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									Figurative Language
 • A comparison which uses like or as:

My love is like a red, red, rose
That’s newly sprung in June.

What is being compared?
 • A comparison between two things which are basically
    different, which does not use like or as.
But soft, what light through yonder window breaks?
It is the east, and Juliet is the sun.

What is being compared?
• Giving human qualities and characteristics to something which
  is non-human or non-living. A more accurate term for giving
  human characteristics to animals is “anthropomorphism.”

“the bosom of the sea.”
 • some absent or nonexistent person or thing is addressed as if
   present and capable of understanding.

Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are?
• one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely
  associated (such as "crown" for "royalty").

“As he swung toward them holding up the hand
Half in appeal, but half as if to keep
The life from spilling.”
 • A person, object, image, word, or event that evokes a range of
   additional meaning beyond and usually more abstract than its
   literal significance.

Two roads diverged in a wood and I,
I took the one less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference.
 • a narrative having a second meaning beneath the surface one
   - a story with two meanings, a literal meaning and a symbolic

“Allegory of the Cave”
By Stephen Dunn
• a statement or situation containing apparently contradictory
  or incompatible elements but upon closer inspection might
  be true.

I dwell in a lonely house I know
That vanished many a summer ago
Hyperbole, or Overstatement
• a type of figurative language that depends on intentional

An hundred years should go to praise
Thine eyes and on thy forehead gaze;
Two hundred to adore each breast;
But thirty thousand to the rest...
Litotes, or Understatement
 • a figure of speech in which a person uses a negative statement
   to enforce the positive. For example, saying not bad instead of

“The grave’s a fine and private place,
But none I think do there embrace.”
 • illustrates a situation, or a use of language, involving some
   kind of discrepancy. The result of an action or situation is the
   reverse of what is expected.

Water, water, every where,
And all the boards did shrink;
Water, water, every where,
Nor any drop to drink.
 • reference to something in history or literature

by Ezra Pound

Zeus lies in Ceres’ bosom
Taishan is attended of loves
               under Cythera, before sunrise . . .
 • The poet’s attitude toward the subject of the poem.

Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;
  Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world.
(Yeats, "The Second Coming“)
Poetic Vocabulary
1. Asyndeton
2. Polysyndeton
3. Enjambment
4. Litote
5. Internal rhyme
6. Dialect
7. Metonymy
8. Synecdoche
9. Anaphora
10. Oxymoron
 • a stylistic scheme in which conjunctions are deliberately
   omitted from a series of related clauses.

Her Kind by Anne Sexton
“I have found the warm caves in the woods,
filled them with skillets, carvings, shelves,
closets, silks, innumerable goods…”
 • Conjunctions are used in close succession even when not required.

Ode to a Grecian Urn by John Keats
“What leaf-fring’d legend haunts about thy shape
Of deities or mortals, or of both,
In Tempe or the dales of Arcady?
What men or gods are these?”
 • the continuation of a sentence form one line or couplet into
   the next.

“Trees”by Joyce Kilmer
I think that I shall never see
A poem lovely as a tree
• An ironical understatement in which affirmative is expressed
  by the negation of the opposite. In Litotes the speaker's words
  convey less emotion than is actually felt.

Andrew Marvell, "To His Coy Mistress”
"The grave's a fine a private place,
But none, I think, do there embrace."
Internal Rhyme
• Rhyme within a line of poetry.

“Rime of the Ancient Mariner”
by Samuel Taylor Coleridge

"The ship was cheered, the harbour cleared,
Merrily did we drop
Below the kirk, below the hill,
Below the lighthouse top.
• Poetry written in a dialect other than standard English.

The Collier's Wife by D.H. Lawrence
Somebody's knockin' at th' door
Mother, come down an' see!
—I's think it's nobbut a beggar;
Say I'm busy.
• A figure of speech which expresses either more, or less, than
  it literally denotes.
  When a whole is used as the part or a part of a thing is put for
  the whole.

• “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”: The little journey in
  the poem represents life's journey.
• a type of parallelism created when successive phrases or lines begin
  with the same words

• "Tired with all these, for restful death I cry,
  As to behold desert a beggar born,
  And needy nothing trimm'd in jollity,
  And purest faith unhappily forsworn,
  And gilded honour shamefully misplac'd,
  And maiden virtue rudely strumpeted,
  And right perfection wrongfully disgrac'd . . .”
a. Utilize poetic devices to understand meaning and purpose
b. Utilize poetic STRUCTURE to find depth in the poem
c. Interpret the different layers of a poem and how it can be interpreted:
   1. Literally
   2. Sexually
   3. Philosophically
   4. Religiously
   5. Politically

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