The Importance of Habitats: by XMKlV0

VIEWS: 13 PAGES: 75

									                      The Importance of Habitats:
                Beautiful Butterflies and Lovely Ladybugs
                             LEARNING ACTIVITY 1
                                  Learning About Habitats
Objective:   Students will learn that a habitat is the place that supplies the basic resources to fulfill an
             organism’s needs.


                                         MINI LESSON
Materials:   Chart paper

Procedure:
 1. Gather the students together for a discussion.
 2. Ask them to name what they need to live. Write their responses on a chart.
 3. Ask them to name some things other organisms need to live. Write the responses on the chart.
 4. Tell them that the term for all the things needed for an organism to live is called a habitat.
 5. Tell them they will use the following definitions for a habitat for this unit (write them on the chart
    paper):
      • A habitat is a place where an organism lives.
      • Organisms need food, water, air and shelter to live.
      • An organism gets everything it needs from its habitat.
 6. Ask students to respond to the following questions:
      • Where do you live?
      • Where do you get your food?
      • Where do you get your water?
      • Where do you get your shelter?
 7. Tell them that everything they need to live is in their habitat.


                                      INVESTIGATION
Materials:   paper
             1 set of basic needs cards for each student
             pictures of animals or plants from magazines (optional)
glue
crayons
Procedure:
  1. Assemble old magazines such as Ranger Rick, World, and National Geographic or other sources of
     pictures of plants, animals, and human beings. Be sure the resources are ones that can be cut up. If
     these are not available, find some pictures to show the students and let them draw their own
     pictures.
  2. Tell students that they are going to be exploring the basic needs of livings things and how these
     needs are met.
  3. Divide the class into groups of four.
  4. Let each group choose a favorite animal or plant.
  5. As soon as one group chooses an animal, write the name chosen on the chart. Continue until all
     groups have chosen a different animal or plant.
  6. If no group chooses a human being, encourage one group to choose human beings.
  7. Allow students to then find a picture of their animal or plant or draw a picture.
  8. Give each group a set of the basic needs cards and have them list one example of how that animal
     meets each need on the card in its habitat.
  9. Help the groups as needed. Ask them to paste the pictures and the cards on a large piece of paper.


                                         ASSESSMENT
Look at the drawings and listen to the discussion to see that the students understand the concept of
habitats.


                                             SHARING
  1. Gather the students together for a sharing session.
  2. Ask them to share their pictures of habitats. They can share their own habitat or one of an animal
     they know.


                                    EXTENDING IDEAS
In the classroom:     Allow students to research habitats of familiar animals and write stories describing
                      their habitats.

At home:              Ask students to look around at home to see if they can notice any other organism
                      that has a habitat that is different from the humans in their home. Ask them to write
                      about it or draw it.
    Basic Needs Cards

 FOOD              FOOD


WATER             WATER


SHELTER         SHELTER


  AIR               AIR


 LIGHT            LIGHT


 SPACE            SPACE
                             The Importance of Habitats
                    Beautiful Butterflies and Lovely Ladybugs
                                LEARNING ACTIVITY 2
                                Making a Ladybug Habitat
Objective:   Students will help build habitats for ladybugs and observe them.


                                        MINI LESSON
Procedure:
 1. Tell the students that that are going to build ladybug habitats.
 2. They will observe the ladybugs, investigate them and compare them to the butterflies.


                                      INVESTIGATION
Materials:   Small containers
             Panty hose or cheesecloth to cut for a cover
             Rubber bands
             Ladybug journal (one for each student)
             Ladybugs (Ladybugs can be ordered through the Science Center.
                  Usually a container holds 50–100 ladybugs.)
             Raisins
             Leaves which contain aphids (if available)

Procedure:
 1. Ask students to work together in groups of four to build ladybug habitats.
 2. Demonstrate how to build a ladybug habitat. (Follow the steps below)
 3. Give each group a container and ask them to cut a square from pantyhose to make a secure cover.
    They should place a rubber band around the lid to be sure the ladybugs cannot escape from the
    habitat.
 4. Discuss a food source for the ladybugs. Lead the students to talk about the fact that ladybugs like to
    eat aphids. Allow them to do some research on aphids at a later date. If you are able to locate aphids
    on plants, they may be used in the habitat. Be sure to watch out for the aphids because if they
    escape, they may eat all the plants in the classroom.
 5. Raisins can be placed on the bottom of the container as a food source for the ladybugs.
 6. Place several plant leaves and stems that are covered with aphids in the large clear plastic container.
 7. Lightly mist the leaves and stems. Do not let water collect on the bottom of the container because
      ladybugs may drown in very little water.
  8. Cover the container with a square cut from pantyhose
  9. Secure the pantyhose with a rubber band around the top of the container.
10. Replace any wilted plants or add a fresh supply of raisins as needed.
11. Plan for the safe release of the ladybugs when the unit is completed.
12. Locate bushes that contain aphids that will be a natural food source for the ladybugs.
13. When the habitats are built, give the groups some ladybugs to place in the habitats.


                                        JOURNALING
The students can record drawings and observations in their journals.


                                            SHARING
  1. Gather the students together for a sharing session.
  2. Ask them to comment on the building of the habitat and their observations of the ladybugs.


                                    EXTENDING IDEAS
In the classroom:     Ask the students to draw a picture of the ladybug habitat and label the parts.

At home:              Students could look for insects which have habitats similar to the ladybug and
                      bring the information back to class.
                            The Importance of Habitats:
                      Beautiful Butterflies and Lovely Ladybugs
                               LEARNING ACTIVITY 3
                              What Beautiful Caterpillars!
Objective:   Students will observe painted lady caterpillars and record their observations on a daily
             basis.

Teacher note:    Students’ observations should be recorded each day on the daily calendar pages of their
                 journals. Daily observations should continue through the time it takes for the caterpillar
                 to become a pupa and for the butterfly to emerge from the pupa’s chrysalis.

Materials:   Poster of the butterfly’s life cycle (Make sure the poster shows butterfly eggs.)
             Butterfly book(s)such as
                  The Butterfly, by Sabrina Crewe
                  Charlie the Caterpillar, by Dom Deluise
                  The Moon of the Monarch Butterflies, by J. C. George
             Student journals
             Hand lens (1 per student)
             Metric ruler (1 per student)
             Caterpillars in habitats (1 per group of 4–5 students)
Advanced Preparation:
 1. Photocopy and assemble a journal for each student. Each student journal is composed of four daily
    calendar pages and one page of each of the following:
        • Caterpillar Anatomy
        • Butterfly Plant
        • Are Caterpillars Picky Eaters?
        • Chrysalis
        • Butterfly
        • Egg
        • Butterfly Life Cycle
        • Butterfly Plant
     Each journal should have a total of twelve pages. These pages are located in the Blackline Masters
     section at the end of this unit.
 2. Prepare caterpillar habitats.
Materials needed for caterpillar habitats:
             Baby food jars or other small, clear containers with lids (1 jar per caterpillar)
             White tissue wrapping paper
             Small twigs
             Small watercolor paintbrush
             Butterfly plant leaves
Constructing Caterpillar Habitats
Caterpillar habitats can be constructed using small, clear containers such as baby food jars. Punch holes in
the lids of the containers, and then place a circle of white tissue wrapping paper inside the lid. The tissue
should extend beyond the lid when the lid is screwed onto the jar. Wedge a small twig into each container
for the caterpillar to climb on up to the tissue.
Transfer the caterpillars into the containers using a very small paintbrush to gently lift and roll the
caterpillar into the container. To do this, place the paintbrush very close to the caterpillar’s head and roll
the paintbrush away from its head to get the caterpillar on the brush. Reverse the motion to transfer the
caterpillar to the container. Add butterfly plant leaves, which will need to be changed daily, and screw on
the lid.

ANIMAL SAFETY
Students should be reminded that the caterpillars are delicate and must be handled carefully. Caterpillars
may not be taken out of the containers nor should the container be shaken or dropped.

STUDENT SAFETY
Caution students that butterfly plant leaves can be poisonous and that they should not put the leaves in
their mouths. Students should wash their hands after touching the leaves.


                                          MINI LESSON
Procedure:
  1. Tell the students that they are going to study the life cycle and habitats of two creatures, the
     butterfly and the ladybug.
  2. Prepare them for keeping the butterfly journals.
  3. Tell them that they will get a journal for the butterfly study. Explain that the journal is composed of
     four daily calendar pages and one page of each of the following:
      • Caterpillar Anatomy
      • Butterfly Plant
      • Are Caterpillars Picky Eaters?
      • Chrysalis
      • Butterfly
      • Egg
      • Butterfly Life Cycle
      • Butterfly Plant
                                       INVESTIGATION
Procedure:
  1. Distribute the journals and describe how students will be using them for recording their
     observations throughout this unit. Daily observations are recorded on the daily calendar pages.
  2. If students have not used a hand lens before, allow time for them to practice their new skill.
  3. Give each student group a container with a caterpillar. Tell the students that these caterpillars were
     recently hatched from eggs laid by a butterfly and are about three to five days old. Students should
     look for patterns in the caterpillar’s color, size, shape, body parts, movements, and number of legs
     and then record these observations in their journals on the daily calendar pages.
  4. Without removing the caterpillar from its container, have students measure the length of their
     caterpillars. To do this, students should place the container on the metric rulers and measure
     through the glass. Then students should draw a line representing the length of the caterpillars in the
     daily calendar pages of their journals and record any other observations they have made.
  5. When the caterpillars are about seven or eight days old, display the poster of a painted lady
     butterfly’s life cycle. Point out the body parts of the caterpillar. Ask students if they have noticed
     these body parts on their caterpillars. Also ask students to describe the patterns they see.
Teacher note: You may want to read one of the butterfly books listed in the Resources. Observe students
as they use hand lenses and assist any who are having difficulty. Review entries in student journals over
the next several days to be sure students are making observations about the caterpillars.


                                          JOURNALING
Have students draw a picture of their caterpillars, showing the patterns they identified and labeling the
head and legs on the Caterpillar Anatomy page in their journals.


                                              SHARING
  1. Gather the students together for a discussion. Ask questions about what students observed and see if
     students have questions.
  2. Write down questions on a chart for later reference.


                                          ASSESSMENT
  1. Look at the students’ drawings in their journals to see how well they observed and represented key
     parts of the caterpillar.
  2. Discuss any major misconceptions.
                                 EXTENDING IDEAS
In the classroom:   Ask students to look for butterflies as they walk around the schoolyard. Ask them
                    to watch for patterns on the butterfly’s wings.

At home:            Ask students to go home and ask members of their family if they have any stories
                    about encounters with butterflies or caterpillars. Ask them to bring the stories to
                    share with the class.
                             The Importance of Habitats:
                     Beautiful Butterflies and Lovely Ladybugs
                                 LEARNING ACTIVITY 4
                          What’s Happening to These Plants?
Objective:    Students will identify the characteristics of butterfly plants that attract butterflies and
              observe that the plants will grow more leaves to replace those eaten by painted lady
              caterpillars.

              NOTE: Painted Lady butterflies eat many types of plants including milkweed, mallow,
              thistles, sunflowers and hollyhocks. For the purposes of this investigation, all the plants
              have been referred to as Butterfly Plants. The diagrams in this investigation are of
              milkweed.

Materials:    Pictures of the following types of plants:
                   Butterfly plant with leaves
                   Butterfly plant without leaves
                   Butterfly plant with new leaves growing
                   Butterfly plant with seedpods and seeds
              Chart paper
              Student journals

Advanced Preparation:
  1. Print the butterfly plant pictures needed for this experience from the blackline masters in this unit.
  2. Have chart paper available for the class charts.

STUDENT SAFETY
Caution students that butterfly plant leaves can be poisonous and that they should not put the leaves in
their mouths. Students should wash their hands after touching the leaves.


                                          MINI LESSON
Procedure:
  1. Display a picture of a butterfly plant with its leaves missing and ask students to describe what they
     see and what they think happened to the leaves of the plant. Record student responses on a class
     chart titled Missing Leaves.
  2. Display a picture of a butterfly plant with all its leaves and flowers and tell students that this is a
     plant that painted lady butterflies like. Ask students to list the similarities and differences between
     the two pictures.
  3. Display a picture of a painted lady caterpillar on a butterfly plant and ask,
       • What happened to the missing leaves?
      Brainstorm until the students suggest that the caterpillar ate the leaves. Record these answers on the
      Missing Leaves chart.
  4. Title a second chart Why We Think Butterflies Like Butterfly Plants, and post it next to the first
     chart. Ask students what it is that butterflies like about butterfly plants. Record responses on the
     second chart. Accept and record all reasonable answers, as this learning experience leads students
     to the correct explanation.
Teacher note: Students should be guided to answer that butterflies recognize the taste and smell of
     butterfly plants and that butterflies know that butterfly plants are a good food source for their
     caterpillars.
  5. Display another picture of a butterfly plant that shows new leaves beginning to grow. Ask the
     students:
       • What do you see happening to the plant now?
       • What is the change that you see?
       • What has stayed constant in all the pictures? (Students should answer that there are some new
         leaves growing but that the plant stem has remained the same.)
      Tell students that the plants do not die even when the caterpillars eat all of the leaves. The plants
      will grow more leaves so that another butterfly can lay eggs on it and the new caterpillars will have
      food.


                                       INVESTIGATION
Have the students draw the butterfly plant’s leaf-growth sequence on the Butterfly Plant page in their
journals and then describe what is happening to the plant in each drawing.


                                          ASSESSMENT
Review journal entries for the correct sequence.


                                              SHARING
  1. Gather the students together for a sharing session.
  2. Ask students to share what they found out about butterfly plants and painted lady butterflies.


                                     EXTENDING IDEAS
In the classroom:      Ask students to begin to research to see if any other insects depend on certain
                       plants in their environments to survive. Ask them to keep a list of their findings.

At home:               Ask students to go home and ask members of their family about butterfly plants.
                       Tell them to bring back any interesting science stories they hear.
                              The Importance of Habitats:
                      Beautiful Butterflies and Lovely Ladybugs
                                 LEARNING ACTIVITY 5
                                        What is a Copycat?
Objective:    Students will observe the similarities and differences between the painted lady butterfly and
              the viceroy butterfly. Students will identify why the viceroy butterfly mimics the monarch
              butterfly.


                                          MINI LESSON
Materials:    Pictures of the following animals (one for the teacher and one for each student or student
              group):
                   Monarch butterfly
                   Viceroy butterfly
                   Viceroy caterpillar
                   Monarch caterpillar

Background Information: Viceroy butterflies mimic the color and markings of monarch butterflies. This
is called mimicry. Mimicry is when one organism mimics another to avoid being caught by a predator. In
this case the viceroy butterfly mimics the unpleasant tasting monarch butterfly to keep from being eaten
by birds.

Procedure:
  1. Display pictures of the monarch and viceroy caterpillars and butterflies.
  2. Ask students to describe their similarities and differences. Then tell students how monarch
     caterpillars and butterflies have a taste that birds don’t like. Monarch butterflies eat butterfly plants,
     which make them taste bad to birds. Viceroy caterpillars and butterflies don’t eat butterfly plants,
     which makes them good to birds, but because they look like monarch butterflies and caterpillars,
     birds avoid them.


                                       INVESTIGATION
Procedure:
  1. Place students in small groups and distribute the pictures of the caterpillars and butterflies.
  2. Ask students to create a Venn diagram listing the differences and similarities of viceroy and
     monarch caterpillars.
  3. Assist students as they work on this investigation.
                                             SHARING
  1. Gather students together for a sharing session.
  2. Ask them what they found out about the copycat viceroy.
  3. Ask them if they know of other instances of copycat behavior.


                                          ASSESSMENT
Students should be able to explain that because of their similarities birds mistake the good-tasting viceroy
caterpillars and butterflies for bad-tasting monarch caterpillars and butterflies.


                                    EXTENDING IDEAS
In the classroom:     Ask students to begin to research to see they can find examples of other copycats in
                      nature. Ask them to keep a list of what they discover.

At home:              Ask students to go home and tell members of their family what they learned about
                      viceroys. Ask if the family members know of other instances of copycats in nature.
                      Tell them to bring back any interesting science stories they hear.
                            The Importance of Habitats:
                    Beautiful Butterflies and Lovely Ladybugs
                                LEARNING ACTIVITY 6
                              Are Caterpillars Picky Eaters?
Objective:   Students will investigate which plants painted lady caterpillars prefer to eat and discuss
             how to ensure caterpillars have these plants available to them.

Materials:   Three shoebox-sized plastic boxes with clear lids
             Paper towels for bottom of boxes
             Fresh butterfly plant leaves
             Fresh leaves from three other plants that are not milkweeds
             Student journals
             The Hungry Caterpillar, by Eric Carle (optional)

Advanced Preparation:
 1. On chart paper prepare a bar graph for student predictions of which leaves the caterpillars will
    choose.
 2. Prepare the plastic boxes by covering the bottom of each with paper towels and then placing fresh
    butterfly plant leaves in one corner and another type of leaves in an opposite corner.


                                         MINI LESSON
Procedure:
 1. Show students a copy of The Hungry Caterpillar, by Eric Carle. Ask if any of them have read the
    story. Have students name the foods the caterpillar in the story liked to eat.
     Teacher note: The story may be read aloud to the students if time permits.
 2. Tell students they are going to investigate what types of leaves their caterpillars prefer to eat.
 3. Show the students the butterfly plant leaves and the three other choices of leaves and ask students to
    predict which leaves they think the caterpillars will eat.
 4. Record student results on the chart-paper graph.


                                      INVESTIGATION
Procedure:
 1. Show students the materials for the investigation.
 2. Select a caterpillar that is currently eating. The ones that are not currently eating may be molting
    and won’t eat.
3. Place the caterpillar in the middle of a plastic box and cover the box with a clear lid.
  4. Label each box so that you can keep track of how each caterpillar reacts.
  5. Have the students observe the caterpillar’s behavior for five minutes. If the caterpillar is slow to
     move, set the box aside and check it later.
  6. Select a second and third caterpillar and repeat this step.
  7. Students should describe the results of this investigation on the Are Caterpillars Picky Eaters? page
     of their journals.
  8. Ask students what might happen if the plants that caterpillars eat are no longer available. Ask
     students how this could happen and how to provide more plants for the caterpillars.


                                             SHARING
  1. Gather the students together for a sharing session.
  2. Ask students to tell what they found out from their investigation.


                                          ASSESSMENT
Observe the participation of students during classroom discussions and review student journals.


                                     EXTENDING IDEAS
In the classroom:     Ask students to add to their research about other insects that depend on certain
                      plants in their environments to survive. Ask them to add to the list of their findings.

At home:              Ask students to go home and ask members of their family about plants certain
                      animals depend on for survival. Tell them to bring back any interesting science
                      stories they hear.
                              The Importance of Habitats:
                      Beautiful Butterflies and Lovely Ladybugs
                                  LEARNING ACTIVITY 7
                        What’s Happening to Our Caterpillars?
Objective:     Students will observe the changes taking place as the caterpillars begin to pupate and learn
               that the pupa represents the next stage of the life cycle of the butterfly.
Teacher note: This learning experience should be conducted only after all or most of the caterpillars have
changed into chrysalises.

Materials:     Poster of the butterfly’s life cycle (Make sure the poster shows butterfly eggs.)
               Hand lens (1 per student)
               Containers with caterpillars that are changing into chrysalises
               Student journals

Background Information: When the caterpillar begins to change into a chrysalis, it spins a silk button
on the white tissue paper and attaches itself to the button. It will then hang in a ―J‖ shape as it sheds its
last skin. This often happens between 9 and 11 A.M. or between 5 and 7 P.M.
Teacher note: After this learning experience, the chrysalises should be moved to an aquarium, net cage,
or picnic dome that has been prepared according to the instructions in the Materials Descriptions section
at the end of this unit on page 69. Determine some manner for students to continue to observe their same
chrysalis—perhaps by labeling the strip next to where the chrysalis is taped.


                                           MINI LESSON
Procedure:
  1. Tell the students that they are going to work with the most delicate part of the investigation. They
     are going to observe the chrysalises.
  2. Tell them to be especially careful not to damage any part of the chrysalis or the butterfly will not
     emerge.


                                        INVESTIGATION
Procedure:
  1. Place students in small groups.
  2. Distribute the hand lenses and the containers with the chrysalises.
  3. Remind the students to handle the containers very carefully because if the chrysalises fall from the
     top of the containers, the chrysalis could be harmed.
  4. Have students use the hand lenses to carefully observe the chrysalises.
  5. In their small groups students should discuss what they observe about the chrysalises.
  6. Use the life-cycle poster to show the class that the caterpillar has entered the next stage in its life
     cycle to become a butterfly.
  7. Students should draw the chrysalis on the daily calendar pages, as well as on the Chrysalis page of
     their journals.
  8. Lead the class in a discussion about what has happened to the caterpillar and how it has now
     become a chrysalis.
  9. Ask students to describe what they noticed about the chrysalises.
10. Lead them to include descriptions about color, position, size, movement, or any other descriptions
    they might have.
11. This information should be recorded on the Chrysalis page of their journals.
12. Students should continue to observe the chrysalises in the butterfly habitat on a daily basis,
    determining whether the chrysalises are the same as yesterday or how have they changed.
13. Students should record these observations on the Daily Calendar pages of their journals.
      Teacher note: The chrysalises will become darker as the time approaches for the butterflies to
      emerge. Assist the students in noticing this change if they do not notice it on their own.


                                              SHARING
  1. Gather the students together for a sharing session.
  2. Ask them to tell about what they observed as they studied the chrysalises.


                                           ASSESSMENT
Ask students to sequence the order of the butterfly life cycle up to this point.


                                     EXTENDING IDEAS
In the classroom:      Ask students to look through books to find out how other butterflies change during
                       their life cycles.

At home:               Ask students to go home and tell members of their family what they observed
                       about the chrysalises. Tell them to bring back any interesting science stories they
                       hear.
TEACHERS: Have students cut apart the illustrations above and paste them onto
the appropriate sections of the wheel on the next page.



CYCLE #1
     Female butterflies lay eggs on the underside of leaves. These leaves are
     always the kind that the soon-to-be caterpillars like to eat.

CYCLE #2
     The crawling caterpillars are the larvae of the butterfly. Caterpillars eat
     continuously. They shed their skin several times as they grow hundreds of
     times their original size. When the caterpillars, or larvae, have grown as
large as they will grow, they attach themselves to a branch or any other
place suitable for a long rest.
      CYCLE #3
           We call the insect in this cycle of life a ―pupa.‖ The pupa develops a
           covering over its body called a ―chrysalis.‖ Inside this case, during the long
           rest, the adult butterfly is forming. When the pupa has finished its
           transformation, a butterfly will emerge from the chrysalis.

       CYCLE #4
The adult butterfly slowly comes out of the chrysalis. The wings of the butterfly quickly grow
strong in the fresh air. In a few hours the butterfly can fly away to find the flowers from which it
                                            gets its food.
                              The Importance of Habitats:
                      Beautiful Butterflies and Lovely Ladybugs
                                 LEARNING ACTIVITY 8
                               What a Mighty Painted Lady!
Objective:    Students will observe the body structure of an adult butterfly.

Materials:    Poster of the butterfly’s life cycle (Make sure the poster shows butterfly eggs.)
              Poster of a butterfly with the body parts labeled
              Student journals

Background Information: The final stage in the life cycle is when the butterfly emerges from the
chrysalis. The skin of the chrysalis begins to split, and the adult butterfly wiggles out. When the butterfly
first emerges, its wings are wet and they are crumpled up against its body. The butterfly must crawl to a
spot where it can grip tight to pump blood and air through its wings to get them straightened out and
dried. This takes from one to three hours. After that the butterfly is able to fly.


                                          MINI LESSON
Procedure:
  1. Tell students that they are going to wait as watch as the butterflies begin to emerge.
  2. Tell them that the procedure takes a long time and cannot be helped by humans. Tell them that you
     will call them to the investigation when the butterflies have fully emerged.


                                       INVESTIGATION
Procedure:
  1. In small groups students record observations about the butterflies in the habitat, making note of the
     butterflies’ body parts and their structure.
  2. These observations should be recorded on the daily calendar pages of their journals.
      Teacher note: Instructions for this habitat are included in the Materials Description section at the
      beginning of this unit.
  3. Have students draw a picture of a butterfly on the Butterfly page of their journals and label the body
     parts.
  4. Have students describe why each part of the butterfly is important and how it functions.


                                              SHARING
  1. Gather the students together for a sharing session after the butterflies have hatched and have been
   observed.
2. Ask students to share what they observed.
                                         ASSESSMENT
Student discussion about body parts and their functions should be accurate. Assist students with
information as needed.


                                    EXTENDING IDEAS
In the classroom:     Ask students to look in the books to find pictures of other butterflies and compare
                      their body parts to those of the painted lady. They can make sketches and color
                      them.

At home:              Ask students to go home and describe what they observed about the painted ladies.
                             The Importance of Habitats:
                     Beautiful Butterflies and Lovely Ladybugs
                                 LEARNING ACTIVITY 9
                            Changes in the Life of a Ladybug
Objective:    Students will observe and describe the stages of development in the life cycle of the
              ladybug.
Teacher note: The eggs, larvae and pupae of the ladybug may be very hard for students to see, therefore
the following activities are used to demonstrate the life cycle. The teacher may use the terms egg, larva,
pupa, and ladybug.

Materials:    “Lucy the Changing Ladybug” story
              Construction paper in yellow, green, black, and red
              Waxed-paper
              Glue
              Pictures of the stages of a ladybug


                                         MINI LESSON
Procedure:
  1. Read the story and display pictures or cutouts of each stage.
  2. Have the students identify and name the changes they see in “Lucy the Changing Ladybug.”
  3. Model retelling the story in sequential order.
  4. Tell the students they are going to make the characters from the story and then retell the story
     “Lucy the Changing Ladybug.”


                                       INVESTIGATION
Procedure:
  1. Give each student one large green piece of construction paper.
  2. Have students cut out a large leaf and number the leaf 1 to 4 in a circular pattern.
  3. Remind the students of the life cycle by asking where adult ladybugs lay their egg. [On green
     leaves. The ladybug lays several eggs and then moves to another site on the leaf, so the enemies of
     the ladybug will not eat all her eggs.]
  4. Give each student one small sheet of yellow construction paper. Have the student cut out four small
     yellow ovals to represent the ladybug eggs. Place on leaf beside the number 1.
  5. Ask the students to glue the four yellow ovals to the leaf.
   Teacher note: Have the students glue the eggs close together in one area on the leaf.
6. Give each student a piece of black construction paper to cut out a larvae shape.
  7. With another piece of black construction paper, have the students cut out six legs for the larvae.
  8. Remind the students that the legs on the larvae must be put toward the front and must be the same
     on each side (symmetrical).
  9. Ask the students if any one remembers what the word symmetrical means. Ask them to place the
     larvae on the leaf and glue in place marked number 2.
10. Give each student a piece of orange construction paper.
11. Have the students cut out the pupa body shape.
12. Have the students cut out black circles (spots or dots)to glue on the back of the pupa.
13. Place and glue the pupa on the leaf in the place marked number 3.
14. Give each student a piece of black and red construction paper.
15. Have students cut out one large red circle and then fold it in half (hot-dog fold). Cut along the fold,
    but stop before you get to the top of the circle.
16. Give each student a piece of waxed-paper. It should be cut the same size as the red circle.
17. Have the students fold the waxed-paper circle in half (hot-dog fold)and cut on the line.
18. They should glue the waxed-paper wings to the red circle. Then glue the red circle to the small
    black oval body.
19. Have the students cut legs and small black circles out of a small piece of black construction paper.
20. Remind the students of the position of the legs and circles (symmetrical).
21. Place and glue the ladybug on the leaf in place marked number 4.


                                         ASSESSMENT
Have the students retell the story of Lucy Ladybug using the leaf cutout. Have students identify the
changes that take place during the story.


                                             SHARING
  1. Gather the students together for a sharing session.
  2. Ask them what they discovered about how ladybugs change.
     Ask them to compare it to any other insect they have studied.
  3. The students may remember their studies with mealworms and notice the similarities and
     differences between ladybugs and mealworms.
  4. Depending on the sequence, the students may be able to compare ladybugs as they change to the
     changes butterflies make.
                                 EXTENDING IDEAS
In the classroom:   Place paper for making books in a center and allow students to make books about
                    ladybugs.

At home:            Ask students to share information about ladybugs at home and bring back stories
                    they hear.
                             Lucy the Changing Ladybug
One day Lucy ladybug found a nice green leaf on which to lay her eggs. The eggs were tiny,
yellow, and oval shaped. She had to be very careful because she did not want any birds or
other insects to find her eggs.

She laid some of her eggs on one leaf and laid other eggs on another leaf. Soon the eggs
began to change. Inside each egg there was a little black larva. Out of one of the eggs popped
a tiny little larva called Lucy the Ladybug Larva.

Lucy the Ladybug Larva looked like a tiny little black worm, but she changed each day. How
do you think Lucy was changing? She was growing bigger and bigger. Lucy the Ladybug
Larva stayed on the leaf to eat tiny little insects on the plant. She was changing every day as
she ate more and more insects. Lucy the Ladybug Larva was soon so big that she did not look
like a tiny worm. She had changed into a bigger larva with spots on her back. Are you
changing, too? How?

Lucy the Ladybug Larva also began to change colors. She changed from a black, tiny worm
to an orange worm with black spots. Lucy the Ladybug Larva was about to change again. She
attached herself to a leaf. Lucy the Ladybug Larva was not a larva any more. She changed
into pupa. I guess we will have to call her Lucy the Ladybug Pupa now.

Many changes were happening to Lucy the Ladybug Pupa. She was changing so much she
did not have time to eat. She did not have time to crawl around on her plant. She only had
time to change. She changed and changed. Finally, the changes were completed and Lucy
crawled out of the pupa skin.

Now she was an adult ladybug, but she had light colored wings. These wings soon changed to
dark red with black spots. This new change was wonderful. She was beautiful and she could
fly. Now everyone called her Lucy the Changing Ladybug, because she had changed so
much.
Ladybird beetle
                            The Importance of Habitats:
                    Beautiful Butterflies and Lovely Ladybugs
                              LEARNING ACTIVITY 10
                                       Changing Places
Objective:   Students will observe, describe, and record changes in the ladybugs’ position due to
             temperature.

Materials:   6–8 ladybugs inside 12 inches of flexible tubing, closed at each end
             Cup of warm water
             Cup of cold water
             Thermometers
             Ladybug Temperature Chart
             Cotton balls, paper towels, or pantyhose

Advanced Preparation:
 1. Place 6 to 8 ladybugs into flexible tubing.
     Teacher note: This can be a piece of flexible tubing purchased from a hardware store or can be
     large clear drinking straws. Cotton balls, paper towels, or small squares of pantyhose may be used
     to close each end of the straws or tubing.
 2. Have one container with warm water and another container with cold water ready to use.
 3. Construct the graph for recording student responses.
 4. Place the tube on the containers of water so that the ends of the tube are over both containers.
 5. Sketch a picture of the way to do the experiment to remind students of the activity once the
    ladybugs are returned to their habitat.


                                        MINI LESSON
Procedure:
 1. Gather the students for a mini lesson with a demonstration.
 2. Ask:
      • Who likes hot weather best?
      • Who prefers cold weather?
 3. Explain to the students that some insects are like students and have temperature preferences.
 4. Show the class the two different containers of water.
5. Place a thermometer in each container.
 6. Have students compare the temperatures in the two containers.
     Ask:
      • Which is warmer? …Colder?
 7. Ask students what temperature they think ladybugs will prefer.
     Ask:
      • How many students think the ladybugs would move toward warm temperatures?
      • How many students think the ladybugs would move toward cold temperatures?
      • How many students think the ladybugs would stay in the middle?
      • If they stay in the middle, what is the temperature like for the ladybugs?
 8. Count the number of students who answer each question and make a draft bar graph to show their
    predictions.


                                      INVESTIGATION
Procedure:
 1. Tell the students that they will do an investigation. Have students brainstorm how to use the
    materials available to find out what temperature ladybugs prefer.
 2. Ask how they can tell which temperature ladybugs prefer. Guide students to design a test that
    places part of the flexible tube or straw over each container of water, with the middle of the tube
    not over either container.
 3. Demonstrate by placing a tube containing several ladybugs across both containers (resembling a
    balance beam).
 4. Be sure there is an open space in the center that is not over either container of water.
 5. The students can set up their equipment and use it to see if the ladybugs like warm, cold, or room
    temperature by observing if the ladybugs move toward a certain end of the tube or remain in the
    middle.
 6. Look at the graph and check the results of the investigation and the predictions made with the
    graph.
 7. After the students have had time to observe the ladybugs ask:
      • Did the ladybugs change?
      • What changes did you see?
      • What stayed the same?
      • What else changed? [The ladybugs change from here to there. Their legs change from down to
        up and back again. Their antennae moved.]
      • What things are constant or did not change? [The shape of the ladybug is constant. The
symmetry of the ladybug is constant. The color of the ladybug is constant. The number of spots
on the ladybug is constant.]
  8. Have the class state what temperatures the ladybugs preferred. Be sure to discuss what evidence led
     them to this conclusion.
  9. Let the class study the bar graph and determine how accurate their predictions were.
10. The ladybugs can be left in the tubes for the rest of the day but then should be returned to their
    habitats.


                                         ASSESSMENT
Have the students record a picture of the results in their ladybug journals. Compare the drawings from the
first activity with this drawing.
       • Are students including more detailed observations?


                                            SHARING
  1. Gather the students together for a sharing session.
  2. Ask them to describe what they did to see how the ladybugs reacted to heat and cold.
  3. Ask them to share all other ideas about the ladybugs.


                                    EXTENDING IDEAS
In the classroom:     Allow the students to make books about ladybugs.

At home:              Ask the students to share what they have learned about ladybugs with their family.
                      Ask them to bring back any interesting ladybug stories.
                             The Importance of Habitats:
                      Beautiful Butterflies and Lovely Ladybugs
                                 LEARNING ACTIVITY 11
                                        Here We Go Again!
Objective:    Students will recognize that the butterfly life cycle continues with the next generation.

Materials:    Poster of the butterfly ’s life cycle (Make sure the poster shows butterfly eggs.)
              Butterfly eggs, if available
              Hand lens
              Student journals

Background Information: The female painted lady butterfly lays her eggs on the underside of
leaves. When temperatures are warm enough, the eggs will hatch in a few days.


                                           MINI LESSON
Procedure:
  1. Tell the students that they are going to study the life cycle of the painted lady butterfly.
  2. Ask them what they think will happen now that the butterflies have hatched.
  3. Record important information from the students.


                                        INVESTIGATION
Procedure:
  1. Students observe butterfly eggs using either the butterfly poster or any eggs that are found in the
     butterfly habitat.
  2. Have students draw the butterfly egg on the Egg page in their journals.
  3. Discuss with the class that the egg is a different stage in the life cycle of butterflies and that all of
     the stages they have observed will repeat in the next generation of butterflies.


                                               SHARING
  1. Gather the students together for a sharing session.
  2. Ask them what they remember from previous learning about he life cycles of other insects.
                                       INVESTIGATION
  1. Have students complete the Butterfly Life Cycle page in their journals.
  2. Assist any student having trouble getting the sequence of the butterfly life cycle correct.
  3. Ask students if they think all butterflies go through a life cycle similar to the painted lady.
     Encourage students to research other butterflies by using sources such as the encyclopedia,
     reference books, and the Internet.


                                             SHARING
  1. Gather the students together for a sharing session.
  2. Ask the students to share their research on other butterflies.


                                          ASSESSMENT
Look at the student journal and see what kids of research students have done with this investigation.


                                     EXTENDING IDEAS
In the classroom:     Ask students to continue to look in the books to find pictures of other butterflies
                      and compare their body parts to those of the painted lady. They can make sketches
                      and color them.

At home:              Ask students to go home and share their research.
                             The Importance of Habitats:
                     Beautiful Butterflies and Lovely Ladybugs
                                LEARNING ACTIVITY 12
                                          Butterfly Plants
Objective:    Students will observe that butterfly plants have a life cycle.

Materials:    Pictures of the following types of plants (see pages 18-21):
                   Butterfly plant with leaves
                   Butterfly plant without leaves
                   Butterfly plant with new leaves growing
                   Butterfly plant with seedpods and seeds
              Teacher note: If available, you may also want to show students butterfly plants and seeds.

STUDENT SAFETY:
Caution students that butterfly leaves can be poisonous and that they should not put the leaves in their
mouths. Students should wash their hands after touching the leaves.

Background Information: Since the butterfly plant is a perennial it grows back each spring from
its roots. After the plant blooms, seedpods are formed, and then the fuzzy seeds are carried by the
wind. These plants get their name from the milky sap that is released from any break in the stem of
the plant.


                                          MINI LESSON
Procedure:
  1. Show students the picture of the plant with leaves and the plant without leaves and ask them to
     describe how to arrange the pictures to show the leaf-growth sequence of the butterfly plant.
  2.   Remind students that the leafless plant will grow new leaves.
  3. Also, tell them that the plant grows back from its roots in the spring after it seems to die during the
     winter.
  4. Then show the students the pictures of the seedpods and the fuzzy seeds.


                                       INVESTIGATION
Procedure:
  1. Have students complete the Butterfly Plant Leaf-Growth Sequence page in their journals.
  2. Assist any student having trouble getting the sequence of the butterfly plant correct.
                                            SHARING
  1. Gather the students together for a sharing session.
  2. Ask them to share what they learned about the sequence of the butterfly plant’s growth.


                                         ASSESSMENT
  1. Using a copy of the chart in the Blackline Masters, students will draw the sequence of the life-cycle
     stages of the painted lady butterfly starting with EGG in Box 1.
  2. Next to the first drawing, students will draw what the butterfly plant would look like at the same
     time as the changes occur in the painted lady.
  3. Below the pictures, students will describe the changes that are occurring in both the butterfly and
     the milkweed.


                                    EXTENDING IDEAS
In the classroom:     Ask students to make sketches of butterflies and put them into a small book. They
                      may want to write descriptions on each page under the sketches.

At home:              Ask students to go home and share their books.
                           The Importance of Habitats:
                     Beautiful Butterflies and Lovely Ladybugs
                              LEARNING ACTIVITY 13
                                    Comparing Habitats
Objective:   Students will compare the habitats of the painted lady butterfly and the ladybug to
             their own.


                                        MINI LESSON
Materials:   Chart

Procedure:
 1. Ask students to tell you some of the information they learned about the habitats of the ladybug.
    Write it on a chart.
 2. Ask the students to tell you some of the information they learned about the habitat of the painted
    lady butterfly. Write it on a chart.
 3. Ask students to tell something they know about their habitats. Write the information on a chart.


                                     INVESTIGATION
Procedure:
 1. Put students in groups to work on a chart.
 2. Ask them to make a column for: Ways the Butterfly, Ladybug, and Human Habitats Are the
    Same or Similar and a column for: Ways the Butterfly, Ladybug, and Human Habitats Are
    Different.
 3. Have groups choose someone to write and have the others brainstorm.
 4. After the groups have had time to work, gather them together and ask them to bring their charts.
    Ask for each group to give one way in which they are alike or similar and one way in which they
    are different. Continue until all ideas are on the large class chart.
 5. Help the students discuss and debate about ideas that the class is not certain about. Determine a way
    to decide what is valid and what is not. Let the class do research if necessary to verify the correct
    statement.
 6. This should not be a very formal process but should not be filled with misconceptions.
 7. Ask the students to each write a short paper telling about the likenesses and differences between
    two of the organisms on the chart.
                                            SHARING
 1. Gather the students together for a sharing session.
 2. Allow students to read their compositions.
 3. Help all that is necessary and validate everyone’s contribution.
 4. Oral contributions should be welcomed also.


                                   EXTENDING IDEAS
Mathematics
 1. Using a Texas map (with a mileage scale), measure the distance painted lady butterflies might
    travel from Dallas to Austin as they migrate south in the fall. Then measure from Austin to Corpus
    Christi. Which part of their trip is the longest? (This can also be used for social studies.)
 2. Using the daily calendar pages in the student journals, count the number of days in the caterpillar
    stage. Then count the number of days in the chrysalis stage. (Use the date the first chrysalis
    appeared.) Ask how many days it took the caterpillar to become a butterfly.
 3. Find the difference of the shortest and the longest measurements of each caterpillar.
 4. Graph the changes in the measurement of the caterpillar starting with the first measurement and
    ending with the last measurement before the chrysalis forms. (Round to the nearest centimeter or
    skip a day between measurements for graphing.)
 5. Learning Experience 5 is a good opportunity for a discussion on symmetry. After defining
    symmetry for the class, have students look for examples of symmetry on the wings of the butterfly.
    This could be part of the description in their daily journals.

Writing
 1. Have students write what it would be like to be a caterpillar or a butterfly. Tell students they need
    to include where they live, what they eat, and any changes that might happen to them.
 2. Have students write an answer to one of the following questions:
      • Why would you rather be a caterpillar than a butterfly?
      • Why would you rather be a butterfly than a caterpillar?
Blackline Masters
                    Journal —Daily Calendar
               Week of _______________to _______________


Observations         Observations               Observations




Observations         Observations               Weekly Observations

                                                What I know.




                                                What I learned.
                            Journal—Caterpillar Anatomy
Draw describe, and label your caterpillar.
                                Journal —Butterfly Plant
Draw a plant with leaves and flowers.




Draw a plant with no leaves or flowers.




Draw a plant with new leaves.
       Journal—Are Caterpillars Picky Eaters?

What leaves did each caterpillar prefer?
                           Journal —Chrysalis

Draw your chrysalis.




Describe your chrysalis.
                                    Journal —The Butterfly

Draw your butterfly and label its body parts.
                        Journal —The Egg
Draw a butterfly egg.
                             Journal —Butterfly Life Cycle
In the boxes below, draw pictures showing the sequence of the life cycle of the butterfly starting
with EGG in box 1. Below each picture, describe the change that occurs in that life-cycle stage.


  1. EGG                                        2._______________




  4._______________                             3._______________
Journal —Butterfly Plant Leaf-Growth Sequence
In the boxes below, draw pictures showing the leaf-growth sequence of the butterfly plant.
Below each picture, describe the change that is occurring.


  1._______________                            2._______________




  4._______________                            3._______________
Name:                                        Date:

Summative Assessment
In the boxes below, draw pictures showing the sequence of the life cycle of the butterfly starting
with EGG in box 1. Below each picture, describe the change that occurs in that life-cycle stage.
Next to the first drawing, draw what the butterfly plant would look like at the same time as the
changes occur in the painted lady. Below the pictures, describe the changes that are occurring in
both the butterfly and the milkweed.


                    1. EGG                                   2._______________




              4._______________                              3._______________

								
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