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					                                                                                        Fig.2

  Microactivity tests on fresh catalyst                                                          Tests on equilibrium catalyst


                   90                                                                                       80
                   89




                                                                                                                      ffi
                                                                                                            78
                   88
                   87                                                                                       76
                   86
                   85
                                                                                                            74                                         9Y
                                                                                                            72
           *84
           583                                                                                       f70
           c82                                                                                        -.    68
           881
           9eo                                                                                        Eoo
                                                                                                      o
       67s         78
                                                                                                     3uo
                                                                                                     o82
                   77
                                                                                                           60
                   76
                   75                                                                                       58
                   74                                                                                      56
                   7g
                   72
                   71
                                                                                                           54
                                                                                                           52
                                                                                                                 "'i,.....,i ""'
                                                                                                                 ge,;i3'
                                                                                                                                                'o'"'i;l&"i= 16
                                                                                                                                                       *HSV
                                                                                                                                                                  calalyst

                                                                                                                                                                   :32
                   70                                                                                      50
                         2.O        2.5       3.0         3.5       4.0                                      2.0          2.5          3.0    3.5           4.0
                                          Catalysvoil ratio, wt %                                                              Catalysyoil ratio, wt   7o




evaluating resid cracking catalysts?                                      lyst performance via commercial test              subjects, there are few absolute right
These are just a few of the questions                                     runs.                                             or wrong methods in catalyst evalua-
this article will address.                                                   Steam deactivation and microacti-              tion. The intent here is to                      discuss
   Since the topic of catalyst evalua-                                    vity testing (MAT) equipment will first           various catalyst evaluation techniques
tion is so broad, the focus will be on                                    be described. This is followed by a               and present some guidelines as to test
only one aspect of catalyst evaluation:                                   summary of an effective and realistic             conditions that have been used suc-
testing fresh FCC catalysts for the pur-                                  approach for evaluation of fresh FCC              cessfully to simulate commercial cata-
pose of predicting commercial perfor-                                     catalysts. Finally, the questions of              lyst performance.
mance. Future articles will examine                                       steaming severities and MAT condi-                   Equipment and techniques. Precise
testing         of equilibrium            catalysts and                   tions are addressed.                              control of microactivity and steam
evaluation of actual commercial cata-                                        As is the case with most comolex               deactivation conditions is of oara-
                                                                                                                                                                                Fig.5
  Typical commercial iso/olefin ratios                                                          MAT conditions on iso/olefin ratio

                   1.2                                                                                       I
                               Steaming temp., 1,450" F
                                                                                                                     Equilibrium catalyst
                   1.1
                               ...... wHsv =
                                             =   16
                                                 32
                                                                $9,                                        0.9      ..... WHSV
                                                                                                                                   =   16

                               -WHSV                                                                                -wHsv          =   32




                                 ffi
                     I
                                                                                                           0.8
                  0.9
                                                                                                           0.7
       s          0.8
                                                                                                    x
           'i     0.7
                                                                                                    !
                                                                                                     .
                                                                                                    .g-
       -!p
           o                                                                                         o
                  0.6                                                                               6      0.5     Upper limit,
                                                                                                    o            commetcial runs
           +      0.5
                                          lrpper limit.commercial runs                               +     0.4
       o          0.4                                                                               ()
       !J                                                                                                  0.3
                  0.3
                                          Lower limit, commercial runs                                     0.2
                  o.2
                                                                                                                                                Lower limit,
                  0.1                                                                                      0.1                                  commercial runs

                    0                                                                                       0
                     2.0            2.5       3.0         3.5        4.0          4.5                        2.0         2.5        3.0       3.5           4.0
                                            catalysyoil ratio, wt   o/o
                                                                                                                                  catalysuoil ratio, wl     o/o




88 Oil &    Gas Journal, Mar 24, I     9S6 OCI REPORT
                                                                         Fig. 6                                                                Fig.   7


  Temperature based steam deactivation                                                Time based steam deactivation




          s
          ;                                                                               s
          i                                                                               5                                      1,500'F.
         ,9                                                                               f
          2                                                                              'a
          o
          c
         o                                                                                c
                                                                                         o




                 30
                  1,425 1,4fi 1,475 1,500 1,525 1,550 1,575 1.600
                                                                                                             F
                                                                                                            23456
                                 Sleaming t€mp€rature, "F.                                                   Steaming time, hr




 mount importance. The apparatus                         standing feature         to note is that   the   na content by these methods will not
 must be of the highest caliber to ob-                   hydrogen yields with the N2/N2 gases             differentiate between amorohous and
tain accurate results. Fig. 1 shows the                  are twice that with the He/He gases.             crystalline alumina.
equipment used for this study.                              The reactor for the steam deactiva-              This distinction can be made, how-
  The microactivity unit reactor (Fig.                   tion unit consists of two concentric             ever, using X-ray diffraction      (XRD).
 1a) is constructed from quartz. Quartz                  quartz (Si, 96+%) tubes (Fig. 1c). The           The crystalline alumina content affects
offers the advantage of being able to                    sample volume is 30 ml to allow for              matrix activity and, in turn, the cata-
visually verify cleanliness             necessary        duplicate MAT runs. The inner tube is            lyst's ability to crack heavy gas oil and
for accurate weight balances.                            surrounded      by live      steam, which        resids. Crystalline alumina and other
 . The product collection system spec-                   maintains the fluidized catalyst bed at          proprietary matrix additives are also
ified in ASTM method D-3907 is not                       -f 2" F. (limited by thermocouple                effective in protecting the zeolite from
sufficient for use at hieher reaction                    sensitivity).                                    nitrogen and vanadium poisoning and
temperatures.2        A     and con-
                          receirTer                         The sample is withdrawn from the              in reducing SO. emissions.r a
denser system which assures 99 wt %                      steamer by use of a cyclone under                  Defining zeolite type is helpful in
recoveries at temperatures up to 9B0o                    slight vacuum (Fig. .l d). Deionized             evaluating how a catalyst will per-
F. is shown in Fig. 1b.                                  water is pumped into a 650' F. pre-              form. As the silica/alumina ratio of the
  During the run, the liquid receiver                    heat zone, and is heat traced to the             zeolite increases, the unit cell shrinks.
is inserted into an acetoneidry ice                      reactor. Nitrogen is controlled by a             A tvpical Y zeolite has a unit cell of
bath. The receiver is then immersed in                   mass flow controller, and is preheated           about 24.68 A comoared to about
an ice water bath immediately after                      and thoroughly mixed with the steam.             24.55 A for an ultra-stable Y (USY)
the feed injection is complete. This                     The nitrogen feed rate is 5 cclmin,              zeolite. Cenerally, USY zeolites will
procedure ensures efficient separation                   while the liquid water rate is con-              have less initial activity, better stabil-
of components and consistently high                      trolled at 10 cclhr.                             ity, lower coke selectivity, and will
weight balances. The reactor feed                           Physical and chemical tests. The              produce higher-octane gasoline than
tube insert (deadman) is described              as       first step in evaluating catalysts is to         conventional Y zeolites.5
follows:                                                 examine physical and chemical prop-                Unit cell size, however, is not the
  o The internal tubing length is l0                    erties. One can learn a ereat deal                only criteria that should be considered
in., with three minor kinks to orevent                  about how a catalyst shouh perform                in examining ultrastable zeolites. As
rapid expansion of vapor with conse-                    from relatively simple analyses. A list           these zeolites are transformed from Y
quent expulsion of          a possible liquid           of some key     analyses and required             to USY, aluminum is removed from
oil   plug.                                              instrumentation is presented in Table            the framework. lf proper steps are not
   o The ASTM coil outside the bodv                     2.                                                taken (i.e., acid leaching), this non-
of the reactor is eliminated to preveni                   The alumina content of current                  framework aluminum will remain in
thermal cracking and plugging with                      commercial FCC catalysts can be                   the zeolite and block the access of the
neavv leeds.                                            measured by using various elemental               feed molecules into the zeolite cages,
   o Purge gas should be helium, not                    analysis techniques, including induc-             thus reducing the zeolites' effective
nitrogen. This is indicated by the data                 tivity coupled plasma atomic emission             activity and catalyzing gas make.
in Table 1, which show the results of                   spectroscopy (lCP-AES); atomic ab-                   Consequently, it is important to de-
studies conducted on the effects of                     sorption spectroscopy (AAS); and X-               termine whether or not the aluminum
He, Nr, and air as the purge gas both                   ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy.              has been pulled out of the zeolite
at preheat and run stages. The out-                     Of course, measuring the bulk alumi-              altogether or only out of the frame-
!X) Oil & Cas Journal, Mat 24,1 9S6   OCI REPORT
                                                                                                                     Table   1                                                         Table 2

    Comparison of preheaVrun gases                                                                                                      Key analyses and
    microactivity*                                                                                                                      instrumentation
                                          Low   mltal cat lyst                            High mctal catalysl                           Analysis                     lnitrumont
                                    (520 ppm      l{i +   V), wt %                   (8,490 ppmv), n %
                                                                                                    lli +
    Prahlaurun                Colrv. Cokr (C,-C.)                    Hz           Conv. GoIe (Cr-C.) H,                                           A1203
                                                                                                                                        Crystalline                  XRD
                                                                                                                                        Zeolite content              XRD, Benesi
    Air/He                      68         2.2          11.7     0.031            47         3.6          6.0        0.941              Zeolite type (unit   cell)   XRD, lR
    He/He                       67         2.4          11.5     0.015            46         3.5          5.7        1.055              FrameworUnon-
    N2/N2                       66         2.4          tO.2     0.035            46         3.7          5.6        2.54Y               framework aluminum          27Al
                                                                                                                                                                            NMR. lR'
    'ASTM MAT conditions.                                                                                                               La/Ce  ratio                 Chemical (lCP, M, XRF)
                                                                                                                                        Surface area                 Commercial appantus
                                                                                                                                        Pore size distribution       Commercial apparatus

                                                                                                                                        'lntrared
work. The unit cell will shrink in                                                                                         Fig. 8
either case, and the infrared spectra
will change. 2zAl lisotope) magic an-                                 Deactivation tempi                                            clay based, and catalyst                   "D"     contains
gle spinning nuclear magnetic reso-                                                                                                 significant amounts     crystalline      of
nance (NMR) spectroscopy can be                                             0.6
                                                                                                                                    pseudo-boehmite alumina in the ma-
used to pick out the presence of non-                                                                                               trix.
                                     7
framework aluminum.6                                                                                                                 The catalysts with the low activity
   The ratios of rare earth comoonents                                      0.5
                                                                                                                                    matrix materials (silica and amor-
in the zeolite are also important. Most                                ;l                                                           phous alumina) show the poorest light
significant is the ratio of LalCe. For a                               E-
                                                                            o.o                                                     cycle oil/decanted oil ratios, coke se-
given rare earth content, a higher Lal                                                                                              lectivities, stabilities, metals toler-
Ce ratio will result in a significantly                                .i                                                           ance, and resid cracking abilities (Ta-
more stable zeolite.                                                   o    0.3
                                                                       +                                                            ble 4).
   Surface area and pore size distribu-                                c                                                               These differences can be explained
tion also provide valuable information                                 9    o.z                                                     by the fact that the large, heavy mole-
on expected catalyst performance. A                                                                                                 cules cannot completely enter the ze-
catalyst which has a high percentage                                                                                                olite cage and must be precracked by
of small pores is susceptible to diffu-                                     0.1                                                     the matrix. An inactive matrix will
sion limitations with heavv oils and to                                                                                             simply provide these molecules with a
pore mouth plugging at relatively low                                        0                                                      site to absorb and thermally degrade
levels of residual carbon. The combi-                                        1,400 1,450 1,500                  1,550    1.600      to coke.
nation of small pores and high surface                                             Sleam d6activation temp€rature, oF.
                                                                                                                                      The differences observed between
area leads to stripping problems and                                        'eft6d on iso/olefin   rato                    oGJ
                                                                                                                                    the catalysts with the resid feed after
hydrocarbon carry over to the regen-                                                                                                metals impregnation are much larger
erator.                                                                   A 2-hr procedure with approximate-                        than those observed after mild steam
   In addition to the inspections listed                             ly 95"/"    steam (balance Nr) at tem-                         deactivation. These results show that
in Table 2, there are a host of other                                peratures between                    1   ,450' F.       and    differences between catalysts are
analyses which can be related to cata-                               1,550'F. has been used successfully                            strongly dependent on exactly how
lyst performance. These include sodi-                                at Filtrol. MAT conditions are: 3.0 caV                        the catalysts are tested.
um, iron, titanium, pore volume, attri-                              oil ratio, 37.5 sec.,32 weight hourly                             Consequently, it is imperative that
tion index, density, and particle size                               space velocity (WHSV), and 960" F.                             the feedstocks and conditions used for
distribution just to name a few. The                                      Another MAT evaluation is done                            the tests are those that most closelv
significance of these analyses is gener-                             after impregnation of metals. The cat-                         correlate with the commercial opera-
ally known and will not be discussed                                 alyst is impregnated with appropriate                          tion. No steam deactivation proce-
here.                                                                levels of metals (typically 3,000 ppm                          dure or MAT test can correlate per-
    MAT testing. One of the most useful                              each of Ni and V) using nickel and                             fectly with commercial performance.
tools for evaluating fresh catalysts is                              vanadium naphthenates.6                                        However, if reliable commercial data
the microactivity test. Several MAT                                       The metals are then eouilibrated via                      or pilot plant data are not available,
runs are required to adequately char-                                a low temperature  (.1
                                                                                            ,350" F.), 10-hr                        the above procedures can give an
acterize a catalyst's potential.                                     steaming before the catalyst is steam                          excellent indication of relative catalvst
   The first tests are done after steam-                             deactivated at 1,450" F. for 2 hr. The                         performance for a wide variety of
ing at different severities using a stan-                            metals-loaded catalyst is evaluated                            commercial appl ications.
dard vacuum gas oil (VGO). MAT                                       with a resid containing feedstock.                               Optimizing test conditions.                            Be-
results after mild steam deactivation                                     Results from this type of test corre-                     cause the method of catalvst evalua-
give a good indication of the inherent                               late much more accurately with a                               tion can profoundly affect the results,
activity and selectivity.                                            catalyst's resid cracking ability than                         a study was conducted to identify the
   MAT evaluations after severe steam                                do results from tests with lighter feed-                       most realistic overall MAT and steam
deactivations are obtained                      to   deter-          stocks. Table 3 presents inspections of                        deactivation conditions. Two com-
mine relative catalyst stabilities and to                            the standard gas oil and the resid                             mercially available catalysts were
simulate what the yield selectivities                                containing feeds used                      in   research       used in this study, one fresh and one
would be after encountering                          severe          MAT tests.                                                     equilibrium. The study involved vary-
commercial regeneration conditions.                                    Table 4 presents examples of results                         ing reactor temperatures, caVoil                          ra-
The optimum MAT conditions and the                                   from the tests described. Four current                         tios, space velocities, and steam deac-
definitions         of "mild" and "severe"                           commercial FCC catalysts are com-                              tivation conditions.
steam deactivations remain key ques-                                 pared. Catalyst "A" has an amor-                                  Figs.2 and 3 illustrate the effects of
tions in the industry and have been                                  phous alumina-based matrix. Catalyst                           catalysVoil ratios and space velocities
the subject of some controversy.                                     "8" is silica based. Catalyst "C" is                           on conversions. The slope of the con-
lfil Oil & Cas   Journal, Mar 24, I 936   OCI REPORT
                                                         Table 3                                                                                                                       Table 4

    Charge stock                                                           MAT test results on fresh catalysts
    inspections                                                                                                                                                       3,m Pm m, 3,m0   PPil Y,
                                                                                              ll0   nrbl!,   lotr   irnily   lhiltiu          *!.ni|[ odd corilinini bld
                                                                                                                                       ll0 m.tdt, hitlt $ndty
                                      Sbnd.rd            nc|id'            Catalyst              "4"         "8"                "0" "A" "B" "C" "D" "4" "8"
                                       8il oil           blcnd             Convenion, vol   % 78.4         78.4       78.6     78.7 69.7 56.5 71.0 72.0              50.8   64.3   66.5   7t.7
    tGC   chr4r   quality
      Gravity, 'APl                      28.40           25.00             Yields: tol %
      Sulfur, wt %                        u.o5            0.70               Total Ca + C4 25.0 25.3                  za.Y     24.6 20.6 18.9 2t.8 2t.7 15.6 16.6 16.1 19.0
      Nikogen, wt %                       0.l      l      0.18                              0.65 0.66
                                                                              lso/olefin ratio                         0.62     0.64 0.48 0.47 0.50 0.58 0.40 0.42 0.41 0.50
      Carbon residue, wt %               U.5J             2.66               Gasoline 61.6 61.5                       60.4     64.0 57.0 56.7 57.0 59.0 48.8 50.6 52.7 55.5
      Aniline pt., 'F.                 190.00                                LC0/0.0. ratio 2.32 2.L3                   2.43    2.6t 1.94 t.42 1.99 z.tt 1.39 1.38 1.90 2.15
      Nickel, ppm                         0.      l0       tro
      Vanadium, ppm                       0.20             1.60            Coke selectivity
                                                                             factor                 l-28     1.48       1.43 L.zr 1.45 1.47 1.31 1.34 3.39 2.56 2.79                       2.52
    Yacuun didillation,     Dltdt, T.
      l0% at 760      mm               584                598
      90%                              999             1019 (80%)
                                  rd ,as oi   I                          vation conditions used in this case                                      as      5   points, taken at the inflection
    ,J:","illl"tff '"       "da
                                                                         (1,450' F., 2 hr) were not sufficiently                                  point. Thus, accurate control is essen-
                                                                         severe to bring the catalyst activity                                    tial.
                                                                         (and consequently the iso/olefin ra-                                        lllustrated in Fig. 8 is the effect of
version vs. caVoil curve is greater at                                   tios) into the typical commercial oper-                                  the steam deactivation temperature on
lower caVoil ratios than at higher                                       ating range.                                                             iso/olefin ratio at constant MAT condi-
ones.                                                                      Fig. 5 illustrates the effects of MAT                                  tions of 32 WHSV and 3.0 caVoil. The
    In addition, the temperature     sensi-                              conditions on iso/olefin ratio with                                      range of commercial iso/olefin ratios
tivity of the test is greater at lower caV                               equilibrium catalyst. The trends are                                     is also shown. The data describe a
oil ratios. This indicates that a lower                                  the same as with the fresh catalvst,                                     typical transition from predominantly
caUoil ratio test is more sensitive to                                   except that the entire range of iso/                                     zeolite activity to predominantly ma-
differences between catalvsts-at least                                   olefin ratios shifts downward to an                                      trix activity as steam deactivation tem-
at the conversion levels obtained with                                   area more or less within that of the                                     perature Increases.
these samples.                                                           commercial refinery runs.                                                   Steaming and metals-loading condi-
   A major objective of the study was                                      At the higher caVoil ratios, the low-                                  tions must be chosen with care to
to define MAT and steam deactivation                                     er reaction   temperatures resulted in                                   match the severity of the commercial
conditions that would result in selecti-                                 iso/olefin ratios that were outside the                                  operation. One method is to evaluate
vities similar to those seen in commer-                                  commercial range, even with the                                          a given unit's fresh catalyst and vary
cial operations. To accomplish this, it                                  equilibrium catalyst. Further, the en-                                   loading and steaming conditions until
is important to choose conditions                                        tire range of iso/olefin ratios at the                                   the treated fresh catalyst matches the
which will result in the correct ratio of                                higher space velocity were more typi-                                    activity and selectivity of the equilibri-
catalytic to thermal cracking.                                           cal of the commmercial refinery data                                     um catalyst from the same unit. One
   One of the primary differences be-                                    than were those at the lower soace                                       could then use these steaming condi-
tween catalytic cracking reactions and                                   velocity. Thus, higher space velocities                                  tions at constant metals loadings to
thermal conversion is the ratio of satu-                                 and higher temperatures more closely                                     predict the performance of various
rated/unsaturated oroducts                               that      are   matched commercial selectivities than                                    other catalysts in that commercial
generated. Therefore, one simple indi-                                   the conditions (900' F., 16 WHSV)                                        unit.
cator of the type of reactions taking                                    that are currently recommended in the                                       Of course, care must be taken when
place is the weight ratio of isobutane/                                  ASTM MAT procedure.                                                      comparing catalysts with an active
(C3 + C4) olefins.                                                          The study results lead to a detailed                                  matrix to those with little or no matrix
  This quantity is almost always mea-                                    examination   of the steaming condi-                                     activity. In general, the catalysts with
sured in commercial ooerations and                                       tions necessary to deactivate a fresh                                    matrix activity will require different
can easily be obtained in a standard                                     catalvst. Steam deactivation condi-                                      steaming conditions (i.e., longer times
MAT evaluation. By examining nu-                                         tions must be representative of com-                                     at lower temperatures) to match com-
merous commercial operations, it was                                     mercial deactivation to allow true cat-                                  mercial equilibrium selectivities.
found that this ratio was usually be-                                    alyst differences to be reflected in the                                    Guidelines. The subject of evaluat-
tween 0.15 and 0.45, and was a                                           MAT evaluations, and must be ac-                                         ing FCC catalysts is very complex.
function of reaction temperature, caV                                    complished in a reasonable time and                                      Nevertheless, there are some conclu-
oil ratio, contact time, and of course,                                  manner.                                                                  sions that can be drawn and some
catalyst activity and type.                                                A familv of   steam deactivation                                       guidelines that should be followed in
   Fig. 4 illustrates the effects of caV                                 curyes for a typical FCC catalyst is                                     evaluating fresh FCC catalysts.
oil, temperature and space velocity on                                   shown in Fig. 6. The shape and place-                                       o Careful design and accurate con-
iso/olefins ratios for fresh catalvsts. A                                ment of this family of curves may shift,                                 trol of steam deactivation equipment
typical range of commercial iso/olefin                                   depending upon the catalyst type.                                        are critical elements in obtaining con-
ratios is shown.                                                           Thermal shock procedures (vs.                                  a       sistent steaming results. At high sever-
   As expected, the iso/olefin ratio in-                                 gradual warm-up) were used to simu-                                      itv conditions, deviations ol 2-4" F.
creases with a decreasing reaction                                       late the catalyst's introduction                          to     a       can affect conversions by as much as
temperature and space velocity and                                       commercial FCCU. Fig. 7 shows the                                        5 wt o/o. In addition, the designs of the
with      increasing caVoil ratios since                                 conversion vs. steaming time at vari-                                    various microactivity components are
these conditions favor catalytic crack-                                  ous temperatures. Figs. 6 and 7 illus-                                   extremely important in achieving con-
ing over thermal cracking. However,                                      trate the need for accurate time and                                     sistency, accuracy, and flexibility in
none of the runs at any combination                                      temDerature control.                                                     MAT evaluations.
of conditions fell within the range of                                     A time difference of 5 min or                                  a         o Physical and chemical analyses
typical commercial iso/olefin ratios.                                    temperature difference of 4o F. trans-                                   provide excellent clues which help
    This indicates that the steam deacti-                                lates to a conversion delta of as much                                   explain a catalyst's behavior. Key ana-

$   Oif & Gas Journal, Mar 24, 1 986 OGf REFORT
        U]ILOCK                                               lyses include: alumina type and con-
                                                          tent, pore size distribution, zeolite                                     The authors.
         YOUR                                             unit cell dimensions, rare earth con-
                                                          tent. sodium content, and                      surface

        CAPITAT                                           area.
                                                                   o Definition of the proper                 steam

             GArrrs                                       deactivation conditions is vital in cor-
                                                          relating MAT data with commercial
                                                          catalyst performance. Conditions
       Tired of owning                                        should be set so that deactivated cata-
       highly appreciated                                     lysts match commercial equilibrium
                                                              samples both in activity and selectiv-
       stocks that pav litfle                                 ity. For a 2-hr steaming, at atmospher-                               Campagna                wick
       or no income? But                                      ic pressure and 95% steam, tempera-                                      Rob€rt l. Campagna is the staff sales
       concerned about the                                    tures between 1,500 and 1,535"                               F.       and technical seruices consultant for the
       capital gains tax if Vou                               accomplish these objectives.                                          Filtrol Division of the HarshadFiltrol
       sell them?                                                o For MAT evaluations at 3.0 caVoil                                Partnership in Los Angeles. Campagna
                                                              ratio, space velocities and tempera-                                  ioined Filtrol after 10 vears at Culf Re-
                                                                                                                                    search & Develooment Co. and holds BS
                                                              tures should both be higher than the
       Unlock Vour capital                                    ASTM levels of 16 WHSV and 900" F.,
                                                                                                                                    and MS degrees in chemical engineering
                                                                                                                                    from the University of Piftsburgh. His areas
       gains bV giving those                                  respectively, in order to better simu-                                of expertise include FCC, hydrotreating,
       assets to Colorado                                     late commercial selectivities. Levels of                              and catalytic reforming.

       school of Mines. ln                                    32 WHSV and 960' F. are                     recom-                      James P. Wick is product manager,
       return, you'll earn                                    mended. The results from this paper                                   HDS catalysis, for the Filtrol Catalyst Divi-
                                                              have been shared with the ASTM D-                                     sion. He is responsible for promoting the
       a generous tax                                         32 committee to help in defining new                                  company's capabilities in HDS catalyst
       deduction ancl                                         standard MAT test conditions.
                                                                                                                                    technology and coordinating these efforts
                                                                                                                                    with market requirements. He has been
       receive income for                                        o Several microactivity tests are re-                              with the company 9 years and holds a 8S
       life. Probably more                                    quired to characterize catalyst perfor-                               degree in chemistry from California State
                                                                                                                                    Polytechnic University, Pomona.
       income than Vou                                        mance. Testing after mild steam deac-
                                                              tivation defines inherent catalyst activ-
       could ever hope to                                     ity and selectivity. Testing after severe
       earn from the                                          deactivation determines stability, and
       contributed securities.                                evaluation after metals impregnation
       And vou'll pay no                                      with a resid containing feedstock
       capital gains tax.                                     demonstrates metals tolerance and
                                                              heavy oil cracking ability.
                                                                Work is proceeding with the ASTM
       Please write or call                   us              D-32 committee to develop a stan-
       for the cletails.                                      dard MAT test for evaluating resid
                                                              cracking catalysts.                                                   Bradv                   Fort
                                                                o Finally, it must be recognized that
                                                                                                                                      Michael F. Brady is a senior staff
                                                              the methods discussed are not suffi-                                  chemist in research and development for
                                                          cient to completely evaluate FCC cat-                                     Harshaw/Filtrol. His research has been
                                                          alysts. These results must be com-                                        centered in the FCC area, ranging from
                                                          bined with pilot plant results on com-                                    zeolite studies to catalyst development
                                                          mercial equilibrium samples and with                                      and evaluation, since joining Filtrol in
                                                                                                                                    1975. He received an MS degree in
                                                          reliable commercial test run results to
                                                                                                                                    organometallic chemistry from the Universi_
                                                          get a complete picture of catalyst per_                                   ty of   Nebraska.
                                                          tormance. The subjects of pilot plant
                                                          and, commercial testing will be'cov_                                        Daniel L. Fort is a senior chemical
                                                          ered In tuture articles.

                        (I                                Acknowledgments
                                                          ., the T.l
                                                                  authors thank M. A. Ryder
                                                                                                                                    $m*m#m
        Hl
                                                                                             and
                                                                      for
                                                          ]]..F, article their key contiibutionl
                                                          to this

                                                          References                                                               Eft*li-l'*.+*$,irJr'1n;;'
                                                          Kowalczyk, O. 1..'l
                                                          cnailenge,,, NPRA.
                                                          ,                  ,ijfi
                                                              ;*l*,'rll lil-tH;trt*l#51i*'i;
                                                               .
                                                       zr"r,i,i,tul'?i,;Iifi r
                                                         Mrnutes from ASTM
                                                                                   il,fllB.iltr'rTfi
                                                                                                               ".^
     "Eir'il::r$r#,1;"'                               J. Camoao^, D I v-t
                                                          efl3:"'l?                 I


                                                               ,[:i:il: l i;l,fl'j,:*:, "q'[:,:i":i',';.1 r;
                                                                              rei:ilit""d and Yanik, s.
                                                                                   -Ii',.itrl5.:"fr3                   ,

                                                               ijffl1'i #, o;i
                                                                          ocL

     .J'il'3;'i,5{,;"H€i'iff                          .g',tgl{'*:l*                      ji"nr
                                                                                           ;
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                                            ,,         iij, iu,";b!;l'i;*t,;;i
                                                     "if",r,#tlTi# ft;*],)' ^l
                                                       ;5;t?:'tm     *j g', :,i.! fiil*f; kH; };
                                                                         ::1
                                                          ;::,il:, : ?t :i g;f   ;I5*ll!t#k"i?#
                                                                                    ".,"t':"$,                                  ;:rsa#r,;il$i.*-iil"","1"fi
                                                                                                                                                                        ffi
                                                     0. r h oim as,' 1."il,'
                                                                             e?,i;, !E;   t2faX(j.,
98 oil & casrourn
                    al, Mar   24,19s6
                                                                                                      _,,*.   ,.   .
                                        oG' RtpoRT
                                                                                                ffsgsx'#f
Fresh FCC catalyst tests predict performance
Robert f. Campagna                                any application can be a challenging           far more important to the refiner's
fames P. Wick                                     task. The choice is critical because           bottom-line profits than are catalyst
Michael F. Brady                                  using the wrong FCC catalyst can cost          costs. Unfortunately, yield differences
Daniel [. Fort                                    a refiner millions of dollars per year in      are difficult to identify due to the
Filtrol Division, Harshaw/Filtrol                 product value.r                                dynamic nature of commercial FCC
  Partnership                                        Thus, when confronted with several          operallons.
Los Angeles                                       catalyst proposals from different sup-             How can the refiner develoP accu-
                                                  oliers. the refiner needs accurate in-         rate catalyst performance compari-
Th"r" aru  dozens of fluid catalytic              formation about the oerformance of             sons? Which tests most accurately
cracking (FCC) catalysts available to             each catalyst.    In almost all    cases,      correlate with commercial perfor-
refiners, and choosing the best one for           yield differences between catalysts are        mance? ls there a good method of



   Microactivity and steam deactivation test apparatus



                                                                                              Condenser top view

        Feed preheater                                                                                  A

                                                                                                        TI
                                                     Catalyst bed
                                                     Pyrex wool
                                                                                                     "ll
                                                                                                     \tl
                                                                                                      \\\
                                                                                                  7fr.;r7
                                                                                                  ' \i.,/
                                                                                                    U
                         MicroactivitY reactor                                  b.   Microactivity receiver/condenser

                         Catalyst   inlet                                                             To vacuum
                                            "                                                               t

                                                                                              ffi]1-l
                                                Catalyst bed                                  iltill
                                                                                              It \
                                                thermocouPles                                 iltl
                                                                                                                I
                   Ouaftz beads
                                                                                              il \t
                                                                                              ll "       \/     s"'pr"   oottr"
                                                                                      Sample inlet




                                                                                      d.   Steam cYclone system
                               Steam reactor
                                                                                                                                                   85
                                                                                                      OGt REPORT    Mar 24' 1986' Oil & Gaslournal

				
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