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Maslow (1908-1970) Need Hierarchy Theory Early Influences 1941: horrified by hatred in WWII, wanted to find and study “best specimens of mankind” While studying two of his most admired people (Wertheimer & Benedict) he noticed patterns that could be applied to all people Scientific Approaches Reductive-analytic approach to science: Reduce object to component parts Psychoanalytic Behaviorist Desacralize: to distort human nature and make it less marvelous and dignified Holistic-analytic approach to science: Totality of object (both pos. & neg.) Humanistic (Third Force) Needs Human needs are instinctoid (or innate) Differentfrom animal instincts b/c they are weaker, less absolute Hierarchy of human needs Bottom:strongest, humans and animals Top: weakest, humans only Hierarchy of Needs self- actualization esteem love and belongingness safety physiological 1. physiological needs • Food • Water • Sex • Elimination • Sleep 2. safety needs • Structure • Order • Security • Predictability 3. belongingness & love needs • Friends • Companions • Supportive Family • Identification w/ a Group • Intimate Relationship 4. esteem needs • Recognition from Other People • Prestige • Acceptance • Status • Self-Esteem • Adequacy • Competence • Confidence Desire to Know and Understand tools used to solve problems with satisfying basic needs secrecy, censorship will prevent satisfying needs Those are all deficiency needs. There is something missing. There is something higher. 5. self-actualization • Develop potentials and talents • Fulfill mission (call) in life • Understand and accept own nature • Create unity or integration within self Growth occurs spontaneously, if lower order needs are met. However, lower needs do not have to be 100% satisfied to move on to a higher need Person usually addressing more than one level at a time People long deprived of a need may never progress to higher needs Very talented people may proceed directly to self-actualization w/o satisfying lower needs Hierarchy Self-actualization of Needs (B-Needs) self- actualization esteem Lower-order needs love and belongingness (D-Needs) safety physiological Differences between D-motivation & B-motivation D-motivation: deficiency Need-directed perception; D perception; D cognition; deficiency motives (D motives) Person motivated by absence of needed elements; non-self-actualizing B-motivation: being Growth motivation; B perception; "metamotivated“ Person motivated by personal inner growth; self- actualizing D-love is jealous (selfish, self-directed; need for love and belongingness) B-love is trusting (nonpossessive; allows partner to grow) Metapathology Failure to satisfy a b-need Truth: Dishonesty (cynicism, distrust) Justice: Injustice (jungle worldview) Playfulness: Humorlessness (depression, loss of zest in life) Peak Experience Being experiences that have intense feelings of ecstasy Catching the winning touchdown at the Superbowl Performing a song “just right” Characteristics of self-actualized people efficient perception of reality • Not colored by needs/defenses • Enables person to perceive deception, judge others accurately acceptance • Recognize who they and others really are • Not burdened by undue guilt, anxiety, shame • Feel no need to convert others • Accept both weaknesses and strengths in others without feeing threatened spontaneity • Tend to be true to their feelings • Do not hide behind a mask problem-centered • Committed to a task or a cause, not preoccupied with themselves need for privacy (solitude) • Company of others not needed at all times • Rely on their own interpretations of events, rather than other peoples’ autonomy • Independence from culture & environment • Outside rewards (acclaim from others) less important than inner growth and development freshness of appreciation • Continuously experience events with awe, wonder • These experiences create energy peak experiences • Embracing of B-values human kinship • Desire to help all humanity interpersonal relationships • Only a few, but deep, friendships strong ethical sense • Awareness of ethical implications for all their actions sense of humor • Being able to laugh at yourself • Not finding humor in events that degrade or harm others creativity • Found in all self- actualized people resistance to enculturation • Tend to be nonconformists (i.e., if cultural norm contradicts what they believe, they will not conform) But… self-actualized people are not perfect. - boring, stubborn, irritating, vain - occasionally ruthless - temper outburst - silly, wasteful, thoughtless habits Self-Actualized People Rare (1%) Why? Obstacles to Self-Actualization 1. Self-actualization is at the top of the hierarchy, which makes it weaker than any of the other needs 2. Most people fear uncertainty, esp. when it is related to personal self-knowledge Threat to self-concept Jonah complex Jonah complex Fear of one’s own greatness, running from one’s destiny and best talents Named after the biblical Jonah, who tried to escape his fate Self-Actualized People Rare (1%) Why? continued 3. Choice between safety & growth Freedom within limits 4. Cultural environment Criticisms Biased toward Western cultures Overly optimistic Unscientific Exceptions exist Who can be self-actualized?
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