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Maslow (1908-1970) by HC111214064237

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									Maslow (1908-1970)



Need Hierarchy Theory
Early Influences

        1941: horrified by hatred in WWII,
         wanted to find and study “best
         specimens of mankind”

        While studying two of his most
         admired people (Wertheimer &
         Benedict) he noticed patterns that
         could be applied to all people
Scientific Approaches

   Reductive-analytic approach to science:
     Reduce     object to component parts
        Psychoanalytic
        Behaviorist

     Desacralize: to distort human nature and
      make it less marvelous and dignified
   Holistic-analytic approach to science:
     Totality   of object (both pos. & neg.)
          Humanistic (Third Force)
Needs
   Human needs are instinctoid (or innate)
     Differentfrom animal instincts b/c they are
      weaker, less absolute


   Hierarchy of human needs
     Bottom:strongest, humans and animals
     Top: weakest, humans only
Hierarchy
of Needs
                self-
            actualization

              esteem

      love and belongingness

               safety

            physiological
1. physiological needs

                     • Food
                     • Water
                     • Sex
                     • Elimination
                     • Sleep
2. safety needs

                  • Structure
                  • Order
                  • Security
                  • Predictability
3. belongingness & love needs
                • Friends
                • Companions
                • Supportive Family
                • Identification w/ a
                Group
                • Intimate Relationship
4. esteem needs
         • Recognition from Other People
            • Prestige
            • Acceptance
            • Status
         • Self-Esteem
            • Adequacy
            • Competence
            • Confidence
Desire to Know and Understand
     tools used to solve problems
with satisfying basic needs

     secrecy, censorship will prevent
satisfying needs
Those are all deficiency needs.
                  There is
                  something
                  missing.




                          There is something higher.
5. self-actualization




   • Develop potentials and talents
   • Fulfill mission (call) in life
   • Understand and accept own
   nature
   • Create unity or integration
   within self
    Growth occurs spontaneously, if lower order
                  needs are met.
   However, lower needs do not have to be 100% satisfied to
    move on to a higher need
   Person usually addressing more than one level at a time

   People long deprived of a need may never progress to
    higher needs

   Very talented people may proceed directly to self-actualization
    w/o satisfying lower needs
Hierarchy
                            Self-actualization
of Needs                    (B-Needs)

                self-
            actualization

              esteem                 Lower-order
                                        needs
      love and belongingness          (D-Needs)


               safety

            physiological
Differences between D-motivation
& B-motivation
   D-motivation: deficiency
     Need-directed  perception; D perception; D cognition;
      deficiency motives (D motives)
     Person motivated by absence of needed elements;
      non-self-actualizing


   B-motivation: being
     Growth  motivation; B perception; "metamotivated“
     Person motivated by personal inner growth; self-
      actualizing
   D-love is jealous (selfish, self-directed; need for
    love and belongingness)
   B-love is trusting (nonpossessive; allows partner
    to grow)
   Metapathology
     Failure to satisfy a b-need
        Truth: Dishonesty (cynicism, distrust)

        Justice: Injustice (jungle worldview)

        Playfulness: Humorlessness (depression, loss of zest in life)




   Peak Experience
     Being experiences that have intense feelings of
      ecstasy
           Catching the winning touchdown at the Superbowl
           Performing a song “just right”
Characteristics of
self-actualized people
efficient perception of reality
 • Not colored by
 needs/defenses
 • Enables person to
 perceive deception, judge
 others accurately
acceptance
 • Recognize who they and
 others really are
 • Not burdened by undue
 guilt, anxiety, shame
 • Feel no need to convert
 others
 • Accept both weaknesses
 and strengths in others
 without feeing threatened
spontaneity
 • Tend to be true to their
 feelings
 • Do not hide behind a
 mask
problem-centered
• Committed to a task or a
cause, not preoccupied
with themselves
need for privacy (solitude)
 • Company of others not
 needed at all times
 • Rely on their own
 interpretations of events,
 rather than other peoples’
autonomy
• Independence from
culture & environment

• Outside rewards (acclaim
from others) less important
than inner growth and
development
freshness of appreciation
 • Continuously experience
 events with awe, wonder
 • These experiences create
 energy
peak experiences
 • Embracing of B-values
human kinship
 • Desire to help all
 humanity
interpersonal relationships
 • Only a few, but deep, friendships
strong ethical sense
 • Awareness of ethical implications for all
 their actions
sense of humor
 • Being able to laugh at
 yourself
 • Not finding humor in
 events that degrade or
 harm others
creativity
 • Found in all self-
 actualized people
resistance to enculturation
 • Tend to be nonconformists (i.e., if cultural
 norm contradicts what they believe, they will
 not conform)
But…
    self-actualized people
are not perfect.

   - boring, stubborn, irritating, vain
   - occasionally ruthless
   - temper outburst
   - silly, wasteful, thoughtless habits
Self-Actualized People Rare (1%)

   Why?
    Obstacles to Self-Actualization
    1. Self-actualization is at the top of the
       hierarchy, which makes it weaker than any
       of the other needs
    2. Most people fear uncertainty, esp. when it is
       related to personal self-knowledge
            Threat to self-concept
            Jonah complex
Jonah complex
                   Fear of one’s own
                    greatness, running
                    from one’s destiny
                    and best talents
                     Named    after the
                      biblical Jonah, who
                      tried to escape his
                      fate
 Self-Actualized People Rare (1%)
Why? continued
3. Choice between
   safety & growth
        Freedom within limits


4.   Cultural environment
Criticisms
 Biased toward Western cultures
 Overly optimistic
 Unscientific
 Exceptions exist
     Who   can be self-actualized?

								
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