika ke kweli lizwe bayitshabalalisa inkcubeko

yethu, bazitshabalalisa iilwimi zethu. Yiyo loo nto

abanye bethu bengazi ukuba umntu uziphatha njani na

emngcwabeni. Umntu uye afike emngcwabeni eze kudelela

ngathi ucinga ukuba kusemtshotshweni. Ngoko ke xa

sikhumbula, eAfrika sasingenayo imida. Sasingenaye

umSuthu nomTswane; sasingabantu sonke. Siyazi ukuba

amakhosi ethu ayephuma aye kuzeka kwamanye amazwe akude,

kungekho calu-calulo.

Masikhumbule kwakhona ukuba bona oomama aba bamaKhoi

namaSan babezekwa ngootata bethu. Kwakusithi xa kuyiwa

emfazweni amakhosikazi angabulawa. Amakhosikazi

ebehlonitshwa, abuyiswe, agcinwe, azekwe, abe ngabanye

babantu besi sizwe. Nabantwana babo bebegcinwa,

behlonitshiwe. Thina kwaXhosa nolwimi lwethu lunazo

izinto oluzifumeneyo phaya koluya lwimi lwamaKhoi

namaSan. Siyayazi into yokuba nabeTswana ngokunjalo

bahleli kunye bephilisana kusendiselwana namaKhoi

namaSan, simntu mnye.
08 August 2002                                   Page 64 of 354

Sitsho ke sisithi, siyayazi into yokuba abeLungu bafika

bayitshabalalisa yonke into, baqala baseka imida, benza

ucalu-calulo, basahlula. Bathabatha amakhosikazi

bawatshabalalisa bawenza ayinto yokudlala emhlabeni.

Ngoko ke ndifuna ukuthi uthe sele efile uSarah Baartman

... (Translation of Xhosa paragraphs follows.)

[They arrived in this country and destroyed our culture

and languages. That is the reason some of us do not know

how they should conduct themselves at funerals. A person

would come to where a funeral is being held and take

people for granted as if it were at a Xhosa dance

ceremony. When we try to remember, in Africa we never

had boundaries. There was no Sotho or Tswana; we were

just human beings. We know that traditional leaders

sought wives from far countries and there was no


Let us again remember that our fathers took Khoi and San

women as wives. During times of war, women would be

spared. Women were respected and treated with dignity,

would be brought back, cared for and well looked after,

be married and be part of that nation. Their children

were also saved and treated with dignity. We as amaXhosa
08 August 2002                                Page 65 of 354

as well as our language, have things that we gained from

the language of the Khoi and the San. We also know that

the Tswanas too lived together with them, exchanged

marriages, and were united.

These things were destroyed when the white people came

as they introduced boundaries and discrimination and

racism, and divided us. They killed women and made fun

of them. Even when Sarah Baartman had died ...]

... she continued to endure this degradation and

suffering because the colonial and racist rulers

believed that she was not a human being.

She was kept naked in a cave; when she died they were

very much interested in her body. They were very much

interested in her brain, because they believed that she

was not human, that she was an animal. They did their

research, they did an inspection and analysis of her

body and, in the end, they found that she was a human

being. But because she was black, they kept her there

for 200 years, continuing to humiliate her and make her

an object of their entertainment.
08 August 2002                                  Page 66 of 354

Therefore, ...

... sifuna ukuthi namhlanje sikhahlela ... [... today we

want to salute ...]

... it is the Government of the ANC that has gone and

brought back Sarah Baartman and made sure that they

organised a dignified burial for her after 200 years.

Ndifuna ukuthetha ngentsingiselo yomhla we-9 ka-Agasti.

[I want to talk about the significance of 9 August.]

The day 9 August is a significant and historic day for

the people of South Africa, in particular women. It is a

day on which we remember our struggles, the women's

struggle in South Africa. It is a day on which we

remember our victories. Therefore, it is very

significant that Sarah Baartman is buried on this day,

the day of women in South Africa, because Sarah Baartman

is a symbol of all African women in this country. In

fact, she is a symbol of all women who suffer

degradation, exploitation, harassment, violence and

abuse. We, therefore, want to say, ``Let all of us
08 August 2002                                Page 67 of 354

honour this day, let all of us go and bury Sarah


The ANC has declared the month of August as the month

for women's emancipation as part of the Letsima

programme. The ANC Women's League's theme for this month

is, ``Restore our dignity, respect our human rights and

together let's work for sustainable development''.

The burial of Sarah Baartman tomorrow, therefore,

signifies and heralds a new era, when women's dignity

and women's human rights will be respected and restored.

It is a new era during which we must call for unity and

peace in our country.

We therefore commit ourselves, during this month, to

continue with our programmes to mobilise and unite

women, and also with our programmes to fight for women's

rights and for peace in our country.

We also call on men and women to fight violence and

abuse of women and children. We say enough is enough.

Let us not have another baby Tshepang. We also salute

and commend baby Tshepang for her record healing and
08 August 2002                                Page 68 of 354

also say she has also shown a spirit of resilience

during her traumatic time because of the hope and the

prayers of our women, as well as the contribution of our

Government to ensuring that the issues of child abuse

and women's abuse are addressed. Today the person who is

responsible for what happened to Tshepang has finally

been brought to book. Therefore we believe that this

will be a lesson to all those men out there who still

want to abuse women, who still want to abuse our

children and who still do not believe that women must be

respected. We hope that this will show them that our

Government is serious and our Government means business

in protecting our women and fighting all this abuse and


We also call on all of us to recommit ourselves to the

programme to fight the spread of HIV and Aids. We call,

especially, on those who have started home-based care

programmes. We ask our Government to put more resources

into these programmes and also provide more resources

for the orphans who need our support and protection. We

must also regenerate our energy and make sure that we

support the moral regeneration campaign, because all
08 August 2002                                Page 69 of 354

these evils would not be there if we were committed to

this campaign.

With regard to poverty alleviation, I also want to call

on all of us, it is not just the responsibility of the

Government. I believe that our Government has opened up

opportunities. There are various programmes and schemes

that have been opened up by this Government to ensure

that we are able to start small businesses, that we are

able to organise ourselves, and therefore I call on

women, in particular, who mostly bear the brunt of

poverty, to organise themselves and to take advantage of

these opportunities.

I also want to call on our Government and our NGOs to

take up support of the literacy programme, because we

know that most of the people who are illiterate today

are women, especially women in the rural areas. I think,

during this year of the volunteer, let us volunteer

during our time, our recess, and let us go out to the

rural areas and make sure that we initiate meaningful

literacy programmes that will empower our women with

skills, not only to be able to read and write, but to be
08 August 2002                                   Page 70 of 354

able to set up developmental programmes that will

sustain them and their families.

As women we are also committing ourselves to the African

Union. We know that most of the programmes and the

processes of the AU have left women behind. But we are

saying we are going to take over and take up the

programme of the AU and Nepad. We are calling for a

monitoring body within Nepad that will ensure that there

is gender mainstreaming in all the programmes and

structures of Nepad. Our Parliament has already

committed itself, so that we have 60% representation in

all Nepad structures, because Nepad is about development

and without women, we believe, there can never be

development in Africa.

With regard to the World Summit on Sustainable

Development, WSSD, we are again saying that women must

participate in that programme. The ANC Women's League,

together with women NGOs in South Africa, has organised

a programme, an international women's tent that will be

based in Nasrec, where various programmes to empower

women will be presented. We are also organising a train

that will be departing from the Great Lakes region, move
08 August 2002                                Page 71 of 354

to Uganda, down South, touching on all the countries of

Africa, which will highlight the HIV/Aids campaign and

peace and stability in Africa.

Therefore, we are asking women in South Africa to make

sure that they are involved in these programmes and also

receive the women and the people who will be coming to

participate in the UN conference, so that when they go

back home they have a good a picture and have learnt

from and shared our own experiences and our democracy.

[Time expired.]

Mrs S M CAMERER: Madam Speaker, I would also like, on

behalf of the New NP, to extend a welcome to the women

in the gallery, many of whom, I am aware, are prominent

in local government. It is an honour and a pleasure as a

woman to speak in this debate on Sarah, or Saartjie,

Baartman. Let me deal with her name first. According to

the Khoisan legal advisor, on her birth and marriage

certificates she appears as Sarah Baartman, but in the

``volksmond'', as an expression of love and affection,

she is referred to as ``Saartjie.'' I have been asked by

our caucus on this occasion, on the advice of our
08 August 2002                                 Page 72 of 354

Khoisan members, to refer to her as ``Saartjie'' in my

speech today.

The interment of Saartjie Baartman tomorrow in her

homeland nearly 200 years after she was lured to Europe

with the promise of fame and fortune, holds lessons for

South Africa and the Western World - lessons

unfortunately learned too late to benefit Saartjie and

the multitude of her fellow Africans who had at that

time, and during the intervening period, endured untold

suffering. Saartjie was, allegedly at any rate, a free

woman when she got to England, though she was exploited

and humiliated as a freak and a mere object by a

prurient and voyeuristic European audience. Her human

dignity was ignored and demeaned and she had previously

been enslaved like millions of her fellow Africans, who

were enslaved in horrific circumstances, and of whose

suffering we should also be mindful at a time like this.

As South Africans we should be proud of the Government

action to retrieve Saartjie Baartman's remains from

France, where they were insultingly on display for years

and then stored at the Museum of Mankind in Paris.

Former President Mandela, who initiated the request for
08 August 2002                                  Page 73 of 354

her remains to be handed back in 1994, and Deputy

Minister Brigitte Mabandla who negotiated the return,

should be congratulated on their initiative.

It is extraordinary that Saartjie Baartman's remains

continued to be displayed in France until 1974, in

contravention of all tenets of human rights applicable

in France, Europe and the rest of the world, and in

spite of the international adoption of the United

Nations' Declaration on Human Rights 30 years

previously. ``Why''? we must ask. And the answer must

lie in the fact that people and their attitudes are

conditioned by their history, as written or handed down.

Accordingly, the most important lesson to be learned

from Saartjie Baartman's story is that our received

history needs to be reassessed, re-examined and, if

found wanting, challenged and rewritten.

Europe's interest in women like Saartjie Baartman was

aroused originally by writers like Le Valiant, the

French explorer and hunter, who wrote about his travels

and exploits in Southern Africa in the eighteenth

century. He wrote about Hottentots and Khoisan women in

a section of his writings and drawings entitled ``Behind
08 August 2002                                   Page 74 of 354

the Hottentot Apron'' in which he described certain

physical peculiarities allegedly possessed by these

women. Now this was not regarded then as eighteenth

century porn or even as something insulting to the

dignity of these women or their nations as a whole, but

merely as a valid commentary on the so-called natives of

the dark continent, which then became part of received

history and subsequently went unquestioned.

When Saartjie Baartman was brought to England and France

and displayed as more or less a wild animal or subhuman,

no one regarded it as strange. The history that many of

us in this House have learned at school, and even at

university, was predicated on, or even derived from,

records of this nature, manifesting attitudes that are

completely in conflict now with our respect for human

rights, our commitment to equality for women and the

human dignity of all people as guaranteed in our

Constitution and in international conventions.

Accordingly, it is up to us to ensure that our documents

and our history reflect our values and that such

attitudes, completely inimical to our values today, are

not retained or passed on to our children.
08 August 2002                                Page 75 of 354

Saartjie Baartman was not the oddity. The attitudes of

Le Valiant and others, almost exclusively male and

European writers and commentators of the previous era,

are indeed the oddity. Saartjie Baartman had a short and

tragic life. She was only 27 when she died in 1816.

Because she made the mistake of going to Europe where,

as the Dutch poet Dianna Ferrus has depicted in her

touching poem, she was subject to ``the poking eyes of

the man-made monster who lives in the dark with his

racist clutches of imperialism, who dissects your body

bit by bit.’’

Now she has been brought home to be laid to rest, but

she must not be forgotten. She must become a symbol, not

only for the Khoisan, but for all the women of Africa

who during this millennium are reclaiming their dignity

and their human rights.

On the eve of national Women's Day, we must also be

mindful that the impairment of, and the disregard for,

human dignity and the rights of women of our continent

do not only derive from an imperialist and colonial

heritage, but also from our own cultural and societal

practices. Where these impact negatively on women they
08 August 2002                                 Page 76 of 354

must be revised or removed. Let Saartjie Baartman be a

reminder to us all of where we want to go in reclaiming

the human dignity of African women. [Applause.]

Ms ANNELIZÉ VAN WYK: Madam Speaker, the dedication of

this debate to the memory of Sarah Baartman is both

fitting and inspirational. We cannot undo the suffering

of Sarah Baartman and the many others who suffered a

similar fate, but the return of and the laying to rest

of Baartman's remains is a victory for human dignity,

and serves as encouragement to ensure that we do

everything in our power to reclaim the dignity and

rights of all women.

The South African Constitution enshrines the rights and

dignity of all people in South Africa. It ensures that

women will have equal rights to their male counterparts

and that they will never again have to suffer the

humiliation that Sarah Baartman experienced.

Today, we must, however, ask ourselves whether we are

doing enough so that these guaranteed rights in the

Constitution become a living reality for the majority of

South African women. I believe that none of us can stand
08 August 2002                                Page 77 of 354

here today and say with a clear conscience that we have

achieved equality, upliftment and empowerment for all

women in South Africa. There are still too many women in

every corner of South Africa who are not yet aware of

their rights, and who certainly have no access to their

constitutional guarantees.

It is only once women can achieve a certain level of

independence that the dignity of women will be restored

and that they will be able to take up their rights

completely. Women must be enabled to break free from

their current circumstances. Their inability to do so is

as a result of their economic and emotional dependence.

If we empower women in these spheres, we will begin the

process of restoring dignity.

Women bear the brunt of poverty. Too little is done in

order to focus specifically on the economic empowerment

of women. Ironically, it is left to women to find ways

to feed and care for their families in the face of utter

despair and, miraculously, they do so with little

08 August 2002                                Page 78 of 354

The UDM believes that, given the necessary support and

encouragement, women will take that resolve and turn it

into economically viable opportunities. Women are not

asking for hand-outs. They simply must be given the

necessary opportunity and encouragement. Programmes must

be developed that aim to give specifically women access

to land and capital.

Too many women remain the victims of rape, abuse and

violent crimes. Many of these crimes are committed

against women by family members, their partners, or

people known to them. This also demonstrates the

desperate situation that many of these women find

themselves in and who, because of their economic

dependency, are unable to break free from these

situations. Living in a crime-ridden society with no

access to capital, little or no basic education or

skills training, and not owning any land or other

productive resources leave women with very little

opportunity of becoming economically active and breaking

free from the circumstances that they currently find

themselves in.
08 August 2002                                 Page 79 of 354

The role of women in our community cannot be

overemphasised. Women, mothers, sisters and wives form

the backbone of our society. It is on the lap of his

mother that a baby learns about life. It is at the hand

of his mother that he learns about what is wrong and

right. It is through the words spoken by her that he

learns to speak. Why then do we imagine it to be

possible to talk about the upliftment and empowerment of

the nation when we do not put in place the basic

foundation required?

Our priority, undoubtedly, must be to reclaim the

dignity and rights of our women as individuals and as an

entity. It is only once this is achieved that success

for the nation will follow.

Just as the return of Sarah Baartman symbolises the

strength of women in the face of despair, let her return

encourage us to work in unity to achieve dignity for

women throughout South Africa, not only for those in

cities, but specifically for those in the deepest rural

areas who are, in all modesty, simply being mothers to a

nation, for it is only once women can take up their

rightful place in society without fear that we will be
08 August 2002                                Page 80 of 354

able to say that we have achieved freedom and dignity at


May Sarah Baartman rest in peace. May her memories

inspire us to make Africa a warm Mother Africa for all

her children, including the girl child, both in dignity

and in right. [Applause.]

Ms J MOLOI: Madam Speaker, hon members, ladies and

gentlemen, we have gone a long way in the liberation of

women and transformation of gender relations, and we

still have a long way to go for the total liberation of

women from apartheid and colonialism to a just and

egalitarian society based on social security, economic

prosperity and equal justice.

In observing August as women's month and in celebration

of national Women's Day, that is tomorrow, 9 August, we

have to congratulate the Department of Arts, Culture,

Science and Technology, particularly Deputy Minister

Bridgette Mabandla, on a job well done in bringing home

a woman of this South African soil, Sarah Baartman, for

proper burial as part of restoring women's dignity and

human rights, thus symbolising a new beginning.
08 August 2002                                   Page 81 of 354

We salute all the women who were bold enough to take to

the streets in 1956, fighting against the oppressive

pass laws and, therefore, paving the way for the basis

for a gender struggle. Without any doubts, that

beginning has borne the many fruits that we are reaping

today. It is important to take stock of the impact on

the progress made by this young South African democracy,

lest we forget. We created the national gender machinery

that asserts women within all spheres of governance, for

instance the Office on the Status of Women, in

Government; the Joint Monitoring Committee on the

Improvement of Quality of Life and the Status of Women,

in Parliament; independent bodies such as the Commission

on Gender Equality; in civil society, with various

community-based organisations, political organisations

and NGOs that deal with gender issues.

As South Africans, we are proud to realise that many

countries envy our gender management system, and we are

recognised as having the most advanced instrument in the

implementation and mainstreaming of gender. Therefore,

we feel that we have made quite a significant impact.
08 August 2002                                   Page 82 of 354

We salute our efforts of ensuring that the gender

programme exists at international level where the

Beijing Platform for Action and Cedaw serve as

international instruments utilised in the implementation

of the gender programme. We have succeeded in coming up

with the gender and development programme for SADC, and

we have to ensure that we continue with the integration

of gender on the whole African continent by engendering

the Nepad programme as a challenge facing us.

In a short space of time, we have managed to assert

women within the political and decision-making

processes, both in Government and in Parliament, though

much still has to be done and will be achieved through

the implementation of the Employment Equity Act, which

is currently in place.

We have noticed that only the ANC as political

organisation here in Parliament has come up with a quota

system to involve women in decision-making. We are,

therefore, challenging other parties to follow the

example of the ANC to ensure that they have a clear

mechanism to involve women and not depend on the ANC. In

fact, we would prefer to have binding legislation that
08 August 2002                                Page 83 of 354

will ensure continuous women's representation in


Private institutions in our country are not an exception

in respect of this issue. They have to implement the

policies of this country. Therefore, this means that

they also have to show an integration of gender and

involvement of women in decision-making, and ensuring

that all other provisions are being implemented,

particularly the Employment Equity Act.

On the aspect of violence against women, there is a lot

to be done, because we have a lot of problems in this

area. There are achievements, and most of the laws have

been enacted, like the Maintenance Act and the Domestic

Violence Act, and serious attention is drawn to sexual

harassment. It is no longer loose and just running

itself and not being attended to.

The tightening up of the criminal justice system is yet

another factor that needs to be applauded. We still

raise, with serious concerns, the high rate of child

molestation and rape cases, and we feel that they still

need quite a lot of attention. If the whole society
08 August 2002                                Page 84 of 354

could join together, we could be able to come up with a

mechanism of making sure that we restore the dignity of

our society.

Many more areas of focus on the Beijing Platform for

Action and Cedaw have been integrated in the Government

programme and are currently being implemented. We will

be able to produce the country's report reflecting our

progress in these two areas. In other words, the

integration of these programmes is quite visible in a

number of other areas that are identified by the Beijing

Platform for Action and Cedaw. As a matter of fact, as a

country we must be proud to have a report that reflects

the significant progress that we have made.

Part of what can restore women's dignity is the

eradication of poverty that degrades women to the level

of beggars. We need to come up with a strategy that will

impact on the economic lives of poor women. It is

impossible to speak of dignity whilst we are unable to

put food on the table for our children. To remind

ourselves of what was said by women on 9 August 1956,

whilst they were marching to the Union Buildings, I

would like to quote: ``We shall not rest until we have
08 August 2002                                   Page 85 of 354

won for our children their fundamental right to freedom,

justice and security''. In order for us to achieve this,

we need to consolidate all the efforts and ensure that

we really work hard as a nation to fulfil those

aspirations of freedom, justice and security for the

young ones.

Government has initiated the integrated rural

development strategy, and the Presidency has identified

nodal points countrywide for the implementation of this

strategy. Through the rolling programme of the

integrated rural development strategy located within

local government, the poor communities will benefit from

this programme. In addition to the integrated planning

process undertaken by Government, cluster programmes are

initiated in order to ensure that the collective

approach to planning and implementation is worked on.

Gender programmes are integrated and mainstreamed within

this approach, and all heads of various clusters are

expected to report on the gender progress. Whilst doing

this, they would be within the auspices of the

administration and cluster heads.
08 August 2002                                   Page 86 of 354

What becomes a major challenge at this point in time,

which we feel has not quite made a major impact, is the

integration of gender at the level of procurement

management, financial systems and the Public Finance

Management Act's implementation and the co-ordination

located within the national Treasury. If this could be

done correctly and well, it would take care of

mainstreaming gender in the office of the state's Tender

Board, procurement management, the public finance

management implementation unit, and in the entire

financial system.

The Presidency has a role to co-ordinate gender

activities, and we feel and believe that that role is

correctly placed and should continue that way. We also

have to make sure that the Public Service develops a

mechanism of monitoring and evaluation to assist the

implementation of the gender programmes within the

departments. In fact, we do not want to leave this area

to the officials whose focus is not on gender. But, if

they are taken up by heads of department and heads of

various clusters, we are sure that we would be able to

analyse its impact and the integration of the gender

08 August 2002                                Page 87 of 354

In conclusion, I would like to say that whilst we are

engaged with various gender activities in this Women's

Month, it will be proper for all societies, both women

and men, actively to deal with the HIV/Aids programmes

in order to fight the scourge. We have to focus on home-

based programmes, on counselling of the affected and the

infected, and to engage in education programmes, as well

as awareness campaigns.

As women, we have to challenge men to play an active

role in HIV/Aids, because Aids is not an area that is

only concentrated on women, but faces the whole of

society. By saying so, we really appeal to men to be at

the forefront of dealing with HIV/Aids.

I also wish to congratulate the community of Orange

Farm, currently named Palestine, for joining hands on

the girl-child programme that pays particular attention

to HIV/Aids sensitisation amongst the youth, and to

countering gender violence that ravages society, with

specific reference to a number of programmes that deal

with gender violence. [Applause.]
08 August 2002                                 Page 88 of 354

Ms C DUDLEY: Father, Jesus, Holy Spirit, I acknowledge

You. Madam Speaker, ACDP Women of Destiny, ladies and

gentlemen, loss of person, place, potential, future and

pride - today trafficking in women is a multibillion

dollar market and in Sarah's days someone was also

profiting from her being demeaned, ridiculed, shamed and

degraded. Traffickers and pimps, past and present, prey

on the dreams and vulnerabilities of women seeking

employment and opportunities for the future.

Research shows the most popular destinations for traffic

in women are countries where prostitution is legal. And

now, South Africa is brazenly, knowingly and wilfully

contemplating decriminalising and legalising

prostitution and joining their ranks. South Africa will

no longer be a transit country as it is today, but a

legalised and official destination. Legalisation of

prostitution not only causes an increase in trafficking

in women to meet the demand created by a legalised sex

industry, but makes it difficult to hold traffickers

accountable for their activities, as traffickers and

pimps evade prosecution by claiming the women knew what

they were getting into.
08 August 2002                                 Page 89 of 354

Prosecutors have a hard time establishing the line

between voluntary and forced prostitution when it is

legal, as their case depends on proving that the woman

did not consent. Women like Sarah will have no more

protection in South Africa, once prostitution is

decriminalised, than she had in Europe. Slavery was a

hot topic at the time when Sarah was being exploited and

a young Jamaican pressured government to intervene in

her situation, but the courts ruled that Sarah had

entered into a contract of her own free will and the

exploitation went on.

The head of operations for the UN Centre for

International Crime Prevention says that the laws help

gangsters. Prostitution is semi-legal in many places and

that makes the enforcement tricky. Sweden recently

passed a law to combat violence against women that

created a new offence, the gross violation of a woman's

dignity. Prostitution is included as a type of violence

against women and the purchase of sexual services is now

prohibited and punishable. Sweden's approach recognises

the harm done to women under conditions of sexual

exploitation. It is premised on the belief that women

have the right to dignity, integrity and equality. In
08 August 2002                                   Page 90 of 354

holding users accountable this new law effectively

targets the demand for trafficking in women. This

example should be commended and emulated.

South Africa has rightly judged the actions of those who

trafficked, pimped and aided and abetted these heinous,

inhuman crimes against Sarah and should not now condemn

itself by decriminalising these same actions within our

own boundaries.

Prostitution, sex tourism, trafficking in women and

other practices that reduce women to sexual commodities

have had a particularly devastating impact on women in

developing countries and oppressed groups of women in

so-called developed countries. The sexual exploitation

of any woman is cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment,

establishes the standard of treatment for all women and

is incompatible with the inherent dignity and worth of

the human person.

The ACDP welcomes the return of Sarah Baartman's remains

to South Africa as significant in a process of

reclaiming dignity and identity and the healing of a

people and a nation who have experienced the deep hurt.
08 August 2002                                Page 91 of 354

However, sadly, even in death Sarah is being paraded and

gawked at if one watches television and the little

inserts that are meant to salute her. The father heart

of God breaks. She was made in His image.

As far as I know, Government is not putting money at any

level toward homes where women who have been in

prostitution try to take themselves out of that

lifestyle and make a new life for themselves. There are

homes like the house in Hillbrow and Beauty for Ashes

here in the Western Cape who desperately need our help

and assistance, because they are doing an incredible

work at this time. Beauty for Ashes, a home for women

who choose to turn from prostitution and make a new life

is right here in the centre of Cape Town and they are on Members can also get their details

from our offices. [Applause.]

Mr I S MFUNDISI: Madam Speaker and hon members, the

Sarah Baartman story epitomises the lack of dignity

accorded to African women and this by people who claim

to be proclaiming the word of God. Sarah's story is a

real manifestation of man's inhumanity to man that

causes countless to mourn.
08 August 2002                                Page 92 of 354

With the advent of imperial power, indigenous culture

was thrown out of the window. Inferiority was imposed on

Africans. The so-called master race decided what to do

and when to do it with the African folk. While Africans

were subjected to servitude, the women carried a double

burden. They were kept at the bottom of the social and

economic hierarchy and were employed in low-paying

unskilled jobs.

We appreciate that in the midst of all the humiliation

and degradation, African women stood up and spoke out.

They have shown their mettle in a maze of adversity.

Despite the debasement of Sarah, we have icons we can

look up to, and we note the half-full rather than the

half-empty glasses at our disposal.

Charlotte Maxeke, born Manye, comes to mind. This jewel

of Africa went to study at the Wilberforce University in

the United States of America. On her return, she not

only brought back her deserved degree, she also learnt

about the African Methodist Episcopal Church. This

church was founded by slaves of African origin staging a

walkout from the Methodist Church because of the inhuman
08 August 2002                                Page 93 of 354

treatment meted out to them by the supremacist whites

during worship service.

It is important that we look forward in life and not

remain bitter about what happened to Sarah Baartman.

That is past. We should concentrate on how to restore

dignity and respectability to African women. All we have

to know is that women have an equal right to dignity,

integrity and life. They have not been created from the

crumbs that fell off the Master's table as He was

creating men. Women have rights that should not be

violated in any way.

We should acquaint ourselves with instruments such as

the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action of 1995,

the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of

Discrimination Against Women as adopted by the United

Nations in 1979, and pieces of legislation passed by

this Parliament such as the Domestic Violence Act in

order to appreciate that all gender-based violence has

to be frowned upon regardless of who the perpetrator is.

Surely we have to contain the spiral of violence in

South Africa? Intervention strategies have to be sought
08 August 2002                                   Page 94 of 354

to eradicate this pervasive problem. There is truth

forever in the words: ``The first shall be the last, and

the last shall be the first.'' Sarah Baartman, a woman

once degraded, has since been placed on a pedestal of

glory. She is an icon with whom all yearn to be

associated. [Applause.]

Dr M S MOGOBA: Madam Speaker, the struggle to bring the

remains of Sarah Baartman back to her motherland is a

great victory for human rights. She belongs here, and

the soil of Africa wanted her back here. Those who

enslaved her and deported her to a foreign country and

then dehumanised her and made a public spectacle of her

are psychologically sick and in need of healing.

Many years ago a celebrated member of this House, the

hon Sam Khan, described racism as a mixture of

biological ignorance and racial superstition. And so it

is. It makes some people develop a superiority which is

completely unjustified and baseless.

The heroic and dignified burial of Sarah Baartman on

Women's Day should send a message to all and sundry that

human dignity is a God-given attribute and that those
08 August 2002                                  Page 95 of 354

who violate it violate God, in whose image human beings

are created. The only unfortunate thing is that Sarah

Baartman is being buried in a country where, lately,

there has been unacceptable levels of violence and

indignity inflicted on our womenfolk. The message from

this House and from the burial service of Baartman

should be clear: Violence against women comes from sick

men who are also cowards. Real men should engage other

men in brutal fights in which they will get what they

deserve - blow by blow. There is no heroism whatsoever

in subjecting your beloved wife to physical torture,

brutality and savagery.

In African society of old a family court, representing

both families, would meet and condemn this behaviour and

attempt to do some counselling. If this did not work, a

tribal court would be appealed to. Their judgment and

verdict would result in public punishment that would be

so severe that very few would want to repeat the crime.

One can contrast this with our modern form of

imprisonment in hotel-type prisons. We have a lot to

learn from African jurisprudence, particularly the

element of peer and societal rejection of antisocial and

inhuman behaviour. This African lifestyle was not
08 August 2002                                  Page 96 of 354

inferior or uncivilised. It was a society and lifestyle

which should be the envy of many civilised men and

women. We salute Sarah Bartman.

Mnr J P I BLANCHÉ: Mevrou die Speaker, die Federale

Alliansie is dankbaar dat die Parlement 'n paar uur wy

aan die geskiedenis van Saartjie Baartman. Maklik sal

politici haar treurige lewensverhaal misbruik vir eie

gewin, want reeds het ons gesien dat haar liggaamsbou

tydens haar leeftyd misbruik is deur hartelose individue

om hul verwronge rasse-vooroordele te regverdig.

Die vraag is waarom maghebbendes deur die geskiedenis

van die mens die magteloses en dikwels die fisiek

benadeeldes misbruik het vir hul eie magsposisies, om

hulself sodoende te versterk. Waarom kan ons nie nederig

voor die Skepper staan, dankbaar dat ons in posisies

geplaas is om reg te laat geskied teenoor die

benadeeldes in ons gemeenskap en ons nasie nie? Ek glo

dat die terugbring van Saartjie Baartman se stoflike

oorskot na haar vaderland 'n boodskap inhou vir die

moderne wêreld: 'n Boodskap van versoening van rasse

eerder as 'n geleentheid waar verwyte geslinger word oor

wandade van voorgeslagte wat lank gelede begrawe is.
08 August 2002                                 Page 97 of 354

Saartjie se tragiese geskiedenis het min te doen met

rassisme, dit het alles te doen met die mens se

beheptheid met ander mense se fisieke voorkoms en ons

verwaandheid om benadeeldes as minderwaardige mense te


Ons, wat die voordeel van geleerdheid, tegnologie en die

moderne wetenskap het, moet Saartjie se herbegrafnis

aangryp om Suid-Afrikaners te leer dat elke mens, ten

spyte van sy of haar fisieke voorkoms, 'n gelyke reg op

eerbied en respek het, maak nie saak van sy of haar

staanplek in ons nasie of in ons gemeenskap nie.

Deur die eeue heen was daar vroue wat leidende rolle in

die geskiedenis gespeel het. Dink maar aan Helen van

Troje, Kleopatra en die Koningin van Skeba. Meer onlangs

was daar Eva Peron, Golda Meir, Indira Gandhi, Margaret

Thatcher, en hier tuis, Helen Suzman en vele ander

vroue. Selde nog het ons nasie hom so sterk vereenselwig

met die onreg wat teenoor 'n vrou gepleeg was soos wat

ons nou doen oor Saartjie Baartman en wat aan haar

gedoen is nie. 'n Honderd jaar gelede is die

Afrikanervrou leed aangedoen en het ons vir haar en haar

kinders 'n monument opgerig. Hierdie naweek en vandag sê
08 August 2002                                Page 98 of 354

ek namens die Afrikaners, ons is nie bereid om toe te

laat dat die Saartjie Baartmans van Afrika agtergeblewe

bly in ons eerbetoon aan vroue en dogters van Afrika

nie. [Tussenwerpsels].

Ons dank die Skepper dat ons so kort na die skepping van

die nuwe Suid-Afrika ook hierdie onreg gepleeg teenoor

'n vrou van Afrika kan regstel. Daarom wil ons by

hierdie geleentheid vir die vroue van Suid-Afrika sê:

``Julle het 'n unieke rol om in die Afrika-renaissance

te speel. Bly nederig, liefdevol, sagmoedig en vroulik,

dan sal jy as vrou met agting en respek bejeën word en

sal ons en ons nageslag vir julle monumente bou''.

Ons is bly dat die onreg wat teenoor Saartjie gepleeg

is, reggestel word. Die DA sal help om vroue en ander

benadeeldes se regte in Afrika te verdedig en vestig,

want ons is trots op die vroue en die dogters van ons


Ek wil afsluit met die opmerking: Politieke aktiviste is

snaakse ``mense. Net gister nog het sommige van hulle

vroue'' ge-necklace'' om politieke redes, môre daag
08 August 2002                                Page 99 of 354

hulle dalk by die begrafnis op.[Tussenwerpsels].

(Translation of Afrikaans speech follows.)

[Mr J P I BLANCHÉ: Madam Speaker, the Federal Alliance

is grateful to Parliament for dedicating a few hours to

the story of Saartjie Baartman. Politicians will misuse

her sad life story with ease for personal gain, because

we have already seen that in her lifetime her physique

was abused by heartless individuals to justify their

warped racial prejudice.

The question is why, throughout man's history, the

powerful that be have abused the powerless and often the

physically challenged to further their own positions of

power, in order thereby to fortify themselves. Why can

we not stand humbly before the Creator, grateful to have

been placed in positions to let justice be done to the

aggrieved within our society and our nation? I believe

that the return of Saartjie Baartman's mortal remains to

her land of birth holds a message for the modern world:

A message of reconciliation of races rather than an

occasion at which slurs are hurled about regarding the

atrocities of previous generations that have long since

been buried. Saartjie's tragic story has little to do
08 August 2002                               Page 100 of 354

with racism and everything with man's obsession with

other people's physical appearance and our conceitedness

in labelling those who have been aggrieved as being

inferior people.

We, who have the advantage of learning, technology and

modern science, must seize Saartjie's reburial as an

opportunity to teach South Africans that everyone,

despite his or her physical appearance, has an equal

right to reverence and respect, irrespective of his or

her standing in our nation or society.

Through the ages there have been women who have played

leading roles in history. Think about Helen of Troy,

Cleopatra and the Queen of Sheba. More recently we had

Eva Peron, Golda Meir, Indira Gandhi, Margaret Thatcher,

and here at home, Helen Suzman and many other women.

Seldom before has our nation identified itself so

intensively with the injustice perpetrated against a

woman as is now the case with Saartjie Baartman and what

was done to her. One hundred years ago the Afrikaner

woman was ill-treated and we erected a monument for her

and her children. This weekend and today I will say on

behalf of the Afrikaners that we refuse to let Saartjie
08 August 2002                               Page 101 of 354

Baartman lag behind in our tribute to the women and

girls of Africa. [Interjections.]

We thank our Creator that, so soon after the creation of

the new South Africa, we can also rectify this injustice

perpetrated against a woman of Africa. That is why on

this occasion we want to say to the women of South

Africa: ``You have a unique role to play in the African

Renaissance. Remain modest, loving, gentle and feminine,

then as a woman you will be treated with esteem and

respect and we and our descendants will build monuments

for you’’.

We are glad that the injustices perpetrated against

Saartjie Baartman are being rectified. The DA will help

to establish and protect the rights of women and other

wronged persons in Africa, because we are proud of the

women and the girls of our country.

I want to conclude with this remark: Political activists

are strange people. Only yesterday some of them were

necklacing women for political reasons, but tomorrow

they may turn up at the funeral. [Interjections.]]
08 August 2002                               Page 102 of 354

Mrs M S MAINE: Madam Speaker, hon members, the Beijing

Platform of Action of 1995 defines violence against

women as any act of gender-based violence that results

in, or is likely to, result in physical, sexual or

psychological harm or suffering to women, including

threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation

of liberty. Whether occurring in public or private life,

violence against women is one of the most brutal

consequences of the economic, social, political and

cultural inequalities that exist between men and women.

It is also perpetuated by legal and political systems

that have historically discriminated against women. The

international community has recognised that sexual

violence against women constitutes a violation of their

human rights and fundamental freedoms. Sexual violence

further constitutes violation of a woman's reproductive

rights, particularly her right to bodily integrity and

to control her sexuality and reproductive capacity.

Rape, female circumcision, female genital mutilation and

forced sterilisation are among the types of violence

that violate women's reproductive rights.
08 August 2002                                  Page 103 of 354

Sexual violence occurs in both the private and public

spheres of women's lives. It constitutes a human rights

violation whether the perpetrator is an agent of the

state or a private citizen. Sexual violence can occur

against individuals of any age, within the family or any

other relationship, within the community or in the

workplace, during situations of armed conflict or any

other time or place.

The international community has specifically recognised

women's and girls' rights to be free from sexual

violence in various international human rights treaties.

For example, the Convention on the Elimination of All

Forms of Discrimination Against Women, called Cedaw, was

adopted by the United Nations in 1979, and compels

states to prohibit trafficking in women. The

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural

Rights and the Women's Convention protects a woman's

right to health, including her physical, psychological,

reproductive and sexual health.

In addition, the 1998 Rome Treaty forming the

International Criminal Court states, for the first time

under international law, that rape, sexual slavery,
08 August 2002                                  Page 104 of 354

enforcement, prostitution, forced pregnancy and forced

sterilisation and other forms of sexual violence are

each to be considered a crime against humanity and a war


The era, and bodies of knowledge around sexual violence,

of women Granny Sarah Baartman and other enslaved

women's time was narrow. During this time, the creation

of the constructed symbols applying to black women

demonstrate that notions of gender, race and sexuality

were limited in overarching structures of political

domination and economic exploitation.

However, the advances made by and for the women at

present, with the creation progressive international and

domestic human rights laws, bear testimony to the

achievements made by women activists the world over who

articulate unacceptable forms of subjugation,

exploitation and oppression. Whilst much work is still

needed to be done to ensure substantive equality for all

women at all levels, the shift from Nkoko [Granny] Sarah

Baartman's time to the present is immense.
08 August 2002                               Page 105 of 354

The process illustrated by the treatment of the bodies

of enslaved African women and of women such Nkoko

[Granny] Sarah Baartman encompass useful examples of all

women objectified and degraded by acts of sexual and

physical violence. Rape and other acts of overt violence

that women have experienced, such as physical assault,

domestic abuse, incest and sexual extortion further

exacerbate women's subordination and oppression.

Mo nageng ya rona re fitlheletse go le gontsi jaaka

Puso. Melawana e le mentsi e e busetsang seriti sa bomme

e fetisitswe. Nka bala mengwe ya yona jaaka ... [In our

country, we have achieved a lot as Government. Many laws

which recall our dignity as women have been passed. I

can mention some of them; like ...]

... the Domestic Violence Act, the Maintenance Act, the

Recognition of Customary Marriage Act and the Equality

Act ... ke e mengwe ya tse di diragalang. [... are some

of those that exist.]

Mme le fa tsotlhe tse di dirilwe re setse ka namane e

tona ya tiro jaaka bomme. Setlhogo se se dirilweng mo go

Nkoko Sarah Baartman se santse se diragala ka gore bomme
08 August 2002                               Page 106 of 354

gammogo le bana ba basetsana ba betelelwa ka palo e e

kwa godimo.

Lehuma le santse le rena mo gare ga Afrika yotlhe mme

batho ba ba amegang thata ke bomme. Botlhokatiro bo

iponatsa thata mo difatlhegong tsa bomme ka ke bona ba

bonang gore ba malapa a bona ba a apara le go ja sentle.

Ka jalo ya rona kgaratlho ga e ise e fele.

Go tliswa ga marapo a ga Nkoko Sarah Baartman ke

maiphitlhelelo a magolo mo go rona Maafrika. Re dira

boikuelo mo matoneng otlhe a Afrika le a naga ya rona

gore ka nako ya bogolo jwa tekanyetsokabo ya matlole a

bone e lebisiwe mo go lwantsheng lehuma gore bomme ba

nne le seriti.

Re na le mannane a kontinente kgotsa ``Continental

Programmes''. Re itumeletse go fetolwa ga OAU go nna AU.

Se se raya gore ditlhabologo tsa Afrika di tlaa nna le

isagwe, fela motho o tshwenngwa ke palo e e kwa tlase ya

bomme mo dipuisanong le mo tsamaisong ya tsona. Re dira

boikuelo mo boeteledingpele jotlhe jwa Afrika gore ke

tlhoka go nna teng ga palo e e namatsang pelo ga bomme

gore ba kgone go thusa le go thibela dintwa tse di mo
08 August 2002                                  Page 107 of 354

Afrika, gore bomme le bana ka ba amega segolo ba


Gompieno re ipofa jaaka bomme gore re ikana ka leina la

ga Nkoko Sarah Baartman gore ga re kitla re emisa go lwa

go fitlhela tsotlhe tse re di umakileng di baakangwa.

(Translation of Setswana paragraphs follows.)

[Even if all of these have been done we still have a big

task as women. The cruelty that was done to Granny Sarah

Baartman is still happening because women as well as

girls are raped at a high rate.

Poverty still prevails in the whole of Africa and people

who are affected most are women. Unemployment shows on

the women's faces because they are the ones who see to

it that their families are clothed and eat properly. As

such our struggle is not yet over.

Bringing back the remains of Granny Sarah Baartman is a

big achievement to us as Africans. We appeal to all the

leaders of Africa and that of our country that at a time

of their budget allocation they should ensure that funds
08 August 2002                               Page 108 of 354

are directed to fighting poverty so that women should

have dignity.

We have Continental Programmes. We are happy about the

changing of OAU to AU. This means that developments in

Africa will have a future, but one is worried about the

low number of women in negotiations and in its running.

We are appealing to the whole leadership of Africa that

we need a satisfactory number of women to help in

curbing the wars in Africa, so that the women and

children who are mostly affected, be safe.

Today we commit ourselves as women that in the name of

Granny Sarah Baartman, we will never stop fighting until

all that we have mentioned is corrected.]

We commit ourselves to ending sexual violence against

women, to eradicating poverty and systematically

reducing the impact of HIV/Aids on women in our

communities. [Applause.]

Mr C AUCAMP: Madam Speaker, I have three minutes, and

would like to make three remarks. Firstly, newspaper

headlines read: ``The Dignity of Saartjie Baartman
08 August 2002                               Page 109 of 354

Restored''. Is that really true? Yes the dignity of her

memory might have been restored, but was her person

restored? She died in a foreign country as an object of

abuse; a spectacle stripped of all dignity whatsoever.

Let us not fool ourselves: Real respect for a human

being and the bestowing of real dignity cannot be

backdated. Yes, it soothes the conscience, but it does

not heal the person.

Let our generation never act in a way that compels a

future generation to try to restore the dignity of those

whom we have marginalised, abused and dehumanised. Real

dignity and real respect must be bestowed by our

generation to all peoples of our generation - living

persons created in the image of God.

There is a popular song with the title ``Living Years''.

It is about the regrets of a son who was too late to

heal his relationship with his father. A part of the

lyrics says:

  It is too late when you die to admit we don't see eye

  to eye; I am sure I heard his echo in my baby's
08 August 2002                                 Page 110 of 354

  newborn tears; I just wish I could have told him in

  the living years.

Whether it is Saartjie Baartman, Hansie Cronje, your

parents or your wife, it is too late ``when we die''. Do

it ``in the living years''.

Tweedens, ons mag nooit die vrou degradeer tot 'n blote

seksobjek nie. Dít gebeur in verhoudings, in

toneelstukke, in rolprente en in gesprekke. Vrouens mag

nie gesien word as 'n kombinasie van liggaam, vlees,

kurwes en hormone nie, maar as volledige mense: hart,

siel, verstand en emosies. Seksuele verhoudings moet nie

gebaseer word op blote lus nie, maar op respek,

waardering en liefde. Daarom word ons oproep om die

herstel van die waardigheid van die vrou 'n klug as ons

antwoord teen HIV bloot is om kondome uit te deel,

eerder as om respek en eerbied vir die huwelik te


'n Debat oor die waardigheid van ons vroue word 'n klug

as die raad van Unisa besluit om die eis te betaal wat

toegestaan is teen een van sy lede weens seksuele

teistering van 'n vrou. Dit word 'n klug wanneer ek as
08 August 2002                                  Page 111 of 354

man my vrou sien as my besitting oor wie se lewe ek die

sê het. Dit word 'n klug wanneer gesprekke onder die

belt, meestal ten koste van ons vroue, die

braaivleisvure domineer.

Derdens, Saartjie Baartman is 'n simbool van

gemarginaliseerd wees. Sy was 'n randfiguur van die

samelewing. Die boodskap vir vandag is: Geen mens en

geen gemeenskap mag gemarginaliseer word nie.

Marginalisering wanneer groot massas in haglike

omstandighede verkeer sonder die mees basiese vereistes

vir 'n menswaardige bestaan, maar ook marginalisering

van die verlede, mag nie vervang word met nuwe

marginalisering nie: Marginalisering wanneer blanke

boere in Zimbabwe beskou word as tweedehandse

indringers, en juis vandag hulle plase moet ontruim ná

jare se sweet en arbeid; marginalisering wanneer in 'n

nuwe Suid-Afrika, sekere gemeenskappe weer eens

uitgeskuif word na die rand van die samelewing.

(Translation of Afrikaans paragraphs follows.)

[Secondly, may we never degrade women to mere sex

objects. This happens in relationships, in stage plays,

in films and in conversations. Women should not be seen
08 August 2002                               Page 112 of 354

as a combination of body, flesh, curves and hormones,

but as complete people: heart, soul, mind and emotions.

Sexual relationships must not be based on mere desire,

but on respect, appreciation and love. Therefore our

call for the restoration of the dignity of women becomes

a farce if our response to HIV is merely to hand out

condoms, rather than to promote respect and honour for


A debate on the dignity of our women becomes a farce if

the council of Unisa decides to pay the claim allowed

against one of its members as a result of sexual

harassment of a woman. It becomes a farce when I as a

man view my wife as my possession over whose life I have

the say. It becomes a farce when conversations below the

belt mostly at the expense of our women, dominate the

braaivleis fires.

Thirdly, Saartjie Baartman is a symbol of

marginalisation. She was an outsider in society. The

message for today is: No person and no community should

be marginalised. Marginalisation in which large masses

live in desperate conditions without the most basic

requirements for a dignified existence, but also
08 August 2002                               Page 113 of 354

marginalisation of the past, must not be replaced with

new marginalisation: Marginalisation in which white

farmers in Zimbabwe are viewed as second-hand intruders,

and have to vacate their farms precisely today after

years of sweat and toil; marginalisation in which in the

new South Africa certain communities are once again

pushed out to the periphery of society.]

My message is: Every person is valuable and dignified.

Every community is valuable. Let us live out and bestow

real human dignity in every sphere of life ``in the

living years''.

Mnr S E OPPERMAN: Mevrou die Speaker, daar was baie

emosiebelaaide debatte die afgelope aantal weke rakende

Saartjie, of Sarah, Baartman. Niemand kan ontken dat die

pyn en die hartseer van hierdie vrou, en wat sy moes

deurmaak, ons opnuut aan die hart gegryp het nie.

Daar is ook by tye egter balans verloor deur kenners en

woordvoerders met verskillende agendas, wat mekaar

duidelik met uitsprake probeer oortref het om die oog te

vang. (Translation of Afrikaans paragraphs follows.)
08 August 2002                               Page 114 of 354

[Mr S E OPPERMAN: Madam Speaker, there have been

numerous emotional debates over the past weeks in

respect to Saartjie, or Sarah, Baartman. No one can deny

that the pain and the sorrow of this woman, and what she

had to endure, have once again touched our hearts.

At times, however, balance has been lost by experts and

spokespersons with different agendas, who clearly

attempted to outdo one another with their statements in

order to be noticed.]

Dr Cyril Hromnik, an expert on the early history of

Southern Africa, in an article, ``A Place called

Paradise'' says:

  While true history is a source of inspiration and

  confidence, it is also true that a history that is

  muddled-up is a source of confusion.

Daarom is dit vir my persoonlik belangrik dat daar ook

'n ander dimensie op die debat rakende hierdie vrou, wat

soveel pyn verduur het, en haar mensegroep geplaas word.

``Saartjie Baartman is die grootmoeder van ons almal'',

het iemand onlangs gesê. Ek het groot simpatie met
08 August 2002                               Page 115 of 354

Saartjie se verlede, maar ons verlede strek veel verder

as Saartjie self terug. Iemand anders het haar die mees

geëksploiteerde en vernederde vrou ooit in Afrika genoem

- asof die verhaal van elke vrou uit Afrika deur al die

eeue heen aan ons bekend is.

Is ons seker dat haar regte naam Saartjie, of Sarah,

Baartman was, of dra ons by tot die miskenning van haar

ware identiteit deur haar Sarah of Saartjie te noem?

Krotoa het hulle immers ``Eva'' genoem, en Autsumao het

hulle ``Harry die standloper'' genoem. Tussen al hierdie

uitsprake deur het provinsies tougetrek oor waar sy

eintlik hoort, asof haar geboorte- en leefwêreld begrens

en in provinsies afgebaken was.

Die feit dat die oorblyfsels van Saartjie Baartman, of

wie sy ook al was, môre in die Gamtoosvallei onder groot

belangstelling begrawe sal word, het ten minste een

tergende vraag begin beantwoord ten opsigte van hierdie

vrou, en ten opsigte van elkeen van ons wat op een of

ander wyse aan hierdie inheemse groep verbind word.

Saartjie Baartman het behoort, en om te behoort is 'n

integrale deel van haar waardigheid, en van elkeen van
08 August 2002                               Page 116 of 354

ons s'n. Dit is deel van ons identiteit. Dit is deel van

ons menswees.

As ons wil bou aan die identiteit en die waardigheid van

enige individu, enige gemeenskap, enige mensegroep, dan

is dit belangrik dat daar feitelike substansie hieraan

gegee word. Historici, argeoloë, paleontoloë, kenners en

almal van ons wat deur feitelike substansie geaffekteer

sal word, behoort te help dat duidelikheid gebring word,

want enige persoon, gemeenskap of mensegroep wat onseker

is oor sy histories gefundeerde verlede, sal in 'n see

van konflikterende spekulering na enige boei gryp om

voort te drywe na 'n onsekere en 'n vae toekoms.

(Translation of Afrikaans paragraphs follows.)

[Therefore, it is of personal importance for me that

there should also be another dimension to the debate

with regard to this woman, who endured so much pain, and

her race. ``Saartjie Baartman is the grandmother of us

all'', someone remarked recently. I have great sympathy

for Saartjie's past, but our past stretches back much

further than Saartjie herself. Someone else called her

the most exploited and degraded woman ever in Africa -
08 August 2002                               Page 117 of 354

as if the story of every woman from Africa throughout

the ages were known to us.

Are we certain that her real name was Saartjie, or

Sarah, Baartman, or are we contributing to the disregard

of her true identity by calling her Sarah or Saartjie?

After all, they named Krotoa ``Eva'', and Autsumao they

named ``Harry the Strandloper''. Among all these

statements the provinces took part in a tug of war as to

where she in fact belonged, as if the realm of her birth

and existence were surrounded by a border and demarcated

in provinces.

The fact that the remains of Saartjie Baartman, or

whoever she was, will be buried in the Gamtoos Valley

tomorrow amid much interest, has at least begun to

answer one challenging question with regard to this

woman and with regard to every one of us who is in one

way or another connected to this indigenous group.

Saartjie Baartman belonged - and to belong is an

integral part of her dignity and the dignity of every

one of us. It is part of our identity. It is part of our

08 August 2002                               Page 118 of 354

If we want to develop the identity and the dignity of

any individual, any community, any race, then it is

important that factual substance is given to this.

Historians, archaeologists, paleontologists, experts and

all of us who may be affected by factual substance

should assist in ensuring that clarity is brought forth,

because every person, community or race that is unsure

of its historically based past will grab at any life

buoy in a sea of conflicting speculation in order to

drift to an uncertain and distant future.]

What shall we call her? A Khoi woman? If Khoi means

``man'', does it imply that she was a man-woman? Or

shall we call her a San woman? If San means ``naked'',

does it imply that she was a naked woman? Or shall we

refer to her as a Khoisan woman, as some prefer?

Of was sy dalk 'n Quena-vrou? Quena verwys onder andere

na 'n spesifieke godsdiens wat beoefen is, en wat noue

bande gehad het met Oosterse gelowe. Dit lewer bewys dat

kontak met handelaars uit Indië reeds eeue aan die gang

was, lank voordat die Portugese en die Hollanders op die

toneel verskyn het. Die heilige plekke waar die Quena

aanbid het, is steeds sigbaar in groot dele van Suid-
08 August 2002                                  Page 119 of 354

Afrika. Kenners wys op die duidelike ooreenkomste met

Oosterse gelowe en Stonehenge in Engeland. (Translation

of Afrikaans paragraph follows.)

[Or was she perhaps a Quena woman? Quena refers, inter

alia, to a specific religion that was practised, and

that was closely connected to Eastern religions. This

provides evidence that contact with merchants from India

had already been ongoing for centuries, long before the

Portuguese and the Dutch arrived on the scene. The holy

places where the Quena worshipped are still visible in

large parts of South Africa. Experts highlight the

significant similarities to Eastern religions and

Stonehenge in England.]

Is the name ``autentotoe'' synonomous with the name

``hottentot''. ``Autentotoe'' means ``we are related'',

and was used in communication with strangers when

trading took place. ``Autentotoe'' is a name that was

later corrupted by early Europeans into the well-known

and later abrasively used name ``Hottentot''.

Hierdie is die begin van indringende vrae wat nou gevra

moet word. Die mensegroep waaraan Sarah behoort het, en
08 August 2002                                 Page 120 of 354

waarvan ek deel is, maak aanspraak op eerste-nasie

status en alles wat daarmee gepaard gaan. Daar is

verkose hoofmanne en -vroue van verskillende stamme wat

saamgestel is uit mense wat soek na hulle gister, die

Atakwas, die Gonokwas, die Inkwas, die Gorikwas en

andere wat daarop aanspraak maak dat daar vir hulle

voorsiening in die Grondwet gemaak moet word, met alles

wat daarmee gepaard gaan. Indien hierdie aansprake net

op emosie gegrond is, en nie histories gefundeer kan

word nie, sal enige aanspraak op regsgronde verwerp kan

word, en saam met die verwerping van ons aansprake sal

ons toekoms, ons identiteit en ons waardigheid verwerp


Die Regering moet dringend bydra dat hierdie

fundamentele deel van die geskiedenis van ons land die

regmatige plek en erkenning kry wat dit verdien. Ons

moet duidelikheid kry oor ons verlede sodat die lig

helder kan skyn op ons toekoms. (Translation of

Afrikaans paragraphs follows.)

[This marks the beginning of some incisive questions

that must now be asked. The race to which Sarah

belonged, and of which I am part, lays claim to first-
08 August 2002                                Page 121 of 354

nation status and everything associated with that. There

are elected chiefs, both men and women, from several

clans which comprise people searching for their

yesterday: the Atakwas, the Gonokwas, the Inkwas, the

Gorikwas, and others who claim that provision should be

made for them in the Constitution, together with

everything associated with that. If these claims are

based only on emotion and have no historical basis, any

claim will be rejected on legal grounds and, together

with the rejection of our claims, our future, our

identity and our dignity will be rejected.

The Government must urgently see to it that this

fundamental part of the history of our country receives

the rightful place and recognition that it deserves. We

must have clarity with regard to our past in order for

the light to shine brightly on our future.]

Prof H NGUBANE: Madam Speaker and colleagues, our

national Women's Day tomorrow will be uniquely

celebrated by an event which arouses in most of us

contradictory feelings; feelings of joy, as well as of

pain. It is only a pity that she will be buried under

the name of Sarah Baartman; a name that was a mark of
08 August 2002                               Page 122 of 354

subordination and humiliation. If we consider that it

was her physical appearance which put her in such a

humiliating situation, we should stop and think about

who we ourselves are in Southern Africa. Most of us as

women in South Africa have wide bums, wide hips and

padded backs. We should not be ashamed of that.

In order to honour Sarah Baartman we should see to it

that the designers - those with dresses for women in

their shops - have dresses that are made to suit African

woman. [Applause.] We should not be ashamed of who we

are. We should be proud and hold our heads up high,

because there is a reason for our being what we are. The

prejudices which affected Sarah Baartmann still exist -

even today. Our young girls, when they enter a beauty

competition, will be rejected because they have wide

hips and they are not slim. [Applause.] Hardly any

designers cater for us and in the end we are brainwashed

by constantly being shown beautiful pictures of women in

magazines that reflect figures of women in the dominant

culture. Sarah Baartmann's story should actually make us

think seriously of who we are in South Africa and

Southern Africa, and about how these things still
08 August 2002                               Page 123 of 354

happen, but in a clever way, one which is not so


The point that I want to focus on, which is the leading

theme of this debate, is reclaiming the dignity and the

rights of African women. The very topic implies that

there is something to be reclaimed, that there is

something which has been lost by African women. We need

to look at those things even in day-to-day communication

among ourselves, and see what was there that was good

and is now being eroded. For instance, today people sing

the song: ``Igama lamakhosikazi malibongwe.'' [The

women's name should be praised.] The very term

``inkosikazi'' [a woman] is elevating a woman because a

suffix is added to ``inkosi'' [a king] and a woman is

now a great ``inkosi'' [king] and various other words

like that are used to refer to women: ``inkosazana''

[maiden], ``indodakazi'' [daughter] and others like

them. All these things were meant to enhance the dignity

of women. What is spoken goes with the conceptual value

and morality of a society.

The instance of the erosion of the dignity of African

women is also visible in the context of marriage. As we
08 August 2002                                  Page 124 of 354

all know, on marriage in Africa, especially Southern

Africa, women never changed their names. They retained

their names and they held the status of a mother, while

the man held the status of a father, which made them

partners in parenting. At the same time, however, the

woman had her domain, the domestic domain, where she had

all sorts of control over that domain in the agrarian

culture. Hon members can imagine that the women had

control of all crop-yielding land, while the man had

control of the livestock land. All this balance meant

that women were not dependent on men, but that there

were checks and balances which saw to it that there was

equity in the gender relationship. [Time expired.]


Mr D A A OLIFANT: Madam Speaker and hon members, let me

start by saying: ``Malibongwe! [Let it be praised!]

[Interjections.] Malibongwe! [Let it be praised!]


Sarah Baartman is uit die Kaap weggelok onder

voorwendsels dat sy 'n goeie werk sou kon kry, baie geld

sou kon verdien en natuurlik 'n lekker gemaklike lewe
08 August 2002                                Page 125 of 354

sou lei. Dit was nie so nie en sy het eerder 'n lewe van

hel, pyn en vernedering ervaar.

Jong meisies word net so van die platteland gelok om in

die stede te kom werk. Hulle beland dan hier onder die

indruk dat hul lewens aansienlik gaan verbeter. In baie

gevalle moet hulle dan met die onmenslikste

omstandighede tevrede wees. Hulle slaap in motorhuise,

werk ongoddelike ure in die huis en by die winkel, en

dan moet hulle vanaand nog kinders oppas wanneer die

baas en die miesies hul vriende oornooi vir 'n

geselligheidjie. Hulle kan nie naweke uitgaan nie, kry

nooit af nie, kry slegter kos as die hond en verdien

minder geld as wat belowe is.

'n Ander aspek is dat hierdie dames mense met behoeftes

is. Hulle gaan mans ontmoet, verhoudings aanknoop en

soms erg mishandel word. Dan is daar diegene wat

besluit, of soms gedwing word, om as prostitute te werk

om geld te verdien. Dit is dikwels as gevolg van

ekonomiese omstandighede, asook van pure manipulering

deur mans wat bloot die teergevoeligheid van vroue

uitbuit. Selfs op plekke waar die swak ekonomiese

omstandighede 'n geweldige negatiewe impak het op die
08 August 2002                               Page 126 of 354

sosiale vesel van ons gemeenskappe, is uitbuiting,

mishandeling en geweld teen vroue en kinders aan die

orde van die dag.

Ons ken natuurlik die voorbeeld van baba Tshepang in

Louisvale. Ek is baie dankbaar daar geskied reg in ons

regstelsel en dat David Potse - ons neem aan hy was die

kind se pa - lewenslank tronk toe gestuur is vir hierdie

onmenslike daad.

Verder wil ons ook 'n sterk waarskuwing aan pa's rig.

Dit is altyd elke ouer, en in die besonder die pa, se

plig om die kinders en die huisgesin te beskerm en net

die beste vir hulle te gee. Dit is die onmenslikste ding

wanneer 'n kind, wat haar hele lewe aan haar vader

toevertrou, deur hom verkrag en onsedelik aangerand

word. Ons spreek ons simpatie uit met alle vroue en

kinders wat op die walglikste en onmenslikste maniere

verkrag en onsedelik aangerand word, en wat deesdae in

die meeste gevalle ook wreed vermoor word.

So ook gaan my simpatie uit na die ouers van Edwina

Booysen, 'n vyftienjarige dogter van Atlantis wat vermis

geraak het nadat sy en haar 30-jarige vriendin gaan stap
08 August 2002                                  Page 127 of 354

het. Hulle is deur vier mans gegryp en die bosse

ingesleep. Edwina se vriendin was gelukkig om te

ontsnap, maar sy was nie en het op die wreedste

moontlike manier met haar lewe geboet. Sy is verkrag en

met meer as 300 meswonde in 'n vlak graf begrawe. Daar

word beweer dat sy in daardie stadium nog kon gelewe

het. 'n Kind van baie eenvoudige ouers, maar met 'n

blink toekoms, is deur 'n spul walglike barbare verhoed

om haar ideale te verwesenlik.

Ek wil ook die mense, en veral die vroue, van Atlantis,

Mamre, Pella, Witsand en ander gebiede in die Weskaap en

die res van ons land prys vir die manier waarop hulle

baklei om die skuldiges wat hierdie dade pleeg agter

tralies te probeer kry. Geen man het die reg om vroue te

verkrag nie. Hulle moet ook nie met die twak verskoning

kom dat die dade gepleeg word as gevolg van die

uitlokkende kleredrag van vrouens nie. Dit is


Ek is ook baie trots op die mans wat onlangs aan die

``Men's March'' deelgeneem het met die boodskap, ``Real

men don't rape''. Dit beteken dat die uitbuiting,

vernedering en slegte behandeling waaraan Sarah Baartman
08 August 2002                               Page 128 of 354

200 jaar gelede blootgestel is, vandag steeds voortduur

onder haar nakomelinge. Dit kan nie, dit mag nie, moet

nie en dit durf nie meer geduld word nie.

Terwyl ons dus gereedmaak vir die teraardebestellling

van haar oorskot môre, op Vrouedag, moet ons ook dink

aan die voortgesette ontmensliking van die Sarah

Baartmans van vandag.

Vroue gaan nog baie gebuk onder groot diskriminasie in

ons samelewing. Op die fabrieksvloer verdien vroue

steeds minder as mans en het hulle baie minder voordele

as mans. By sekere werksplekke is daar vroue wat nie

eens afkry om vir 'n eenvoudige papsmeer te gaan nie. Op

ander plekke word vroue se swangerskap nie eens erken

nie. Dit is ook so dat veral die swart vroue wat die

meeste swaarkry juis enkelouers is wat boonop werkloos


Ek rig 'n ernstige versoek aan die Departement van

Welsyn om al die probleme met die uitbetaling van

toelaes vir vroue en kinders so gou as moontlik uit die

weg te ruim. Ek weet nie of agb lede al by die

uitbetaalpunte was nie, maar die grootste vernedering is
08 August 2002                               Page 129 of 354

die tipe taal waarin vroue toegesnou word wanneer hulle

daar staan en wag vir die toelaes om uitbetaal te word,

maar hul name is nie daar nie en hulle wil dit nie

aanvaar nie. Dit moet asseblief end kry. Die departement

moet verder sy amptenare opvoed om hierdie mense beter

te behandel. Hierdie mense is nie daar om te bedel nie.

Hulle gaan daarheen om 'n toelae te ontvang waarop hulle

geregtig is. (Translation of Afrikaans paragraphs


[Sarah Baartman was lured away from the Cape on the

pretext that she would get a good job, could earn lots

of money and would obviously lead an easy life. This was

not the case and she experienced a life of hell, pain

and humiliation.

In the same way young girls are lured from the rural

areas to come and work in the cities. They end up here

under the impression that their lives would improve

considerably. In many cases they have to be satisfied

with the most inhuman circumstances. They sleep in

garages, work ungodly hours in the house and at the

shop, and then in the evenings they still have to look

after children when the boss and the madam invite their
08 August 2002                                 Page 130 of 354

friends over for a get-together. They cannot go out over

weekends, never get time off, receive worse food than

the dog and less money than what they were promised.

Another aspect is that these ladies are people with

needs. They are going to meet men and have relationships

and sometimes even be badly abused. Then there are those

who decide, or are sometimes forced, to work as

prostitutes in order to earn money. This is often as a

result of economic circumstances, as well as of pure

manipulation by men who merely exploit the sensitivity

of women. Even at places where poor economic

circumstances have a severely negative impact on the

social fabric of our society, exploitation, abuse and

violence against women and children is the order of the


We of course know the example of baby Tshepang in

Louisvale. I am very grateful that justice is prevailing

in our justice system and that David Potse - we assume

that he is the father of the child - will receive a

lifelong prison sentence for this inhuman deed.
08 August 2002                               Page 131 of 354

We would furthermore also like to issue a strong warning

to fathers. It is always every parent's duty, and in

particular that of the father, to protect his children

and family and only give them the very best. It is the

most inhuman thing when a child, who trusts her father

with her life, is raped and indecently assaulted by him.

We express our sympathy to those women and children who

are raped and indecently assaulted in the most repulsive

and inhuman manner, and who, these days, are also

murdered in most cases in the most brutal manner.

So also my sympathy goes to the parents of Edwina

Booysen, a fifteen-year-old daughter of Atlantis who

went missing after she and her thirty-year-old

girlfriend went for a walk. They were grabbed by four

men and were dragged into the bushes. Edwina's friend

was lucky enough to escape, but she was not and paid

with her life in the most brutal manner possible. She

was raped and was buried in a shallow grave with more

than 300 knife wounds. It is alleged that at that stage

she might still have been alive. A child of very simple

parents, but with a bright future, was prevented from

realising her ideals by a bunch of vile barbarians.
08 August 2002                                 Page 132 of 354

I also want to praise all the people, and especially the

women from Atlantis, Mamre, Pella, Witsand and other

areas in the Western Cape and the rest of our country

for the manner in which they are fighting to get the

perpetrators of these deeds behind bars. No man has the

right to rape any woman. They should also not come with

their stupid excuse that these crimes are committed as a

result of the provocative clothing of these women. This

is unacceptable.

I am also very proud of the men who recently

participated in the men's march with the message ``Real

men don't rape''. This means that the exploitation,

humiliation and bad treatment to which Sarah Baartman

was exposed to 200 years ago is still continuing today

amongst her descendants. This cannot, should not, may

not and dare not be tolerated any longer.

While we are getting ourselves ready for the burial of

her remains tomorrow, on Women's Day, we should also

think of the continued dehumanisation of the Sarah

Baartmans of today.
08 August 2002                               Page 133 of 354

Women still suffer a lot under major discrimination in

our society. On the factory floor women still earn less

than men and have much fewer benefits than men. At

certain places of work there are women who do not even

get off to go for a simple papsmear. At other places

women's pregnancies are not even recognised. It is also

a fact that especially black women who struggle the most

are, in fact, single parents who are also unemployed.

I am making an earnest appeal to the Department of

Welfare to deal with all the problems regarding the

payouts of grants for women and children, as soon as

possible. I do not know whether hon members have been to

these payout points, but the biggest humiliation is the

type of language in which these women are snarled at

when they stand there and wait for the grants to be paid

out, but their names are not there and they do not want

to accept this. This should please come to an end. The

department should further educate its officials to treat

these people better. These people are not there to beg.

They go there to receive a grant to which they are

08 August 2002                               Page 134 of 354

On a more positive note, although a lot needs to be

done, women are taking control of their lives. On the

political front South Africa boasts the largest number

of female Cabinet Ministers and more than 25% of its

members of Parliament are women. Of course, 30% of the

ANC's members are women. That is, of course, the


On the economic front we should seriously consider the

shockingly low participation of women in the economy. In

the private and public sectors black women, meaning

African, Coloured and Indian, are still positioned at

the extreme low end of management structures. We hope

that the Government will soon be able to evaluate the

country's employment equity policies, so that the law

can be enforced more harshly if there is an insufficient

improvement in these figures.

In the Western Cape we have an outstanding role model in

the form of Zulfah Alli, who successfully tendered for a

building contract worth an unprecedented R7,2 million.

She had to overcome lots of obstacles and, at times,

insults to get this particular contract. It was only

when she wrote to President Mbeki and also took a
08 August 2002                               Page 135 of 354

complaint to the Western Cape Racism Conference early

last year, that her problems with the DA and the Western

Cape government came to light. She was threatened with

legal action and the withdrawal of her tender, but she

continued this fight. In the Western Cape there was a

law called the Preferential Procurement Act, whereby

they would only give black empowerment companies

contracts with a ceiling of R2 million. Well done,

Zulfah, that is the spirit of women.

We also sing praise to Natalie du Toit, who is not only

an outstanding athlete, but who is also disabled. She

has won the highest honour for the people of South

Africa with her outstanding achievement at the

Commonwealth Games. [Applause.]

Ons sing 'n loflied aan 'n maatskappy in Atlantis,

naamlik Atlantis Forge, wat gestremde vroue in diens het

wat hoogs tegnologiese masjiene bedien en wat produksie

van uitstaande kwaliteit lewer vir maatskappye soos

Daimler-Chrysler, BMW en Volkswagen. Na ek verneem beoog

dié maatskappy dat ongeveer 5% van sy poste uiteindelik

deur liggaamlik gestremdes gevul sal word. (Translation

of Afrikaans paragraph follows.)
08 August 2002                               Page 136 of 354

[We sing a song of praise to a company in Atlantis,

namely Atlantis Forge, where disabled women are employed

who service highly technological machines and who

deliver products of outstanding quality for companies

such as Daimler-Chrysler, BMW and Volkswagen. After I

enquired, this company eventually aims to fill

approximately 5% of its post with disabled people.]

We sing praise to all of those women in our country who

have been abused, raped, indecently assaulted and

discriminated against, but who have stood up to fight

for their rights and have ensured that the perpetrators

of these deeds were successfully put behind bars.

The fight for the emancipation of women in our country

and in the world still has a long way to go. However, we

men can help to shorten this particular fight. The

sooner we realise that women are our equals and not just

the bearers of our children, who must also prepare our

food, the sooner we can be a successful society, a

successful country and a successful world. [Applause.]

Debate concluded.
08 August 2002                                   Page 137 of 354

The House adjourned at 16:35.




National Assembly and National Council of Provinces:

1.   The Speaker and the Chairperson:

     (1) Assent by the President of the Republic in

         respect of the following Bills:

         (i)     Electronic Communications and

                 Transactions Bill [B 8B - 2002] - Act No

                 25 of 2002 (assented to and signed by

                 President on 31 July 2002); and

         (ii)    Taxation Laws Amendment Bill [B 26 -

                 2002] - Act No 30 of 2002 (assented to

                 and signed by President on 31 July

08 August 2002                                Page 138 of 354

National Assembly:

1.   The Speaker:

     (1) Message from National Council of Provinces to

         National Assembly:

         Bill, subject to proposed amendments, passed by

         National Council of Provinces on 7 August 2002

         and transmitted for consideration of Council's

         proposed amendments:

         (i) Planning Profession Bill [B 76B - 2001]

             (National Assembly - sec 75) (for proposed

             amendments, see Announcements, Tablings and

             Committee Reports, 24 July 2002, p 1213).

         The Bill has been referred to the Portfolio

         Committee on Agriculture and Land Affairs of the

         National Assembly for a report on the amendments

         proposed by the Council.

2.   The Speaker:
08 August 2002                               Page 139 of 354

   The following papers have been tabled and are now

   referred to the relevant committees as mentioned


   (1) The following papers are referred to the

       Portfolio Committee on Water Affairs and


       (a) Government Notice No R 980 published in

            Government Gazette No 23636 dated 19 July

            2002: Regulations tabled in terms of section

            71(2) of the Water Services Act, 1997 (Act

            No 108 of 1997).

       (b) Proclamation No 242 published in Government

            Gazette No 23180 dated 8 March 2002: Board

            of Bloem Water: Extension of Service Area,

            tabled in terms of section 28(1)(c) of the

            Water Services Act, 1997 (Act No 108 of


   (2) The following paper is referred to the Portfolio

       Committee on Transport. The Report of the

       Auditor-General is referred to the Standing
08 August 2002                              Page 140 of 354

       Committee on Public Accounts for consideration

       and report:

       Annual Report and Financial Statements of the

       South African Roads Agency Limited for 2000-

       2001, including the Report of the Auditor-

       General on the Financial Statements for 2000-

       2001 [RP 65-2002].

   (3) The following paper is referred to the Portfolio

       Committee on Transport:

       Annual Report and Financial Statements of the

       Air Traffic and Navigation Services Company

       Limited for 2001-2002.

   (4) The following paper is referred to the Portfolio

       Committee on Trade and Industry. The Report of

       the Auditor-General is referred to the Standing

       Committee on Public Accounts for consideration

       and report:

       Annual Report and Financial Statements of the

       Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
08 August 2002                              Page 141 of 354

       for 2001-2002, including the Report of the

       Auditor-General on the Financial Statements for

       2001-2002 [RP 98-2002].

   (5) The following paper is referred to the Portfolio

       Committee on Trade and Industry.

       Report of the Council for Scientific and

       Industrial Research on the Technology Impact for


   (6) The following paper is referred to the Portfolio

       Committee on Justice and Constitutional

       Development. The Report of the Auditor-General

       is referred to the Standing Committee on Public

       Accounts for consideration and report:

       Annual Report and Financial Statements of the

       Independent Electoral Commission regarding the

       Management and Administration of the Represented

       Political Parties' Fund for 2000-2001, including

       the Report of the Auditor-General on the

       Financial Statements for 2000-2001 [RP 15-2002].
08 August 2002                                 Page 142 of 354

     (7) The following paper is referred to the Portfolio

          Committee on Labour. The Report of the Auditor-

          General is referred to the Standing Committee on

          Public Accounts for consideration and report:

          Annual Report and Financial Statements of the

          Compensation Fund for 2001-2002, including the

          Report of the Auditor-General on the Financial

          Statements for 2001-2002 [RP 118-2002].


National Assembly and National Council of Provinces:


1.   The Minister for Justice and Constitutional


     Annual Report and Financial Statements of the

     Independent Electoral Commission regarding the

     Management and Administration of the Represented

     Political Parties' Fund for 1999-2000, including the

     Report of the Auditor-General on the Financial
08 August 2002                                    Page 143 of 354

     Statements for 1999-2000 [RP 14-2002].


National Assembly:

1.   Report of the Portfolio Committee on Education on

     Visits to Institutions of Higher Learning, dated 6

     November 2001:

          The Portfolio Committee on Education, having sent

          delegations to institutions of higher learning in

          May and August 2001, reports as follows:

     A.    Objective of visits

           In a meeting on 28 February 2001, the Committee

           unanimously agreed that delegations undertake

           provincial visits to institutions of higher

           learning to assess the rate at which

           transformation was taking place and to give

           special attention to the following issues:
08 August 2002                                Page 144 of 354

        1.   Implementation of the National Student

             Financial Aid Scheme

             (NSFAS), to ensure that access by the poorest

             of the poor to higher education is improved.

        2.   Adaptation of entry requirements, bridging

             programmes and the manner in which entrance

             requirements are made public to all people,

             irrespective of language and cultural


        3.   How much the tradition and ethos of the

             institutions have adapted to new ethnically

             and culturally integrated student bodies, so

             that all students form an integral part of

             these institutions.

        4.   How much institutions have adapted their

             curricula to ensure appropriate output to

             satisfy the country's goals of economic


   B.   Delegations
08 August 2002                                 Page 145 of 354

       1.   Peninsula Technikon

            The delegation was under the leadership of

            the Committee chairperson, Prof S M Mayatula

            (ANC), and included Dr J Benjamin (ANC), Ms

            D G Nhlengethwa (ANC), Ms E Gandhi (ANC), Mr

            R P Z van den Heever (ANC), Prof S S Ripinga

            (ANC), Mr S J Mohai (ANC), Mr K Moonsamy

            (ANC), Ms N C Manjezi (Committee Secretary)

            and Ms N Borotho (Committee Assistant).

       2.   University of Fort Hare, University of

            Transkei and University of Natal

            The delegation, under the leadership of the

            Committee chairperson, Prof S M Mayatula

            (ANC), included Mrs M A A Njobe (ANC), Ms E

            Gandhi (ANC), Mr A M Mpontshane (IFP), Dr B

            L Geldenhuys (New NP), Ms N C Manjezi

            (Committee Secretary), Ms N Borotho

            (Committee Assistant) and Mr B Ntsong

            (Departmental Official).
08 August 2002                                 Page 146 of 354

             Prof L M Mbadi from the UDM joined the

             delegation at the University of Transkei.

        3.   Wits University, Potchefstroom University

             and University of the North

             The delegation, under the leadership of Ms P

             K Mothoagae (ANC), included Mr S B Ntuli

             (ANC), Ms P N Mnandi (ANC), Mr R S Ntuli

             (DP), Mr C Aucamp (AEB), Ms A Jojozi

             (Committee Secretary), Ms D Martin

             (Committee Assistant) and Mr M Mampuru

             (Departmental Official).

             Mr L I Maphoto (ANC) joined the delegation

             at the University of the North.

   C.   Peninsula Technikon - 22 May 2001

        1.   Official view by Prof B Figaji, Vice-


             On arrival at the Peninsula Technikon, the

             delegation was warmly welcomed by the Vice-
08 August 2002                              Page 147 of 354

           Chancellor, Prof B Figaji, and the

           Management Board.

           At the Technikon, they focus on providing an

           environment conducive to learning and on

           programmes that promote academic success for

           those serious about using the opportunity to

           obtain a tertiary qualification. The

           institution takes pride in providing for the

           holistic development of students -

           academically, spiritually, physically and

           culturally. Students are provided with

           technological education that prepares them

           for the world of work through experiential


           The Senate deals with academic staff. The

           Student Representative Council (SRC) runs

           its own budget and meets with the Management

           Board on a six-weekly basis. There are good

           students and a very supportive staff.

           At the time of the visit, they were building

           the R26 million Information Technology
08 August 2002                               Page 148 of 354

            Centre, with 1 450 computers. They needed

            more funding to complete the project.

            The Technikon shall be a centre of

            excellence for career education, to be

            recognised by the community, commerce and

            industry, as well as the public sector, as

            being responsive to the needs of society. It

            will be non-racial, non-sexist and


       2.   Implementation of National Student Financial

            Aid Scheme (NSFAS) - official view by Mr G

            Reynecke, Head: Financial Aid, and Mr T

            Titus, Head: Student Affairs

            The Technikon has historically served a

            student population coming from socially,

            educationally and economically disadvantaged

            backgrounds. Providing financial aid to

            students to ensure access of the poor to

            higher education has always been a priority.

            It is important to ensure sustained support

            to such students during their academic life.
08 August 2002                                 Page 149 of 354

           The scheme administers all financial aid -

           institutional funds from donors, nominated

           awards and work study programmes.

           (a) Processes and procedures

                 Institutional policies governing the

                 distribution of financial assistance is

                 developed and reviewed by the Financial

                 Aid Committee and the Financial Aid

                 Forum. The committee consists of

                 academics, support services and student

                 leadership. The forum is a working

                 committee representative of staff in the

                 Financial Aid Office and the SRC. The

                 input of students is canvassed through

                 the forum to review, develop and

                 implement policies governing the

                 distribution of NSFAS funds. The forum

                 has regular meetings to focus on the

                 implementation of criteria developed and

                 the assessment of appeals from student

                 applications on matters related to the

                 allocations of NSFAS funds.
08 August 2002                                Page 150 of 354

                 Students are involved in all committees

                 in the institution and participate fully

                 in them. The Technikon at all times

                 ensures the sustainability of the


           (b) Criteria

                 Key elements in the selection of

                 students are academic ability or

                 potential and financial need. These

                 elements are guided by an NSFAS policy

                 document. Students are expected to pass

                 at least 50% of their courses in order

                 to qualify. They are also allowed one

                 year longer than the prescribed minimum

                 duration to qualify.

                 Financial need is broadly based on the

                 income of the household and the number

                 of dependants. Students or their

                 families are generally expected to

                 contribute towards their study costs,

                 with the poorest making the smallest or
08 August 2002                                  Page 151 of 354

                 no contribution at all. A maximum amount

                 of household income is determined

                 annually. Upon registration, a student

                 must pay R940 upfront (this increases

                 the next year). Only registered students

                 are allocated money from the scheme.

           (c) Costing of awards

                 The method of determining the size of

                 awards is based on the NSFAS guideline:

                 Study cost minus own contribution minus

                 other awards equals NSFAS award. Study

                 cost is made up of tuition fees,

                 accommodation and meals (or private

                 boarding) and books. As 60% of the

                 students are from rural areas, there are

                 systems to assist them.

           (d) Application and selection process

                 Senior students apply during

                 October/November. Once data is captured

                 on the mainframe computer, selection is
08 August 2002                                Page 152 of 354

                 done as soon as possible after

                 registration, usually during March. Upon

                 completion of the required contracts,

                 selected students are assisted by means

                 of access to meals, books, photocopies

                 and study material, even though it takes

                 a while before funds are transferred to

                 the institution.

                 First-year students apply during

                 registration. Selection is done during

                 May/June. The same process for senior

                 students applies to them upon receipt of

                 completed contract forms required. Only

                 registered students can access the


                 The selection process is systems-driven.

                 Initial screening assesses basic

                 academic ability and financial need of

                 applicants. Further manual assessments

                 are done to ensure that students have

                 been treated fairly. All the processes
08 August 2002                                 Page 153 of 354

                 and procedures are progressive,

                 democratic and transparent.

            (e) NSFAS allocations

                 1997 - 2 138; 1998 - 3 020; 1999 - 2

                 396; 2000 - 3 199.

            (f) Challenges and positive aspects

                 A challenge shared with the SRC and

                 other student bodies is to limit the

                 abuse of funding on the one hand and on

                 the other to congratulate the government

                 for introducing this.

       3.   Entry requirements, student development and

            integrated language development - official

            view by Ms C Jacobs, Language Co-ordinator,

            and Mr L Himunchul

            Peninsula Technikon is a higher education

            institution and the standard requirement is

            a matriculation certificate. It also has a
08 August 2002                                 Page 154 of 354

           Recognition of Prior Learning policy that

           facilitates access of mature students who do

           not meet the formal entry requirements, but

           bring a wealth of learning acquired via

           experience in the workplace and other

           learning environments.

           The institution has also been involved in

           alternative admission processes like

           Headstart and Access Programme. These

           initiatives aim at preparing students for

           higher education by providing foundation

           work in areas like mathematics and science.

           Access Programme was also a vehicle for

           training and education of returning cadres

           in the early 1990s, to enable their

           reintegration into post-apartheid South


           They do not have any bridging/foundation

           programmes. Compensatory programmes are

           integrated into the academic offering of

           departments. All departments have one or

           more of the following programmes:
08 August 2002                              Page 155 of 354

           supplementary instruction/tutorial support;

           laboratory/practical assistants; language

           development tutorials; and academic


           The effectiveness of peer collaborative

           learning has been well researched and

           documented. Early theories - Dewy, Piaget

           and Bruner - provided clear direction that

           led to the much valued peer collaborative

           learning. Developmental psychologists

           carried on the early research, and recent

           research in college student development and

           retention lent further empirical support.

           The fact that only 24% of the students have

           English as their first language, presents a

           teaching and learning challenge for

           educators. Experience has shown that the

           only way to improve the success rate, is to

           recognise and confront the issue of

           language. Unfortunately, there is no easy or

           rapid, yet effective, remedial programme to

           correct the extent of the linguistic
08 August 2002                                 Page 156 of 354

           disadvantage the majority of students

           experience when they enter higher education.

           The Technikon has adopted a short-term

           support strategy for students and a longer-

           term change strategy for staff. These

           strategies are implemented together, but the

           two sets of outcomes are measured


           (a) Purpose of short-term strategy for


                 The purpose is to improve their language

                 skills by providing structured

                 tutorials, offering computer-aided

                 language learning courses, establishing

                 and supporting peer study groups and

                 providing more student-centred learning


           (b) Purpose of long-term change strategy for

08 August 2002                                 Page 157 of 354

                 The purpose is to involve lecturers,

                 through capacity-building training

                 programmes and material development

                 projects, to consciously think about how

                 they teach, about the appropriateness of

                 the material they use and about the need

                 to consider the linguistic ability of

                 their learners.

                 The US has donated R1 million for

                 student support and staff development


       4.   Curriculum change - official view by Prof H

            Fransman, Director: Educational Development


            The Technikon commits itself to develop

            academically, socially and technologically

            competent students, who are responsive to

            the broader need of society, by:

            *    Promoting an environment conducive to

                 human development
08 August 2002                                  Page 158 of 354

           *     Facilitating appropriate tuition, co-

                  operative education

                 and support according to the academic

                  needs of the


           *     Encouraging staff commitment to quality

                  education and


           *     Offering programmes for educationally



           *     Fostering lifelong learning.

           The centre is intimately involved in

           providing support to teaching staff so that

           their efforts may lead to elevating the

           quality of student learning. Part of the

           support is given through intensive research

           into student learning. Research has shown

           that at school students learn too much

           detail, they have no time to think. The
08 August 2002                              Page 159 of 354

           Technikon want to see students use their

           analytical ability more often. It was

           emphasised that students should become more

           concerned with the nature of evidence on

           which they base an argument.

           Students learn a multitude of techniques in

           the different disciplines. These techniques

           are used to solve problems related to the

           discipline and the industry. Very often

           students do not question these techniques,

           as they believe that the lecturer is right.

           In the early stage of their career in higher

           education, students treat staff as the

           ultimate authority from whom they expect the

           answers. In order to cope with the workload,

           surface approaches to learning are adopted,

           i.e. the memorising of facts. The other

           issue is: HOW did the lecturer engage with

           the students and the learning material?

           The new approach to curriculum development

           via outcomes, modularisation and continuous

           assessment, hopes to alleviate some of these
08 August 2002                              Page 160 of 354

           problems. It was found by the centre that

           students preferred teachers with a similar

           cognitive style as their own. For example,

           students who are very dependent on the

           lecturer, would require more structural

           support provided by articulated forms of

           teaching. If the lecturer has not been able

           to determine the extent to which students

           are dependent, he/she will not know how to

           adapt the teaching.

           The centre does research on student learning

           as an extension of previous research in an

           attempt to discover in greater detail what

           students' conceptions of learning are. While

           many students study, especially during

           examination or test time, very few learn.

           Areas to be covered, are:

           What does learning mean to the student? What

           are their preferences for different courses?

           What are their preferences for different

           styles of learning (e.g. a holistic style, a
08 August 2002                               Page 161 of 354

            serialist style, a deep approach, a surface

            approach or strategic approach to learning)?

            The research is based on work done in the

            UK, Sweden, Denmark and the USA, and it has

            also been extended to the Technikon Northern

            Gauteng, the Eastern Cape Technikon and M L

            Sultan Technikon. The findings of the

            research will inform their curriculum

            development processes and the manner in

            which the Technikon teach.

       5.   Curriculum development - official view by Mr

            J Garraway

            The curriculum development process has

            involved changing teaching in step with

            government policy. According to the National

            Plan for Higher Education (2001:9), one of

            the challenges facing higher education is

            the "mobilisation of human talent and

            potential through life-long learning to

            contribute to social, economic, cultural and

            intellectual life of a rapidly changing
08 August 2002                                Page 162 of 354

           society". This is to be done through

           improving teaching programmes so as to

           produce students with critical competencies

           necessary to function in modern society,

           students who are information- and computer-

           literate, who are effective communicators,

           who possess analytical, problem-solving and

           knowledge reconfiguration skills, and who

           are team builders and networkers with

           negotiating skills. Overarching these

           developments are the policies of redress and

           equity outlined in the White Paper on Higher

           Education of 1997.

           The Technikon has set about responding to

           the challenges laid down by the Department

           by changing teaching in the following two


           (a) Designing an outcomes-based curriculum

                 In 1999 technikons submitted outcomes-

                 based, rather than subject-based,

                 qualifications to SAQA for interim
08 August 2002                                Page 163 of 354

                 registration. This was a joint effort by

                 all technikons. During 2000 lecturers in

                 every Peninsula Technikon department

                 worked on these qualification outcomes,

                 as follows:

                 They broke the qualification outcomes

                 down into smaller outcomes more specific

                 to teaching and learning, in that they

                 reflected the Technikon's particular

                 teaching and learning fields of

                 expertise. They then included the above

                 critical competencies in the wording of

                 the outcomes.

                 The lecturers added outcomes which

                 reflected passing judgement on actions

                 and changing behaviour to adapt to new


                 The outcomes were levelled so as to

                 reflect the stage of learning of the

08 August 2002                                Page 164 of 354

           (b) Designing integrated assessments

                 In 2001 lecturers began designing

                 integrated projects so that learners

                 could achieve the outcomes described

                 above. These projects were characterised

                 as workplace simulation activities,

                 integrated across subjects and involving

                 critical competencies. Projects were

                 criterion-referenced, meaning that what

                 lecturers were looking for in an ideal

                 answer, including the critical

                 competencies, was made clear to learners

                 before they started the project.

                 Furthermore, learners were expected to

                 assess and monitor their progress in the

                 project against the criteria as a method

                 of encouraging life-long learning.

                 All programmes have advisory committees

                 on course content. Most students are

                 given the opportunity to look for jobs.
08 August 2002                                Page 165 of 354

                 According to the President of the SRC,

                 Mr T Damoyi, there are in-service

                 training programmes for students. The

                 academic board reviews programmes

                 offered so as to update the curriculum.

       6.   Student development - official view by Mr E

            Sebokedi, Deputy Head: Student Affairs

            A major challenge for the leadership

            development and student governance support

            segment was to develop capacity to train

            student leadership in accordance with

            identified needs, whilst at the same time

            continuing to provide support to student

            structures. Within the context of limited

            resources, they offer students leadership

            development programmes and give support to

            structures on campus.

            The operation of the leadership development

            and student governance support segment was

            translated into key performance areas and

            key performance indicators.
08 August 2002                                 Page 166 of 354

           The KPAs and KPIs for the SRC Administration

           office (Student Governance Support) were

           never finalised.

           (a) Areas identified as scope of work

                 *   Dealing with general student

                     enquiries (providing information and


                 *   Typing correspondence and reports

                     for the SRC and student structures

                 *   Mailing and registering

                     correspondence, reception of calls

                     and messaging

                 *   Other related matters.

           (b) Student leadership training and


                 The office organised 17 workshops during

                 the year under review. The total number

                 of participants in training workshops
08 August 2002                                 Page 167 of 354

                 during the year was 510. The target

                 groups for the workshop were divided

                 into two cohorts, namely elected student

                 leaders and non-elected leaders. The

                 participants evaluated four workshops,

                 namely those held for class

                 representatives (Faculty Councils) and

                 house committee members (Central

                 Residence Committee).

                 The workshops conducted during the

                 period of review partially met the two


                 *   To facilitate learning about the

                     roles and responsibilities of

                     elected student leaders

                 *   To train students in problem-solving


                 The focus areas of problem-solving and

                 systems orientation were adequately met.
08 August 2002                                Page 168 of 354

           (c) Leadership consultations

                 Over the past five years, an open-door

                 policy for student leaders wishing to

                 consult on a range of

                 problems/challenges, was established.

                 The general approach is to listen to the

                 problem statement, to ask questions of

                 clarification and to suggest possible

                 options to deal with the matter at hand.

                 It is consistently communicated to

                 student leaders that it is their

                 responsibility to take decisions and act

                 upon them.

                 To accurately account for the impact of

                 such consultations, presented a problem.

                 It was therefore decided to get more

                 accurate data on such consultations. The

                 practice of recording data was not

                 consistently followed during the period

                 under review. The consultation focus

                 areas were: 41% workshop planning; 17%
08 August 2002                                   Page 169 of 354

                 enterprise opportunities; 41% project

                 conceptualisation; and 17% others.

           (d) Institutional promotion and student


                 This office is currently engaged in

                 three initiatives to promote student


                 *   Drafting an institutional

                     development plan

                 *   Co-ordinating the first-year

                     orientation forum

                 *   Contributing to the establishment of

                     a new IT Centre.

                 These activities relate to the

                 department's objective of maximising

                 resources for skills development on

08 August 2002                                Page 170 of 354

                 On drafting the student development

                 plan, the student affairs division

                 complements the concerted efforts for

                 both students and staff.

   D.   University of Fort Hare - 6 August 2001

        1.   History and microscopic view of previous 18

             months - official view by Prof D Swartz,


             The University of Fort Hare was established

             in 1916 and includes the Alice and Bisho

             campuses, with 5 200 students and 570 staff

             members. It is a rural, agricultural and

             research university with a huge potential,

             central to the political economy of the

             Nkonkobe region.

             The name "Fort Hare" is internationally and

             nationally known and envisaged to be known

             as a Centre for Liberation Studies, a Centre

             for Leadership Development, and a Centre for
08 August 2002                                Page 171 of 354

           Agriculture, Rural and Environmental


           (a) Decline and crisis of 1990s

                 There was a massive structural and

                 strategic shift in higher education due

                 to the impact of globalisation on higher

                 education and serious leadership


           (b) Institutional crisis of 1998-99

                 The institutional crisis of 1998-99

                 revolved around three sources:

                 *   A financial deficit of R90 million

                 *   Academic viability - student numbers

                     declined (in 1999 there were 2 500

                     students, which affected the macro-

                     economic viability and university

                     finances because of a radically

                     reduced government subsidy)
08 August 2002                                Page 172 of 354

                 *   The failure of leadership at all


           (c) New beginning - 2000

                 The crisis led to the departure of the

                 management and the appointment of an

                 Interim Management Team and a New

                 Council after six months. The university

                 had remarkable stability on campus, with

                 no boycotts or strikes.

                 The six-point plan was drafted, which

                 included a stabilisation process, short-

                 term liquidity, institutional review (to

                 understand what was happening on

                 campus), the advent of Strategic Plan

                 2000 (SP 2000), and management and

                 leadership implementation.

                 SP 2000 sets out in broad strategic

                 terms a new vision, mission, corporate

                 goals and institutional activities aimed

                 at laying a basis for comprehensively
08 August 2002                                Page 173 of 354

                 restructuring and developing the

                 university in the 21st century. It was

                 launched by the Deputy President, Mr J

                 Zuma, in May 2000. (SP 2000 is available

                 on website

           (d) Vision

                 Fort Hare aspires to become a vibrant,

                 equitable and sustainable African

                 university committed to teaching and

                 research excellence, building on its

                 unique historical role and rural

                 location to provide an enriching

                 education service to its graduates and


           (e) Mission

                 Its mission is to provide high quality

                 education of international standard,

                 contributing to the advancement of

                 knowledge that is socially and ethically

                 relevant, and applying that knowledge to
08 August 2002                                Page 174 of 354

                 the scientific, technological and socio-

                 economic development of our nation and

                 the wider world.

           (f) Corporate goals

                 *   Securing long-term sustainability

                     and viability

                 *   Becoming the Centre for Leadership


                 *   Achieving teaching and research


                     Addressing the development

                     challenges of the region and the


                 *   Becoming a world-class university.

           (g) Strategic objectives
08 August 2002                                Page 175 of 354

                 The 10 strategic objectives, as

                 mentioned by the Vice-Chancellor, are to

                 diversify and expand the revenue base,

                 to offer high quality and competitive

                 programmes, to sharpen the teaching and

                 research skills base, to refocus and

                 realign academic programmes, to make

                 strategic use of Fort Hare's human

                 capital resources, to improve the

                 quality of student and staff life, to

                 increase the capacity, quality and

                 efficiency of support systems, to forge

                 new educational partnerships, to promote

                 rural development in Nkonkobe and the

                 Eastern Cape region, and to raise rural

                 and development support for local

                 industry, agriculture and development


           (h) Implementation strategy - core


                 *   Vision, governance and leadership
08 August 2002                                Page 176 of 354

                     Prof D Swartz is of the view that

                     Fort Hare needs to involve people in

                     order for them to be responsible.

                     There is a need for corporate

                     commitment to SP 2000 values and

                     ethics, to promote service ethos,

                     performance management and link-

                     shared governance with individual


                 *   Academic restructuring

                     In January 2000, eight faculties

                     were closed. Fort Hare had created

                     four new faculties: Agriculture and

                     Environmental Sciences; African and

                     Democracy Studies; Science and

                     Technology; and Management,

                     Development and Commerce. The Govan

                     Mbeki Research and Development

                     Centre was also established.

                     Their respective focuses would be:
08 August 2002                              Page 177 of 354

                 Agriculture and Environmental

                 Sciences: The science of free-

                 ranging animals, agronomics

                 sciences, environmental science and

                 land use planning, agricultural

                 economics and rural development

                 African and Democracy Studies:

                 Liberation studies, Eastern Cape

                 studies, music and arts academy,

                 Nelson Mandela Law School, theology

                 of empowerment

                 Science and Technology: Indigenous

                 resources management and

                 development, developmental

                 technologies, community health

                 sciences, and analytical sciences

                 Management, Development and

                 Commerce: Education management,

                 public policy and management,

                 business and accounting,
08 August 2002                                Page 178 of 354

                     developmental studies, and co-

                     operative studies

                     The Govan Mbeki Research and

                     Development Centre will play a very

                     important role in promoting research

                     culture, building strategic research

                     linkages, improving quality of

                     research management, and developing

                     rural and development


                     They also appointed Executive Deans

                     and granted VSPs to 112 surplus

                     staff. They phased out non-viable

                     programmes and introduced new ones.

                 *   Finance and revenue

                     This would involve updating

                     financial records, introducing a new

                     FMS, programme-based budgeting,

                     training financial management,

                     restructuring the Fort Hare
08 August 2002                                   Page 179 of 354

                     Foundation and starting a major

                     capital fund campaign to boost


                 *   Support services

                     This would involve the refurbishing

                     of buildings, modernising

                     administration systems, improving

                     student services, outsourcing non-

                     core services, and upgrading IT


                 *   Human resources

                     This would include introducing new

                     HR policies, redeploying staff to

                     new operational divisions and

                     faculties, a skills development

                     plan, performance-based management

                     and an equity plan.

                 *   Strategic partnerships
08 August 2002                                   Page 180 of 354

                     This would include the Nkonkobe

                     Development Plan, the Agripart

                     Initiative, the   Daimler/Chrysler

                     partnership, co-operative

                     businesses, leadership (students at

                     work), and the Rhodes and Unitra


           (i) Current plans

                 Fort Hare had plans on some important

                 matters, according to Prof Swartz:

                 *   Three-year rolling plan

                 *   Business plan for new faculties

                 *   Financial growth plan: five years

                 *   Risk profile and risk management


                 *   Establishment of consulting arm
08 August 2002                                  Page 181 of 354

                 *   Major capital campaign.

           (j) Achievements

                 There has been unprecedented

                 institutional stability at Fort Hare.

                 Their overdraft/deficit was reduced from

                 R90 million to R49 million in one year,

                 and they hope to be completely out of

                 the red by the end of 2004. They did it

                 on their own, without any help from


                 For the university to be a successful

                 centre of academic excellence, it has to

                 be smaller and more focused. There has

                 been a major increase in student

                 numbers: from 2 500 in 2000 to 5 200 in

                 2001 - growing market confidence in the

                 future of Fort Hare and beginning of

                 investment flows.

           (k) Weaknesses and threats
08 August 2002                                 Page 182 of 354

                 The financial fundamentals are still

                 weak - the income side requires serious

                 attention. Further growth in student

                 numbers imposes serious budget

                 constraints. New faculties and

                 programmes require time for

                 consolidation and development. The

                 management systems and processes still

                 need to undergo major changes.

           (l) Major challenges facing Fort Hare

                 *   Maintaining internal support for SP


                 *   Securing financial support for SP

                     2000 (key role of the government,

                     donors and alumni)

                 *   Policy certainty (no mixed signals

                     to the market)
08 August 2002                                   Page 183 of 354

                 *   Consolidation gains made since 2000

                     and delivering on critical reform


           (m) Regional collaboration, core and

                 strategic missions

                 Prof Swartz said that key challenges in

                 regional collaboration were stability,

                 strategic orientation of the sector,

                 viability and sustainability and meeting

                 policy objectives. The higher education

                 sector could be improved significantly -

                 many changes have already taken place in

                 respect of selecting the most

                 appropriate instrument to meet

                 particular challenges.

                 Higher education has two roles: a formal

                 educational mission and a strategic

                 educational mission.

                 *   Formal educational mission
08 August 2002                                Page 184 of 354

                     They can produce graduate skills for

                     the economy and do research to

                     advance the frontiers of knowledge

                 *   Strategic educational mission

                     This includes the direct application

                     of knowledge to socio-economic

                     development, human capital

                     development, technological

                     innovation and valorisation of the


                     The core and strategic missions in

                     respect of regional collaboration

                     include the rationalisation of

                     serious duplication, the audit

                     process, the creation of common

                     support services (IT, joint

                     admission and on-line registration),

                     the sharing of costly staff and

                     courseware, joint enrolment and

                     accreditation, and inter-
08 August 2002                                   Page 185 of 354

                     institutional capacity building

                     (research, management and teaching).

                     The strategic mission will also

                     include striking long-term

                     partnerships with the government and

                     industry in the province, aligning

                     the development strategy from sector

                     to human capital in the province,

                     directly stimulating the economic

                     development process via strategic

                     knowledge application, and accessing

                     untapped revenue sources.

           (n) Strategic clusters

                 Agriculture and biotechnology; Marine

                 Conservation and Aquamarine Culture;

                 Public Service Capacity Building;

                 Development and Rural Management;

                 Education Management; and Heritage and

                 Cultural Tourism.
08 August 2002                                Page 186 of 354

           (o) Approach of Fort Hare on issue of


                 Fort Hare does not support a "merger"

                 vis-à-vis UNITRA/Rhodes/Fort Hare.

                 However, they are in favour of

                 structured partnerships around strategic

                 goals that are realistic, efficient and


                 Fort Hare has numerous proposals on

                 structured partnerships:

                 *   To synergise core teaching and

                     research missions or audit

                     institutions in the region

                 *   To expand the remittance of

                     institutional resource-sharing

                 *   To develop a strategy linked to

                     regional economic development
08 August 2002                                   Page 187 of 354

                 *      To establish an inter-institutional

                        mechanism for ensuring commitment.

       2.   Fort Hare profile - official view by Prof R

            Bally, University Planner

            (a) Introspection and goals for new Fort


                 The present management of Fort Hare was

                 appointed early in 1999. A strategic

                 planning committee was formed, and

                 existing staff rather than consultants

                 were used in a participative, capacity-

                 building process. The ruthless

                 introspection culminated in the Review

                 Report of 1999.

                 Fort Hare, as one of its main goals,

                 aims for long-term sustainability and

                 viability, being a world-class

                 university with emphasis on leadership

                 training, excellence in pertinent
08 August 2002                                   Page 188 of 354

                 teaching and research, and contributing

                 to national development.

                 The SPC implementation control centre,

                 co-ordinated by Dr B Walter, has six

                 implementation areas, each headed by a

                 staff member:

           (b) Vision and governance - Mr J Ruthman

                 Academic - Mr M Silinga

                 Support services - Ms Y Kambule-Soul

                 Human resources - Mrs N Mpete

                 Revenue and finance - Ms Z Ndlovu

                 Partnerships - Mr S Kobese

                 Approximately four to eight faculties,

                 based on niche areas, were identified in

                 SP 2000. The new faculty management

                 structure is being implemented and

                 Executive Deans have been appointed in

                 the new faculties.
08 August 2002                                   Page 189 of 354

                 The new faculties represent a very

                 significant step in the implementation

                 process and the new levels of

                 implementation (i.e. strategic

                 plans/business plans are being produced

                 at various levels - faculty, academic

                 unit, institute and administrative unit


           (c) Academic transformation

                 A new programme, driven by newly

                 appointed Executive Deans in each

                 faculty in line with SAQA requirements

                 and SP 2000, interdisciplinary models,

                 academic and financial viability, market

                 and social needs and a viability

                 template were developed, ready for

                 application by the end of August 2001.

                 The new programme was completed and

                 submitted in terms of SAQA and CHE


           (d) University support systems
08 August 2002                                   Page 190 of 354

                 These systems include marketing and

                 communication, information technology,

                 student support, and the quality of life

                 of students, library and archives,

                 residences, and sport and physical

                 planning, as well as developing the two


           (e) Projects and funding

                 It has been noted that much of the

                 transformation should come from external

                 funds. The SP 2000 identifies areas

                 where funding is needed. The funding

                 projects include:

                 Renovation: upgrading of residences,

                 university frontage and sports


                 New projects: proposed music academy and

                 student computer laboratories

           (f) Human resources
08 August 2002                                  Page 191 of 354

                 The entire new organisational structure

                 had started with the faculty structure.

                 There are totally new job descriptions

                 and reporting lines involving union and

                 staff negotiations and Labour Relations

                 Act compliance.

                 Fort Hare envisages improved service

                 provision to students and encourages

                 staff capacity development.

           (g) Finance and revenue strategies

                 There is expansion and diversification

                 of the revenue base, with a view to:

                 *   Increase student numbers, and


                 *   Maximisation of subsidy

                 *   Improved availability of financial

                     assistance and revenue through

                     research and consultancy
08 August 2002                                Page 192 of 354

                 *   Fundraising

                 *   Alumni mobilisation

                 *   Incentive packages for payment of


                 *   Selling of excess capital stock

                 *   Better use of under-utilised


           (h) Community issues

                 An integrated development plan was

                 developed with Nkonkobe, based on the

                 community and Fort Hare's need to

                 support Alice as a university town.

                 There is also a research action

                 programme, funded from the Premier's

                 Office for developing community


           (i) Partnerships
08 August 2002                                Page 193 of 354

                 Fort Hare has partnerships with local

                 and provincial governments, NGOs and

                 communities to improve the quality of

                 rural livelihood, specifically to reduce

                 poverty. They have also earmarked the

                 business development centre as a

                 community-based project.

       3.   Fort Hare: forward to viability - official

            view by Mr P Cole

            (a) Context of challenges

                 The major challenges are seen to be the

                 rural setting, changing demographics and

                 degree selections, students mostly

                 coming from the low-income sector of

                 society, and rapid changes in respect of

                 student catchment areas.

            (b) Rural setting - economy

                 As the university is located in the

                 former Ciskei homeland, the local
08 August 2002                                Page 194 of 354

                 infrastructure is poor. There is a high

                 rate of unemployment and local costs,

                 and some student catchment areas

                 experience declines in per capita


                 16% of the population lives in the

                 Eastern Cape. 77% of those employed in

                 the Eastern Cape earn a monthly salary

                 of less than R2 501 (approximately R30

                 000 per annum). An average income per

                 household per month in the Eastern Cape

                 is R1 479 (R17 748 per annum). Of the

                 total students currently registered at

                 Fort Hare, 4 131 come from the Eastern

                 Cape. The total annual cost of an

                 undergraduate law degree at Fort Hare is

                 R20 000.

           (c) HIV/AIDS

                 There is a high percentage of HIV/AIDS

                 in the Eastern Cape, and life expectancy

                 is down to 40. This clearly means that
08 August 2002                                  Page 195 of 354

                 graduates in the province can expect a

                 working life of 15 to 20 years. The

                 epidemic impacts both on graduates and

                 on the university workforce.

           (d) Areas of recruitment

                 These are: South Africa - 4 779;

                 Zimbabwe - 235; Lesotho - 130; other

                 SADC countries - 21; rest of Africa -

                 25; other - 11.

           (e) Changes since 1999

                 1999: less than 1% were foreign students

                 and over 70% were from the "Border

                 Corridor". Student recruitment declined

                 and female student ratios were low in

                 some faculties.

                 2001: foreign students count over 9%,

                 and students are recruited more widely

                 (nationally). Student recruitment is
08 August 2002                                Page 196 of 354

                 increasing and gender ratios are

                 achieving equity.

           (f) Opportunities and risks

                 These are characterised by the funding

                 formula tabled by the Department of

                 Education in March 2001. This formula is

                 driven by the cost factor and uses FTE

                 (full-time equivalent) enrolment with a

                 two-year lag, as FTE is always counting

                 ahead. The 2001 subsidy was calculated

                 from 1999's enrolment figure, and the

                 cost-driven budget is adjusted downward.

                 At the time of the visit, the funding

                 formula for the 2001-02 subsidy was

                 R86,992 million. The view was that if

                 2001's enrolment was used, rather than

                 1999's, the subsidy would be R102,9

                 million. These are funds lost due to the

                 lagged formula.
08 August 2002                                Page 197 of 354

                 Fort Hare is not satisfied about how the

                 funding formula is structured and


                 Proposed new funding formula: this

                 formula will be driven by FTE enrolment,

                 teaching and research outputs. It is not

                 cost-driven - prices are set within

                 budget resources. It is heavily weighted

                 to higher degrees, not humanities.

                 NSFAS funding formula: the funds divided

                 between institutions based upon

                 enrolment are weighted by race. The

                 awards allocated to students by

                 institutions are based on a means test.

                 In Fort Hare, there are more students

                 and lesser funds. In 2000, the smallest

                 average award was R3 757 - 55% of the

                 average size for universities and 1,5%

                 of all NSFAS funds.

                 There is a need for equity in respect of

                 the NSFAS funding formula. NSFAS funds
08 August 2002                                 Page 198 of 354

                 to Fort Hare have been and will be

                 allocated as follows: 1999 - R7,91

                 million; 2000 - R7,2 million; 2001 -

                 R7,9 million; 2002 - R10,12 million;

                 2003 - R13,7 million.

                 The main problem with the NSFAS is that

                 it is very tough on students, many being

                 turned away. There is an upfront payment

                 of R1 500 for all students, and the

                 student joins the system based on the

                 arrangement with the NSFAS.

                 Fort Hare needs extra support from the

                 government, as it is financially viable.

           (g) Student enrolment and staff

                 1997 - 4 591; 1998 - 4 068; 1999- 3 903;

                 2000 - 4 459; 2001 - 5 190.

                 Postgraduates comprise 9% of the student

                 population (450), and include Honours

                 students, 20 PhDs and 120 Masters

08 August 2002                                Page 199 of 354

                 There is an increase in postgraduates at

                 Fort Hare, and there is a need for

                 bigger institutions in the country.

                 Student ethnicity: African - 5 158;

                 White - 23; Coloured - 19; Indian – 1

                 Student gender: females - 62%; males -

                 38%; B Prim Ed (mostly female) - 1 200.

                 Academic staff equity: Black - 55% (non-

                 academic staff mostly black); White -


                 Women remain under-represented at senior

                 level, both in the academic and non-

                 academic sectors.

           (h) Personnel

                 The salary bill was drastically reduced

                 over the previous two years. They have

                 limited salary increases until 2003,

                 with low average salary increases and

                 rates in recent years. Fort Hare needs
08 August 2002                                    Page 200 of 354

                 to attract and retain key academics with

                 competitive salaries.

           (i) Student debt

                 Students drop out for financial reasons.

                 Fort Hare envisages a need for reform of

                 NSFAS allocations. Although it is

                 difficult to collect debt from students

                 who have left the university, they have

                 done major work on student debts. They

                 targeted an increase in debt collection

                 from registered students: 50% in 2001 to

                 70% in 2002 and 2003.

           (j) Strategies - Fort Hare Viability

                 Strategies on Fort Hare Viability aim


                 *     Accommodate the recent increases in

                       enrolment in the existing formula

                 *     Phase in the new formula
08 August 2002                                 Page 201 of 354

                 *   Attain equitable NSFAS funding

                 *   Continue control of personnel costs

                     and student debt management

                 *   Seize opportunities for additional


                 *   Manage improved performance and set

                     targets for own income.

           (k) Research and development

                 Research activity on masters and

                 doctorate graduates, publications,

                 patents, reports and artifacts was slow

                 at the time of the visit. Postgraduate

                 studies was being restructured, and the

                 research and development function was

                 centralised in the Govan Mbeki Research

                 and Development Centre.

                 Areas of research excellence included

                 Agriculture (several nodes), Chemistry,
08 August 2002                                  Page 202 of 354

                 Life Sciences (several nodes),

                 Psychology, Languages, Theology and Law.

       4.   Residences and refurbishment of hostels -

            official view by Ms L T Ngalo-Morrison, Dean

            of Students

            They have started renovations in an attempt

            to improve residences, as hostels must be

            conducive for learning. Students work on the

            hostel refurbishment project, for which R800

            000 had been budgeted. Students took it upon

            themselves to repair and clean dilapidated


            Six student residences which had to be

            closed down, have been reopened and

            renovated to meet booming student

            accommodation needs. They need to raise

            funds from donors to refurbish buildings.

       5.   Alumni - official view by Mr L Jacobs
08 August 2002                                Page 203 of 354

            For the past three years, alumni stood

            central to transformation work. Mr L Jacobs

            had visited North America, Gauteng, Cape

            Town and interim structures to provide

            information on a continuous basis.

       6.   Visit to archives - official view by Mr M


            (a) Solomon Mahlangu Freedom College:


                 This school, opened in Tanzania in 1972,

                 aimed to train young, black men and

                 women to be the leaders, teachers and

                 professionals of the new South Africa,

                 after the end of apartheid. The main

                 subjects during that time were politics,

                 drama and art. When the school was

                 closed in 1992, the ANC entrusted Fort

                 Hare with caring for its archives. Along

                 with papers from its missions around the

                 world came a collection of papers,
08 August 2002                                Page 204 of 354

                 artefacts and student works from


                 The Hon G A M Mbeki donated his guitar

                 from Robben Island.

                 Documents, like SOMAFCO papers, audio-

                 visual material, federal seminary

                 archives (the school closed in 1974) and

                 university documents of the 1980s, are

                 kept in a locked office.

           (b) Meeting with institutional forum

                 The dlegation was welcomed by Mr Kobese,

                 Community Partnership Co-ordinator. The

                 institutional forum consists of

                 political structures and stakeholders,

                 like the SRC, student organisations,

                 labour structures, members of academic

                 structures, members of the Council,

                 members of Nkonkobe municipality,

                 members of Buffalo City, and members of
08 August 2002                                  Page 205 of 354

                 management. It is viewed as Fort Hare's


                 Prof Mayatula gave a brief overview of

                 the key functions of the Committee and

                 the objectives of the visit.

           (c) Challenges of national plan "to merge or

                 not to merge" - official view by Mr A


                 The CHE report suggests a combination of

                 some institutions; a combination of Fort

                 Hare and Rhodes University was

                 specifically mentioned.

                 The national working committee, led by

                 Mr S Macozama, visited Fort Hare prior

                 our visit to advise the Minister of

                 Education on how to minimise the number

                 of tertiary institutions.

                 A merger, according to Fort Hare, is a

                 strategic and internally generated
08 August 2002                                Page 206 of 354

                 decision taken by organisations, not a

                 superimposed solution. It is dependent

                 on the sharing of a common vision.

                 Regarding their experience in South

                 African institutions, the Silo mentality

                 requires institutions to collaborate -

                 with uneven distribution of resources,

                 the funding formula must prioritise

                 redress; sharing resources through the

                 funding formula should be encouraged;

                 and with artificial competition,

                 institutions must focus on specific

                 niche areas.

           (d) Fort Hare views to merger

                 The institution is opposed to a merger,

                 and feels that mergers must be decisions

                 of individual institutions. Incremental

                 and organic evolution of mergers are

                 preconditions for success in the public

                 sector. There is a strong view that

                 collaboration is the short- to the
08 August 2002                                  Page 207 of 354

                 medium-term solution, and there have

                 been discussions with UNITRA, Rhodes and

                 other institutions outside the Eastern

                 Cape on concrete programmes for


           (e) Current and future areas of


                 Current programmes include library

                 services, an IT infrastructure and

                 health programmes, while future areas

                 include a central admission office,

                 course development, quality assurance

                 and presentation of courses.

           (f) Why opposed to merger?

                 *   Fort Hare transformation project:

                     The good work done may be undone,

                     and its vision (which includes

                     multiculturalism, new values

                     concommittant with the new society

                     they are building and nation
08 August 2002                                   Page 208 of 354

                     building, which addresses socio-

                     economic development and racial and

                     gender equity) may be clouded

                 *   Micro-economics of project: There is

                     a possibility of the system

                     imploding as a result of too much

                     being loaded on it (a question of

                     its ability to absorb new


                 *   Economic implications of merger: It

                     may cost more to set up and maintain

                     the administrative systems, and

                     there will be implications for local

                     economies, which will have a direct

                     impact on the shifting of the


                 Fort Hare sees the higher education

                 system in South Africa and in the

                 Eastern Cape evolving organically on an

                 incremental basis, with full support

                 from the government, and collaboration
08 August 2002                                  Page 209 of 354

                 as the short-term solution. A clear

                 regulatory system must help align

                 institutions to national priorities.

       7.   Student funding - official view by Mr L O

            Mabuyane, SRC president

            Mr Mabuyane saw no need to compare Fort

            Hare's political context in respect of

            student funding with institutions that have

            been advantaged historically, like UCT and


            The maximum number of 411 students for

            tuition (i.e. R4 120 per student) is seen as

            a serious threat, and the funding formula is

            also a problem at Fort Hare. Many

            matriculants with exemption who reside in

            the rural areas are sitting at home without

            any form of assistance because their parents

            are uneducated and unemployed and cannot

            provide any form of financial assistance for

            their children to further their education at
08 August 2002                              Page 210 of 354

           tertiary level. R29 million is expected from

           the NSFAS.

           Student quality of life also needs to be

           taken on board; it must be checked whether

           residences are user-friendly to all


           The government and the NSFAS need to re-

           examine the funding formula to provide

           financial assistance for needy students.

           Fort Hare needs to attract academic staff.

           The more students on campus, the more

           funding the institution receives from the


           Student debt

           The SRC played a major role in convincing

           and encouraging those who were able to pay

           their fees, to do so. This made the SRC

           unpopular on campus. Student debt results

           from two main reasons:
08 August 2002                                    Page 211 of 354

            *    Dropouts are unable to pay the

                 university, as most of them are


            *    No certificate is issued if outstanding

                 fees are not paid in full, and students

                 leave the system.

            In this respect, the NSFAS has its own way

            of tracing persons.

       8.   Conditions of employment - official view by

            Mr N R Mboniswa

            There was a very intensive bargaining

            process between Fort Hare and stakeholders.

            They compared salaries of academic and non-

            academic staff with those of UPE, UniVenda

            and UWC, and it appeared that their salaries

            were competitive in neither the labour

            market nor compared with other institutions

            of higher learning. The salary of the Vice-

            Chancellor is equivalent to that of a Dean

            at UPE. The implication of this was that the
08 August 2002                                    Page 212 of 354

            economy of Nkonkombe would be affected,

            should people leave the area.

            Staff turnover

            Reasons for staff turnover:

            *    Most staff were deployed by the


            *    Fort Hare was unable to retain staff

            *    Salaries were not competitive.

   E.   University of Transkei - 7 August 2001

        On arrival, the delegation was warmly welcomed

        by Prof N Morgan (the Administrator) and his

        management. The University of Transkei was

        established in 1975, and the medical school

        started in 1986.

        The Minister had visited the institution five

        weeks before the delegation's visit. The nursery
08 August 2002                               Page 213 of 354

       school and in-service centre were destroyed by a

       tornado. Due to financial constraints they were

       never repaired and were collapsing. Renovations

       will start with residences, which would cost

       R1,5 million.

       1.   Medical School

            In 2001, there were 74 registered students

            at the medical school, and they were

            expecting an increase to 95 in 2002. The

            medical faculty had 749 medical students, of

            whom 34 were postgraduates. These figures

            formed the anchor of the university. They

            had also checked on which units were not

            viable, not giving a unit a chance to use

            the surplus of another unit.

            Biochemistry laboratory: The building is a

            pre-fabricated structure consisting of two

            big rooms, used both as biochemistry and

            physiology laboratories. Due to insufficient

            space, students are divided into groups for

            lecture sessions, attending on different
08 August 2002                                 Page 214 of 354

            times each day. During examination times,

            both rooms are converted into examination


            It only accommodates 10 students. Some

            students are from the Technikons, doing in-

            service training for six months.

            There is no air conditioning in the

            laboratory, and there is always an

            unbearable smell. The Head of Anatomy, Prof

            N Baguma, appealed to the government to

            provide the institution with facilities to

            produce the best doctors in the country.

            Despite the conditions, the lecturers want

            to produce good quality doctors.

       2.   Science Faculty - official view by Mr B R


            The delegation visited the cold room, which

            had a fresh-water laboratory. Mr B R

            Madikizela, a P.HD student, worked on the

            water research commission project, doing
08 August 2002                               Page 215 of 354

            water quality and faunal studies in the

            Umzimvubu catchment, with particular

            emphasis on species as indicators of

            environmental change. It was part of his Ph

            D. They produced the report for the water

            commission, indicating their observations.

            The primary aim of the project was to

            establish a water quality database and an

            inventory of aquatic fauna in the Umzimvubu

            and its main tributaries. A secondary aim

            was identification of species sensitive to

            environmental threats which might be used as

            future indicators of environmental change.

            (This report is available on request from

            the Committee Secretary, Ms N C Manjezi.)

       3.   Zoology Museum

            This museum was established in 1998. The

            high schools in the area visit it regularly

            and familiarise themselves with certain

            species. In the Botany Department, they have

            collected 4 000 indigenous plants.
08 August 2002                               Page 216 of 354

       4.   African Archive

            This Department has a wide range of South

            African indigenous and popular music. The

            equipment and about 30 000 records were

            donated to the Department. The video

            machine, television and computers were

            donated by the University of Maiz in


       5.   Unitra Sasol Library

            This R3 million project was donated by

            Sasol, built in 1997, officially opened on

            18 May 2000. It operates 24 hours a day. It

            houses literature for five faculties. There

            is an on-line digital catalogue, seminar and

            video conferencing, and students can access

            literature anytime. The former President, Dr

            R N Mandela, has his own reading room, which

            he uses when he visits the university.

       6.   Meeting with Administrator, Management,

            Deans, Representatives from labour
08 August 2002                                Page 217 of 354

           structures and SRC - official view by Prof N

           Morgan, Administrator

           (a) Vision

                 UNITRA aimed to be a leading university

                 in Africa, focusing on innovative

                 programmes addressing rural development


           (b) Mission

                 UNITRA is committed to excellence by

                 offering relevant and effective

                 teaching, research and community

                 outreach programmes with specific

                 emphasis on the promotion of sustainable

                 rural development, while providing

                 service to its clientele through optimal

                 resource utilisation.

           (c) Location
08 August 2002                                   Page 218 of 354

                 It is located in the poorest and most

                 densely populated region of the Kei,

                 Wild Coast and Drakensberg areas. The

                 Eastern Cape has a rural population of

                 six million people, and 65% live in

                 rural areas. The rural Kei and Wild

                 Coast districts have a population of

                 three million, half the population of

                 the province. 54% are females, and 60%

                 of the rural people are female. In rural

                 communities, youths make up to 60% of

                 the population.

                 UNITRA is thus in a poverty-stricken

                 area, households having an income of

                 less than R352,52 per month. The rural

                 catchment area of UNITRA has inadequate

                 access to social and economic

                 infrastructure and services: only 24%

                 have running water; only 31% have flush

                 toilets; 31% do not have electricity; 4%

                 have access to telecommunications; there

                 are 0,3 medical officials per 1 000,

                 compared to the national figure of 6%;
08 August 2002                                  Page 219 of 354

                 educational levels are the lowest in the

                 whole of South Africa.

       7.   Institution indicators for financial


            Future financial sustainability depends on

            State funding, diverse income streams

            (including consultancy and contract

            research), adequacy of student financial

            aid, based on NSFAS criteria, the ability to

            collect fees, and the ability to adjust


            (a) Key issues and challenges faced by


                 *     Reducing fixed costs

                 *     Ensuring full cost recovery

                 *     Introducing financial discipline

                       through devolved budgeting
08 August 2002                                Page 220 of 354

                 *   Fee strategies and collection.

                 In 1999, the university had a R100

                 million overdraft until March 2000. They

                 received a subsidy of R104 million,

                 which was regarded as insufficient.

           (b) Some realities

                 There are limited funds from the

                 Treasury. Restructuring will have to be

                 deliberately engineered and managed if

                 success is to be achieved. The notion of

                 reducing the number of institutions does

                 not mean reducing access to higher

                 education. The sensibility of each

                 arrangement must be determined on how it

                 responds to the goals of the National

                 Plan for Higher Education. Comprehensive

                 technical intelligence about every

                 regional site is a pre-requisite for the

                 project to succeed.
08 August 2002                                Page 221 of 354

                 Prof Morgan met with the Minister of

                 Education on 4 June 2001, and the budget

                 issue was discussed. Due to budget

                 constraints, academic staff and 282

                 workers were retrenched. The Department

                 of Labour was contacted for the social

                 plan, especially for those students who

                 were registered at the university.

                 UNITRA also made a commitment to re-

                 employ the workers who were retrenched.

           (c) NSFAS funding

                 The university is underfunded by NSFAS.

                 As a result, they intend to request a

                 supplementary amount. The affordability

                 in respect of the region is different

                 from that of any other region. Applying

                 the criteria for those who have applied,

                 would require R24 million.

                 As a huge amount of R39 million is still

                 owed by students, the SRC also assists
08 August 2002                                Page 222 of 354

                 with the collection of fees by

                 broadcasting on UNITRA community radio.

            (d) Viability in finances

                 The working committee needs to be

                 assisted with technical expertise and

                 quality technical information. The

                 health centre needs to realise its

                 current status in terms of viability.

                 Viability assessments were to be

                 completed by the end of August 2001.

                 Various departments could be closed and

                 some could be strenghtened. The view is

                 that if some departments are to be

                 closed, there should be other forms of

                 restructuring, and students can be

                 transferred to other universities to

                 complete their studies.

       8.   Faculty of Health Sciences - official view

            by Prof E L Mazwai
08 August 2002                                Page 223 of 354

           This faculty has 749 students in the School

           of Medicine, the School of Nursing and the

           School of Allied Health Professions.

           Teaching takes place at three campuses in

           Umtata, East London and Port Elizabeth,

           which form part of the Academic Health

           Service of the Eastern Cape. In 14 years,

           UNITRA has graduated more than 200 medical

           doctors of a quality equal to, if not better

           than, many medical schools in the country.

           (a) Teaching

                 Their strength has been their teaching

                 philosophy, being problem-based learning

                 and community-based education. This is

                 now world-recognised - the faculty is a

                 WHO collaborating centre. Students are

                 exposed to community issues early in

                 training (first year), including

                 indigenous knowledge systems, such as

                 traditional healers. In addition to the

                 teaching standard, they have developed a

                 computer-based teaching laboratory, a
08 August 2002                                Page 224 of 354

                 telemedicine unit and a professional

                 skills laboratory to improve quality of

                 teaching and graduates' competencies.

           (b) Service

                 By its very nature, community-based

                 education and training are decentralised

                 from tertiary through to secondary and

                 primary health care centres, and with

                 teaching comes service. The teaching

                 hospital in Umtata serves a population

                 of 2,9 million, with more than 100

                 specialists. They have also initiated a

                 postgraduate programme and training

                 specialists in eight medical fields -

                 they are trained at centres in Port

                 Elizabeth, East London and Umtata.

                 Medical registrars also improve the

                 quality of care given to patients.

                 UNITRA and UCT have an agreement on

                 training registered students in medicine

                 and postgraduate courses.
08 August 2002                                Page 225 of 354

           (c) Research

                 As most tertiary institutions are judged

                 on the basis of research output and

                 publications, the faculty has had a

                 limited output in this area. This has

                 been mostly due to developmental and

                 infrastructure restrictions in terms of

                 laboratory and equipment. However, they

                 do have an MRC unit (on carcinoma of

                 oesophogus, with research in molecular

                 biology). The university collaborates

                 with the Department of Health and

                 overseas universities on HIV/AIDS

                 research. Most of the research is

                 community-based and service-oriented.

           (d) Infrastructure

                 The university plan was to increase the

                 number of medical students from 90 to

                 120 per class over the following three

                 years, and they wanted to add six Allied

                 Health Professions - Occupational
08 August 2002                                Page 226 of 354

                 Therapy, Physiotheraphy, Speech and

                 Hearing Therapy, Nutrition and

                 Dietetics, Radiotherapy and Medical

                 Technology. They have plans and the

                 potential to increase the number and mix

                 of health sciences they train, but the

                 major constraint is infrastructure,

                 which needs financial input. Discussions

                 with the Department of Education on a

                 new medical campus adjacent to the

                 hospital at a cost of R120 million have

                 been put on hold to see what facilities

                 could be developed on the existing

                 campus at a reduced cost. As a matter of

                 urgency, the development of the in-

                 service training centre for laboratories

                 for students and research, and also

                 teaching, would be the most appropriate.

                 UNITRA was able to achieve with very

                 limited funding because of chronic

                 under-funding nationally.

                 In the last four years, conditional

                 grants from the Provincial
08 August 2002                                Page 227 of 354

                 Administration have helped to alleviate

                 the situation. There has never been any

                 major injection of capital for

                 infrastructural development, either at

                 inception of the medical school in 1986

                 or after the new democracy in 1994.

                 There are infrastructure issues that

                 have not been attended to, and a merger

                 will bring additional costs in the short

                 term. Money needs to be injected for

                 infrastructure. Staff never received

                 increments, now they have become


           (e) Academic restructuring

                 All the programmes are complying with

                 the mission. They revisited it in 1999

                 and in 2000, but there were no

                 substantive shift. As UNITRA is the

                 largest single employer in the region,

                 they have spent R160 million per annum.
08 August 2002                                   Page 228 of 354

           (f) Student enrolment

                 The student numbers in 2001 have grown

                 to 4 500, compared to 3 800 in 2000.

           (g) Governance

                 There is no council at UNITRA. There is

                 an administrator who is in support of

                 the management team of the university.

                 There is a need to appoint a new Vice-

                 Chancellor and a new council.

                 Due to the turmoil in 1999, the council

                 resigned. Meetings were held with

                 community and parents to inform them of

                 ongoing progress. The Department of

                 Education did not have any faith in the

                 university and nothing happened to

                 establish the council.

                 By the end of August, they were to start

                 the process to establish a governance

                 council. Prof Morgan informed the
08 August 2002                                   Page 229 of 354

                 delegation that the Auditor-General's

                 report and other reports formed the

                 basis of the issue to be attended to on

                 two levels:

                 *   An intention to provide residence

                     for students and lecture halls - a

                     decision was taken to build the

                     structures, as this money was not

                     taken from the operational budget

                 *   Internal controls - new policies to

                     exercise discipline.

           (h) Hospital

                 A positive development is the

                 commissioning of the new Nelson Mandela

                 Academic Hospital. It has 480 beds at a

                 cost of R350 million. It will attract

                 specialists to the area, especially

                 South Africans, to teach and offer

                 specialised services. There is hope to

                 establish new specialities such as
08 August 2002                                Page 230 of 354

                 cardiology and cardiac surgery, radio

                 physics and radiotherapy, vascular

                 surgery and renal transplantation.

                 There was great concern that what they

                 have achieved so far, has been done at

                 great sacrifice in human cost, with no

                 improvement in salaries or promotions

                 for the last four years. If they are to

                 prevent diminishing morale and retain

                 staff against competition from outside

                 institutions, capital injection is

                 absolutely urgent. This way they feel

                 that they can reverse the downward

                 spiral, stabilise the Faculty, attract

                 more specialists for specialised

                 services, and improve on research and

                 publications. With the increase in the

                 medical student class and addition of

                 the six departments in the School of

                 Allied Health Professions, they have a

                 capacity for 1 000 students over the

                 next three years. All this can be done

                 at a very modest cost, which the
08 August 2002                                  Page 231 of 354

                 university management is currently

                 formulating and calculating.

                 The delegation visited the massive site

                 to see the new academic hospital, still

                 under construction. This training

                 hospital is built by the Department of

                 Health (50% national and 50%

                 provincial), and is expected to be

                 completed by the end of March 2002. The

                 estimated budget to run the hospital is

                 R196 million per annum.

           (i) Merger

                 The merger in a classic sense purposely

                 targets areas of synergistic benefits -

                 people seek deliberate benefits and

                 synergies and manage these to new

                 organisations. In respect of certain

                 private companies, this was a failure.

                 In creating a merger, according to Prof

                 Morgan, the institution needs to address
08 August 2002                                Page 232 of 354

                 the issues with Rhodes, as they have a

                 governance council.

                 *   Negative aspects

                     Other areas of excellence, apart

                     from medical science, which, because

                     of the financial turmoil, have been

                     neglected. Staff members had been

                     abused for the previous five years

                     in respect of promotion, increments

                     and the taking away of other

                     benefits. Everything the university

                     is busy doing in this respect, will

                     disappear if there is a merger.

                 *   Businesses supporting UNITRA or

                     other sources to improve finances

                     They had established links with the

                     business community and received huge

                     support from the community. There

                     were ongoing meetings with business

                     to address the finance issue.
08 August 2002                                  Page 233 of 354

                     Some historically disadvantaged

                     institutions helped to improve the

                     financial position. There was a need

                     to equalise funding in order to

                     address the gap between Gauteng, the

                     Western Cape and their region.

           (j) Payment of fees

                 Discussions were held with the student

                 leadership about the commitment of

                 students to pay fees. This was broadcast

                 on the community radio, and there was a

                 good response. Decisions were taken by

                 parents and students to make

                 arrangements to pay outstanding fees,

                 but some did not honour this commitment.

           (k) Retrenchments

                 These came about because of a shortfall

                 in respect of the pension fund. The

                 university made specific arrangements to

                 develop retrenched staff and reskill
08 August 2002                                Page 234 of 354

                 them for new jobs. They also committed

                 to the social plan those who wanted to

                 study at the university.

           (l) Issue of redress

                 They cannot tackle the issue of redress

                 if there are institutional, financial

                 and regional problems. This needs

                 serious attention.

           (m) Management of institution

                 There are few fundamentals and policies

                 in respect of running the system. There

                 is a need for strengthening middle

                 management, training and capacity

                 development of staff. Human resource and

                 technical issues need attention.

                 Although there is no council, they have

                 an audit committee performing that

                 managerial function.
08 August 2002                                Page 235 of 354

                 Rev E Guwa had a very strong view of not

                 closing historically disadvantaged

                 universities down, as he was a product

                 of those universities.

           (o) Institutional forum

                 This forum was set up according to the

                 statutory requirements, and was composed

                 of all internal structures of student

                 associations, labour and community


           (p) NEHAWU input

                 NEHAWU endorsed what Prof Morgan had

                 said, and expressed disapproval on

                 certain issues:

                 *   Transformation was viewed as a most

                     painful and difficult process.

                     NEHAWU was not against retrenchment

                     with benefits, but in support of
08 August 2002                                Page 236 of 354

                     change. There were structures in

                     place to address those problems

                 *   They viewed the sustainability and

                     viability of the institution as very


           (q) SRC input

                 The extent of the problems mentioned

                 impacted very negatively on students.

                 The SRC have made efforts to persuade

                 students to pay their fees. The gravity

                 of the problem has caused them to make

                 history - it was indeed unusual to find

                 a situation whereby the management and

                 the students agreed that the latter

                 would pay 50% of their debt before the

                 beginning of the new term. This has

                 shown the level of maturity of the SRC

                 in understanding the dynamics of co-

                 operative governance, particularly in

                 regard to pulling the institution out of

                 its financial mess.
08 August 2002                                 Page 237 of 354

                  They were against closure of the

                  university, and moreover, not in support

                  of a merger - it was not deemed as

                  beneficial to the institution.

                  They also asked the NSFAS to increase

                  the grant because most people in the

                  area were unemployed and there was no

                  industry to support the institution


                  The SRC's view was that a merger would

                  adversely affect those from historically

                  disadvantaged areas.

   F.   University of Natal - 8 August 2001

        The Vice-Chancellor, Prof B M Gourley, warmly

        welcomed the delegation at the Pietermaritzburg


        1.   Overview - Prof B M Gourley
08 August 2002                              Page 238 of 354

           The University of Natal, located in KwaZulu-

           Natal and established in 1910, has an

           enrolment of 22 000 students, of whom over

           15 000 are undergraduates. As such, it is

           the second largest residential university in

           South Africa. It comprises two centres, one

           in Durban on the coast and the other in the

           provincial capital, Pietermaritzburg, some

           80 km inland.

           The Nelson Mandela School of Medicine is

           part of the university, and is located on

           the Durban campus. In total, there are four

           campuses - Durban, Pietermaritzburg, Medical

           and Edgewood.

           During the 1990s most students were white -

           approximately 13 500. Now almost 76% are

           black students.

           It is one of the top-rated universities in

           South Africa in terms of research output and

           independent ratings by the National Research

           Foundation, and has formal links with some
08 August 2002                                 Page 239 of 354

           240 leading universities in the USA, Europe

           and the Far East. It is known as a centre of

           excellence in Africa and is doing

           significant research into HIV/AIDS.

           Many international students are studying


           The governing structures are in hands of the

           academics on the Durban campus.

           In the early 1990s the Durban campus alone

           housed 84 different NGOs, most of them

           refugees from the apartheid regime. Their

           presence on the campus profoundly affected

           the nature of the university and the

           conversation about its role in South Africa

           at this point in its history. Students were

           involved in working with the NGOs.

           (a) Vision

                 The university's strategy is one of

                 Quality with Equity. It dedicates its
08 August 2002                                 Page 240 of 354

                 excellence in teaching, research and

                 development to progress through

                 reconstruction. It serves South Africa,

                 and KwaZulu-Natal in particular, by

                 delivering quality teaching, which

                 enables students from all backgrounds to

                 realise their academic potential and to

                 obtain degrees of an international


                 It undertakes quality research up to

                 national and international standards,

                 and provides development services which

                 meet community needs.

                 It is a socially responsive

                 organisation. At the time of the visit

                 they were condusting an HIV research

                 project (160 different projects), and

                 many are placed in the networking


                 KwaZulu-Natal has 80 000 teachers, of

                 whom 30% are HIV-positive. They really
08 August 2002                                Page 241 of 354

                 need to launch a substantive campaign to

                 attend to this issue.

           (b) Mission

                 They strive to serve all sections of the

                 community through excellence in

                 scholarship, teaching, learning,

                 research and development.

           (c) Student numbers and composition

                 The size of the university has changed

                 substantially over the last 10 years.

                 There has been planned growth in the

                 face of virtually no State support in

                 respect of infrastructure. It has been

                 made possible by making provision for

                 loan funding for students with the

                 potential to succeed but not the money

                 to afford the fees.

           (d) Research profile
08 August 2002                                  Page 242 of 354

                 The profile has changed over the years,

                 as an entirely different set of policies

                 came into effect to support new

                 directions. These policies were designed

                 to encourage not only a more

                 entrepreneurial approach to research but

                 also a more nuanced approach. They

                 emphasise potential links between

                 research and development and aim to find

                 ways in which the research agenda could

                 be influenced by development issues that

                 are fed by the research agenda.

                 Initiatives that support the goals of

                 regional and national agendas are

                 actively encouraged. HIV/AIDS is a good


                 There is huge capacity for research and

                 postgraduate studies in the region, and

                 the percentage of undergraduate studies

                 has increased. Most students are in the

                 open learning mode on the

                 Pietermaritzburg campus.
08 August 2002                                 Page 243 of 354

           (e) Staff profile

                 The staff profile has not been changed

                 as much as one would have liked. Both

                 availability of staff and labour law

                 considerations impact on this. Equity

                 plans are in place.

           (f) Race in 1990 and in 2000

                 There have been enormous disparities in

                 respect of gender and race.

                 1990 - 54% White; 30% African; 3%

                 Coloured; 13% Indian

                 2000 - 49% White; 25% African; 4%

                 Coloured; 22% Indian

           (g) Gender in 1990 and in 2000

                 1990 - 34% female and 66% male

                 2000 - 44% female and 56% male
08 August 2002                                Page 244 of 354

                 A higher percentage of female students

                 registered between 1990 and 2000 than

                 males. An age/race profile of students

                 in 2000 showed that undergraduate

                 Coloureds, Indians and whites were

                 younger than blacks.

                 Registration by area or specialisation -

                 many study business and commerce. By

                 2001 the number of students pursuing a

                 career in humanities had increased; the

                 number in science and technology grew by


                 The university also encourages foreign

                 students to enrol in order to improve

                 the standard of education. It is

                 important for the educational learning

                 experience to have international

                 students on campus.

           (h) Distance education
08 August 2002                                Page 245 of 354

                 They want to retain and control quality

                 distance education. At present, there

                 are between 4 000 and 5 000 involved in

                 distance learning, of whom 2 500 are


           (i) Merging

                 The university is opposed to a merger.

                 They strongly believe they need to

                 equalise the conditions of service and

                 grant generous retrenchment packages,

                 should there be a merger with Durban-

                 Westville. As the two institutions have

                 different scales, a merger will be

                 disruptive to their administrative way

                 of doing things, as they will have more


                 The university does not want to put

                 donor and research funding at risk which

                 it receives from the international

                 community. The entire process has to
08 August 2002                                 Page 246 of 354

                 focus on producing a better higher

                 education system.

       2.   Transformation process - official view by

            Prof E A Ngara, Deputy Vice-Chancellor,

            Students and Transformation

            Prof Ngara played an advocacy role and

            sought to promote transformation in areas

            where they seemed slow to achieve the

            desired objective in respect of certain

            aspects of development. He had attended

            conferences and seminars where the view was

            expressed that the last group of

            universities to be transformed would be

            those that called themselves "liberal


            What is transformation?

            The White Paper on Higher Education outlined

            the framework for change, making it clear

            that the higher education system had to be

            planned, governed and funded as a single co-
08 August 2002                                Page 247 of 354

           ordinated national system. It identified the

           areas in which transformation should take

           place and outlined the principles that

           should guide the process of transformation,

           but stopped short of defining the concept.

           It referred to a complete and fundamental

           change for the better, and suggested that

           transformation had to entail change from

           what was the norm to a new norm, from a

           culture and set of values and practices that

           prevailed in the past to a new culture and

           set of values and practices.

           He identified four principal domains in

           which transformation should take place:

           (a) Governance - it referred to the

                 development of a more democratic system

                 of power relations between the various

                 sectors of the institution by, for

                 instance, seeing to it that fundamental

                 changes occur to ensure adherence to the

                 principles of democratic governance,
08 August 2002                                  Page 248 of 354

                 accountability, transparency and

                 inclusiveness in decision-making. This

                 was underpinned by compliance with the

                 requirements of the Higher Education

                 Act, the Employment Equity Act and other

                 relevant legislation and policy


           (b) Demographics and equity - it referred to

                 changes taking place in an institution

                 to reflect the demography of the nation

                 and the region. Enrolment figures and

                 staff statistics should change to ensure

                 diversity, race and gender equity, as

                 well as representation of people with


           (c) Institutional/organisational culture -

                 it referred to the degree of

                 transparency and openness in the

                 communication system and decision-making

                 processes of the institution, the extent

                 to which linguistic and cultural

                 diversity was recognised, accepted and
08 August 2002                                Page 249 of 354

                 celebrated, the degree of sensitivity to

                 diversity issues (i.e race, gender,

                 sexual orientation and disability) and

                 the extent to which there was a culture

                 of debate and democratic disputation, as

                 opposed to violent demonstration by

                 students and decrees by authorities.

           (d) The core functions domain - it referred

                 to fundamental changes made in teaching,

                 research, the community and national

                 service to facilitate national,

                 economic, social and political

                 transformation, the key elements being

                 curriculum, quality and growth, student

                 development, knowledge production and

                 responsiveness to national and community


           Transformation in respect of all these

           domains should be relatively easily

           achievable in organisations with a tradition

           of openness in their decision-making

08 August 2002                               Page 250 of 354

           Prof Ngara further mentioned that while the

           university was normally classified as a

           historically white university, the Faculty

           of Medicine was historically black; it was

           the only medical faculty in a long time that

           was training African, Indian and Coloured

           doctors, before MEDUNSA was established.

           Student numbers broadly represented the

           demographics of KwaZulu-Natal. These

           numbers, as at 24 July 2001, read as




           African..............10 620........ 44,81%

           Indian............... 7 404........ 31,24%

           White................ 4 995........ 21,07%

           Coloured.............   665........    2,76%

           Other................    25........    0,10%


           Total................23 700........ 99,80%

08 August 2002                               Page 251 of 354

            The university was not doing well in respect

            of the racial composition of staff. However,

            a few years ago a programme funded by the

            Mellon Foundation was put in place to help

            promising academics from previously

            disadvantaged backgrounds to acquire

            postgraduate degrees to render them suitable

            for appointment to academic positions. Not

            all management members believed that this

            programme would help them move fast enough

            to accelerate the appointment of blacks,

            especially Africans, to the academic staff.

            They produced a document which they believed

            could help accelerate the process - it was

            still to be considered by the verious


       3.   Curriculum development and access programmes

            - official view by Prof A C Bawa, Deputy

            Vice-Chancellor: Academics

            Curriculum development is a defining

            characteristic of the university. It has

            constantly been supported through strategic
08 August 2002                                Page 252 of 354

           investment of resources, the highest level

           of innovation in curriculum development and

           through teaching and learning. Every year,

           they make three Distinguished Teacher

           Awards, which celebrate its excellence.

           Curriculum development is at the heart of

           the education process in that it is

           centrally linked to developing good citizens

           of a democratic South Africa. It is

           therefore critical that students have a

           sense of their role in the reconstruction

           and development of the nation and possess

           the skills and framework to lead ethical

           lives as they embark on careers requiring

           leadership and entrepreneurship.

           The Strategic Initiatives Document states

           that student should not leave the University

           without a keen appreciation of:

           *     The values and concerns of the different

                 communities in which they will be living

                 and working
08 August 2002                                Page 253 of 354

           *     Where they are in history and what

                 responsibilities and leadership roles

                 they may be expected to fulfil

           *     The ethics of their particular chosen

                 careers and of making choices at this

                 moment in history.

           To facilitate this, they have created an

           Ethics Centre, a Leadership Centre and a

           Centre for Entrepreneurship. They have also

           established a significantly large Service

           Learning Project, which allows students to

           spend part of their study time working in

           communities and reflecting on that work.

           About 20% of the students have some form of

           exposure to service learning.

           The university has committed itself to

           developing a set of core basic competencies

           in every student - these are taught through

           a set of core foundational modules.
08 August 2002                               Page 254 of 354

           The curriculum development process is

           strongly influenced by the need for multi-

           discipline, which is evident in

           undergraduate programmes. They have led the

           way in this regard in South Africa.

           They have also established a Centre for

           Information Technology in Higher Education,

           which facilitates the optimisation of the

           role of IT in learning and teaching. They

           are ensuring that they have sufficient

           computers on an outstanding network to

           facilitate the development of a new learning

           paradigm, which involves the use of

           constructivism as a philosophy of learning.

           The university has serious concerns about

           the impact of traditional learning paradigms

           on the underdevelopment of the "right

           brain", and has a large project under way to

           ensure more holistic left brain/right brain


           Access programmes
08 August 2002                                   Page 255 of 354

           They have three kinds of access programmes:

           *     Students with matriculation exemption

                 but without a sufficiently satisfactory

                 pass for admission to degree programmes

                 - they would wish to study science,

                 engineering or medicine but do not have

                 satisfactory passes in Mathematics and


           *     Students with a senior certificate but

                 without matriculation exemption and who

                 show potential to succeed in higher

                 education - they would generally be

                 placed in one-year foundation or access

                 programmes which would lead to access to

                 degree programmes.

           *     Adult learners without senior

                 certificates - they have not had the

                 opportunity to complete their schooling

                 but demonstrate a satisfactory level of

                 numeracy and literacy.
08 August 2002                                  Page 256 of 354

            The university also offers a number of

            undergraduate and graduate programmes in a

            mixed-mode format for working people.

            In 2001 there were about 500 new students in

            access programmes in respect of science and

            engineering, 200 in humanities and social

            sciences, 500 in management sciences, 150

            adult learners in open learning programmes

            and 5 000 workers in programmes designed for


       4.   Integrated student body - official view by

            Mr T Wills, Dean of Students, and Dr D

            Rajab, Dean of Social Development

            The students fully embrace integration. 18%

            of them are married. The SRC is present at

            all levels of student governance - about 10

            to 12 students for 10 000 students (they

            need to review this).

            The institution has also been seen to

            encourage integration in sport. There is a
08 August 2002                                 Page 257 of 354

           wide range of sports, and students adhere to

           the sports policy.

           They opened their residences in 1984; house

           committees see to the welfare of students.

           25% to 30% live in residences, which were

           full at the time of the visit. Many come

           from metropolitan areas. There is no gender


           The number of white students declined

           because mostly blacks live in the

           residences. The whites left because they

           felt uncomfortable staying with black

           students and could not afford the

           residential costs, which were expensive.

           Some black students who could not afford the

           costs, moved to cheaper places.

           (a) Student Development

                 Student Development is located in the

                 Division of Student Services, and is

                 responsible for the conceptualisation,
08 August 2002                                Page 258 of 354

                 implementation and quality assurance of

                 all student development programmes

                 offered by the division. These include

                 Student Counselling and Careers, Campus

                 Health Clinics, Residences, Student

                 Leadership Development, Sport,

                 Administration, Student Governance,

                 Clubs and Societies, Student Academics

                 Affairs and Financial Aid. They put in a

                 huge effort to support students.

                 Student Development aims to address

                 development needs of all students at the

                 university through professional services

                 of the division. This involves an

                 analysis of the special need of students

                 within the context of higher learning.

                 It calls for strategic planning and

                 implementation of systems that support

                 developmental growth of all students in

                 a dynamic and changing context.
08 August 2002                                   Page 259 of 354

                 The task of student service providers in

                 the various sections is to set up

                 structures that will provide

                 opportunities for life skills learning

                 in curricular and co-curricular


           (b) Student Development Plan - rationale

                 The rationale for the development of a

                 strategic plan arose from the following


                 *   The university has a duty to address

                     national needs. South Africa

                     requires well-trained professionals

                     who are well-rounded, critical and

                     independent thinkers.

                 *   The job market is competitive and

                     demands excellent graduates with

                     strong interpersonal and leadership

                     skills and high levels of
08 August 2002                                 Page 260 of 354

                     accountability, integrity and

                     commitment to industry.

                 *   It is a world-class institution with

                     its reputation at stake when it

                     comes to production of its

                     graduates. Universities are also

                     under pressure to maintain a

                     competitive edge over other


                 *   The imperative to address the

                     diverse needs of students warrants a

                     repositioning of student development

                     initiatives from periphery to


                 *   The HIV/AIDS pandemic has widespread

                     implications for student intakes,

                     financial aid, health and support

                     services, and training and


           (c) Guiding principles
08 August 2002                                Page 261 of 354

                 To address the developmental needs of a

                 diverse and dynamic student population,

                 the plan will encompass the following

                 guiding principles:

                 *   The holistic development of students

                     involves a partnership with all

                     sectors of the university community.

                     This includes Academics, student

                     affairs professionals, students and

                     the general community.

                 *   The application of a multi-pronged,

                     multi-disciplinary and multi-

                     cultural perspective in the

                     development of all programmes to

                     address the needs of a diverse and

                     dynamic student population.

                 *   The introduction of systemic

                     interventions encompassing

                     institutional changes to facilitate

                     the development of a new type of
08 August 2002                                Page 262 of 354

                     graduate in keeping with the

                     changing demand of society.

                 *   Quality with Equity. Effective

                     utilisation of resources and the

                     provision of support to enable

                     learners from educationally

                     disadvantaged backgrounds to


                 The Office of the Dean of Student

                 Development is offering a new 10-week

                 winter semester certificate course in

                 collaboration with other academics and

                 administrative departments on the Durban

                 and Pietermaritzburg campuses for

                 student services staff and graduate

                 students who may wish to pursue a career

                 path in student services. They have

                 already trained 39 students in these


       5.   Financial support - official view by Rev J

            Ngomane, Director: Financial Aid Service
08 August 2002                                Page 263 of 354

           The establishment of the NSFAS by the new

           democratic government is one of the most

           important initiatives that underpin the

           transformation of educational access in

           South Africa.

           The stability the scheme has brought to

           campuses nationwide has been evidenced by

           the lack of educational boycotts and student

           unrest during the past three to four years.

           The government's visionary thinking

           regarding the NSFAS and continued support of

           these endeavors should be applauded. The

           appearance of the delegation from the

           Committee charged with consultation with all

           stakeholders indicates the dedication to the

           cause of educational justice for all in the

           new democratic South Africa.

           (a) Background

                 The university has always been involved

                 with the needs of poor students. Prior

                 to the early days of transformation from
08 August 2002                                Page 264 of 354

                 1984, the bursaries and scholarship

                 office administered a means test to

                 award the few bursaries from various

                 sources at its disposal (e.g. bequests,

                 deceased estates). By 1988 that office

                 was receiving 5 000 applications a year

                 from needy students.

                 The university responded by allocating

                 funds from its limited budget (about R13

                 million in 2001) to the annual budget of

                 the newly constituted Financial Aid

                 Service. This was supplemented during

                 the early 1990s by organisations such as

                 Kagiso Trust, the IDT (Independent

                 Development Trust), the South African

                 Institute of Race Relations (SAIRR) and

                 the Kelloggs Foundation.

                 By 1996 they had to limit the intake of

                 needy entrants to 500 per year in order

                 to manage the budgetary requirements

                 responsibly. The number of active

                 financial aid applications settled at
08 August 2002                                Page 265 of 354

                 about 3 500 per year. They are currently

                 funding about 2 000 undergraduates.

                 About 13% of the student body is deemed

                 sufficiently financially disadvantaged

                 to receive benefits from the NSFAS.

                 Therefore there is immense pressure on

                 the university to increase funding for

                 needy entrant. 50% of them are not

                 paying any family contribution - the

                 university and government are funding

                 R22 000 per year.

                 Some key areas have been fundamentally

                 important in the success of the NSFAS:

                 *   The creation of the NSFAS as a

                     statutory body and the subsequent

                     establishment of its Board with

                     representatives from higher

                     education stakeholders and the

08 August 2002                                 Page 266 of 354

                 *   The NSFAS loan recovery system and

                     the quality of the administrative


                 *   The involvement of the Financial Aid

                     Services/Bureaux of Tertiary

                     Institutions in the administration

                     of NSFAS loans is important.

                     Financial Aid Officers process

                     enquiries and applications forms

                     from potential students. This can

                     involve dealing with more than 1 000

                     students per officer.

                 *   The NSFAS in consultation with

                     Financial Aid Officers designed a

                     tool called "The Means Test", which

                     enables them to determine the

                     relative financial need of any

                     student applicant. This is very

                     helpful in the administration and

                     selection of students.

           (b) Financial Aid Budget for 2001
08 August 2002                                   Page 267 of 354

                 The allocated budget for the NSFAS is

                 R56 million, divided as follows:

                 Bursaries - R5 million (needy students);

                 scholarships - R12 million; and loans -

                 R39,5 million.

           (c) Challenges

                 Selection criteria related to the NSFAS

                 hinder students from the poorest

                 backgrounds from accessing tertiary

                 education. The more immediate challenges


                 *      Criteria focus on academic

                        excellence and do not take into

                        account rural school and family

                        background. Alternative selection

                        methods must be developed for

                        educationally disadvantaged


                 *      Hidden costs related to applying

                        (e.g. access to phones, the post,
08 August 2002                                Page 268 of 354

                     photocopying of documents and direct

                     costs (between R135 and R2 000 per

                     application) average about R500,

                     which the poorest of the poor cannot

                     afford. A further R500 acceptance

                     deposit is required after academic

                     selection; even more if a residence

                     deposit is required, which is often

                     the case with rural students.

                 *   A lack of consultation in respect of

                     review and implementation of NSFAS

                     policy and procedures, taking into

                     consideration that the institution

                     and officers are the backbone of the

                     NSFAS success story.

                 *   A lack of uniformity and monitoring

                     of policies instituted by the NSFAS,

                     while the university has aligned its

                     financial aid policy to suit the

                     implementation of NSFAS policies and

08 August 2002                                   Page 269 of 354

                 *   Fund entrants only in the second


                 *   Only half of the recommended maximum

                     is given, that has led to students

                     withdrawing from studies before

                     completion. The maximum limit of R16

                     000 for 2001 according to government

                     guidelines was not being adhered to.

                     In one institution the average size

                     of an award to an applicants is R3


                 *   They do not use the means test to

                     identify needy students and

                     determine award sizes.

           (d) Profile of South African student

                 White students live in houses close to

                 the campus and are studying away from

                 home by choice. They are usually not on

                 financial aid, and invariably have part-

                 time jobs as waitressws, shop
08 August 2002                                Page 270 of 354

                 assistants, etc, to earn pocket money

                 and to contribute towards paying

                 expenses. They are independent and self-

                 assured. They are found in all

                 disciplines, especially males in

                 Science, Engineering and Architecture.

                 There is some racial friction in clubs

                 and societies, and to a limited extent

                 in student government bodies, where

                 blacks dominate. They participate a lot

                 in sport.

                 Indian students live at home some

                 distance from campus; they travel by

                 public transport or by family car. Many

                 privileged students have their own cars.

                 Few are on financial aid. The wealthy

                 ones study away from home by choice.

                 They study and "play" in groups (good

                 gender mix), and hardly participate in

                 clubs and societies or student

                 government bodies. They mainly study

                 Commerce, Law and Medicine (both

08 August 2002                                   Page 271 of 354

                 95% of black students live in

                 residences, mainly on financial aid.

                 They mainly study Law, Social Science

                 and Humanities. Females study Nursing

                 and Teaching. Especially the males

                 participate in student government

                 bodies. There is a high attrition rate.

                 The white student population has

                 decreased because of perception that

                 NSFAS funding targets the poorest.

                 Middle-class families experience

                 problems to qualify for NSFAS funding.

           (e) Student debt

                 When assisting the poorest of the poor

                 with financial aid, it is important to

                 note that the Finance Division has

                 reported that more than 704 students

                 owed more than R100 000. The highest

                 debt of any one student was R177 128.
08 August 2002                                 Page 272 of 354

           (f) Existing administrative mechanisms for

                 disbursement of NSFAS funds

                 The university has not experienced any

                 difficulties with existing NSFAS

                 administrative systems. The problem

                 alluded to in a letter from the Minister

                 of Education to the chairperson of the

                 NSFAS Board (time between registration

                 and disbursement of funds) was not a

                 serious issue, as, according to the

                 university's assessment, the scheme was

                 being run in a very professional and

                 highly competent manner.

           (g) Size and coverage of loan

                 The maximum limit of R16 000 of an NSFAS

                 loan did not adequately accommodate the

                 actual study costs experienced by

                 students at a residential university.

                 Tuition and accommodation fees alone

                 could be near R20 000 at 2001 rates,

                 while the full costs, books and other
08 August 2002                                Page 273 of 354

                 necessary living expenses, could be

                 nearer to R30 000. This clearly

                 prejudiced the neediest students, who

                 required loan funding from other sources

                 to meet their obligations - funding

                 which might not be offered on the

                 favourable terms and repayments

                 conditions applicable to NSFAS awards. A

                 loan should be able to cover all fees at

                 any of the institutions.

                 They have received petitions from

                 students who were unable to repay loans

                 due to unemployment, owing to them being

                 black-listed by credit bureaux.

           (h) Eligibility criteria

                 Based on their experience, they would

                 like attention to be given to the


                 *   Expand the range of post-graduate

                     courses for which NSFAS awards may
08 August 2002                                Page 274 of 354

                     be made, while acknowledging the

                     commitment of the NSFAS to assist

                     talented and needy students to enter

                     tertiary institutions.

                 *   Consider making awards to permanent

                     residents who are not South African

                     citizens. The restriction prejudices

                     students from other African

                     countries who have South Africa as

                     their home and have been accorded

                     permanent resident status.

                 *   Staff and students have experienced

                     that while the most needy students

                     benefit greatly from the application

                     of the means test, certain

                     categories of students are placed in

                     a difficult position - small

                     families with an income above

                     R50 000 (often single parents with

                     one breadwinner) often find that

                     assessed funds are beyond their
08 August 2002                                 Page 275 of 354

                     reach, and that they are effectively

                     ineligible for funding.

                 Eligibility criteria should look at

                 funding postgraduate students, in

                 accordance with the National Plan

                 outlined by the Minister.

                 There must be uniformity in the

                 monitoring and implementation of the

                 policy at all institutions, and NSFAS

                 policies should be be reviewed


           (i) Targeting priority fields of study

                 According to Rev Ngomane, it will be

                 more appropriate and more effective for

                 institutions themselves, rather than the

                 NSFAS, to target priority fields of

                 study in line with national policy. The

                 discretion and flexibility that will be

                 needed to successfully implement this

                 aspect of national policy, would be very
08 August 2002                                  Page 276 of 354

                 difficult to accommodate if driven by a

                 centralised funding agency such as the


       6.   Excellence and relevance in research -

            official view by Prof S S Abdool Karim

            (a) Research grants and contracts

                 The increase in grants is built largely

                 on the university's reputation and on

                 donations attracted by it: 1995 - R4

                 million; 1996 - R50 million; 1997 - R65

                 million; 1998 - R83 million; 1999 - R105

                 million; and 2000 - R165 million.

                 International research grants amounted

                 to R30 million.

            (b) Research strategy

                 In response to a rapid changing research

                 environment, their research support

                 strategy reflects the imperatives of the

                 South African national system of
08 August 2002                                   Page 277 of 354

                 innovation within which the higher

                 education system is located.

                 The university's research committee

                 provides support to:

                 *   Outstanding academics that undertake

                     high quality basic and applied

                     research and other creative work

                     that produces academic publications

                     or their recognised equivalent, like

                     Dr N Ggaleni, Prof P Berjak (on seed

                     technology); Prof J Moodley (on

                     mothers dying during child birth

                     because of hypertension); and Prof K

                     Durrheim (racism and identity -

                     geographies of racial exclusions).

                 *   The centre of research excellence,

                     which enjoys national and

                     international recognition and draws

                     on researchers in a broad range of

                     disciplines across the university.
08 August 2002                                Page 278 of 354

                 *   Increased investment in attracting,

                     retaining and training young

                     academics to provide a new

                     generation of researchers.

                 *   Research with community partners.

                 Collaborations such as these strengthen

                 the research ethos because they

                 contribute to the university's

                 commitment to socially responsive

                 science and scholarships. They are now

                 trying to address local demand to

                 develop new knowledge.

           (c) HIV/AIDS

                 They actively support AIDS research,

                 both through the Africa Centre for

                 Population Studies and Reproductive

                 Health and the Health Economics and

                 HIV/AIDS Research Division. It has been

                 noted with concern that HIV/AIDS will

                 have a serious impact on the ability of
08 August 2002                                   Page 279 of 354

                    a large number of people to access

                    higher education. The age group 18 to

                    24, traditional cohort of university

                    students, is seriously at risk and

                    disadvantaged communities particularly

                    will be affected. There is a great deal

                    of student awareness programmes on the


   G.   University of the Witwatersrand - 6 August 2001

        1.   Official overview by Vice-Chancellor, Prof N


             Prof Reid joined WITS in 2001. The

             institution's priority is transformation and

             it has made progress, particularly with

             staff. They are working on schemes to fast-

             track the appointment of blacks to

             managerial positions. 50% of academic

             appointments have been blacks, but they were

             appointed to middle management. There are

             vacancies in some faculties but WITS is

             struggling to get South Africans to fill
08 August 2002                                Page 280 of 354

           them (e.g. they are looking for a Zoology

           lecturer with a Ph D, but most applicants

           are from Asia).

           WITS is committed to supplementing and

           assisting disadvantaged students and to

           ensuring that this be accessible to them.

           57% of the students are black and 47% are

           female. 70% come from Gauteng and 30% from

           outside. There are students from SADC

           countries and from the rest of Africa. They

           hope to expand and admit students from

           beyond Africa so as to embrace the spirit of

           globalisation. The curriculum has to

           incorporate Africanism, bearing in mind the

           colonialism that Africa had experienced.

           (a) Financial assistance

                 WITS has received R27 million from the

                 government for 2000-01.

           (b) Bridging programmes
08 August 2002                                   Page 281 of 354

                 WITS has for many years been concerned

                 about student access to various

                 faculties and about problems that

                 students from a disadvantaged background

                 experience when they are accepted into

                 the university. This has resulted in a

                 number of bridging programmes, some of

                 which were initiated 25 years ago. These

                 programmes were initially designed to

                 bridge the great divide between school

                 and university. The bridging courses

                 served the purpose and helped many

                 students who had been admitted.

                 More recently, with the changing

                 demographics of WITS' student

                 population, the fact that there were

                 many students from a disadvantaged

                 background and a very poor primary and

                 secondary educational system, WITS

                 realised that there was an urgent need

                 to reassess student access to a tertiary

                 education qualification. The faculties
08 August 2002                                  Page 282 of 354

                 were restructured and reduced from nine

                 to five.

            (c) Faculties

                 The five new faculties are:

                 Commerce, Law and Management

                 Engineering and the Built Environment

                 Health Sciences

                 Humanities, Social Sciences and



                 Each faculty has educational officers

                 who establish mechanisms to facilitate

                 and allow students into their academic

                 programmes, students who would not

                 automatically gain access because of

                 their secondary school achievements.

       2.   Commerce, Law and Management
08 August 2002                                Page 283 of 354

           Mathematics and Science are entrance

           requirements for B Com Accounting. Few

           students enroll for this degree. Those who

           do not qualify to study B Com Accounting,

           are allowed to do a two-year bridging


           (a) Commerce Development Programmes

                 Since 1996, the Commerce Faculty has

                 experienced significant change in the

                 constitution of its student body.

                 Increasing numbers of African, Coloured

                 and Indian students are being admitted,

                 some of whom do not meet the automatic

                 entry requirements and a number of whom

                 are from previously disadvantaged

                 educational backgrounds.

                 The Commerce Development Programmes unit

                 (CDP unit) was formally established in

                 1997 to facilitate and co-ordinate the

                 anticipated transformation in academic

                 development needs of both students and
08 August 2002                                Page 284 of 354

                 staffing of the faculty. Thus far it has

                 accommodated about 430 students,

                 registered for the extended curriculum B

                 Com degree. The registration figure for

                 the Commerce Skills course for 2001 was

                 81 students.

           (b) Graduation rate of CB402 students: 1997


                 Data was collected and collaborated in a

                 longitudinal study of students

                 registered for CB402 for the first time

                 in 1997, 1998, 1999 and 2000. The first

                 CDP-extended curriculum students

                 completed their four-year degrees in

                 2000. The student intake for CB402 in

                 1997 was 113. According to statistics

                 supplied, 14 graduated, 64 dropped out,

                 12 students were excluded, 11 moved to

                 other faculties and 18 were still

                 completing their degrees.

           (c) Extended Curriculum B Com degree
08 August 2002                                   Page 285 of 354

                 In contrast to other tertiary CDP

                 initiatives, a bridging course for

                 previously educationally disadvantaged

                 students seeking entry to the faculty

                 was not considered appropriate, hence a

                 formal four-year extended curriculum B

                 Com degree structure has been

                 introduced. It is structured in such a

                 way that first-level courses are split

                 over two years. During the first year, a

                 student is required to take a specially

                 designed course in Commercial Skills.

                 The CDP assists with academic

                 development of the annual intake of

                 extended curriculum students. It also

                 functions as a research and advisory

                 resource for academic staff in teaching

                 departments to address mainstream

                 teaching and learning problems.

           (d) Entry requirements
08 August 2002                                   Page 286 of 354

                 To meet the automatic admission

                 requirements for B Com, an applicant


                 *   A total of 23+ points for matric


                 *   Mathematics at higher grade or 60%

                     (C) at standard grade.

                 To be accepted for the extended

                 curriculum degree, an applicant needs:

                 *   A total of 17+ points for matric


                 *   To have come from a previously

                     disadvantaged educational

                     background. Preference is given to

                     applicants from ex-DET schools.

                 *   Those who do not meet the minimum

                     mathematics requirements, are

                     required to register for and pass
08 August 2002                                  Page 287 of 354

                     Foundation Mathematics, a course

                     designed to provide students with

                     the knowledge and confidence to

                     proceed to computational


            (e) School of Law

                 The School of Law does not have a formal

                 bridging programme, but offers an

                 extended LLB to a limited number of

                 disadvantaged students. This LLB is

                 normally offered over four years.

                 Courses offered are in line with the

                 demand in the economy.

       3.   Engineering and the Built Environment

            Learners are admitted into this faculty on

            the basis of their Grade 12 results. Common

            requirements for admission include

            mathematics and competency in English. With

            most of the schools, Physical Science is a

            further requirement for admission.
08 August 2002                                Page 288 of 354

           The faculty ensures that learners from

           disadvantaged backgrounds have a wide range

           of career opportunities. Selection and

           placement tests and interviews are held by

           the faculty to ensure that alternative

           admission is administered. If learners have

           lower points than required, this alternative

           admission system allows them to enter a

           different school in the faculty.

           In some schools though, they can enter the

           Foundation Programme directly, while in

           others they can enter into the main stream

           directly and then be directed to the

           Foundation Programme after the first series

           of tests written in April. These programmes

           take the form of an extended curriculum,

           where the first year of academic study is

           extended over two years with a wide range of

           academic development programmes to develop


           The faculty does recognise that Mathematics

           has a restricted number of candidates,
08 August 2002                                Page 289 of 354

            especially from disadvantaged backgrounds,

            for entry. It also recognises that

            Mathematics at secondary school level has

            not necessarily provided the required

            competencies for academic success. At the

            beginning the success rate of the special

            selection tests was 23%; now it has

            increased to 60%, especially for students

            from disadvantaged communities.

       4.   Health Sciences

            There is a new curriculum for medical

            students doing practical in Primary Health

            Care. Arrangements have been made with North

            West, the Northern Province and Mpumalanga.

            (a) Problems experienced

                 *   Students from a disadvantaged

                     background are not prepared to deal

                     with the high pressures of tertiary

08 August 2002                                Page 290 of 354

                 *   First- and second-year students

                     experience a 50% failure rate, due

                     to the fact that they have a poor

                     background in Mathematics and

                     Science. WITS has had to change its

                     entry requirements to medical school

                     and this has changed the number of

                     years one has to study for a medical

                     degree to four intensive years. The

                     curriculum has been changed as well.

                 *   Students from disadvantaged schools

                     have difficulty in asking questions

                     in a large lecture hall. This makes

                     it difficult to pick up problems

                     they may experience. WITS has

                     decided to make group small - about

                     8 students per class.

                 *   WITS has developed contact with

                     hospitals in Mpumalanga and the

                     Northern Province for graduates to

                     work there.
08 August 2002                                Page 291 of 354

            (b) College of Science

                 The College of Science was started in

                 1991. Every year about 130 students are

                 admitted to the stream that leads to

                 Science. The two-year programme also

                 offers computer skills, library skills,

                 etc. More students can be admitted, but

                 most students do not do well in


       5.   Humanities, Social Sciences and Education

            Entry requirements in this faculty have been

            changed. Curriculum specialists are located

            in the different faculties, who are involved

            in curricula review and restructuring of

            education diplomas and degrees. Many of the

            staff are involved in producing text books

            across the spectrum.

            Five computer centres have been set up to

            allow teachers and students to have access

            to computers. Teachers have been allowed to
08 August 2002                               Page 292 of 354

            upgrade themselves in their area of study or

            interest. For example, teachers without

            matric (PTC) but with many years of working

            experience may study certain courses.

            Applicants older than 23 who do not meet the

            entry requirements, may study for the four-

            year degree or three-year diploma.

       6.   Faculty of Science

            The faculty has the following branches:

            Biological Science; Molecular Science; Geo-

            Science; and Pure Mathematics.

            An E in higher grade Mathematics is the

            entry requirement. Should applicant not have

            this, a special selection test is offered to

            allow them to gain access. Those who pass

            the selection test, are interviewed and

            potential is identified. 60 to 80 students

            are allowed to study through a foundation

            programme to improve their success rate.
08 August 2002                                Page 293 of 354

            WITS encourages organisations like Eskom to

            allow their bursars to do a two-year

            postgraduate degree in Engineering while

            being paid 75% of their salary.

       7.   University Institutional Forum

            The forum has about 45 members (four members

            of the SRC; SASCO is also represented), and

            meets once a quarter or whenever there is a

            need. The term of office is three years. It

            advises the Council on issues affecting the

            university i.e. transformation and HIV/AIDS.

            Most students are not aware of how the forum

            can assist them. It is planning on improving

            communication with students.

            Plan of action

            The Forum needs:

                 To redefine the university's role.
08 August 2002                               Page 294 of 354

                 To improve its communication strategy.

                 To improve staff morale.

       8.   Student Representative Council

            The SRC has 15 members, five white, six

            black and four others. Issues that students

            deal with, are different from issues dealt

            by students in previous years. Some of these

            are HIV/AIDS, second language learning and

            media on campus. The SRC has delivered on

            their manifesto of promises. It has solved

            some of student governance problems.

            Students have been involved in restructuring

            and transforming the university. The SRC

            also ensures that the university does not

            exclude students.

       9.   HIV/AIDS

            The SRC initiated the HIV/AIDS tests at

            WITS. Members of the Council have gone for

            HIV/AIDS tests but have not released their
08 August 2002                              Page 295 of 354

           results. Their main goal is to have students

           go for HIV/AIDS tests. Enough condoms have

           been distributed and the university has been

           involved in formulating an HIV/AIDS policy.

       10. Sexual harassment

           WITS has employed a part-time sexual

           harassment officer; they cannot afford a

           full-time one. Those who feel that they have

           been sexually harassed, can consult the

           office. There are statistics available that

           suggest sexual harassment and rapes do


       11. Language

           WITS is addressing the language problem and

           foundation courses are offered for

           disadvantaged students. A language survey to

           determine the language problem experienced

           by students has been conducted. The

           Department of Education does not consider

           sign language an entrant requirement.
08 August 2002                              Page 296 of 354

       12. Racism

           Students are not willing to come forward and

           report incidences of racism, as they are

           scared of being victimised. WITS does not

           allow initiation of students.

       13. Postgraduate students

           They do not have a platform from which to

           raise their concerns, and they do not

           receive adequate funding for their studies.

       14. Key people from bridging and foundation


           The needs of the students who do not meet

           entry requirements, are addressed. Students

           who experience personal and academic

           problems, are counselled.

       15. Unversity Research Committee
08 August 2002                                 Page 297 of 354

           Research in South Africa is funded by

           Science Councils. WITS is trying to identify

           black women academics. The research

           committee has proposed a capacity

           development scheme to support and promote

           blacks, women and the youth.

           Challenges in increased involvement of


           Academics are not paid well and this makes

           it difficult to attract them to the

           university. The pressure is on black

           graduates to contribute to their families

           financially once they are qualified.

           The Faculty of Science, followed by

           Engineering, produces a number of

           publications. WITS has a system of senior

           mentorship, where experienced scientists are

           funded from outside to train young

           scientists. The Nuclear Physics Institute

           has signed agreements for exchange students

           with Zimbabwe.
08 August 2002                              Page 298 of 354

           It is difficult to access funds for a

           publication, as you have to be on a list of

           Research Journals, which have not been

           updated for five years.

           The Faculty of Engineering is fully

           committed to research, but it is difficult

           for the university in general to retain

           black students to enter postgraduate

           studies, as they prefer to work after

           completing their junior degree, due to the

           fact that their parents or families expect

           them to pay towards the studies of siblings

           still at school. They either join the public

           or private sector because education

           institutions offer lower salaries.

       16. National Plan Co-ordinating Committee -

           merging of institutions

           The institution is not scared of change, and

           for the past three years has engaged in

           transformation. Informal discussions are

           taking place on a possible merger. However,
08 August 2002                              Page 299 of 354

           international experience shows that a merger

           of institutions succeeds when there is

           enough time to do it, but does not succeed

           when forced. It has shown that institutions

           like WITS should strengthen its strategic

           alliance rather than merge.

           WITS does acknowledge that Johannesburg

           needs more than one university, but is not

           sure whether a merger will address this

           need. The merger could be done at programme

           level. Their concern is that if pushed to

           merger, they will end up not addressing

           their problems and will not be able to focus

           on transformation. Nevertheless, WITS is

           willing to engage in policy discussions.

       17. Postgraduate Association

           Previously there was no way for postgraduate

           students to channel their grievances. The

           Postgraduate Association does not have a

           seat in the Senate. There are not enough

           funds to promote research at WITS, as the
08 August 2002                                Page 300 of 354

           government is no longer funding the

           institution properly. This makes it

           impossible for WITS to sustain itself

           without proper promotion of research.

       18. National Student Financial Aid Scheme

           For many years funds have been allocated to

           needy students registering at institutions

           of higher learning. Since the inception of

           the NSFAS, WITS has administered these funds

           in accordance with criteria laid down by the

           NSFAS as well as WITS's General Rules of

           Practice for awarding University

           Administered Bursaries and Loans (for 2001).

           (a) Size allocation per student

                 The maximum allocation to each student

                 has increased steadily each year from

                 R10 000 in 1996 to R16 000 in 2001. The

                 maximum income level has been increased

                 to R130 000 per year to assist middle-

                 income students who face financial
08 August 2002                                Page 301 of 354

                 constraints. Lower income levels were

                 from R10 000 to R15 000 per year. This

                 enabled the extremely needy students to

                 be assisted.

           (b) Eligibility

                 *   Students cannot access NSFAS funds

                     unless they are registered. It is

                     the Department of Education that has

                     set this criteria. However, WITS

                     does waver registration fees if a

                     students is on the NSFAS, while

                     other universities do not allow


                 *   The duration of financial assistance

                     is equal to the length of the degree

                     plus one year (up to a maximum of

                     seven years in the case of medical


                 *   In certain circumstances where a

                     student has already qualified for an
08 August 2002                                Page 302 of 354

                     undergraduate degree, he or she may

                     not receive additional funding.

                     However, WITS and the Oppenheimer

                     Trust have established a loan scheme

                     to be administered by the NSFAS.

                 *   Difficulty is experienced by

                     students who do not qualify for

                     maximum funds but require additional

                     funding for accommodation and

                     subsistence. If a student is in a

                     residence, the allowance pays for

                     accommodation, so there are no

                     surplus funds available for

                     subsistence. If the student uses

                     private accommodation, the allowance

                     is used to payment the rent, and

                     therefore no subsistence is


                 *   In 2001 there were roll-over funds,

                     which assisted 690 students who

                     otherwise would have been excluded.
08 August 2002                                Page 303 of 354

           (c) Disabled students

                 WITS encourages access of disabled

                 students, regardless of a lack of


                 *   These students experience specific

                     problems as a result of their

                     disabilities. In most cases they are

                     enrolled on special/extended

                     curricula which require that the

                     period of study and thus the loan

                     period be extended. The difficulty

                     comes in where a student has

                     surpassed the number of years

                     allowed but has not finished the

                     degree. Although they are denied

                     funding, it is felt that a disabled

                     student should be assisted to study

                     further. However, there have been no

                     funds allocated for this purpose. In

                     addition, disabled students often

                     require specialised material, which

                     at this stage are not funded by the

08 August 2002                                Page 304 of 354

                 *   The Dean of Student Affairs

                     discussed these points with Mr R

                     Jackson, Chief Executive Officer of

                     the NSFAS, who agreed to take the

                     matter up with the NSFAS Board.

                 *   Disabled students are assisted by

                     the university's Roll-over Loan

                     Programme. This programme was

                     started in 1993 to assist needy

                     students on financial aid who were

                     unable to pay fees not covered by

                     their packages. Since then the

                     programme has grown from assisting

                     only a handful of students to

                     assisting 690 students in 2000-01.

                     It includes the granting of

                     additional NSFAS loans and is aimed

                     at students who are unable to pay

                     the balance of their fees at the end

                     of the academic year. Provided they

                     have passed and have not received

                     the maximum NSFAS loans, these

                     students' applications are
08 August 2002                                 Page 305 of 354

                     reassessed and they are granted

                     additional loan funding according to

                     their financial need rating. Foreign

                     students, including those with

                     refugee status, SADC students

                     (unless they become South African

                     citizens) and part-time students are

                     not eligible for loans.

                 The NSFAS requires that all students

                 make some contribution towards their

                 costs. Because of this requirement, all

                 students applying for the Roll-over Loan

                 Programme must have made a contribution

                 towards their fees accounts, according

                 to their individual circumstances. WITS

                 also provides a Service Bursary Scheme,

                 whereby students may work in departments

                 within the university to assist them to

                 make their own contributions. Wits also

                 receive donated funds and funds from the

                 University Council. These funds are used

                 to top up student packages with
08 August 2002                                  Page 306 of 354

                 bursaries. Students are not required to

                 repay this portion to the university.

   H.   Potchefstroom University (PU) - 7 August 2001

        1.   Traditional ethos and transformation

             The School of Theology was founded in 1869

             in Burgersdorp. In 1919 the institution

             became a University College for Christian

             Higher Education (CHE). It became a

             University of South Africa College in 1921,

             being called a University College in 1951.

             The university has had one satellite campus

             since 1966. More blacks started studying at

             PU since 1967. Residences were opened to all

             races in 1990. There are about 2 000

             students on the Vaal Triangle Campus.

        2.   Vision

             A university of high quality with a

             Christian foundation, entrepreneurally

             orientated and responsive to the
08 August 2002                               Page 307 of 354

            requirements of the age, the country and the


       3.   Transformation

            The transformation process started early in

            the 1990s. Prior to 1994 they met with

            different stakeholders, and various issues

            were discussed. Before transformation took

            place, there was tension and uncertainty

            among staff, and there is still tension.

            In the mid-90s the composition of the

            council was changed, as it was dominated by

            whites. It contained 17 white males. 30% of

            the members were internal members and 70%

            were external. Three were Senate members.

            In 1993 the council consisted of one

            principal, four vice-principals, two Senate

            members, one employee, one student and

            external members. An agreement was reached

            to enlarge the council to 23 members,
08 August 2002                                Page 308 of 354

           consisting of 14 white males, seven black

           males and two white females.

           In 1999 further changes with regard to

           gender and the number of employees were made

           in respect of the council. It consisted of

           17 whites, six blacks and five females.

           Principal - 1; Vice-Principal - 2;

           Management Committee; Senate - 2; Other

           employees - 1; Institutional Forum - 1;

           Students - 2.

           (a) Student numbers

                 1919-1965 - students numbered about

                 2 000. In 2001 there were 13 327

                 students at PU and the Vaal Triangle -

                 75% white, 25% black, 43% males and 57%

                 females. 45% are from North West and 55%

                 from other provinces and other

                 countries. Postgraduate students are 3

                 490 (about 26%) and undergraduate

                 students are 9 837 (about 74%).
08 August 2002                                Page 309 of 354

           (b) Massification

                 The number of students increased as the

                 years went by and telematic learning

                 systems have been developed. PU's

                 telematics results have been better than

                 the results of students studying on

                 campus (contact students). They are also

                 better than those of students studying

                 at UNISA, probably due to the fact that

                 the majority of distance learners are

                 mature and dedicated. Telematic, distant

                 and contact students all write the same


                 PU has been used to develop a telematics

                 learning system, and its learning

                 centres quite often operate in concert

                 with other institutions to enhance

                 education. These institutions are all

                 over South Africa: Northern Province -

                 7; Mpumalanga - 21; North West - 13;

                 Northern Cape - 5; Eastern Cape - 12;
08 August 2002                                Page 310 of 354

                 Western Cape - 12; KwaZulu-Natal - 12;

                 Gauteng - 1.

                 This programme is meant for students

                 who, for whatever reason, cannot attend

                 residential institutions. PU is trying

                 to attract more black students to

                 balance with the country's demographics.

                 Black students who qualify for admission

                 are not turned away. PU does not prevent

                 students from other denominations (not

                 Christian) to study there. They are

                 satisfied with the results of telematic

                 learning systems, and has taken steps to

                 ensure that private providers make the

                 programme a success.

                 PU has nine faculties and 13 research

                 focus areas. They also offer outreach

                 programmes - postgraduates engaged in

                 community services. Research is

                 conducted to assist communities in

                 respect of nutrition, legal aid, etc.
08 August 2002                                Page 311 of 354

                 The Theology Faculty has more black

                 students than any other faculty.

                 Twice a year school teachers enroll for

                 diploma and postgraduate diploma courses

                 offered by PU to upgrade them in

                 Mathematics and Science. About 1 000

                 black teachers have been upgraded by

                 them over the past four years. These

                 teachers are allowed to use the

                 university's laboratory facilities, as

                 most of their schools do not have


           (c) Institutional culture

                 The language medium of PU is Afrikaans.

                 About 6 000 students study in English.

                 90% of all textbooks are in English and

                 lectures are in Afrikaans. All

                 examination papers are in Afrikaans and

                 English, and students may answer

                 questions in the language of their

                 choice. In the Vaal Triangle, 50% of the
08 August 2002                                Page 312 of 354

                 lectures are in Afrikaans and 50% in


                 Prof Zibi organised morning classes to

                 teach management Setswana, which helped

                 them to be sensitive to other languages.

                 PU is opposed to the merger of


                 They have a negotiated statute, which

                 came about as a result of

                 transformation. The statute will be

                 revisited in some technical respects

                 once the private acts are scrapped.

                 Lectures have never been disrupted due

                 to unrest.

           (d) Disabilities

                 PU has developed material to enable

                 blind students to study. Different

                 buildings have been made to cater for

                 persons with disability (e.g. toilets,

                 off-ramps, lecture halls, etc). Disabled
08 August 2002                                 Page 313 of 354

                 staff members who cannot drive or use

                 the computer, are assisted.

           (e) Language

                 PU attempts to ensure that language is

                 not a barrier for students. A language-

                 assisting facility has been installed to

                 assist students with reading skills.

                 Computer courses are offered for all

                 students. The university feels very

                 strongly about Afrikaans, but will not

                 exclude or discriminate against other

                 languages. There are students trained to

                 assist students who cannot cope with the

                 content of courses.

           (f) Satellite campus: telematic/distance


                 Most students attending the satellite

                 campus and distance programmes are

                 working people with their own families
08 August 2002                                Page 314 of 354

                 to support, and thus cannot afford to

                 attend full-time lectures.

           (g) Student affairs

                 There is a high level of representation

                 of students on different committees. PU

                 regards students as equals in all

                 committees they are serving on. SRC

                 members are members of the Senate, the

                 Executive Council and the Council. The

                 management does not interfere with

                 student politics, and students

                 independently deal with their affairs.

           (h) SRC

                 SASCO was not part of the meeting, as

                 its members were picketing outside the

                 premises when the delegation arrived.

                 The delegation met with members of the

                 Vaal Triangle's SRC and PU's SRC. There

                 was tension on campus when the SRC

                 chairperson started studying at Vaal
08 August 2002                                Page 315 of 354

                 Triangle. No one was prepared to address

                 issues. Change began when students

                 started questioning what was happening.


                     Many measures are in place to assist

                     students financially. It has always

                     been a problem for students to pay

                     for registration.


                     Students tried to establish a forum

                     to discuss issues - a student

                     parliament. This parliament sits

                     once a term, depending on the need.

                     Some programmes are offered in

                     English. Evening lectures are mainly

                     for part-time students, but full-

                     time students are allowed to attend

                     them. Study material is in both

                     languages. Sometimes, at Vaal

                     Triangle, students are allowed to
08 August 2002                            Page 316 of 354

                 decide on the language they prefer

                 to be lectured in. They participate

                 in lectures in a language of their


                 Each campus has its own SRC. Potch

                 has 18 portfolios and Vaal Triangle

                 eight. The student body has eight

                 portfolios, among others Sport,

                 Culture, PRO, Secretary, Chairperson

                 and Vice-Chairperson. It is directly

                 involved in assisting students.


                 Funds are only made available to

                 students after they have registered

                 at Potch or Vaal Triangle. Students

                 cannot access funds if their fees

                 have not been paid. Students do not

                 abuse the NSFAS, as the NSFAS

                 targets needy students. Vaal

                 Triangle is a small campus and it is

                 easy to detect needy students. Both
08 August 2002                              Page 317 of 354

                 SRCs assist in identifying needy



                 At Vaal Triangle, residence students

                 are allowed to stay where they want.

                 Most of them socialise with students

                 of their own culture. Black students

                 (five years ago) pressurised

                 management to be accommodated in

                 their own residences, but it was

                 refused. Allegations exist that

                 there is an element of racial

                 discrimination at university

                 residences. At Potch students are

                 allowed to stay where they want,

                 taking cognisance of the fact that

                 mono-cultural residences have not

                 been allowed to develop.

08 August 2002                                Page 318 of 354

                     There is a support group that deals

                     with AIDS. There are no condoms

                     available on campus, as the

                     distribution of condoms is regarded

                     as contrary to a Christian value


           (i) Dropouts

                 PU does not have readily available

                 statistics on the number of academic

                 dropouts. It has no record of students

                 who dropped out because of financial

                 reasons. Those who usually drop out

                 after the first year, do not report or

                 come back, which makes it difficult to

                 trace them.

           (j) Orientation/initiation

                 Initiation is done in a fashion that is

                 comfortable to the students - it is a

                 programme owned by the students.
08 August 2002                                Page 319 of 354

       3.   NSFAS

            The Financial Support Services Department at

            PU is the vital link between the NSFAS and


            (a) State of NSFAS IN 2001

                 In 2001 PU received R14 133 522, and

                 R11 209 355 was allocated. NSFAS 2001:

                 R11 140 000; NSFAS Teachers Education

                 2001: R2 484 522; NSFAS x 2000: R412

                 000; NSFAS Thintana 2001: R97 000.

                 Total number of students assisted: 1

                 096; population distribution: 65% whites

                 and 35% blacks receive the funds. 20% of

                 black students and 7% of white students

                 receive NSFAS funds. 96% of black first-

                 year students studying towards a degree

                 in education receive NSFAS funds for

                 teacher education.

            (b) Management of NSFAS at PU
08 August 2002                                Page 320 of 354

                 The NSFAS is managed on a three-system

                 approach - marketing, production and

                 financial strategy. To market the NSFAS,

                 the university:

                 *   Advertises in the student newspaper,

                     Die Wapad.

                 *   Holds meetings with Deans, Directors

                     of Schools, lecturers, house

                     committee members and the SRC to

                     sensitise on financially needy


                 *   Uses the Internet, e-mail and

                     groupwise to inform students who

                     have access to electronic media.

                 *   Liaises with the Financial

                     Department (Accounts) to identify

                     students with financial problems.

                 *   Makes first-year students aware of

                     the NSFAS.
08 August 2002                                Page 321 of 354

                 *   Liaises with individual students to

                     identify more financially needy


                 Students who receive NSFAS funds,

                 receive funds that cover all academic

                 costs. PU does not return roll-over

                 funds to the NSFAS, as they are aware

                 that at the beginning of every year

                 there are students who need financial

                 assistance. These students are allowed

                 to access roll-over NSFAS funds for

                 registration. Only students who meet the

                 academic requirements, can access these

                 funds. PU allocates between R9 000 and

                 R12 000 to each student, but priority is

                 given to the needy. The NSFAS is

                 satisfied with the way in which their

                 funds are administered.

       2.   Entry requirements, bridging programme and

            publication of requirements for access
08 August 2002                                  Page 322 of 354

           (a) PU offers a Technical College Programme

                 for students who do not meet entry

                 requirements. These access programmes

                 are offered in Rustenburg, Vereeniging,

                 Van der Bijl Park, Springs, Benoni,

                 Potchefstroom and Sasolburg.

           (b) They offer Saturday classes (and has

                 been doing so for a number of years) to

                 assist Grade 12 pupils to pass so that

                 they may meet the university's entry


           (c) PU has Student Counselling Services

                 responsible for selecting students,

                 career guidance using psychometric

                 tests, assisting students to cope with

                 their studies psychologically, and

                 offering special administrative tests

                 for students who do not meet entry


           Students who qualify to be admitted to study

           Engineering have a minimum of 21 points.
08 August 2002                                  Page 323 of 354

            Students who do not qualify are allowed to

            write a special admission test in

            Mathematics. Those who do not pass the test,

            are allowed to study a two-year course in

            order to register. About 20 students are

            allowed to register for a one-year course

            that will enable them to study Engineering.

            This course is expensive and costs the

            university a lot of money. Tests are used to

            select students to study Pharmacy, Theology

            and Social Work.

       3.   SADC students

            PU does admit students from SADC countries,

            but their matric results have to be

            evaluated by the Matriculation Board. These

            students are from Zaire, Botswana, Zimbabwe

            and Namibia. The university has students

            from Korea and Britain, who study through

            telematics. PU has prepared study guidelines

            that assist distance-learning students.

            Distance-learning programmes are good

            programmes, not secondary.
08 August 2002                                Page 324 of 354

   I.   University of the North (UNIN) - 8 August 2001

        UNIN is a rural university within a

        predominantly black population. The ratio is 99%

        black, other races making up the remaining 1%.

        55% of the student body are female.

        1.   Academic sector

             There are more females in the top managerial

             levels. There are more males (321) than

             females (141), more blacks (296) than whites

             (147), and only five coloureds and four

             Indians on the permanent staff of the main

             campus. On 1 July 2001, a new academic

             structure was established.

             (a) Programmes

                 UNIN has various formative degrees and

                 diplomas in the following directions:

                 Arts and Health Sciences

                 Humanities and Social Sciences
08 August 2002                                  Page 325 of 354


                 Agriculture, Health and Natural Sciences

                 Management Sciences

                 UNIN offers programme-based study

                 directions within two faculties. These

                 programmes will be housed in schools:

                 Faculty of Arts and Humanities


                 Social Sciences



                 Management and Leadership Studies

                 Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences

                 Natural and Environmental Sciences

                 Mathematical Sciences, Computer Studies

                 and Information Technology

                 Health Sciences

                 Applied Agriculture Sciences

                 Mining and Manufacturing Engineering
08 August 2002                                 Page 326 of 354

                 Research Development

                 A programme-based study direction was

                 developed in response to the needs in

                 community - UNIN has four research

                 units. To date the focus has been on

                 undergraduate programmes. Postgraduate

                 programmes as well as research have

                 always taken a backseat. UNIN now

                 intends to increase efforts towards

                 greater student intakes at postgraduate

                 level. There are still more males than

                 females, and UNIN wants to put

                 mechanisms in place to attract more

                 females into the research arena.

                 UNIN has experienced a drastic drop in

                 overall student enrolment and is now in

                 the process of developing strategies to

                 deal with the situation. It identified

                 the following as factors that caused the

                 dramatic drop in enrolment:
08 August 2002                                   Page 327 of 354

                 *   Instability within the institution

                     as a result of the active

                     involvement of its student body in

                     national politics.

                 *   Lack of viable marketable academic


                 *   The opening of alternative

                     institutions of higher learning,

                     especially white universities and

                     technikons, since 1994.

                 *   The development of an increased

                     interest in technikons, compared to

                     universities. Lack of adequate

                     financial support for students in

                     need, especially first-time entrant

                     and postgraduate levels.

                 *   Low matriculation results,

                     especially at university entry level

                     in the Northern Province.
08 August 2002                                   Page 328 of 354

                 *   Lack of student retention


                 *   Lack of competitive recruitment


                 *   Poor image of the institution.

           (b) Disabled students

                 UNIN caters for disabled students and

                 partially sighted students. It has the

                 best equipped and running disabled

                 students unit, which will accommodate

                 the needs of the disabled. Plans are

                 afoot to put up a special building to

                 house the unit. Physical facilities

                 around the main campus have been

                 improved to meet the needs of this

                 sector of the student community.

                 UNIN has a good programme for the deaf,

                 visually and mobile impaired students.

                 Funds have been raised to build a unit
08 August 2002                                   Page 329 of 354

                 for disabled students. However, UNIN

                 cannot afford to buy furniture for them,

                 and appeal to the government to assist.

           (c) Recruitment

                 To attract students, UNIN advertises in

                 both the printed and the electronic

                 media. It is difficult for the

                 university to attract postgraduate

                 students, as it cannot afford to offer

                 bursaries in competition with

                 traditional white universities.

           (d) NSFAS - implementation and limitations

                 *   Ideally the funding should enable

                     needy students to overcome their

                     financial difficulties and further

                     their education. Regrettably this is

                     not the case, as the NSFAS is not

                     able to fund students to the full

                     tune of what they require, since

                     there are minimum and maximum
08 August 2002                                 Page 330 of 354

                     allocations prescribed by the NSFAS

                     Board. This means then it does not

                     cater for all students' needs. Since

                     its inception, the NSFAS has never

                     been able to pay all fees for that

                     particular year for students because

                     of the limited funding and the

                     number of students who qualify for

                     financial assistance according to

                     NSFAS requirements.

                 *   NSFAS funds are allocated to 60%

                     females and 40% males. Students who

                     do not meet NSFAS requirements are

                     not allowed access to the funds.

                     NSFAS allocations are made after a

                     student has registered.

                 *   The success rate of students

                     receiving NSFAS funds is about 60%.

           (e) NSFAS -implication for UNIN
08 August 2002                                Page 331 of 354

                 UNIN depends mainly on the NSFAS to fund

                 students, as it does not have reserves

                 like other institutions, especially

                 historically advantaged institutions. It

                 has been a trend that, since the

                 establishment of the NSFAS, UNIN has not

                 been able to pay the allocation

                 prescribed by the NSFAS because of

                 limited funding. The amount allocated to

                 an institution is divided by the number

                 of students who qualify for financial

                 assistance. For example, in the academic

                 year 2000, the maximum allocation

                 recommended by the NSFAS was R14 600,

                 but the maximum allocation that the

                 university could make available, was R8

                 500 per student. This amount does not

                 even cover the fees fully, let alone

                 meals and book allowance.

                 The fact that students do not get an

                 allowance for books, could lead to them

                 failing or dropping out.
08 August 2002                                  Page 332 of 354

           (f) Means test

                 *   Most institutions use the means

                     test; others use their internal

                     local software as the cut-off point

                     for income. This creates a problem

                     in a sense that the means test is

                     not compulsory, and thus funding to

                     students is not uniform.

                 *   It is not clear whether funding is

                     really received by deserving (poor)

                     students or not, since students do

                     not provide true information about

                     their parents' or guardians' income

                     status. This makes it difficult to

                     assess the authenticity of

                     information given. There is no

                     system which institutions could use

                     to access the parents/guardians

                     information. Most students submit

                     pension slips, and UNIN depends on

                     these submissions to select

08 August 2002                                  Page 333 of 354

                 *   Students studying for a two-year

                     diploma at UNIN, do not qualify for

                     financial assistance. They struggle

                     to get financial assistance, as UNIN

                     does not have funds to allocate to


                 *   The NSFAS sponsors undergraduate

                     students and only a few postgraduate

                     degrees and diplomas. UNIN has to

                     cater for students who do not

                     qualify for NSFAS funds.

           (g) UNIN'S contribution

                 UNIN has its own Student Financial Aid

                 Trust, established in 1996. The trust

                 awards bursaries to needy students in

                 Pharmacy, Optometry, Agriculture,

                 Natural Sciences, Management Sciences

                 and Medical Sciences. Since 1999, the

                 trust has allocated bursaries to the

                 tune of R600 000. At the time of the
08 August 2002                                Page 334 of 354

                 visit the trust hoped to raise R1

                 million before the end of 2001.

           (h) Student Representative Assembly

                 *   Students are not happy with the way

                     NSFAS funds are allocated - these

                     are allocated to students after they

                     have registered. This means that

                     students who cannot afford to pay

                     registration fees, are unable to

                     access funds and are not admitted.

                 *   Funds (about R2 million) have been

                     withdrawn from UNIN because they

                     were not utilised by the university.

                     UNIN's Finance Section did not have

                     a mechanism to allocate NSFAS funds

                     to students. This happened even

                     though students were sent home

                     because they could not pay the

                     registration fee.
08 August 2002                                  Page 335 of 354

                 *   Funding is allocated mostly to

                     students studying Science and

                     Technology - students studying other

                     courses are neglected.

                 *   Most students are black.

                 *   UNIN has a programme to ensure that

                     SADC students are recruited and


                 *   The SRC is now referred to as the

                     Student Representative Assembly, and

                     its constitution has been changed.

                 *   There is no clear mechanism to

                     ensure that university debts paid by

                     students go to the university and

                     not to lawyers.

                 *   UNIN is apprehensive of paying for

                     first-year students, as there is no

                     guarantee that those students will

                     get a 50% pass.
08 August 2002                                Page 336 of 354

           (i) Administration and technical staff

                 *   Funding allocated to UNIN is not

                     adequate, and thus some students

                     have to drop out.

                 *   About 4 000 students applied to

                     study at UNIN, but not all could

                     register, as most of them could not

                     afford registration fees. This has

                     resulted in a significant drop in

                     the numbers of students registered.

                     Some staff members had to be

                     retrenched, because there were not

                     enough students to lecture.

                 *   UNIN is unable to attract students

                     with good matric results. It is only

                     the funded traditional white

                     universities that are able to

                     attract such students, as they can

                     offer them bursaries.
08 August 2002                                Page 337 of 354

                 *   UNIN is unable to attract students

                     of colour, as meals offered at the

                     univer+sity are not of good quality.

                 *   300 Pharmacy applicants were turned

                     away because pharmacy laboratories

                     were small and could not cater for

                     many students.

                 *   UNIN has 600 computers but not

                     enough trainers to train students,

                     as there are not enough funds to pay


           (j) Concerned Lecturers and Academic Staff

                 Support Group (CLASSG)

                 *   Students are unable to access the

                     NSFAS for registration. Most

                     academically qualifying students

                     cannot afford to pay registration

                     fees, which makes it difficult for

                     UNIN to attract academically viable

08 August 2002                                  Page 338 of 354

                 *   UNIN offers a good bridging

                     programme, UNIFY. The Senate has

                     agreed to expand the programme to

                     other fields of study.

                 *   UNIN adheres to the National Plan on

                     Higher Education.

                 *   Students registered in 2001 are

                     committed in studying because they

                     are encouraged to make a

                     contribution towards their studies.

                     They have to make some payment to


                 *   Politicians should assist UNIN to

                     improve its culture of learning.

                 *   UNIN offers a community outreach

                     programme -students cannot graduate

                     without doing community work.

                 *   UNIN conducts research for the

08 August 2002                                Page 339 of 354

            (k) Entry requirements

                 It is important for students to

                 understand the language used in

                 different courses. For example, students

                 studying Science have to attend a

                 language course for Science to enable

                 them to understand the course. This

                 course has been offered since the 1970s.

                 UNIN addresses issues of language and

                 culture in cases where the medium of

                 instruction is a second or third


       2.   Visit to experimental farm - offical view by

            Prof Fritzgerald, Administrator: UNIN

            There is tension between UNIN and the

            Administrator. Prof Fritzgerald is working

            hard to ensure that this does not affect

            UNIN's functioning. According to him, the

            culture of learning has to be improved, and

            politicians could assist in this regard.
08 August 2002                                Page 340 of 354

   J.   Recommendations

        1.   In keeping with the objective of specialist

             schools, centres of excellence and a focused

             vision, the above-mentioned institutions

             should look at placing greater funding and

             resources in the particular speciality

             towards which they seem to be moving:

             (a) Peninsula Tecnikon is moving towards

                 digital technology and engineering, thus

                 it should specialise and make this their

                 priority, with advanced courses being

                 offered so that they can produce not

                 only computer operators but also

                 software and hardware technologists.

             (b) To protect the valuable work kept in the

                 Research Centre at the University of

                 Fort Hare, it should be microfilmed and


             (c) The funding formula for universities

                 should be reviewed; the current year
08 August 2002                                Page 341 of 354

                 enrolment should be used as a yardstick,

                 not the enrolment of two years ago. The

                 formula should also provide for

                 financial assistance for needy students.

           (d) The Department of Education should

                 review the formula for funding

                 institutions of higher learning with the

                 aim to find ways in which to address the

                 neglect of previously disadvantaged

                 institutions and to empower them to

                 fulfil their missions.

           (e) Special financial assistance to UNITRA

                 is of the essence to upgrade their

                 medical faculty.

           (f) The Department of Education should

                 substantially increase the NSFAS budget

                 to accommodate more students and to

                 effectively and realistically open the

                 doors of higher learning.
08 August 2002                                 Page 342 of 354

           (g) As students from SADC countries are not

                 eligible for NSFAS funds, a clear policy

                 in respect of assisting them should be


           (h) The University of the North needs to

                 open a Mining Engineering Department or

                 Faculty, as the entire Northern Province

                 has a mining potential not fully


           (i) History as a discipline needs to be

                 prioritised to realise the authentic and

                 correct history of our people in South


           (j) African Languages need to be revitalised

                 in our institutions of higher learning.

           (k) The National Research Foundation should

                 facilitate research and training of

                 postgraduate students at historically

                 disadvantaged institutions.
08 August 2002                                Page 343 of 354

            (l) Special focus should be given to

                 Potchefstroom University in respect of

                 language, gender, religion and

                 representativity in order to speed up

                 the process of transformation there.

   K.   Concluding remarks

        The Committee observed with appreciation the

        general stability in the institutions visited.

        There seems to be relative co-operation between

        stakeholders, with institutional forums working

        together well. Most of them seem to be making

        significant strides in keeping up with

        transformation policies. All agree that the

        NSFAS plays a big role in facilitating many

        students from poor communities to access

        institutions of higher learning.

   L.   List of participants

        Peninsula Technikon

        Mrs V Elissac, Public Relations Officer
08 August 2002                                Page 344 of 354

       Prof B Figaji, Vice-Chancellor

       Prof J Tromp, Deputy Vice-Chancellor

       Mr G Reynecke, Head: Financial Aid

       Prof H Fransman, Director: Educational

       Development Centre

       Mr M Clarke, Chief Director: Finance and


       Ms C Jacobs , Language Co-ordinator: Engineering

       Mr E Sebokedi, Deputy Head: Student Affairs

       Mr S Ndabezitha, Chief Director: Human Resources

       and Support


       Mr J Garraway, Educational Development Centre

       Mr L Himunchul, Educational Development Centre

       Mr T Titus, Head: Student Affairs

       Mr B Jodwana, SRC: Engineering Officer

       Mr T Damoyi, SRC: President

       Adv L Harper, Special Assistant to Vice-


       University of Fort Hare

       Prof D Swartz, Vice-Chancellor
08 August 2002                                 Page 345 of 354

        Prof D O Okeya, Executive Dean: Science and


        Mr M S Silinga, Academic Cluster Leader

        Mr N Ruthman, Co-ordinator: Vision, Mission and


        Ms Z Ndlovu, Co-ordinator: Finance and Revenue


        Prof R Bally, University Planner

        Ms L T Ngalo-Morrison, Dean of Students

        Mr S Kobese, Community partnership co-ordinator

        Mrs A H N Mbete, Director: Human Resources

        Mr L Jacobs, Director: Marketing and


        Mr L Sogayise, Rural Action Programme Co-


        Mr M Moodley, Technology Support Centre

        Mr A Gwabeni, Institutional Forum Administrator:



        Mr P Cole, Economic Development Consultant

        Mr N Dladla, Dean; Management, Development and


        Mr L Mabuyane, SRC President

        Mr N R Mboniswa, Administrator
08 August 2002                                 Page 346 of 354

        Mr M W Magwa, SPC member

       Institutional Forum

       Represented by General Student Council, South

       Africa Student Congress, United Democratic

       Students' Movement Organisation, National

       Tertiary education staff union, Pan Africanist

       Student Movement Association, Azanian Student

       Congress, NEHAWU

       Ms Memani-Balani, Mr S Muzamba, Mr S Vamva, Mr N

       L Lufefe, Mr S P Sitole, Mr V T Gqube, Ms L D

       Khoabai, Mr M P Mhlanti, Mr V Peter, Mrs Bokwe,

       Ms T Heshlula, Mr L M Jakatyana, Mr S R

       Matshoba, Mr A B Magoloba, Mr E Maki, Mr S M

       Goqwana, Mr B Sixaba, Mr T L Bhengu, Mr L M

       Bara, Mr S Tini, Mr L S Toti

       University of Transkei

        Prof N Morgan, University Administrator

        Mr P O Chabane, Special Assistant to

08 August 2002                                 Page 347 of 354

        Prof C Z Gebeda, Manager: TELP

        Dr S M Matoti, Planner

        Prof J M Noruwana, Vice Principal

        Prof E L Mazwai, Dean: Health Sciences

        Prof N J N Mijere, Acting Dean: Faculty of Arts

        Prof A Coetier, Acting Vice Dean: Arts

        Prof M Mahabir, Dean: Faculty of Economic


        Mr P K Gqulu

        Mr L H Kentane, Vice Dean: Education

        Prof S V S Ngubentombi, Dean: Education

        Rev Dr W M Guwa, Dean of Students

        Mr F H Mbali, Member of IF

        Dr W M Kwetana, NTESU

        Ms S N Nkanyuza, President: NTESU

        Prof J A Faniran

        Prof B S Nikani, Dean: Science

        Ms K Kirishanlal-Gopal

        Mr B Mabentsela

        Mr A W Anderson, UASA

        Mr N P Tyamzashe, Nehawu

        Mr Z Madlongolwane, Nehawu

        Mr M Somkoko, Nehawu

        Mr M Mboni, SRC
08 August 2002                              Page 348 of 354

        Mr V P Zoko, SRC

        Mr M Sodlodla, SRC

       University of Natal

        Prof B M Gourley, Vice-Chancellor

        Mr P M Malgas, Registrar

        Dr D Rajab, Dean of Student Development

        Prof S S Abdool Karim, Deputy Vice-Chancellor


        Mr T M Willis, Dean of Students

        Prof E A Ngara, Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Students



        Prof A Bawa, Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academics)

        Rev J Ngomane, Director: Financial Aid

       University of the Witwatersrand

        Prof Max Price, Dean: Faculty of Health Sciences

        Mr Makhukhu Mampuru, National Department of


        Ms Wendy Orr, Wits Transformation and Employment

08 August 2002                              Page 349 of 354

        Prof Charles Landy, Acting Dean, Faculty of

        Engineering and

        the Built Environment

        Mr Tony Lelliott, Acting Dean: Faculty of

        Humanities, Social

        Sciences and Education

        Prof Colin J Wright, Dean: Faculty of Science

        Prof David Solomon, Acting Dean: Commerce, Law

        and Management

        Prof Norman Reid, Vice Chancellor

        Mr John Kuhn, SRC UF Deputy Chairperson

        Mr Steve Lebelo, Wits Foundation

        Prof James Fisher, Senate

        Ms Jillian Carman, UF Secretary: Convocaetion


        Ms Barbara Buntman, Lecturer: Art History

        Ms Margaret Orr, Director: Centre for University


        Teaching and Development

        Ms Kathy Munro, Director: Wits Plus Centre for



        Ms Michele Aucock, Director: Commerce

        Development Programme
08 August 2002                              Page 350 of 354

        Ms L Murray, Academic Planning Officer

        (Registrar's Office)

        Prof C Eales, Representative: Faculty of Health


        Prof F Maraicano, Representative: Faculty of


        Representative (National Plan Co-ordinating


        Prof L Nongxa, Chairperson: University National


        Co-ordinating Committee

        Prof J Feddenhe, Faculty of CLM

        Prof H Janks, Faculty of Humanities, Social

        Sciences and


        Prof H M Marques, Faculty of Sciences

        Prof Y Ballim, Faculty of Engineeering and Built


        Mr D Young, Lecturer and Member of Senate

        Ms N Jappie, Support Services, Member of Senate

        and Dean of


        Mr A Adamjee, SRC Treasurer

        Ms S Goga, SRC Media Officer
08 August 2002                                Page 351 of 354

        Mr I G T Moroeng, Internal Vice-President

        Mr J Huddle, SRC Secretary

        Mr J Kuhn, SRC Vice-President

        Mr N Letshoene, Deputy Chairpersoon: PSA

        Mr T Odhiambo, PGA: Projects and Campaigns

        Mr M Y Cajee, SRC President

        Mr V Black, Head: Financial Aid

        Mr A de Wet, Executive Director: Finance

       University of Potchefstroom

        Mr T Eloff, Principal Designate

        Mr A J Viljoen, Vice-Principal

        Mr W E Scott, Vice-Principal

        Prof M S Zibi, Vice-Principal

        Mr Theo Venter, Institutional Forum

        Mr P J J Prinsloo, Vice-Principal

        Prof H J Reyneke, Dean of Students

        Mr J S du Plooy, Head: Financial Support Service

        Prof P du Plessis, Director: Academic Services

        Prof H N Kotze, Head: Student Counselling


        Mr T Cato - Deputy Director - Academic

08 August 2002                                Page 352 of 354

         Mr H Stavast, Director: Student Affairs, Vaal

        Triangle Campus

        Mr S Nsibanyani, SRC Chairperson: Vaal Triangle

         Ms H Mulder, SRC Chairperson: Potchefstroom

         Ms B Basson, SRC Vice-Chairperson:


         Ms C Dikotsi, SRC: Social Intergration

         Prof P Potgieter

         University of the North

         Prof A L Mawashe, Assistant to the


         Ms K M A Hlane, Acting University Registrar

         Ms N O Kwenaite, Public Relations Co-ordinator

         Prof P Fritzgerald, Administrator

         Mr M C Makhambula, Academic Administrator

         Prof N M Mollel, Caretaker Director: School of

        Social Sciences

         Prof S Louw, Languages and Communication


        Prof P F Breed, Caretaker Director: Management

08 August 2002                                 Page 353 of 354

         Dr P W Mashela, Caretaker Director: Physical

        and Mineral


         Adv Phindela, Caretaker Director: Law

         Prof G T Mncube, Quality Assurance Manager

         Mr W E S Thema, Acting Executive Director: SD

        and SS

         Dr D S Hiss, Caretaker Director: School of

        Health Sciences

        Prof P E Franks

        Dr N M Mokgalong, University of the North

        Academic Staff

         Association (UNASA)

         Mr M J Theman, Caretaker Dean: Humanities

         Mr M E Thangeni, Caretaker Director:

        Mathematics and Sciences

         Mr M F Ralenala, School of Education

         Mr M M Lemao, NEHAWU

         Mr M P Madidimao, NEHAWU

         Mr Eric Maimela, Post-Graduate Society


         Mr T Musolwa, SRA Secretary-General

         Ms Sheila Mmusi, National Tertiary Education

        Staff Union
08 August 2002                              Page 354 of 354


         Mr K D Malele, Deputy President: Internal SRA

         Ms N Pitje, Administration and Technical Staff

         Mr V D Mabuza, BSA

         Mr C I Khanye, Administration and Technical


         Mr G M JJIA, National Tertiary Education Staff

        Union (NTESU)

         Prof NL Nkantini, National Tertiary Education

        Staff Union

         Prof P R Franks, University of the North

        Academic Staff

         Association (UNASA)

         Mr M A Ngoepe, Concerned Lectures and Academic

        Staff Support

         Group (CLASSG)

   Report to be considered.

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