Machine Safety for Injection Molding

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					Machine Guarding
for Injection
Molding Machines

      OSHA 10-Hour Outreach Training Program for the
               Plastics Processing Industry
         A Presentation of the SPI-OSHA Alliance
(Screen Capture of Website)
(Screen Capture of Website)
           Course Objectives

• Identify the types of injuries that can occur
  while operating injection molding machines
• Describe the possible causes of these injuries
• Identify ways to safely operate injection
  molding machines
• Recognize the importance of a total safety
  and health approach
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    Reasons to Focus on Injuries in
     the Injection Molding Process

• High injury/illness rates
• OSHA citations
• National Emphasis Program
• Site-Specific Targeting
• High workers' compensation costs
               Types of Injuries

• Fatalities            • Cuts and bruises
• Amputations           • Sprains and strains
• Avulsions             • Burns

• Fractures             • Electric shock
     Some Causes of Injuries

• Reaching around, under, over or through
  guards into hazardous areas
• Removing or bypassing guards
• Reaching into equipment to remove stuck or
  jammed material
• Not using LOTO procedures
• Machine/equipment malfunctions
       Causes of Injuries         (cont’d)

• Lack of recognition of job hazards
• Lack of familiarity with the equipment
• Inadequate training, comprehension, or both
• Operating machines with missing or
  inoperable guards and improper or
  inadequate machine maintenance
    Injection Molding Machinery

• Horizontal injection   • Vertical injection
  molding machine          molding machine
  (HIMM)                   (VIMM)
Vertical Injection Molding Machines
• Combinations of vertical and
  horizontal clamp and injection
  configurations of machines

• Regardless of the configuration
  of the machine, basic machine
  guarding and good safe work
  practices must be applied
   – Point of operation
   – Other moving machine parts
      Unique Hazards and Issues

• Gravity
• Plastic splatter/missing insert
• Flying inserts
• Unexpected bystander
Horizontal Injection Molding
     Machines - HIMMs
           Mechanical Hazards

• Point of operation
• Pinch points
• Nip points
• Rotating parts
          Potential Injuries from
           Mechanical Hazards

•   Fatalities
•   Amputations
•   Avulsions
•   Crushing injuries
•   Fractures
       Safety Guards and Devices
• Types of guards and devices
  – Movable guards with interlocks
  – Fixed barrier guards
  – Presence-sensing devices
  – Mechanical safety bars

• Locations of guards
  – Over/around moving equipment
  – Around electrical hazards
  – Around thermal hazards
               Operator’s Gate
• Equipped with redundant
  – Electrical
  – Hydraulic
  – Mechanical safety bar

• Allows the machine to
  operate only when the
  gate is closed
           Electrical Interlock
• Allows the electrical
  system to operate and
  close the clamp
• Actuated when the
  operator’s gate is opened
  or closed
• Prevents clamp from
  closing when the
  operator’s gate is open
Electrical Interlock Operation
             Hydraulic Interlock

• Actuated by opening or
  closing the operator’s
• Each hydraulic IMM
  requires at least one
• Prevents clamp from
  closing when the
  operator’s gate is open
Hydraulic Interlock Operation
Hydraulic Interlock Operation
Before Activation   After Activation
        Mechanical Safety Device

• Prevents clamp from
  closing when the
  operator’s gate is open

• Must have at least one
  mechanical device on all
Mechanical Safety Device Operation
              Other Guarding

• Rear guard           • Electrical system
• Top guard
                       • Purge guard
• Parts discharge
  guard                • Injection barrel
• Feed opening guard
                 Rear Guard
• Prevents clamp from
  closing when
  interlocked rear guard
  is opened
• Should have at least
  two interlocks
• Prevents access to
  mold areas
                   Top Guard

• Required if employees
  can reach over the top of
  the machine and into
  hazardous areas
• Should be interlocked if
Top Guards (cont’d)
        Parts Discharge Guard

• Keeps employees
  from reaching under
  the operator’s gate
  and into hazardous
               Purge Protection
• Covers the nozzle and                    Purge guard
  purging area
• In combination with PPE,
  minimizes exposure to
  molten plastic during purging
• Window allows observation
  through purge guard, if
• Should be equipped with an      Safety      Barrel cover
  interlock                       window
           Injection Barrel Cover

• Protects from exposure
  to high voltage and high
              Grinder Guarding

Guarding by:
•Enclosure over moving
•Anti-kickback flaps in
feed throat
•Proximity guarding –            Proximity
distance from feed chute
to rotating knives
    Abrasive Wheel Machinery
Work rests on offhand grinding machines must be kept
adjusted closely to the wheel with a maximum opening
of 1/8-inch to prevent the work piece or tool from
being jammed between the wheel and the rest, which
may result in wheel breakage or wheel explosion.
    Abrasive Wheel Machinery
The distance between the wheel periphery and the
adjustable tongue must never exceed 1/4-inch.
   Power-Transmission Apparatus

Power-transmission           Unguarded belt
apparatus (shafting,         and pulley
flywheels, pulleys, belts,
chain drives, etc.) less
than 7 feet from the floor
or working platform must
be guarded.
        Presence Sensing Devices

• Safety mat

• Light curtain
       Safety Guards and Devices

Light Curtain
     Presence Sensing Devices

Safety Mat
      How to Protect Yourself

• Recognize the hazards in the job you are
• Understand the requirements for
  guarding machines
• Implement guarding solutions
            Emergency Stop

  • Where it is located

  • What it controls

  • When to use it
Signs and Warnings
Colors used with Safety Signs
       have meaning!

    White Lettering/Red Background

        Black Lettering/Orange

        Black Lettering/Yellow
High Voltage
Rotating Screw
High Temperature
High Pressure
• Used to automate
  repetitive or
  hazardous tasks
• Must be guarded to
  prevent workers from
  entering or reaching
  into hazardous areas
The Robot
         References for Injection Molding Safety

•ANSI/SPI B151.1- 1997 Horizontal Injection Molding
Machines - Safety Requirements for Manufacture, Care and

•ANSI B11.19-2003 Performance Criteria for Safeguarding

ANSI Standards are available at the following web site:
        OSHA's Site-Specific Targeting (SST) Program

OSHA's Site-Specific Targeting (SST) program selects for inspection
individual worksites with the nation's highest Days Away from Work Injury
and Illness (DAFWII) Case Rate and Days Away, Restricted, or Transferred
(DART) Rates. It is based on data reported by more than 80,000
employers surveyed by the agency.

See the OSHA Web site for the
most current directive and the
rates used to target inspections.

In order to verify the reliability of
claims by establishments that
they have achieved low DART
rates, OSHA inspects a certain
percentage of employers with low
           OSHA National Emphasis Program on Amputations

On October 27, 2006, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
revised its national emphasis program aimed at reducing amputations in general
industry workplaces. The National Emphasis Program on Amputations targets
all types of machinery and equipment that are considered a high risk for causing
amputations. The plastics processing industry is among the industries under
scrutiny for workplace amputations.

The twenty-four states and two territories which operate their own OSHA programs
are encouraged, but not required, to adopt a similar emphasis program. State Plan
State information is available on OSHA’s Web site. The OSHA directive on this
emphasis program is available on OSHA's Web site under Regulations and
Compliance, subcategory Compliance Directives, No. CPL 03-00-003.

Under this initiative, regional and area OSHA offices will continue to conduct
outreach; targeting and selection; and inspections. Area offices will obtain and use
additional data to identify and add establishments where serious injuries or fatalities
related to these machines have occurred.
       The Job Safety Analysis Process

The Job Safety Analysis (JSA) process is a very
effective means of helping reduce incidents,
accidents, and injuries in the workplace. It is a
multi-step process.

•Basic Job Steps

•Potential Hazards

•Recommended Safe Job Procedures
• Injuries can occur while operating injection
  molding machines
• Risk areas can be protected by safety guards
  and devices
• Protect yourself and operate injection molding
  machines safely
• Recognize the importance of a total safety
  and health approach
Do you have any

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