Seed: Mung Bean by BVNCnk

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									Seed: Mung Bean        Name_____________________________________
Salinity: 0%           Date Started______________________


Seed: Mung Bean        Name_____________________________________
Salinity: 0.5%         Date Started______________________


Seed: Mung Bean        Name_____________________________________
Salinity: 1%           Date Started______________________


Seed: Mung Bean        Name_____________________________________
Salinity: 2%           Date Started______________________


Seed: Mung Bean        Name_____________________________________
Salinity: 3%           Date Started______________________


Seed: Pea         Name_____________________________________
Salinity: 0%      Date Started______________________


Seed: Pea         Name_____________________________________
Salinity: 0.5%    Date Started______________________


Seed: Pea         Name_____________________________________
Salinity: 1%      Date Started______________________


Seed: Pea         Name_____________________________________
Salinity: 2%      Date Started______________________


Seed: Pea         Name_____________________________________
Salinity: 3%      Date Started______________________


Seed: Alfalfa     Name_____________________________________
Salinity: 0%      Date Started______________________


Seed: Alfalfa     Name_____________________________________
Salinity: 0.5%    Date Started______________________
Seed: Alfalfa   Name_____________________________________
Salinity: 1%    Date Started______________________


Seed: Alfalfa   Name_____________________________________
Salinity: 2%    Date Started______________________


Seed: Alfalfa   Name_____________________________________
Salinity: 3%    Date Started______________________
                            Setting up Soil Salinity Lab
                                    Instructions
1. Select a slip of paper with a seed type and salinity level on it. Write your name and
   today’s date on the paper.
2. Tape the slip of paper onto a plastic bag.
3. Find a spray bottle labeled with the same salinity level as on your slip of paper.
4. Unfold 3 paper towels and lay them on top of one another. Spray the paper towels
   with the salt solution until they are wet throughout.
5. Place 10 of the correct type of seed on the paper towels. Spread out the seeds
   somewhat and then fold them up in the paper towels.
6. Place the paper towels containing the seeds into the plastic bag and seal it.
7. Leave the bag and these instructions in the correct container and return to your seat.




                            Setting up Soil Salinity Lab
                                    Instructions
1. Select a slip of paper with a seed type and salinity level on it. Write your name and
   today’s date on the paper.
2. Tape the slip of paper onto a plastic bag.
3. Find a spray bottle labeled with the same salinity level as on your slip of paper.
4. Unfold 3 paper towels and lay them on top of one another. Spray the paper towels
   with the salt solution until they are wet throughout.
5. Place 10 of the correct type of seed on the paper towels. Spread out the seeds
   somewhat and then fold them up in the paper towels.
6. Place the paper towels containing the seeds into the plastic bag and seal it.
7. Leave the bag and these instructions in the correct container and return to your seat.
          Name______________________________________________ Date___________________

                              Environmental Science
                           Crops & Soil Laboratory

Background
       Most of the fertile and easily farmed land in the world is either now being used to
grow crops or is developed for other purposes. This leaves less desirable arid land that
will need irrigation to be farmed to feed the Earth’s growing population. Soils in dry
regions are generally rich in nutrients because there is little water to leach them below
the root zone. These regions can be made to grow crops by only irrigating the soil.
Much of this water is pumped from underground aquifers containing dissolved mineral
salts. As the water is sprayed onto the crops, some of it evaporates because of the low
humidity. Low concentrations of salt on the land are not a problem. But over time the
salts collect on or near the soil surface, where they eventually interfere with the
germination and growth of the crops by removing water from plant cells. The salts
decrease the osmotic potential of the soil so plants cannot take up water.
       Four variables are important in determining the fertility of soils. They are: pH,
and the amounts of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium. The values of each of these
components can serve as a limiting factor in the growth of plants.

Part I: Measuring Soil Fertility
Problem: What is the pH value and nutrient level of various samples of local soil?

Hypothesis & Reasoning:




Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) & Potassium (K) Tests Procedures:
    1. Your teacher has already mixed the soil samples with water and allowed them to
       sit for 24 hours for you to use in this part of the experiment. Do not shake or
       disturb these samples! The soil must be settled out of the water for these
       tests to work!
    2. Begin with the nitrogen (N) test container (purple). Remove the cap from the test
       container.
    3. Using a pipette, fill BOTH sides of the test container with the WATER sitting
       above your soil sample. Avoid disturbing the sediment and transfer only liquid.
   4. Obtain a purple capsule. Carefully separate the two halves of the purple capsule
      and pour powder ONLY into the SMALL compartment of the container.
   5. Put the cap on the container, making sure is sealed. Shake until powder mixes
      completely with the water.
   6. Allow the color to develop in the test chamber for 10 minutes. (You should set up
      other parts of this test and/or complete the pH test while you are waiting.)
   7. Compare the color of the solution in the test chamber to the color chart. Record
      the nitrogen level in the data section.
   8. Repeat these steps for the Phosphorus (P) and Potassium/Potash (K) tests.
      Make sure you use the correct colored test containers and capsules. Record all
      data.

pH Test Procedure:
   1. You will use a dry soil sample for this part of the experiment.
   2. Remove the cap from the green test container.
   3. Fill the test chamber (smaller compartment) to the soil fill line with your soil
      sample.
   4. Obtain a green capsule. Carefully separate the two halves of the green capsule
      and pour powder into the test chamber over the soil.
   5. Add distilled water to the water fill line.
   6. Put the cap on the container, making sure is sealed. Shake until powder mixes
      completely with the soil and water.
   7. Allow the soil to settle and color to develop for about a minute. Compare the
      color of the solution against the pH chart.
   8. Record the pH of your soil in the data section.

Part II: Effect of Soil Salinity on Crop Plants
Problem: What is the effect of salinity on the germination of mung bean, pea, and
alfalfa seeds?

Hypothesis:




Procedures:
   1. Locate the seed packet that you made earlier in the week.
   2. Carefully remove and unfold the paper towels.
   3. Count the total number of seeds that have germinated. If a seed has
      germinated, you will be able to see the beginning of a plant growing from the
      seed.
   4. Record the number of germinated seeds for your seed type and salinity level
      in the data section.
   5. Record the number of germinated seeds for your seed type and salinity level
      on the SmartBoard.
   6. Once all class data is on the SmartBoard, record it in the data section.
Data
Measuring Soil Fertility
  Location Soil Sample Taken From: ______________________________________

   ___________________________________________________________________

   Measured pH of Soil: ___________________

   Nutrient Levels:
                              Value                    Description
             Nutrient
                              (0-4)                 (depleted-surplus)
            Nitrogen
          Phosphorus
           Potassium

Effect of Soil Salinity on Crop Plants

                                                            Number of
             Seed Type                   Salinity             Seeds
                                                            Germinated
                                           0%
                                          0.5%
                Alfalfa                    1%
                                           2%
                                           3%
                                           0%
                                          0.5%
             Mung Bean                     1%
                                           2%
                                           3%
                                           0%
                                          0.5%
             Snow Pea                      1%
                                           2%
                                           3%

                            Create a triple line graph of this data.
Conclusion
1. Was your soil sample acidic, basic, or neutral?


2. What can cause soil to become acidic?



3. How can the pH of acidic soil be raised?



4. In which of the major nutrients (N, P, K) was your soil most deficient?


5. What can cause soil to become nutrient deficient?



6. What can be done to improve the nutrient levels of soil?



7. Why is soil acidity associated with nutrient depletion?




8. List the 3 types of seeds tested in the soil salinity section of the experiment from
   most tolerant to salt to least tolerant.



9. Which type of seed would a farmer living in an arid region have the most success
   growing? Why?

								
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