Docstoc

Socio-Economic Research

Document Sample
Socio-Economic Research Powered By Docstoc
					Village Environmental Management Plans (VEMPs) for
                Dungonab Bay and Mukkawar Island
                                     National Park

  Creation and Development of VEMPs for the villages of
  Mohammed Qol and Dungonab, Red Sea State, Sudan

                               Paul Harrison and Melita Samoilys




                                                 December 2007
Village Environmental Management Plans (VEMPs)
           for Dungonab Bay and Mukkawar Island
                  National Park

Creation and Development of VEMPs for the villages of
Mohammed Qol and Dungonab, Red Sea State, Sudan




               P. Harrison and M.A. Samoilys




                   December 2007




                             i
The designation of geographical entities in this book, and the presentation of the material, do
not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of IUCN, WCGA Sudan or
African Parks Foundation concerning the legal status of any country, territory, or area, or of its
authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of IUCN, WCGA
Sudan, African Parks Foundation or their partners and associates.

This publication has been made possible by funding from African Parks Foundation.


Published by:




                                                                                           `


                     Reproduction of this publication for educational or other non-commercial
                     purposes is authorized without prior written permission from the
                     copyright holder provided the source is fully acknowledged.

                     Reproduction of this publication for resale or other commercial purposes
                     is prohibited without prior written permission of the copyright holder.


Citation:            Harrison, P., & Samoilys, M.A. (2007): Village Environmental
                     Management Plans (VEMPs) for Dungonab Bay and Mukkawar Island
                     National Park: Creation and Development of VEMPs for the Villages of
                     Mohammed Qol and Dungonab, Red Sea State, Sudan, ix + 44p.

Photos:               Paul Harrison / Kilimanyika, except ‘manta ray’ by Melita Samoilys


Available from:      IUCN EARO Publications Service Unit
                     P. O. Box 68200 - 00200, Nairobi, Kenya
                     Tel: + 254 20 890605 - 12,
                     Fax: +254 20 890615
                     E-mail: earo@iucn.org




                                                ii
                                                                 Table of Contents
Tables and Figures.............................................................................................................................................iv
   1      Tables .................................................................................................................................................iv
   2      Figures ................................................................................................................................................iv
Executive Summary............................................................................................................................................ v
   1      Background ......................................................................................................................................... v
   2      Discussion ..........................................................................................................................................vi
   3      Recommendations ..............................................................................................................................vi
Acknowledgements ..........................................................................................................................................vii
Abbreviations and Acronyms ..........................................................................................................................viii
Glossary.............................................................................................................................................................ix
Scope of Study.................................................................................................................................................... 1
   1      Background to the Study ..................................................................................................................... 1
   2      Aims and Objectives of the Study ....................................................................................................... 1
   3      Outline of Report................................................................................................................................. 1
Context ............................................................................................................................................................... 2
   1      Geographical Context .......................................................................................................................... 2
   2      Historical Context................................................................................................................................ 4
   3      Cultural Context .................................................................................................................................. 4
Introduction to the VEMP Process ..................................................................................................................... 7
   1      Key role of the VEMPs ....................................................................................................................... 7
   2      Structuring the VEMP process ............................................................................................................ 7
   3      The Rationale for each VEMP............................................................................................................. 8
   4      A Short Description of each Village.................................................................................................... 8
   5      Assessment of Natural Resources and Opportunities .......................................................................... 8
   6      A Village-based Zoning Scheme ......................................................................................................... 9
   7      Institutional Management System ..................................................................................................... 10
   8      VEMP Management Strategy and Objectives ................................................................................... 11
   9      VEMP Management Activities.......................................................................................................... 12
   10     Monitoring and Evaluation................................................................................................................ 12
The Current VEMP Process.............................................................................................................................. 13
   1      Current Situation ............................................................................................................................... 13
   2      Justification of the VEMP Process .................................................................................................... 13
   3      Mohammed Qol Village .................................................................................................................... 13
   4      Dungonab Village.............................................................................................................................. 14
   5      Background Information on Villages ............................................................................................... 14
   6      Assessment of Natural Resources and Opportunities ........................................................................ 20
   7      Village-based zoning schemes........................................................................................................... 25
   8      Institutional Management System ..................................................................................................... 29
   9      Management Strategy and Objectives ............................................................................................... 33
   10     Management Activities...................................................................................................................... 35
   11     Monitoring and Evaluation................................................................................................................ 35
Discussion & Recommendations ...................................................................................................................... 36
References ........................................................................................................................................................ 38
Appendix 1. Methodology ................................................................................................................................ 40
   1      Method............................................................................................................................................... 40
   2      Limitations......................................................................................................................................... 40
   3      Field Activities .................................................................................................................................. 41
Appendix 2: VEMP Guidelines for Facilitators................................................................................................ 42




                                                                                 iii
Tables and Figures

1     Tables
Table 1:     Boundaries of Dungonab & Mohammed Qol Villages................................................................... 14
Table 2:     Natural Resources Available to Mohammed Qol (Habitats and Species)....................................... 20
Table 3:     Natural Resources Available to Dungonab (Habitats and Species) ................................................ 21
Table 4:     Natural Resources Issues for Mohammed Qol ............................................................................... 22
Table 5:     Natural Resources Issues for Dungonab ......................................................................................... 23
Table 6:     Dungonab VEMP Initial Management Objectives ......................................................................... 34
Table 7:     Timetable of Field Activities in Sudan ........................................................................................... 41



2     Figures
Figure 1:    Map of Dungonab Bay and Mukkawar Island National Park ........................................................... 2
Figure 2:    Satellite Images of Mohamed Qol (left) & Dungonab (right) Villages ............................................ 3
Figure 3:    Structuring Strategy, Objectives & Activities................................................................................. 11
Figure 4:    Linking Objectives with Activities ................................................................................................. 12
Figure 5:    Mohammed Qol Village Sketch Map ............................................................................................. 17
Figure 6:    Dungonab Village Sketch Map....................................................................................................... 19
Figure 7:    Mohammed Qol Village: Use of Shells .......................................................................................... 24
Figure 8:    Dungonab Village: Use of Shells.................................................................................................... 24
Figure 9:    Mohammed Qol Marine Resources Map ........................................................................................ 27
Figure 10:   Dungonab Marine Resources Map.................................................................................................. 28
Figure 11:   Mohammed Qol Roles & Responsibilities...................................................................................... 29
Figure 12:   Dungonab Roles & Responsibilities ............................................................................................... 31
Figure 13:   Dungonab Summary Objectives of VEMP..................................................................................... 34




                                                                     iv
 Executive Summary

1     Background
Dungonab Bay and Mukawwar Island National Park (DBMINP) was declared by the Government of
Sudan in 2004. African Parks Foundation (APF) was invited by the Government of Sudan to take over
management of DBMINP in 2005 and management of the Park is now in the early stages of
implementation. IUCN East Africa Regional Office (EARO) as a partner to APF is providing a
technical advisory service to APF in the implementation of this Park.
The aim of this study is to report on the initial development of Village Environmental Management
Plans (VEMPs) with communities of DBMINP in two villages, Mohammed Qol and Dungonab
following fieldwork and facilitation activities in those villages in September 2007.
This work details two strands of information relating to the development of Village Environmental
Management Plans, firstly the illustration of a suggested framework that can be used to guide the
VEMP process in DBMINP and secondly provides information on the VEMP process to date.
This report is thus divided into two key sections:
•   Introduction and guidelines to the VEMP process
•   A report on the VEMP process thus far for Mohammed Qol and Dungonab
Following these two key stages, discussion and recommendations are given. This report is considered
to be an introduction to the VEMP process for Mohammed Qol and Dungonab and is intended to be
used to guide the next phase with the ultimate objective of successful VEMP processes being
completed. Successful VEMPs will lead into the General Management Plan (GMP).
VEMPs allow a participatory, ‘bottom-up’ process of management to impact on the GMP because
they incorporate the views and the involvement of local communities. The GMP itself will follow
from the initial findings and actions developed during this initial VEMP process and build these
findings into research and analysis provided by a range of experts and stakeholders including socio-
economic and ecological studies by technical specialists.
As a community based management system, successful VEMPs should allow the communities a level
of oversight of the resources with which they live, both terrestrial and marine. However, with such
management comes distinct responsibilities. Each VEMP follows a set of guidelines that follow a
logical process (adapted from Hogan and Bashagi 2005). Thus each VEMP should contain the
following:
•   The rationale for each VEMP
•   A short description of each village
•   Natural resources, management issues, problems and opportunities
•   A village-based zoning scheme
•   An institutional management system
•   Management strategy and objectives
•   Management actions
•   Monitoring and evaluation
These are presented in further detail in the report.



                                                       v
2     Discussion
If the framework that has been developed for this work is followed, VEMPs may provide a important
opportunity for the communities of Mohammed Qol and Dungonab to take an active and responsible
part in the future management of the DBMINP.
The community have a number of key advantages on their side that will help provide opportunities
and an enabling environment for the VEMP process to be taken forward and completed in a
successful manner. First, the Beja communities of Mohammed Qol and Dungonab villages have in
their culture the customary law of the silif. Second, because of the restrictions of poverty and only a
relatively recent shift towards dependency on marine resources, the Beja have not yet significantly
drained marine resources. Third, the Beja generally recognise that their future rests on careful
management of terrestrial and marine resources
There are however a number of hurdles to cross. The silif and its related systems and relationships
will not solve the question of resource management alone. Furthermore, the silif did not develop from
marine based livelihoods, though there are some limited guidelines in Dungonab. The other major
hurdles are lack of money and lack of training. With incomes being very low, prioritising the
environment will not come before economic development. The Beja will need financial support
through the VEMP process to ensure it remains a priority that will also allow for costs of living to be
met.


3     Recommendations
Having provided a framework, introduced this to the Beja communities and understood many of the
key issues, the following next steps are suggested.
•   Translate this work into Arabic and disseminate it to selected facilitators who will go onto
    lead the development of VEMPs in both Mohammed Qol and Dungonab villages
•   Working with the communities, select a group of representatives, up to 20 people, ideally
    gender balanced and incorporating different age groups, interests and livelihood activities.
    Ensure that these groups will stay together during the VEMP process so that there is no
    draining of knowledge. Ensure agreement that these representatives will disseminate
    information on the VEMP process through regular meetings and follow up discussions in
    order to avoid too much emphasis on creating local elites
•   Identify with the newly formed groups a timeframe for the VEMP process to continue,
    following the guidelines given in this work. Carry out each stage of the VEMP process
    with those groups according to the timetable
•   Ensure that each VEMP is well coordinated with the other village, through elected liaison
    officers. Similarly, ensure that technical experts in APF, IUCN or from other
    organisations be well informed about the process and findings of each VEMP. Likewise,
    where possible, explain and incorporate key scientific data that arises from the work of
    technical experts be aligned with the ongoing work of the communities in developing the
    VEMPs.




                                                   vi
Acknowledgements
My grateful appreciation for all those who assisted in the funding, preparation, research and collation
of this study. In particular I would like to thank the following:
•   Ahmed Adam Tamin, Abda Awad Masheet, and Hassan Kazim of ACORD, Sudan for
    excellent facilitation, translation and general assistance in the fieldwork and in developing
    new partnerships.
•   David Kooistra, Parks Coordinator, Dungonab Bay & Mukkawar Island National Park &
    Sanganeb Marine National Park, African Parks Foundation, Sudan. David ensured I was
    well cared and provided for during my stay in Sudan
•   El Tom Bakhid Abkray of HAC, GOS, Sudan for general assistance in the fieldwork and
    in developing new partnerships.
•   The communities and leadership of Mohammed Qol and Dungonab villages for their
    welcome, patience and involving discussions.
•   The office staff and facilitators of African Parks Foundation, Sudan for their support in
    arrangements and field work.
•   The office staff of IUCN EARO, Kenya for their support in arrangements.




                                                   vii
Abbreviations and Acronyms
            AIDS              Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
            ACORD             Agency for Co-operation and Research in Development
            APF               African Parks Foundation
            AIG               Alternative income generating activity
            CBO               Community Based Organisation
            CLA               Coastal Livelihoods Assessment
            DBMINP            Dungonab Bay and Mukawwar Island Marine National Park
            EARO              Eastern Africa Regional Office (IUCN)
            FAD               Fish Aggregating Device
            FFW               Food for Work (ACORD Programme)
            GBP               British Pounds
            GMP               General Management Plan
            GOS               Government of Sudan
            HAC               Humanitarian Aid Commission
            HIV               Human Immunodeficiency Virus
            IUCN              World Conservation Union
            ITCZ              Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone
            M&E               Monitoring and Evaluation
            MFI               Microfinance Institution
            MPA               Marine Protected Area
            NGO               Non Governmental Organisation
            RRA               Rapid Rural Appraisal
            RSS               Red Sea State (Sudan)
            SDP               Sudanese Pounds 1
            SME               Small to Medium Enterprises
            TANGO             Technical Assistance to NGOs
            UNDP              United Nations Development Programme
            USD               United States Dollars
            VEMP              Village Environmental Management Plan
            VDC               Village Development Committee
            WCGA              Wildlife Conservation General Administration




1
    At the time of research the exchange rates were SDP: USD: 2:1 and SDP:GBP: 4:1.


                                                            viii
Glossary
         Arabic terms 2

         Ngat Elbahar       Dugong
         Bahar              Sea
         Barr               Land
         Bayad              Yellow spotted trevally fish
         Bohar              Snapper fish
         Dh’ufra            Perfume made using opercula of certain molluscs
         Dirak              Spanish mackerel fish
         Foful              Spiny snapper
         Gushar             Grouper fish - various species
         Kombeer            School barracuda fish
         Khor               Seasonal stream inlet
         Najil              Coral trout fish
         Nazir              Highest tribal officer
         Omda               Middle tribal officer
         Sanduk             Box, where women keep any savings
         Sheikh             Lower tribal officer
         Shauor             Emperor fish - various species
         Touwina            Greasy Grouper fish
         Qabila             Tribe
         Wadi               Valley

         TuBedawiye (Beja) Terms

         Bahari Silif       Marine component of customary law
         Dhura              Sorghum porridge
         Diwab              Lineage, minimal tribal group
         Foul               Meal made of horse beans and oil
         Gwadab             Symbolic token payment for use of land
         Hubit              Autumn, rainy season
         Imay               Spring
         Kurai              Grazing territory of each diwab
         Lahagen            Gift of animals that a young man receives when he gets married
         Mahagaib           Summer
         Sakanab            Ritualised greetings used to exchange news and obtain information
         Silif              Customary law
         Tait               Gift of animals
         Togwan             Gift at funerals
         TuBedawiye         Beja language
         Tusela             Gift given to sick people
         Tuyahmu            Animals given or loaned to poor family
         Wiyab              Winter




2
  Source of both Arabic and TuBedawiye terms: Reed (1964), Pantuliano (2000), Hjort af Ornäs & Dahl, (1991) and Tamin
(pers.comm.)


                                                          ix
Scope of Study

1     Background to the Study
Dungonab Bay and Mukawwar Island National Park (DBMINP) was declared by the Government of
Sudan in 2004, following several years of preparatory work by the Sudan Wildlife Conservation
General Administration (WCGA) and PERSGA (the Regional Organisation for the Protection of the
Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). Preparatory work included baseline surveys of the
marine and coastal habitats and biodiversity of the area, preparation of a Survey Report, and the
subsequent preparation of a Master Plan (PERSGA 2004).
African Parks Foundation (APF) was invited by the Government of Sudan to take over management
of DBMINP in 2005, and management of the Park is now in the early stages of implementation.
IUCN East Africa Regional Office (EARO) as a partner to APF is providing a technical advisory
service to APF in the implementation of the Park (May 2007- April 2008). One of the key activities is
the development of a General Management Plan (GMP) for the Park building on IUCN’s experience
in this field (e.g. IUCN 2004).
As part of the proposed DBMINP management planning, there are requirements for activities relating
to the socio-economic realities of the Park communities. These include the need for Village
Environmental Management Plans (VEMPs) for integration into the GMP and for coastal livelihoods
assessments (CLAs) to ascertain options for future sustainable livelihood regimes for communities
living within the Park.


2     Aims and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this work is to report on the initial development of Village Environmental Management
Plans with communities of DBMINP in two villages, Mohammed Qol and Dungonab following
fieldwork and facilitation activities in those villages in September 2007.
This VEMP report intends to compliment additional work being carried out by the project partners
including the GMP, CLA (dealt with by the consultant in a sister report), a baseline socio-economic
assessment, park financing strategies and national capacity building. It is suggested that this report is
read in conjunction with the CLA report if possible in order to gather a greater insight into the
communities who will be central to the VEMP process.
This report is considered to be an introduction to the VEMP process for Mohammed Qol and
Dungonab and is intended to be used to guide the next phase with the objective of successful VEMP
processes being completed. Successful VEMPs will lead into the GMP.


3     Outline of Report
This work details two strands of information relating to the development of VEMPs, firstly the
illustration of a suggested framework that can be used to guide the VEMP process in DBMINP and
secondly provides information on the VEMP process to date.
This report is thus divided into two key sections:
•   Introduction and guidelines to the VEMP process
•   A report on the VEMP process thus far for Mohammed Qol and Dungonab
Following these two key stages, some short recommendations are given. The framework and methods
for this approach are given more attention in the Appendices.

                                                     1
Context

1     Geographical Context

1.1   Location
Dungonab Bay and Mukkawar Island National Park lies in Red Sea State (RSS) on the eastern coastal
boundary of Sudan. The southern boundary of DBMINP is located approximately 160 kilometres
north of Port Sudan and the Park extends north over 200 kilometres of Red Sea coastline. The total
park area is 2,800 km2, which includes 800 km2 of land and 2,000 km2 of marine habitat. DBMINP
incorporates reefs, islands, khors, sand and mud bays, seagrass beds, some mangroves and offshore
marine habitats.




                Figure 1:      Map of Dungonab Bay and Mukkawar Island
                               National Park

                                              Source: African Parks Foundation


                                                2
On its western (landward) side, the Park includes a substantial area of coastal land between 5km and
10km wide. On its eastern (seaward) side, the Park extends between 5km offshore and 35km offshore
covering the area of Mukkawar Island and the large complex of reefs to the south of the Dungonab
Peninsula.
The land area of the Park is generally flat, crossed to the northern part of the Park by Khor Shanab, a
seasonal channel that is fed from a long line of hills which run roughly parallel to the coast at a
distance of between 20 and 50 miles from the sea. These hills reach up to 1,200m above sea level. The
area of land within the Park includes two principal villages, Mohammed Qol and Dungonab.




         Figure 2:       Satellite Images of Mohamed Qol (left) & Dungonab (right) Villages

                                                                            Source: Google Earth

1.2   Climate & Rainfall
Rainfall is limited and highly variable, both temporally and spatially. The coastal areas receive rain in
the winter time from November to January. Heavy dew is common from January until April. The
interior hills receive rain between July and August as a result of the northerly movement of the Inter-
Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Records indicate mean annual rainfall in RSS to be in the range
of 30 to 90mm per annum (Babiker & Pantuliano, 2006, Pantuliano, 2000).
Neither the saline soils found on the coastal plains nor the rocky soils found in the hills hold much
groundwater which means pastures and thus grazing opportunities are limited as are opportunities for
cultivation (Babiker & Pantuliano, 2006).
Temperatures are high, with an average in RSS of 30 degrees Celsius. This rises to a mean average of
36 degrees in the summer (June and July) and falls to 26 degrees in the winter (January and February).
Daytime temperatures can be considerable; the high 40s are not uncommon in the summer.

1.3   Population
The population of Red Sea State is estimated at over 800,000 of which more than 60% is believed to
be in Port Sudan. Socio-economic and political factors and climate change are increasing rural-urban
migration, related to changing circumstances in the management of rural livelihoods. The population
within DBMINP is estimated to be in the region of 2,000.
The communities living in and around DBMINP are predominantly of the Beja people. The Beja are
made up of three ethnic groups, namely Amar’ar (also called Atmaan), Bisharynn and Hadendowa.
These three groups share a common language and cultural practices which relate to management of
their surrounding environment, land and resource ownership and kinship.
The Bisharyyn, who dominate the northern part of Halaib Province and RSS in general are the most
common ethnic group in Dungonab village. In Mohamed Qol the most common ethnic group is the
Amar’ar, although there is a great deal of overlap in both areas.



                                                   3
2       Historical Context
The Beja have a long history; the first records of the Beja in North-Eastern Sudan come from
Egyptian expeditions to the area c.2500BC. Nomadic traders since Pharaonic times, the Beja are also
referred to in early Greek and Roman history. Influenced by the growing number of Bedu and other
Arab peoples coming across the Red Sea and from Egypt, the Beja steadily converted to Islam
between 1000 and 1300AD and continued to maintain and expand in their livelihoods as nomadic
traders of camels and petty goods (Pantuliano, 2000).
The impact of the colonial eras of the nineteenth century onwards began a shift in Beja livelihoods
particularly with the impact of taxes and changing land use practices. An increasing number of Beja
moved to the towns and to mines to get work as the areas over which they had ranged steadily became
reduced. Droughts and famines also took their toll on livestock numbers during this period especially
the 1940s. After Sudan’s independence from Great Britain in 1956, the Beja played an increasing role
in the political system of the country partly in order to reduce the state of marginalisation that the Beja
were experiencing. However a continued lack of representation combined with a number of severe
droughts in the 1970s followed by drought and famine in the 1980s saw the Beja continue to lose their
livestock and access both to other assets and to social services (ibid). In particular, the drought of
1985-86 led to the loss of from 45% to 95% of Beja herds. (Pantuliano, 2000, Hjort af Ornäs & Dahl,
1991). Data variations and sampling limitations mean it is difficult to give a precise figure,
nonetheless the impact on Beja livelihoods was severe (Pantuliano, 2000).
The Beja have struggled to recover from these changes, particularly the near complete loss of their
livestock, an asset base which has been at the centre of their livelihood strategies throughout their
long history. According to Pantuliano (2002):
          The increased inability of Beja pastoralists to cope with and recover from climatic crises was
          one of the main reasons why the drought that hit their region at the beginning of the 1980s
          degenerated into a famine of disastrous proportions....For most of the Beja it was too late to
          preserve a minimum number of animals to allow for restocking once the drought and famine
          were over. They were doubly impaired because they were still in the process of recovering
          from the severe 1973 drought. The international aid agencies had to act fast in an area where
          they had little previous experience and where little information was available about the
          ecological nature of the region and the socio-economic system of its inhabitants. As a result,
          many mistakes were made, which further contributed to a weakening of the Beja livelihood
          system. (Pantuliano, 2002):
With the loss of livestock, many have sought alternatives. In Port Sudan and other areas, the Beja
have sought work in the docks and when the mines were open some worked in these. In the rural areas
along the coastline the Beja have turned, over a period of two to three generations 3 , from pastoralists
to fishers. In the past, the Beja been fishing on an occasional level to diversify their incomes and diets,
especially during difficult times. With a lack of livestock, fishing went from being a supplementary
livelihood activity to a principal one. However the life and cultures of a nomadic pastoralist are
deeply engrained and continue to be evident in Beja society and their outlook on life.


3       Cultural Context
The language the Beja speak is called TuBedawiye. It is an unwritten Cushitic language. Partly
because it is unwritten, it is slowly being eroded by the use of Arabic, especially amongst the younger
and urbanised populations (Tamin, pers comm.).



3
  The term ‘generation’ is used loosely to refer to the period of time between being born and the typical age of giving birth,
Twenty years is given here for simplicities sake, based on three or four generations per average lifespan. This is meant as a
guide, based on the writer’s individual assessment not any formal research, nor is it gender-specific.


                                                               4
Through the Sakanab, the ritualised greetings of the Beja, a great deal of business is done. Initially
enquiring about the state of the family, recent goings on and so on, these long formal discussions
allow men to discuss reciprocal agreements and find favour with one another. Long discussions are
held by men over coffee which is also a ritualised activity that involves grinding and roasting the
beans prior to mixing them with water and sugar.
Beja leadership is managed through a patriarchal system. The Nazir is tribal leader. At the middle
level is the Omda. There is one in each if the study villages. Below each Omda are a number of
Sheikhs who each lead large extended families. Disputes amongst the Beja are first taken to these
tribal officials. If the matter cannot be resolved through this system it is then taken to the police and
law courts. Most Beja prefer to deal with disputes though this system following the customary law of
the silif.

3.1     Silif Customary Law
Beja livelihoods are regulated by a complex and flexible system of customary law called silif 4 which
acts as a form of environmental monitoring and taboo. According to Babiker & Pantuliano (2006):
          Silif regulates access to and redistribution of resources, reciprocal use of environmental
          resources (grazing land, water points, arable land or firewood), environmental protection
          (e.g. the prohibition of cutting live trees), conflict resolution and reciprocity around major
          social events (birth, marriage and death). (Babiker & Pantuliano, 2006)
Silif has long been a form of managing livelihoods for the Beja who have to survive in an harsh and
unpredictable non-equilibrium environment where there is considerable climate variability.
          The aim [of the silif] is to protect the environment against over-exploitation....for instance, it
          would not be appropriate to cut a green tree for wood, but it would be to pollard a green tree
          for fodder. Rules are flexible and are negotiated between the Beja through alliances and
          agreements within or between the different groups, clans or lineages. The shaiks [sic] usually
          constitute the “management group” which provides the institutional framework for
          negotiating such rules (Pantuliano, 2000).
However, with changes in the conditions in which the Beja manage their livelihoods, particularly the
loss of livestock and the weakening of social groups as people have moved to towns and the coast, the
strength and impact of silif is said to be on the wane, no longer able to function as a means to support
people’s livelihoods in as holistic or useful a manner as in the past.
Despite the silif, some people cut whole trees, although this activity is usually blamed on outsiders
who are not aware of customary law that forbids them from doing so. It is apparent that a minority of
Beja are trying to work around the taboos of the silif by cutting the bark of the trees all around so that
when they return the tree is dead – and they are permitted to collect deadwood. However most people
spoken to during the CLA state that the majority respect the silif and realise the fragility of their
environment makes such activity unwise. The influence of the silif on Beja society is still a highly
pervading one.

3.2     Bahari Silif: A Marine Customary Law?
Given the history of the Beja as nomadic pastoralists, it is understandable that the silif applies to the
land environment most of all. For the fisher communities of Dungonab and Mohammed Qol villages
however, there are certain rules and regulations applying to the management and use of marine
resources which can be seen as applying to a ‘marine silif’.


4
  Silif is also referred to as Salif or O’Slif by some scholars. However, the use of the transliteration silif better reflects what
was heard by the writer in discussions, what was translated to him by the principal facilitator (Tamin pers comm.) and is also
the accepted usage of Pantuliano (2000 and subsequent work).




                                                                5
It is suggested in this report that the concept of a marine customary law, or ‘Bahari Silif, 5 ’ building on
existing Beja customary law, could be highly useful to the Beja communities dependent on marine
resources for their livelihoods. Through it they would be able to formalise existing rules and practices
of the silif relating to the use and management of marine resources, the allocation and ownership of
these resources and bring these in line with regulations developed for the Park. Once recognised as
part of customary law, any issues over punishment, resource allocation or favour may be dealt with in
typical Beja leadership style. Building on the bahari silif, this customary law could be structured
through a village environmental management planning process (addressed in a sister report) and be
formalised to link in with Sudan’s federal and state laws and the rules and regulations pertaining to
DBMINP general management.

3.3       Social Welfare and Resource Allocation
The Beja have a complex and highly supportive system of social welfare and reciprocity. The use of
gifts and loans such as lahagen, togwan and tait has allowed the Beja to support the poor or offer
assistance in the finances of newlyweds, for example. The lineage system of diwab divides land
ownership between kinship groups, managed by the silif, and the system of gwadab provides a
payment system for land usage. The resource base of each diwab is the kurai, or grazing territory.
However, the social welfare and resource allocation systems of the Beja have developed for a land-
based society and have little relationship to management of sea resources. Thus there is no kurai
division of the sea under each diwab and thus no payment of gwadab in the form of sea resources. It is
significant that the coastal Beja have not developed a similarly complex management systems for
their marine resources, or that it is still only at the early development stages, no doubt due to their
relatively recent involvement with marine resources.

3.4       General Management Planning
Dungonab Bay and Mukawwar Island National Park are in the process of developing a General
Management Plan (GMP) which will provide an overall management framework and is expected to
broadly include the following:
•      A description of the nature and location of the park
•      Biological, environmental, geological and cultural resources available
•      Management strategy & objectives
•      Management structure, actions and operational issues
•      Resource zoning scheme and regulations
•      Village environmental management plans
•      Monitoring and evaluation strategy
In development of a General Management Plan (GMP) for a Marine Protected Area (MPA) such as
DBMINP, priority should be given to Village Environment Management Plans (VEMPs), which form
the cornerstone of management within the MPA because the village community through the VEMP
process act as a daily, ‘on-the-ground’ support system to the MPA management team and rangers
VEMPs allow a participatory, ‘bottom-up’ process of management to impact on the GMP because
they incorporate the views and the involvement of local communities.. The GMP itself will follow
from the initial findings and actions developed during this initial VEMP process and build these
findings into research and analysis provided by a range of experts and stakeholders including socio-
economic and ecological studies by scientists.



5
    ‘Bahari Silif’ is the suggested term of Paul Harrison, translated by Ahmed Tamim.


                                                               6
Introduction to the VEMP Process

1     Key role of the VEMPs
The VEMP technique used for this report was adapted from the ‘VEMPing for Partnerships’
framework developed by Hogan and Bashagi (2005) for IUCN during work in MPAs in Tanzania. It
was modified to fit the social and geographical context of DBMINP and the Beja communities and
utilised a combination of community based and general natural resource management planning
experience of the writer and associates.
As a community based management system, successful VEMPs should allow the communities a level
of oversight of the resources in which they live, both terrestrial and marine. However, with such
management comes distinct responsibilities. These are defined through the following framework
which was presented to the communities in the villages of Mohammed Qol and Dungonab, both of
which are resident within DBMINP. A clear management planning procedure is important in order to
make sure the responsibilities of each VEMP are being met in each stage of the management process
and that these fit in with the structure of the overall General Management Plan. The GMP in itself is a
regulatory framework for responsible and organised management of the MPA.
Once they are finalised and approved by both local and MPA authorities, VEMPs should be collated
to ensure that they are compatible with one another, and will then form a core basis upon which the
MPA is managed provided they are compatible with the management objectives of the overall GMP.
In many ways, the format of each VEMP follows that of the GMP, which will ensure that the villages
become the on-the-ground implementers of the GMP. Such an approach is the only way to ensure that
the local communities are truly and meaningfully involved in the management of the MPA.
Each VEMP was allocated four full working days in its first phase which is described in this report. A
short period of time, this first phase provided an introduction to VEMPs and gathered useful
background information, however it was not sufficient time to carry out the VEMP process, which
will need to be taken forward. This phase will therefore need to be followed by additional phases of
training and implementation, the details of which follow.


2     Structuring the VEMP process
The first stage of the VEMPs was the gathering of a representative sample of people from both
villages. This was planned be an equal balance of male and female representatives. In reality a
combination of logistical limitations and cultural resistance made this impossible. Beja society is a
highly stratified one and patriarchal. Thus it was difficult to gather together groups of people where
women were equally represented, both in number and in voice. Management and timing constraints,
particularly of Ramadan and the need for people to continue daily livelihood activities, meant it was
difficult to control numbers of people who were represented in discussions, despite the fact that an
ideal number of 20 men and 20 women had been proposed (see the Methodology in Appendix 1).
However, as this was an initial phase, with careful planning and consultation it may be possible to
give more opportunity to women in the planning process and greater consistency of numbers. This is
encouraged providing it is done with considerable cultural sensitivity and can be absorbed within the
dynamic of Beja customs and social leadership structures.
The VEMP group has therefore not yet been formed for each village. However, when it is, it should
be made up of representatives from the village government, the whole Village Natural Resources
Committee (VNRC) if it is already in existence (otherwise it will be created), or otherwise a group of
people who are considered to have the intellect, initiative and leadership skills and experience, and be


                                                   7
sufficiently gender-balanced to be able to comprise the VNRC as it is formed. The VNRC will
oversee the management of the VEMP. There should also be representatives’ from the different
livelihood activities, such as fishers, pastoralists and traders. Importantly, the representatives should
be spokespeople of the community as a whole and not have a bias towards any particular kinship
group (diwab). There should be a good mix of age groups.


3     The Rationale for each VEMP
In introducing the VEMP to each village the community representatives were made aware of the
justification for a VEMP, the steps that will follow and the reasons why planning and management of
this kind can help both human development and environmental management, along the lines of:
        ...usually people plan in order to get a better sense of how they will live in the future. If
        people plan to save something for their futures they will have greater certainty about the state
        they will be in the future. For example, if you protect the reefs the fish will be more plentiful
        and bigger in the future...
Representatives were then informed that if the village’s natural resource assets are under a workable
legal management system which the villagers understand it will be possible to improve the state of the
resources and to use them in more sustainable ways. This legal system may be a formalisation and
extension of existing forms of customary law, where such law relates to environmental management.


4     A Short Description of each Village
The description of the village was gathered from the representatives and should be built on
information brought about from existing research where possible. In this case the information
provided in the CLA process (a sister study by Harrison, 2007) provided useful insights. The
description provides information on the following:
•   Where the village is and what area it incorporates
•   Human population (no. of households, adults, working adults, children)
•   History of the village
•   Beliefs, cultures, influence of culture and taboo on environmental management and
    understanding, importance of customary law
•   Economic activities found within the village
•   Community and social services available i.e. number of schools, mosques, buildings,
    water sources, health clinics
•   Village sketch map, outlining locations of homes, social services, religious institutions,
    natural resources, boundaries, terrestrial and marine areas, source of water, land available
    for different activities
A substantial degree of this information has been gathered for Mohammed Qol and Dungonab
villages and is presented in the sections on the current VEMP process below. Where information is
still lacking the report makes this clear.


5     Assessment of Natural Resources and Opportunities
This section incorporates current uses and values of natural resources. This will need to be a
participatory inventory based on an overview of the current understanding of species available and
where they are located rather than on an actual biological inventory (which requires training and will
come later). ‘Opportunities’ signifies those not taken (some may be taken, others will not be allowed


                                                   8
to if they are unsustainable) as well as those available. The assessment also built on findings from the
CLA, also participatory, which had immediately preceded this phase of the VEMP process.
This resource assessment should take the following steps,
•   Resources and their present uses and values. e.g. reefs, fish, trees
•   Issues in management of the resources
•   Problems in management, including unsustainable activities
•   Opportunities for better management and more profit
•   Recommendations (sustainable and better ways of managing and gaining value from in
    the future, actions required)
This resource assessment has already been introduced to representatives of Mohammed Qol and
Dungonab, as is detailed in the section on the current process below. However, it will need going over
again once formal groups have been developed for each VNRC to ensure the new group is clear about
what has initially been discussed in September 2007. Greater attention to detail will be required.


6     A Village-based Zoning Scheme
The community should be asked to assess and define the different zones they would like to have. This
assessment should take the following steps:
•   Creation of a Zonation map
•   Description of each of the zones and their uses
The mapping process should include zones such as living areas, graveyards, areas for schools,
mosques etc., then zones for each core livelihood activity, landing sites, markets etc. Then, marine
protection zones, ideally divided into three usage types:
•   Non utilisation; area closed off from any consumptive activity
•   Specified Utilisation; area managed; some utilisation allowed, some areas or species
    controlled, some not utilised at certain times (such as breeding periods)
•   General Use; limited controls
Such zoning should include areas set aside for marine life such as turtle nesting if possible. Initial
maps for Mohammed Qol and Dungonab are presented below. However the process will benefit from
a detailed revision of these maps in future.
As is shown in the section below detailing current process, this has been discussed to an introductory
level but no zoning scheme has yet been created.




                                                    9
7     Institutional Management System
The management system will need to develop committees with roles and responsibilities and
relationships with Park authorities, relations with the MPA, laws and penalties and financial
management responsibilities. It will incorporate the development or creation of Village Natural
Resources Committees (VNRCs). The VNRC will need (to an agreed level) the authority and formal
status to be able to take political or environmental policing decisions for the beneficial management of
the MPA. The committees will need to be transparent, electable and accountable.
This stage of the VEMP process should incorporate the following activities;
•   Assess who will be responsible for implementing the various parts of this plan
•   Discuss the need for the creation of a VNRC and potentially sub-committees, allocate
    their roles and responsibilities.
•   Develop communications and relations between the village and the MPA and between the
    village and local government
•   Introduce the need to create nationally applicable laws, silif customary laws and penalties.
    Each activity that will be seen as illegal should be discussed in future (linking in with
    traditional taboos) and agreement made how these will be addressed if someone or a
    group of people break a law
•   Discuss the need for natural resource financial management and allocate a value for key
    resources by a given amount, e.g. a certain amount per a certain type of fish, and then
    agree a system whereby resource use is taxed. Agreement will then be required as to who
    will manage the levies, whether banked, in which case, who will be signatories.
•   Discuss the need for records and data, which need to be kept, and how they will be used.
    e.g. agree the need for records on turtles, no. of nests and hatchlings; verify this by
    visiting the breeding areas in a regulated manner; allocate specific people to obtaining
    and disseminating the data.
Through discussions, representatives of Dungonab and Mohammed Qol have now been favourably
introduced to the concept of this process, with these steps explained to them and discussed on a
rudimentary level. The next stage will be to return to each of the activities listed above, and set up this
management system through a participatory process. In which case all the steps listed above will need
to be addressed in detail, with the development of objectives for each, action points and the allocation
of roles and responsibilities for each step.




                                                    10
8     VEMP Management Strategy and Objectives
There is a need in the development of a VEMP to have an agreement amongst communities about
what the overall strategy of each VEMP should be in its management and where it fits into the wider
management strategy of the GMP. The strategy should comprise of a statement of guiding principles
that will guide each VEMP, which are aligned with those of the neighbouring village, the MPA and
other stakeholders, all of which should feed into the GMP management strategy.
The guiding principles that will from the strategy should feed into a series of management objectives
which address the management issues and requirements of the village from a range of political,
ecological, social and economic contexts. The objectives should seek to meet the challenges of
environmental management and be closely drawn from the strategy.
Each objective should be assessed as to whether it is a core objective or a sub objective. After having
carefully assessed what the objectives should be, these should provide a framework for discussing and
deciding what management activities should be developed in order to implement the objectives.
Activities may mirror objectives, sub objectives should mirror sub activities in order to ensure there is
a framework for implementation. Thus, strategy should feed into objectives, objectives into activities,
as illustrated in figure 3 below.




               Figure 3:        Structuring Strategy, Objectives & Activities


The concept of this part of a VEMP was introduced in this study, as discussed in the section on the
current process below. The next step is to follow it in more detail. To do this, there is a need to outline
the objectives of the village as the community representatives see them, in order of importance, e.g.,
‘all natural resources are protected and secure’ or ‘water sources are protected’, or ‘better governance
systems created’ or ‘more reliable income generating activities achieved’. It is likely that some core
objectives may be divided into more clearly defined versions. For example, rather than ‘relieve
poverty’, objectives may be stated as ‘social services improved’, economic opportunities increased’.




                                                    11
9     VEMP Management Activities
Management activities therefore follow on from strategy and objectives. When these are discussed in
detail in the next stage, they will need to highlight the objectives that have been stated (as above).
Each objective will be turned into a core activity. For each sub activity it will be essential to define
what resources and tools will be required for each of these, where these resources/tools will come
from and an explanation that these will then be divided into sub activities for which a responsible
person or group will be allocated. If possible a target date should be given for each of these activities.
Figure 4 illustrates the logic of this approach.




               Figure 4:       Linking Objectives with Activities


The concept has been introduced, as is detailed in the section on current process below, however it
will require a considered participatory process with the selected representatives to ensure a detailed
and adequate framework of management strategy, objectives and activities be developed.


10 Monitoring and Evaluation
The VEMP Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) framework should provide support for regular
assessment of the impacts, positive and negative, resulting from activities being managed through the
VEMP process as well as the broader GMP. Thus there will be a need for a set of indicators so that
these impacts can be easily measured, maintained through careful and precise data collection systems
managed by the VNRC in collaboration with the MPA authorities.
Community representatives need to discuss how they will monitor their plan. In developing
monitoring and evaluation activities it will be important to assess issues will be evaluated, indicators,
data type and sources of data. The following example illustrates the M&E process:
•   Objective: Reefs, shallow and deep, protection improved.
•   Activities: Marker buoys put in place, restricted zones set up and enforced
•   Indicators (M&E): Markers can be seen in the appropriate areas, the no. of living things
    have increased, there are improved fish catches etc.
•   Type of data: No. of patrols per month etc.
•   Source of Data: VNRC, fishers etc.
Understanding how M&E works will need careful training. However once functioning, M&E is an
invaluable process for continued reassessment of the management planning process.


                                                   12
The Current VEMP Process

1     Current Situation
Initial development of the VEMP process was carried out in September 2007 amongst representatives
of Mohammed Qol and Dungonab villages. Largely a training and introduction exercise, the early
developments that took place in developing the VEMP process for both villages are detailed below.
Most notable in regarding what follows is that this was an introduction to individuals of a community
not familiar with the VEMP process and carried out over a short period of time. It is therefore a
relatively superficial assessment. However, the following information has been gathered by
introducing and following the VEMP framework detailed above and therefore acts as a foundation of
structure and information for taking the VEMP process forwards and, importantly, raises a number of
key issues that arose in this first phase.


2     Justification of the VEMP Process
In both villages, through discussion with those in attendance, male and female, the justification for the
VEMP process was explained and questions were answered. A discussion was initiated about “what is
our environment” and “what does the environment mean to us?”. In the Beja language there is no
single word for environment, but people do understand its meaning as “what is all around us”, and
“the resources available to us”, “people and resources”.


3     Mohammed Qol Village
The objective of the VEMP is now understood to be to formalise a system for Mohammed Qol village
to be able to manage their own resources in partnership with DBMINP authorities.
It was a difficult subject to introduce because it is a new system and there are concerns that the VEMP
would reduce access to resources which are currently essential to people’s livelihoods. However,
representatives stated that they could see how the VEMP could be an extension of the existing
practices of the silif and formally extend this for both terrestrial and marine resource management. A
number of people stated that they do not know enough about environmental management and will
need training in the VEMPs process if it is to be successfully implemented. There was a call for the
VEMP process to be managed properly with support from APF, so as to see “actions not words.”
One of the facilitation team, Ahmed Tamim, gave the following allegory to bring the subject into
closer focus:
        In an African state, hyenas were killing antelope. People complained and the government
        killed all the hyenas. Then the numbers of antelope rose sharply and ate all the pasture. Soon
        with no pasture the antelope became sick and died. The government was forced to start a
        breeding programme to reinstate the antelope population.
This brought into context for the group the importance of environmental management and the link
between different resources and species. In order to emphasise the importance of planning in
environmental management, the writer referred to the story of Noah, building the Arc before the rains.
The group of representatives were encouraged to share their experiences and ideas.




                                                   13
4       Dungonab Village
As with the introduction to Mohammed Qol, the rationale for the VEMP process was explained to the
community representatives, men and women, of Dungonab. It was explained that this VEMP was a
way for the community to manage their own resources in partnership, and manage them well enough
that future generations would continue to benefit from them.
The steps that will need to be taken were explained and support was shown by the representatives.
Some were concerned that they had not yet seen the real benefit of the Park and were keen to do so
before long. Others were concerned that they would need to see alternative income generating
opportunities if they were to stop fishing at some times of the year. Ahmed Tamim, gave the
following allegory to bring the subject into closer focus:
          There is a factory. In it are peacocks. The workers are getting allergies from the peacocks.
          They suggest eradicating them. The manager says, no, let us wait first and have a study done.
          The study reveals each peacock eats 1000 mosquitoes a day. Without the peacocks there
          would be malaria. If there was malaria the factory would lose so much money on medicines
          and lost staff time that it would lose its profits and close down.
Again, this brought into context for the group the importance of environmental management and the
link between different resources and species and the writer again referred to the story of Noah, before
discussion continued.


5       Background Information on Villages

5.1     Village Locations
Village boundaries as given as perceived by the residents. Mohammed Qol is located on the coastal
strip of land between the Red Sea hills and the sea itself. It is an open area which has developed over
time. Dungonab village is found to the west, mainland part of the Dungonab Bay area, north of
Mohammed Qol and south of Khor Shanab.

                         Table 1:        Boundaries of Dungonab &
                                         Mohammed Qol Villages
                          Boundary        Mohammed Qol          Dungonab
                          North           Dungonab village      Shanab
                          East            Abington Reef         The sea
                          South           Inkeifal              Sarara
                          West            Ograa valley          Tohandot

5.2     Mohammed Qol Population
The population, according to village figures, is as follows:
•     Under 5 years:      100
•     5 – 15 years:       90
•     15 – 40 years:      250
•     40 – 60 years:      190
•     Over 60 years:      90

5.3     Dungonab Population
The population of Dungonab, according to village figures, is stated as follows:


                                                   14
•     Dungonab:          800
•     Shanab:            200
•     Dalau:             300
•     Halaga:            150
•     Riwaya:            150

5.4     History of Mohammed Qol Village
Mohammed Qol was an individual, a fisherman and trader who came from Arabia. At that time
Arabia was poor and commodities were found in Sudan. Mohammed and his wife lived alone in the
area so the place was named after him. It became a centre for trade that thrived until the creation of
Port Sudan in the early 1900s, which replaced it in importance. President Ibrahim Aboud was born in
Mohammed Qol. It has developed over time especially since the great droughts of the 1940s and
1980s which caused most people to lose their livestock so they moved to the area to seek out other
opportunities in fishing, shell collection and trade. Before the loss of livestock people used to go to
Mohammed Qol seasonally and then return to pastoralism inland. There is a continued relationship
with inland Beja who trade livestock, firewood and charcoal in exchange for fish and other
commodities.

5.5     History of Dungonab Village
Dungonab was a settlement during the Mahdi’s time through periods of drought, when people would
come to the sea when the land was starved. It has become permanent since British colonial times.

5.6     Beliefs, Cultures and Taboos
The people are all Muslim and of Beja culture. Society is governed through a patriarchal system
involving a hierarchy of leadership beginning with the Nazir, based in Port Sudan and represented by
an Omda in the village who in turn is supported by Sheiks. The customary law of the silif provides
orally administered guidelines which include an understanding of what is forbidden, or taboo, and
what is allowed. The silif administers an ownership system that is divided into diwab, or kinship
groups, who each have access to ownership over different terrestrial territories (kurai).
Resource allocation in this manner is shared through a system of gifts and loans administered through
the patriarchal leadership. The silif was developed to deal with living in a difficult environment when
the Beja were pastoralists and traders and is largely focused on terrestrial resource management. For
example, it is taboo to cut green trees or to use resources allocated to others without permission.
However, many people ignore this, whether because they are outsiders or because conditions of
poverty give them no choice.
Of note, if someone cuts a tree in the desert he is considered a killer of people, such is the importance
of the natural environment to individual survival in arid lands. A similar sentiment is not felt as yet for
the sea, although concern over marine resource sustainability is mounting.
In Mohamed Qol, there is no marine version of the silif, although the writers suggestion of the VEMP
process allowing for the development of customary law for marine resource management, a Bahari
Silif, was looked upon favourably. There is some marine life protection in Dungonab through the silif,
such as being forbidden to destroy the reef and not catch juvenile fish. Nor is it allowed to catch
dolphins, dugongs, turtles, swordfish and certain sharks. This does not appear to be understood (or
possible to implement) by all fishers though.
The writer’s suggestion of the VEMP process allowing for the development of customary law for
marine resource management, a Bahari Silif, was looked upon favourably in both villages, especially
as the foundation is already there.



                                                    15
5.7     Economic Activities MQ
Economic activities are detailed more fully in the CLA report and summarised here.
•     Animal Husbandry: The Beja of this area used to have ample numbers of livestock to
      keep them self-sufficient. Now they have only a token amount, if any. However, the level
      of skills and experiences related to animal husbandry is considerable. Many wish to
      restock and most still reinvest any surplus financial capital into livestock if they can.
•     Agriculture: Agricultural production is limited, rain fed and long distances inland for
      both villages. Production is usually found on the banks of khors and in wadis of which
      there are few close to Mohammed Qol or Dungonab. The harsh and unpredictable climate
      makes farming highly difficult with limited options in terms of crops and a reliance on
      rain or groundwater.
•     Goods Trading: Trading is a long established livelihood activity, woven into the history
      of the Beja and their self-definition. Many people would still prefer to find new
      opportunities to trade, such as between Egypt and Port Sudan or Khartoum or locally.
      Men trade livestock, petty goods and essentials like bottled water, motor oil and diesel.
      Women trade both livestock and petty goods such as cigarettes, sugar and salt. Some sell
      perfume.
•     Artisanal Businesses: Many of the Beja are skilled craftsmen and women and have either
      historical or recently developed skill sets in particular artisanal trades. These include for
      men, boat building, net making, blacksmithing, mechanics, electricians, livestock
      butchering, fish processing, leather tanning and catering. For women these include
      cooking, baking, making handicrafts and tailoring.
•     Shell Collection: Some women collect shells for use as perfume. Some of the shells they
      keep for use for themselves and their husbands, others they sell. Shells producing dh’ufra
      perfumes are a lucrative business for those that are involved in them. In the sea some
      women collect sea cucumbers . In season, groups of men in Dungonab regularly use
      diving equipment to fish for sea cucumbers and shells in deeper water or dive for pearls
      with the Gulf Pearl Company nearby.
•     Fishing: Fishing is largely a male activity. However, women sometimes fish in the
      shallows although they do not go out on boats. Other women dry out and salt fish, usually
      for sale. This allows the fish to last longer without refrigeration. The latter are favoured
      and used most of all. Relatively adverse weather conditions and a lack of equipment to
      cope with them mean that fishing largely comes to a halt during the autumn-winter
      months.

5.8     Community Social Services in Mohammed Qol
Mohammed Qol has a police station, government Security office, a police station, a military camp,
mosques, schools, a health centre and shops. It also has resident compounds for two support
organisations, APF and ACORD. These are detailed further in the CLA report.
The figure below details the Mohammed Qol village sketch map that was drawn by group
representatives to illustrate the key aspects of the village. The map shows the layout of the village, the
main road, the new village, the jetty, the desalination plant, as well as the existence of institutions
including those described immediately above and the ACORD and APF compounds. It also points to
areas where it is possible to farm and where wells and firewood can be found. Mapping allows for the
representatives to conceptualise the full extent of the resources and institutions available to them. The
map was drawn by both male and female representatives. It is not to scale.




                                                     16
5.9   Mohammed Qol Village Sketch Map




 Figure 5:   Mohammed Qol Village Sketch Map




                                       17
5.10 Community Social Services in Dungonab
Dungonab has a Koran school, a mosque, a school, a health centre and shops. These are detailed
further in the CLA report.
The figure below details the Mohammed Qol village sketch map that was drawn by group
representatives to illustrate the key aspects of the village. The map shows the layout of the village, the
main road, the new village, the pearl oyster farm, the salt plant on Riwaya peninsula, as well as
graveyards and markets. It also points to grazing areas and landing sites for fishermen as well as
fishing areas. Mapping allows for the representatives to conceptualise the full extent of the resources
and institutions available to them. The map was drawn by male representatives, females would not be
encouraged. It is not to scale.




                                                   18
5.11 Dungonab Village Sketch Map




 Figure 6:   Dungonab Village Sketch Map




                                       19
6         Assessment of Natural Resources and Opportunities
On the second day representatives began by identifying all the natural resources available to them.
This meant an understanding of ecological habitats and the key species found in each and led into the
uses and values of key resources, management issues and problems and opportunities and
recommendations for improved environmental management in future.
Through the silif there are clear guidelines relating to the management of terrestrial resources but
these are not evident for the marine environment. There is a strong demand for training in
understanding marine resources, their uses and their proper management. Mohammed Qol
representatives stated that lack of knowledge and experience in management of marine resources
leads to their demise.

6.1       Natural Resources in Mohammed Qol
The following habitats, their locations and species found within were described. Due to logistical
constraints it has not yet been possible to translate all the names into English although it is suggested
that this be done when possible. Limited translations are found in the glossary.

Table 2:             Natural Resources Available to Mohammed Qol (Habitats and Species)
Habitat Type                Location                           Species Availiable
                                                               Turtles, dolphins, coral trout, trevally, emperor fish,
                                                               ankabut, abu salama, bahr hatay, yas, abu magas,
Sea                         East of Mohammed Qol               najma, bahar, farsi, kraib, abu garen, abu gadah,
                                                               sanjan, arabi, hareed, abu shanab, mila, bureet
                                                               kam, sutan
                            Mashareef, Sarara, Abu             Turtles, dolphins, coral trout, emperor fish,
                            Goshaa, Ras Kaidan, Bayer,         sardines, ankabut, bahr hatay, yas, abu magas,
Reef                        Abu Gizir, Areck taweit,           najma, biyad, bahar, farsi, kraib, abu garen, abu
                            Magreit, Halamy, Keylalab, Abo     gadah, sanjan, arabi, hareed, abu shanab, mila,
                            haded, Perat, Sabir.               bureet kam, sutan
                            Morgasum, Rawaya Peninsula         mangroves, tree species (sagania, saroab, adleeb,
Mangroves
                            (South), Inkeifal, Skeikh Okod     shashow, berus), fish, birds, bird eggs
                            North-west of Mohammed Qol;
Terrestrial forest          amenay, Handod, Mokeab,            acacia spp, foxes, birds, wild cats
                            Habrob, Yawekowar
                            Mohammed Qol, Tibadaib, Abu
                            Khufan, Ankaful sageer,            Fish, including trevally emperor, arabi, seagan,
Landing Sites
                            Ankaful, Abu Mihzan, Kokial,       sareat, abu garen, birds, molluscs
                            Sisala, Karbanneet
                            Mohammed Qol, Skeikh Okod,
Salt pans                                                      Foxes, birds, wild cats
                            Inkeifal, Handaktaab
                                                               Foxes, birds, falcons, snakes, wild cats, eagles,
Agricultural areas          Yamanay, Hokab, Bailla
                                                               snakes

                            Kalainay, Tisaray, Magalum,        kwad, aila, yadda, shikayab, shigshis, sogomataib,
Livestock grazing areas
                            Hokab, Yamanay, Ograa, Bailla      graira, shoah, damoor, hadmeeb, sanamuk, tubrik

                            Abu Girim, Masharifa,
                            Mukawwar (Mugarsum),
Islands                                                        Fish, birds, molluscs
                            Mayteib, Bayer, Sarara, Abu
                            Gosh, Taylla


There was no stated differentiation between deep or submerged reefs and shallow or shoreline reefs,
they are all reefs. There is also no differentiation in their description between species found amongst
the reefs and in the deep water.




                                                          20
6.2       Natural Resources in Dungonab
The following habitats, their locations and species found within were described.

Table 3:             Natural Resources Available to Dungonab (Habitats and Species)
Habitat Type            Location                                 Species Availiable

                                                                 Grouper species, including greasy groupers,
                                                                 emperor, trevally, coral trout, sea horses,
                                                                 dolphins, Bayat, Pahar, Arabi, Senteya,
                                                                 Rahaw, Gaham, Seagan, Ponob, Sherwell,
                                                                 Abo Garesh, Safun, Pahret, Kamut, Abo
Sea                     East of the village
                                                                 Munshar, Hoot, Sharun, Arnab Albaher, Abu
                                                                 Sandok, Kaburea, Steakosa, Hareat, Ganay,
                                                                 Ganafea, Abu Goba, Havey Meak, Agoss
                                                                 Shagroma, Abu dama, Abu salama, Gorna
                                                                 Foufne, Rashan

Khors - Water           Mok, Goumaya, Halaga, Heba, Hebakwan,    Rabbit, deer, fox, Sanoot, Kamob, Agaweib,
Courses                 Palau                                    Peras, Saraoob, Shashoeit, Saganeib
                        Aloa, Ras Abu Hamed, Goba Hamsa, Abu
                                                                 zurumbac shells, cumper shells, fish, bosra,
Shallow reefs           Magboul, Adleyay, Hambokeib, Shagar
                                                                 hareet, gata, arabi, sengan, halgom
                        Island, Umtarda Island
                        Areg Tawein, Areg Gerney, Mengrey        ‘Most’ types of fish including grouper species,
Deep reefs              Sabeat, Halamey, Malalab, Abu Haded,     including greasy groupers, emperor, trevally,
                        Umdarda, Haythop                         coral trout, pahat, oyins, zarale, osmut
                        Abu Shagra Island, Tadoph, Hysoot,       Birds, antelope, osprey, sardines, kaporea,
Mangroves
                        Shanab, Dalau, Hebakwan, Dalaweit        ubogada, kumbarey

                                                                 Sanganab acacia, shashoi, adleib, saroob,
                        Inside Khor Shanab, Somaya, Mook,
Terrestrial forest                                               ageib dalau, rabbits, snakes, birds, eagles,
                        Hebakwan
                                                                 falcon, scorpions, antelope, fox, wild cat


                        Oloob, Abu Hameir, Magbone, Dungonab,
                                                                 sardines, arabi, gumabri, seagan, kass,
Marsa - Landing         Elmena, Goba Khama, Hambo Keib,
                                                                 alklada, nakat, Elbahar, Abu Gadaha, Abu
sites                   Tealaya, Aratatey, Salobeit, Walekana,
                                                                 Munshar (turtles), dugong
                        Abu Gadani, Hanawan, Shanab, Dalau


Salt pans               Oloob, Ahumbukeit, Shanab, Dungonab      Abu Galumbu, umbushbush

                        Magsala, Ras Dungonab, Gobna Khamsu,     Arabi, kass, segan, nagat, elbahar,
Sea shores
                        Elmena Oloy                              ubumushmush, turtles
                                                                 Rabbit, antelope, wild cat, foxed, rats,
                        Dungonab, Humbokeit, Khor Gomadya,       scorpions, snakes, porcupine, sorghum, water
Agricultural land
                        Khor Shanab, Dalau, Hebakwan, Garat      melon, vegetables, millet, tomatoes, sakanab,
                                                                 adhib
                        Um Elskeik, Abu tardi, Halaga, Shagel,
Islands                                                          ubugara, umbushbush, abu gadaf
                        Husoot, Harakel, Saatala, Ashbay
                        Humbokeil, Heway, Dungonab,              Rabbit, antelope, tumbed, snakes, scorpion,
                        Gomadtawa, Gawat, Shanab, Halag,         fox, okat, shagshek, shosh, pushes, tadab,
Pastures
                        Raway, Heba, Dalwat, Hebakwan, Sotey     senab, seatal, hesoob, okool (various
                        Sakeib, Pashotey                         grasses)




                                                        21
6.3   Natural Resources Values, Uses, Management Issues and Opportunities
In Mohammed Qol, the following four resource areas were discussed in regard to values, uses,
management issues, problems people face, the opportunities they provide and recommendations for
future management.

Table 4:        Natural Resources Issues for Mohammed Qol
                                                Terrestrial            Beaches &             Livestock &
Habitat Type          Sea
                                                Forests                Mangroves             Pastures
                                                                       Mangroves used
                      Of value: fish, sharks
                                                Acacia spp             for grazing by
                      (for eating & sale),
                                                especially             camels in dry
                      zurumbac and other
                                                sangonab for fruit     season although       Livestock bring
                      molluscs (for food
                                                and fodder for         sometimes they        many benefits
                      and sale of meat,
                                                goats & sheep,         get trapped in        including milk, meat,
                      perfumes and
                                                firewood if            mud and die.          hair, skin, leather,
Use & Values          pearls), sea
                                                dry/dead, charcoal,    Also, fodder in       shamla shelter,
                      cucumbers, dugong
                                                camel medicine,        general, building,    wool, ghee, ropes,
                      & turtles eaten but
                                                gum for animal skin    gum for dental        carry water and
                      only if unintentionally
                                                tanning, shade,        problems, fish,       supplies
                      caught, Manta rays
                                                housing materials,     sardines, birds,
                      and dolphins have no
                                                weapons                birds eggs.
                      intrinsic value.
                                                                       zurumbac shells
                                                Green trees are not
                                                allowed to be cut,
                                                including for                                In the past people
                                                outsiders but some                           looked after their
                      There is no marine
                                                ignore this silif.                           livestock well, now
                      management system,
                                                Pastures are           Cutting of            they don't. Watering
                      nor any silif for the
Management Issues                               managed carefully      mangroves is          is an issue.
                      sea. There is a need
                                                if an outsider         forbidden by silif    Livestock are
                      for training by APF or
                                                comes with a large                           branded. They are
                      partners
                                                herd that is too                             treated with
                                                much for the                                 medicines.
                                                pasture he is asked
                                                to move on
                      No idea of fish
                      quotas, no way of
                      stopping outsiders
                      fishing in trawlers.      Outsiders come
                                                                                              People used to
                      Competition in north      and cut the green
                                                                                             migrate following
                      near Osief means          trees or eat all the
                                                                                             the rain and good
                      they don't fish up        pasture and there
                                                                       There is a risk to    pasture, now they
                      there anymore.            is no way to
                                                                       camels and the        don't. Fodder is
Problems              Shortage of               prevent this
                                                                       areas are difficult   expensive as it is
                      equipment, lack of        happening. Fire is
                                                                       to guard              now bought not
                      engines &                 also a problem.
                                                                                             found through
                      mechanics, lack of        Forests are very
                                                                                             grazing over long
                      funds, lack of dive       reduced. Lack of
                                                                                             distances
                      gear. Less fish than      water
                      in past. Merchants
                      impose fixed prices
                      on fish.
                      Lack of marketing         To set up a
                                                                       There is a need
                      opportunities. These      sangonab acacia
                                                                       to fence
                      ? many be                 nursery, where                               Restocking would
                                                                       mangrove areas
Opportunities         developed.                they can be                                  bring wealth and
                                                                       to protect both
                      Opportunity to ban        watered so they                              improve livelihoods
                                                                       the camels and
                      outsiders from fishing    grow up strong and
                                                                       the mangroves
                      in the park               can be replanted
                                                Set up tree
                                                                                             Restocking
                      Find alternatives to      nurseries and
                                                                       Find a means to       programme if
                      fishing or improve        wells, find ways of
Recommendations                                                        fence the             possible including
                      production in certain     protecting the
                                                                       mangroves             supply of fodder.
                      areas                     forest by patrolling
                                                                                             Dig new wells
                                                it


                                                      22
In Dungonab, the following four key resource areas were discussed in regard to values, uses,
management issues, problems people face, opportunities they provide including recommendations for
future management and are detailed in the table below.

Table 5:        Natural Resources Issues for Dungonab
                                                                                             Livestock &
Habitat Type        Sea                      Reefs                   Forests
                                                                                             Pastures

                                                                     Mangrove forests
                                                                     are good for feeding
                                                                                             Wool, skins,
                    Fish bring food &                                camels and in the
                                                                                             leather for clothing
                    livelihood. Some                                 past were used to
                                             There are many                                  and containers,
                    creatures are not                                construct boats.
                                             types of fish to be                             shoes, milk, camel
                    allowed to be caught                             Terrestrial forests
Use & Values                                 found there and the                             skin for building,
                    e.g. Dolphin, Abu                                provide fodder for
                                             reefs protect the bay                           string rope., local
                    Gadar, Naget                                     animals, charcoal,
                                             from bad weather                                music (drum),
                    Elbahar, Saphan,                                 firewood, building
                                                                                             shamla blanket
                    Manta, Turtle                                    materials, hunting,
                                                                                             (also sold)
                                                                     medication,
                                                                     toothbrushes

                                                                                             More male camels
                    Fishing requires                                 Terrestrial forests
                                             Fishing requires                                needed for
                    skilled people.                                  are managed
                                             skilled people                                  reproduction. Milk-
                    Problems with                                    through the
                                             because of the                                  producing
                    storms, rains,                                   application of the
Management                                   difficulties and                                livestock are given
                    weather in general.                              silif and territorial
Issues                                       dangers of the reef.                            fodder, others sent
                    Injuries by stone fish                           management by
                                             The reefs need                                  to pasture.
                    (cured through                                   lineage, but
                                             protecting from                                 Protected from
                    burning wound),                                  mangroves are not
                                             damage                                          predators by
                    sting ray (shock)                                protected by silif
                                                                                             building enclosures
                    There are too many
                                             It is difficult to
                    outsiders and no                                 There are reduced       Predators, drought,
                                             monitor according to
                    means of controlling                             forests. Mesquite is    disease, reduction
                                             respondents
Problems            marine usage, fish                               rampant and needs       in number of
                                             because of lack of
                    prices get so low at                             to be eradicated as     animals, reduced
                                             knowledge and
                    times it is not worth                            it drains the water     production
                                             equipment
                    fishing
                                             As with the sea in      There is a need to
                                                                                             Develop a farm for
                    There is a need for      general, there is a     replant certain
                                                                                             growing fodder and
                    an agreement and         need for an             species of trees
                                                                                             a nursery for trees,
Opportunities       the use of a marine      agreement and the       such as teker,
                                                                                             improve water
                    customary law that       use of a marine         dalau, arak, salau
                                                                                             sources and
                    can be implemented       customary law that      potentially in
                                                                                             provide vets
                                             can be implemented      woodlots




                                                     23
6.4   Use of Shells
Of interest, four shells that had been collected locally by the writer were showed to the group in
Mohammed Qol and the following uses for each were given.




            Figure 7:       Mohammed Qol Village: Use of Shells


The same four shells as well as one pearl that belonged to a fisherman from Dungonab were shown to
the group and the following information was given.




             Figure 8:        Dungonab Village: Use of Shells




                                                   24
7       Village-based zoning schemes
The representatives of each village were asked to discuss the need for and importance of a village
based zoning scheme. It was agreed a detailed zoning scheme will need to be developed in future
phases after this introduction. Of note, residents stated there is no formal management system for
fishing. Although Fisheries regulations do exist from the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Wealth and
Natural Resources, they are very old (1937 with a small amendment of 1975), they are not enforced
and it is not surprising that villagers are not aware of them (M. Samoilys pers.comm.)
Separately, participants from both villages suggested, after discussion of the concept of different
zones with the writer and facilitators, that they develop zones in the following format, which may be
developed further according to the results from ecological surveys and further in depth discussions
with fishers. The zones would not only be geographical, but also related to different species.
•     Non-utilization; such as turtles and dolphins, which are not caught, either for sale or as
      food (there will be other species to add to this
•     Specified utilization: such as for dugongs, allowing very restricted occasional
      consumption but only where they are caught by accident (this will need to change as the
      dugong is likely to be better placed in a ‘non-utilization’ category)
•     General use : most types of fish, sea shells (this will need more definition)

7.1     Mohammed Qol Village-based Zoning scheme
Residents believe their lack of equipment means they cannot over-fish, although they have reported a
decline in available fish stocks. However, they did cite a problem with trawlers, stating that fishermen
from the outside, especially Egypt, catch great quantities of fish in Mohammed Qol waters but no one
has the power or ability to prevent them from doing so. Therefore people are in favour of restricted
access to outsiders but are concerned about the impact of a zoning scheme on their own fishing
activities. It was agreed a zoning scheme will need to be developed in future phases. The following
information was given regarding the location and seasons found of several key species to the area.
Further information is given in the marine resources map below that was drawn up by Mohammed
Qol representatives, especially fishermen. May to June is the prime fishing season.
        Shauor (Emperor)           Infaila Island September to October, Dungonab Bay May to June
        Najil (Coral Trout)        Various, especially May to June
        Goshran                    Sarara Island, May to June
        Foful (Spiny Snapper)      Infaila Island September to October
        Dirak (mackerel)           Inner Dungonab Bay, May to June
        Turtles                    Resident throughout Dungonab Bay.
        Manta Rays                 Resident to Masharifa area




                                                     25
7.2   Dungonab Village-based Zoning scheme
Key issues that arose in the discussion of management zones for Dungonab were that trawlers from
other nations, especially Egypt and China were being allowed free access into the nearby fishing
areas. The people of Dungonab have complained to Sudanese authorities but a lack of resources
available to patrol means that nothing can be done, although people suspect this is why the
government approached APF for help. Although they are keen to conserve their own environment
they are reluctant to limit their own fishing when outsiders can fish at far greater levels. The first thing
they would like to see from a management plan is outsiders banned, a monitored process, and a zoned
plan with different usage levels and areas of no-fishing altogether (or seasonally).
The following information was given regarding the location and seasons found of several key species
to the area. Further information is given in the marine resources map below that was drawn up by
Dungonab representatives, especially fishermen. March to June is the prime fishing season.
      Touwina (Grouper)           Found in March only, in the bay
      Shauor (Emperor)            Found in March only, in the bay
      Foful                       Found in February, March only, in the bay
      Najil                       Found most of year especially May to June and best in Hawawan,
                                  Margasam, Abu Sigra, Khor Shanab, Bayer




                                                    26
7.3   Mohammed Qol Marine Resources Map
A marine resources map was drawn up by fishermen representatives. This is a good first draft but will
need improving in order to capture detailed resource information that will be required for the GMP.




 Figure 9:       Mohammed Qol Marine Resources Map




                                                 27
7.4   Dungonab Marine Resources Map
A marine resources map was drawn up by fishermen representatives. This is a good indicator but will
need improving in order to capture detailed resource information that will be required for the GMP.




 Figure 10:      Dungonab Marine Resources Map



                                                28
8     Institutional Management System
The third day was spent introducing the subject of an institutional management system. Given the
time frame it was only possible during this phase to introduce how management of the environment
would need to come about and to discuss the kind of roles and responsibilities that the VNRC once
formed would take on.

8.1   Management System for Mohammed Qol
The figure below illustrates those which were developed from this meeting. These are a guide and will
need further discussion and agreement before they are agreed.




         Figure 11:      Mohammed Qol Roles & Responsibilities




                                                 29
A number of key issues and points were discussed in the process of introducing the concept of an
institutional management system for Mohamed Qol, as follows:
•   To organise marine resources and conserve them there needs to be a VNRC which will
    strengthen and assist the silif in a formal way and fill the gaps in the silif where they exist
•   Conserving resources will mean they can be maintained in the long term. The problem
    will be in making sure outsiders are prevented from fishing in the area
•   Only people from Mohammed Qol and Dungonab should be allowed to fish in the MPA
•   If the local people are going to have to limit their resource use there will need to be
    alternative livelihood options. People will even stop fishing altogether if there are enough
    sustainable alternatives
•   Tourism is a good option for the future but people must be given training on how to work
    with it and benefit from it in order to avoid a situation like Sharm el Sheikh (Egypt) where
    local people often don’t benefit and outsiders get the good jobs
•   There is a need for training on many levels; in tourism, in improved fishing, in natural
    resource management (especially marine), in new trades and crafts
•   Different local people can be given management roles for certain areas or species, such as
    managing najil stocks
•   There has been a lack of understanding about what APF is here for and suspicion of them.
    This will need to be addressed before the VNRC can be formed and the VEMP fully
    developed. In particular the issue of how the community development fund can be
    accessed. Good relations with APF will be essential
•   The VNRC will be able to work with the Locality (government administration) as well as
    with APF
•   Transparency, accountability and roles for representatives of both genders will be crucial
    in the development of the VNRC
•   The village leadership will inform APF which areas they particularly need support in and
    will encourage an open dialogue
•   There will need to be some time spent developing a ‘bahari silif’ to ensure there are clear
    guidelines over marine resource management. These can then be formalised into the
    VEMP process
•   The complete silif where it relates to natural resource management and taboos will need
    to be written down, including any adaptations made so that its guidelines can be
    formalised into the VEMP and GMP
•   The VNRC once formed will need to report on exactly what resources and species can be
    found in their area
•   There will need to be a system for cooperating with the VNRC of Dungonab village as
    well as with the locality, police and the MPA authorities (APF)
•   The fisherman’s union will be able to take a support and advisory role and will need to
    have a representative on the VNRC




                                                    30
8.2   Management System for Dungonab
The figure below illustrates those which were developed from this meeting. These are a guide and will
need further discussion and agreement before they are agreed.




         Figure 12:      Dungonab Roles & Responsibilities




                                                 31
A number of key issues and points were discussed in the process of discussing the formation of an
institutional management system in Dungonab, as follows.
•   To organise marine resources and conserve them there needs to be a VNRC which will
    strengthen and assist the silif in a formal way and fill the gaps in the silif where they exist
•   The VNRC will be formed from responsible local people with representatives from APF,
    the locality and RSS State Government
•   The committee must have internal laws to ensure its proper management and should
    receive training in the best way to be set up that is transparent, representative, accountable
    and effective
•   There will need to be sub-committees, perhaps 4-5, which manage particular issues, such
    as dolphin protection for example. Specific people will have specific responsibilities
•   There is little problem with VNRC members being volunteers if the time commitment is
    minimal. As the time required is likely to be significant, members will need to be paid
•   There will be a liaison person or people from the VNRC set up for communications
    between all the different partners including APF and the locality and Mohammed Qol
    VNRC amongst others. VNRC members will regularly communicate with APF rangers
•   There will need to be a mechanism to manage the finances of the VEMP and VNRC and
    the financial relationship with the MPA management, namely a means to ensure any
    financial transactions are managed responsibly, accountably and with precision
•   There is a need for training on many levels; in tourism, in improved fishing, in natural
    resource management (especially marine), in new trades and crafts
•   Tourism is a good option for the future but people must be given training on how to work
    with it and benefit from it
•   There will need to be some time spend developing a ‘bahari silif’ to ensure there are clear
    guidelines over marine resource management. These can then be formalised into the
    VEMP process
•   The complete silif where it relates to natural resource management and taboos will need
    to be written down, including any adaptations made so that its guidelines can be
    formalised into the VEMP and GMP
•   Once the silif is complete in regards the VEMP, it will be possible for the VNRC and
    tribal leadership to work together to administer punishments through the traditional
    discussion process, potentially with an APF representative present to document the issue
•   If the local people are going to have to limit their resource use there will need to be
    alternative livelihood options. Some people say they will even stop fishing altogether if
    there are enough sustainable alternatives




                                                    32
9       Management Strategy and Objectives
The fourth day focused on introducing the subjects of management strategy, objectives and activities,
as well as the need for M&E.
A number of key issues and points were discussed in the process of introducing the need for an
overall management strategy to guide the VEMP process, divided into key objectives (and sub
objectives as required).

9.1     Strategy & Objectives for Mohammed Qol
Because of the time required to discuss the subject, these objectives were not defined during this
session. They will need to be defined following the formulation of the VNRC. The key issues that
arose during this session are listed below.
•     There is a need to develop management objectives to guide the VEMP
•     This process gives the community an opportunity to create objectives that will be fed into
      the GMP and should reflect the needs and realities of the village
•     There is a desire to set up group projects and collectives, to guarantee the livelihood
      stability of the community, to raise awareness about environmental management and to
      ensure the sustainability of their projects
•     If communities are well organised they will be able to reach their objectives through
      regulations and attention to the process
•     Successful VEMP management should be able to lead to the improvement of standards of
      living, lead to the availability of more assets, improve health and education services and
      the development of better housing
•     There is a need for training in advance if the VNRC and the community are to reach their
      objectives and manage their resources sustainably
•     Objectives once decided will lead to activities for which roles and responsibilities will be
      allocated so that these can be achieved
•     Community awareness raising will be an essential part of reaching their objectives
•     All objectives will feed into the VEMP and subsequently into the GMP
•     There will need to be a programme of training and investment into current and alternative
      livelihoods such as improved fishing, agriculture and trading opportunities
•     The issue of outsiders using MPA resources without permission must be addressed within
      their objectives




                                                     33
9.2     Strategy & Objectives for Dungonab
Because of the time required to discuss the subject, and the need for this stage to follow the
formulation of the VNRC, these objectives were not defined during this session, however some initial
ideas on what these would be were made and these are given, with sub-objectives, in the table below.

Table 6:          Dungonab VEMP Initial Management Objectives
Management Objective                      Management Sub-Objectives
                                          Protect and secure water resources; adopt the silif into a management
To secure and manage land based
                                          system to avoid cutting green trees, around wells; to cover & fence wells;
natural resources
                                          to collect and destroy plastic and other litter
                                          Avoid changing oil in the sea; avoid disposing litter in the sea; plan not to
To secure and manage marine
                                          catch juvenile or spawning fish; avoid use of small mesh nets; prevent
based natural resources
                                          outsiders from fishing in the MPA
To avoid unsustainable                    To assess current & future livelihoods to ensure they are sustainable and
development                               do not lead to environmental degradation

                                          Develop a bahari silif; prevent the catching of dolphins, dugongs, sharks,
                                          turtles and endangered species; prevent damage to reefs and coral
To create and implement a marine
                                          including better procedures for anchoring and the use of permanent
customary law or bahari silif for local
                                          buoys; not cut mangroves; conserve bird species in mangroves; set up
management of resources
                                          specific channels for entrance and exit of the reef; assist fellow fishermen
                                          in need and advise people on good environmental management

To provide awareness to the
                                          Conduct lectures and seminars on the marine and terrestrial environments
community about environmental
                                          and the importance of good management
management
                                          Train the VNRC in environmental management, legal issues, roles &
                                          responsibilities and financial accountability; train how to write proposals to
To provide training to the community
                                          donors including APF; training in future livelihood activities especially
                                          tourism


These same objectives are shown as they were developed in session in the following figure.




           Figure 13:         Dungonab Summary Objectives of VEMP




                                                           34
10 Management Activities
The concept of needing to formulate a series of activities and sub activities that lead on from
management objectives was introduced to representatives in both villages. It was acknowledged that
these activities would be defined following the formulation of the VNRC and a clear and agreed
definition of objectives. However, little time was available to look at these in detail beyond this
introduction.


11 Monitoring and Evaluation
The concept of M&E was introduced in both villages. There was a call for training in how M&E
would be managed and effected as people do not have any experience in it, especially where it relates
to the management of specific species and habitats. It was made clear that the community would be
able to use indicators to assess whether or not their activities will be in line with their objectives. The
VNRC will be able to develop records of their M&E activities including data they find, which they
will be able to feed to MPA management. The relationship between the VNRC and APF will thus
need to be carefully developed and M&E training is required so that the community will be able to
feed back their findings to APF rangers and management.




                                                    35
Discussion & Recommendations
This work details two strands of information relating to the development of Village Environmental
Management Plans, firstly the illustration of a suggested framework that can be used to guide the
VEMP process in DBMINP and secondly provides information on the VEMP process to date.
If the framework that has been developed for this work is followed, VEMPs may provide a important
opportunity for the communities of Mohammed Qol and Dungonab to take an active and responsible
part in the future management of the DBMINP. The community have a number of key advantages on
their side that will help provide opportunities and an enabling environment for the VEMP process to
be taken forward and completed in a successful manner:
•    First, the Beja communities of Mohammed Qol and Dungonab villages have in their
     culture the customary law of the silif. Stemming from a lifestyle as pastoralists that was
     developed and maintained in the harsh and arid conditions of terrestrial northern Sudan,
     the silif forms a philosophical basis that natural resources are limited and must be
     managed through processes of ownership, territorial management systems, sharing,
     mutual support and forms of taboo.
•    Second, because of the restrictions of poverty and only a relatively recent shift towards
     dependency on marine resources, only of one or two generations 6 , the Beja have not yet
     developed industries that have significantly drained marine resources. Instead the
     communities are in the early stages of economic development and are therefore in a
     position of strength in regards to the ways in which they can work, and be supported in, to
     develop management strategies and livelihood options that will allow for sustainable and
     productive utilisation of their resources.
•    Third, the Beja generally recognise that their future rests on careful management of
     terrestrial and marine resources. They recognise that they will need to participate with
     partners such as APF and are more willing to work together because they accept that the
     VEMP process should allow them to maintain a strong degree of influence on how the
     marine park will be managed. Thus they state their independence is not compromised and
     that they have the potential to benefit from those resources.
There are however a number of hurdles to cross, as are summarised below,
•    The silif and its related systems and relationships will not solve the question of resource
     management alone. The silif is in decline after the collapse of pastoralist livelihoods over
     the last generation, conditions of harsh poverty and the breakdown of society as many
     young people leave the area to seek opportunities.
•    Furthermore, the silif did not develop from marine based livelihoods, though there are
     some limited guidelines in Dungonab. Many of the values, benefits and taboos of the silif
     could be constructively developed into a marine customary law, or bahari silif. The
     communities are in favour of this and with external support and plenty of time it will be
     possible to develop and thus bring the concept of marine resource management deep into
     the minds of the Beja people.
•    The other major hurdles are lack of money and lack of training. With incomes being very
     low, prioritising the environment will not come before economic development. The Beja
     will need financial support through the VEMP process to ensure it remains a priority that
     will also allow for costs of living to be met. Low levels of education and lack of training

6
  The term ‘generation’ is used loosely to refer to the period of time between being born and the typical age of giving birth,
Twenty years is given here for simplicities sake, based on three or four generations per average lifespan. This is meant as a
guide, based on the writer’s individual assessment not any formal research, nor is it gender-specific.


                                                              36
    mean that many people will find the VEMP process, and more importantly, its ongoing
    management, difficult to deal with. Consequently careful training is recommended. APF
    may be able to approach partners such as ACORD or others who have experience in rural
    development which they will be able to use to support their own skills and experience in
    protected area management and community development.
Based on what has been achieved so far with the fieldwork that was the precursor to this report, and
taking into account the opportunities and problems described above, the following is of note.
•   With support in financing, and training throughout the VEMP process, it is possible to see
    that the Beja communities of Mohammed Qol and Dungonab will be able to play an
    important part in the development and management of the Park.
•   With the guidelines given in this report and the information provided to this stage in both
    villages, there is a positive outlook for future community involvement in the management
    of the Park. However, the VEMP process will need time to develop, to incorporate the
    interests of the communities of Mohammed Qol and Dungonab in a process which is as
    inclusive as possible and which accounts for the lack of previous experience with
    management planning of this kind.
•   The development of a marine environment adaptation of Beja customary law, a bahari
    silif, will similarly take time. It will therefore be of prime importance that as the GMP
    framework is developed that the work of developing the VEMPs and the contextual shift
    in customary law is disseminated by the Beja leadership be ongoing so that there may be
    greater capacity for the communities to align the VEMP for each village into the GMP
Having provided a framework, introduced this to the Beja communities and understood many of the
key issues, the following suggested next steps are given.
•   Translate this work into Arabic and disseminate it to selected facilitators who will go onto
    lead the development of VEMPs in both Mohammed Qol and Dungonab villages
•   Working with the communities, select a group of representatives, up to 20 people, ideally
    gender balanced and incorporating different age groups, interests and livelihood activities.
    Ensure that these groups will stay together during the VEMP process so that there is no
    draining of knowledge. Ensure agreement that these representatives will disseminate
    information on the VEMP process through regular meetings and follow up discussions in
    order to avoid too much emphasis on creating local elites
•   Identify with the newly formed groups a timeframe for the VEMP process to continue,
    following the guidelines given in this work. Carry out each stage of the VEMP process
    with those groups according to the timetable
•   Ensure that each VEMP is well coordinated with the other village, through elected liaison
    officers. Similarly, ensure that technical experts in APF, IUCN or from other
    organisations be well informed about the process and findings of each VEMP. Likewise,
    where possible, explain and incorporate key scientific data that arises from the work of
    technical experts be aligned with the ongoing work of the communities in developing the
    VEMPs.




                                                  37
References
ACORD, (2003) ‘Socio-Cultural and Marketing Study on Fishery in Halaib Province. Red Sea Hills
     Rural-Urban Linkage Programme, Sudan.

Adkins, J.,(ed) (2004) Partnerships for Change: Experiences in Democratic Partnerships for Poverty Reduction
        from Lindi and Mtwara Regions, Tanzania. Rural Integrated Project Support (RIPS) Ministry of
        Foreign Affairs of Finland: Department for International Development Cooperation

Ashley C. & Carney, D., (1999)    Sustainable Livelihoods: Lessons from early experience. DFID

Ashley, C. & Hussein, K., (2000) ‘Developing Methodologies for Livelihood Impact Assessment: Experience
        of the African Wildlife Foundation in East Africa’ London: Overseas Development Institute. Working
        Paper 129

Babiker, M., & Pantuliano, S., (2006) ‘Addressing Chronic Livelihoods Vulnerability in Red Sea State,
        Sudan’. Oxfam GB.

Belay, S. Haro, I. & Irwin, B., (2005) ‘It Works! Speaking for Ourselves: A Development Dialogue Tool’
         London, International Institute for Environment & Development, UK

Biswas, P., Fina, T. & Hagens, C., (2005) ‘A Livelihood Vulnerability and Nutritional Assessment

        of Rural Kassala and Red Sea State’. TANGO (Technical Assistance to NGOs)

Bowers, J., (1997)      Sustainability and Environmental Economics: An Alternative Text Harlow: Pearson
        Education Limited.

Boyd, C. et al,(1999)     ‘Reconciling Interests Among Wildlife, Livestock and People in Eastern Africa: A
        Sustainable Livelihoods Approach’. London: Overseas Development Institute.

Carney, D. (ed) (1998)    Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: What contribution can we make? DFID.

Chambers, R., (1983)   Rural Poverty Unobserved: The Six Biases. In: Rural Development: Putting the Last
      First Harlow: Longman pp 13 - 23

Chambers, R., (1992)   Rural Appraisal: Rapid, Relaxed and Participatory. Sussex: Institute of Development
      Studies Discussion Paper No. 311

FAO     ‘Semi-Structured Interviews’ URL: http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5307e/x5307e08.htm Accessed 14th
        June 2001

Harrison, P., (2005)     A Socio-economic Assessment of Sustainable Livelihoods Regimes for Communities
       of Mnazi Bay Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park, Tanzania: Incorporating livelihood intervention strategies
       and proposals for the development of Alternative Income Generating Activities. IUCN EARO, Nairobi

Harrison, P., (2005) A Socio-economic Assessment of Sustainable Livelihoods Opportunities for Communities
        of Vipingo-Kuruwitu, Kenya. EAWLS/IUCN

Harrison, P., (2007)   Sustainable Livelihoods Analyses and Threat Assessments in Priority Areas of the
       Mahale Ecosystem. Frankfurt Zoological Society/TANAPA, Arusha, Tanzania

Hjort af Ornäs, A. and Dahl, G. (1991) The Responsible Man. The Atmaan Beja of North-eastern Sudan.
Uppsala Stockholm Studies in Social Anthropology n°27, in co-operation with Nordiska Africainstitutet.

Hogan, R. and Bashagi, W., (2005) “VEMPing for Partnerships: Facilitating Community Contribution to the




                                                     38
        General Management Planning Process for Mnazi Bay Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park, Tanzania (IUCN-
        EARO, Nairobi),

IIED (1994) Whose Eden?: An Overview of Community Approaches to Wildlife Management. UK:
        International Institute for Environment and Development

IUCN. (2004). Managing marine protected areas: A Toolkit for the Western Indian Ocean. IUCN Eastern
African Regional Programme, Nairobi

Ireland, C., Malleret, D, & Baker L (2004)       Alternative Sustainable Livelihoods For Coastal
         Communities – A Review of Experience and Guide to Best Practice. IUCN EARO, Nairobi

Leach, M., & Mearns, R., (eds) (1996) The Lie of the Land: Challenging Received Wisdom on the African
        Continent Oxford: The International African Institute, James Currey

Malleret, D., (2004)    A Socio-Economic Baseline Assessment of The Mnazi Bay - Ruvuma Estuary
        Marine Park. IUCN EARO, Nairobi

Mgaya, Y. D,. (2001) An Investigation on the Potential for Mariculture in Mafia Island Marine Park. University
                of Dar es Salaam/WWF Tanzania

Ministry of Health, Red Sea State, Sudan, (2006) ‘Nutritional Anthropometric Survey and Food Security
        Assessment: Sinkat, Port Sudan, Halaib and Tokar localities, Red Sea State. Government of Sudan

Pantuliano, S. (2000) Changing Livelihoods: Urban Adaptation of the Beja Pastoralists of Halaib Province
        (NE Sudan) and NGO Planning Approaches. PhD Thesis: University of Leeds.

Pantuliano, S., (2002) ‘Sustaining Livelihoods Across the Rural-Urban Divide: Changes and Challenges Facing
        The Beja Pastoralists

Pantuliano, S., (2005) ‘Comprehensive Peace? Causes and Consequences of Underdevelopment and Instability
        in Eastern Sudan’. International Rescue Committee.

PERSGA, (2002) ‘Implementation of the Strategic Action Programme (SAP) for the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.
     Annual Progress Report 2002.

PERSGA (2004) Dungonab Bay–Mukkawar Island Proposed Marine Protected Area: Site-Specific Master Plan
     with Management Guidelines. PERSGA, Jeddah
Reed, W. (1964) Red Sea Fisheries of Sudan, Ministry of Animal Resources, Sudan Government

Richmond, M., and Mohamed, A. (2005) Assessment of Marine Biodiversity, Ecosystem Health and Resource
               Status of Intertidal (non-mangrove) and Sub-tidal (non-coral) Habitats in Mnazi Bay Ruvuma
               Estuary Marine Park. IUCN EARO, Nairobi

Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership (2001) Tanzania Mariculture Guidelines Source Book
              Mariculture Working Group, GoT

Toulmin, C., & Quan, J.F. (eds), (2000) Evolving Land Rights, Policy & Tenure in Africa. DFID/IIED/NRI

United Nations Development Programme, (2005) ‘Access not Availability: An Analysis of
        Food Security Constraints and Potential in the Red Sea and Kassala States, Eastern Sudan’ UNDP.




                                                     39
Appendix 1. Methodology
In carrying out field research that is objective, thorough and representative, it is important to keep in
mind a range of factors that will influence results and limit the accuracy of the data gathered. Care
was therefore taken to ensure that the viewpoints gathered were representative of different groups
within the study area, particularly given the likelihood that certain groups and individuals may be less
influential than others, such as women and younger men with potentially diverse and conflicting
resource priorities, values and beliefs.


1     Method
Getting the VEMP process going required the writer, one translator and one local-dialect speaking
facilitators. It was hoped there would be two, one male, one female, but it was not possible to find a
female facilitator for the VEMP process as the one woman who was available for the CLA activities
had other commitments. Each village were asked through the facilitation team to provide a group of
representatives. It was requested that the group be made up of representatives from the village
leadership and people who are considered to have the intellect, initiative and leadership skills and
experience to be trained to oversee the VEMP process and be sufficiently gender-balanced to be able
to comprise the VNRC as it is formed.
The course of action required first the development of VEMP guidelines. These were developed by
the writer with considerable reference to Hogan and Bashagi (2005). This is detailed in Appendix 2.
An initial fact-finding and training exercise (managed by the writer) followed, which will need to be
followed by an implementation programme, and managed by APF with support from their partners.
Future groups should be representatives from the different livelihood activities, such as fishers,
pastoralists and traders etc., particularly from activities which are primary users of marine resources.
The ideal size would probably be 20 men and 20 women, making up 40 people per village although
there will be a need for some flexibility dependent on what the community is used to. It may also be
difficult to conduct all activities with an equal balance of male and female representatives and some
tact should be used in developing a management system that will be fairly represented but at the same
time, effective and relevant to the people who will be the beneficiaries and implementers.
Importantly, the participants should be representative of the community as a whole and not have a
bias towards any particular clan or kinship group over another. There should ideally also be a good
mix of age groups. As with all participatory processes, the information gathered from communities
during the VEMP process to date was based on the perceptions on the communities, not an external
assessment. However the facilitator and his team had a strong impact on the direction of the
discussion, but did not attempt to model the communities answers at this stage, only to guide them.


2     Limitations
In reality, getting groups together who are equally represented in terms of gender, age, kinship group
and occupation is very difficult, especially at short notice. Although the best efforts were made to do
so, lack of time available to the team to make preparations for various reasons, particularly related to
communication and human resources issues meant it was not possible to organise groups as carefully
as would have been preferred. This was particularly the case with women, who either sat at the back
of meetings, usually in silence, or did not attend at all. A few were active and although their input was
encouraged, social and logistical limitations prevented most from taking part. The principle reasons
for this and reflected the patriarchal society in which the work was being carried out. However, there
is scope for greater female involvement in future with careful planning and consultation and it is
hoped that some form of representation for women in the VEMP process, even of not an ‘equal’ one,
be encouraged and provided. Lack of time and communication issues meant that the ideal of 20 men


                                                   40
and 20 people was not achievable, particularly as there was a culture of people moving in and out of
meetings. No register of names and numbers was taken, although groups ranged from 5 to 30 people.
Time factors and the difficult conditions of the working area were a further limitation, as was the
occurrence of Ramadan during the latter half of the field work. However, given the constraints with
strong support from APF, ACORD staff and the communities the team was able to progress
effectively and cover important early ground in developing the VEMPs.


3     Field Activities
This report is based on the second of two studies, the first being Coastal Livelihood Assessments
(CLAs) and the second being Village Environmental Management Planning (VEMPs). The following
table indicates the time spent on field activities.

Table 7:      Timetable of Field Activities in Sudan
Day         Date                                Activity
1           29 August 2007                      Travel UK to Khartoum (Paul Harrison)
2           30 August 2007                      Travel to Port Sudan (Paul Harrison)
3           31 August 2007                      Preparation of team and questionnaires
4           01 September 2007                   Training of facilitators by Paul Harrison
5           02 September 2007                   Travel to MPA, preparation, logistics
6           03 September 2007                   CLA Dungonab Village Men
7           04 September 2007                   CLA Dungonab Village Women
8           05 September 2007                   CLA Mohammed Qol Men
9           06 September 2007                   CLA Mohammed Qol Women
10          07 September 2007                   CLA Overview
11          08 September 2007                   VEMP preparation
12          09 September 2007                   VEMP Mohamed Qol Mixed Gender
13          10 September 2007                   VEMP Mohamed Qol Mixed Gender
14          11 September 2007                   VEMP Dungonab Mixed Gender
15          12 September 2007                   VEMP Dungonab Mixed Gender
16          13 September 2007                   VEMP Mohamed Qol Mixed Gender
17          14 September 2007                   VEMP Mohamed Qol Mixed Gender
18          15 September 2007                   VEMP Dungonab Mixed Gender
19          16 September 2007                   VEMP Dungonab Mixed Gender
20          17 September 2007                   Return to Port Sudan
21          18 September 2007                   Preparation of data for write-up
22          19 September 2007                   Travel to Khartoum (Paul Harrison)
23          20 September 2007                   Travel to UK (Paul Harrison)
24          21 September 2007                   UK for write-up of CLA & VEMP reports




                                                41
Appendix 2: VEMP Guidelines for Facilitators
Guidelines 7 to Facilitators for Understanding the Process of Creating a VEMP.

In the development of a General Management Plan (GMP) for a Marine Protected Area (MPA), priority
should be given to Village Environment Management Plans (VEMPs), which form the cornerstone of
management within the MPA because they act as a daily, ‘on-the-ground’ support system to the MPA
management team and rangers.

Facilitation of VEMPs
Facilitation will require the consultant Paul Harrison, one writer (ideally in good working English) and two
local dialect speaking facilitators, one male, one female. The process will require an initial fact-finding and
training exercise (managed by Paul Harrison during his visit), followed by an implementation programme,
and managed by APF with support from their partners.

The group should be made up of representatives from the village government, the whole Village Natural
Resources Committee if it is already in existence, or otherwise a group of people who are considered to have
the intellect, initiative and leadership skills and experience, and be sufficiently gender-balanced to be able to
comprise the VNRC as it is formed.

There should also be representatives from the different livelihood activities, such as fishers, pastoralists and
traders etc., particularly from activities which are primary users of marine resources. The ideal size would be
20 men and 20 women, making up 40 people per village although there will be a need for some flexibility. It
is likely and preferable that some or all of these representatives will have previously been through the
Coastal Livelihoods Assessment (CLA) process and thus be familiar with discussing the issues they face.
Importantly, the representatives should be representative of the community as a whole and not have a bias
towards any particular clan or kinship group or one gender over another. There should ideally also be a good
mix of age groups.

Key role of the VEMPs
Once they are finalised and approved by the MPA authorities, the VEMPs will be collated to ensure that they
are compatible with one another, and will then form the basis upon which the MPA is managed provided
they are compatible with the management objectives of the overall GMP.

Each VEMP should contain the following:
      The rationale for each VEMP
      A short description of each village
      An assessment of natural resources, management issues, problems and opportunities
      A village-based zoning scheme
      An institutional management system
      Management strategy & objectives
      Management actions
      Monitoring and evaluation

In many ways, the format of each VEMP follows that of the GMP, which will ensure that the villages
become the on-the-ground implementers of the GMP. Such an approach is the only way to ensure that the
local communities are truly and meaningfully involved in the management of the MPA. Each VEMP is
allocated four full working days in its first phase. The components of a VEMP are now assessed in more
detail below.




    7
        These guidelines were developed in advance of these and adapted as appropriate during the field work.


                                                                 42
DAY ONE:

  1. The rationale for each VEMP
  The community should be made aware of the justification for a VEMP, the steps that will follow and the
  reasons why planning and management of this kind can help both human development and
  environmental management. I.e. usually people plan in order to get a better sense of how they will live in
  the future. If people plan to save something for their futures they will have greater certainty about the
  state they will be in the future. E.g. if you protect the reefs the fish will be more plentiful and bigger in
  the future. If the village’s natural resource assets are under a workable legal management system which
  the villagers understand it will be possible to improve the state of the resources and to use them in more
  sustainable ways. This legal system may be a formalisation and extension of existing forms of customary
  law, where such law relates to environmental management.

  2. A short description of each village
  The description of the village should build on information brought about from the CLA, which should be
  repeated at the beginning of the discussion. It should then take the following steps:

              Where the village is and what area it incorporates
              Human population (no. of households, adults, working adults, children)
              History of the village
              Beliefs, cultures, influence of culture and taboo on environmental management and
              understanding, importance of customary law
              Economic Activities (building on CLA findings)
              Community and Social Services available (building on CLA findings) i.e. no. of schools,
              mosques, buildings, water sources, health clinics
              Village sketch map, outlining locations of homes, social services, religious institutions,
              natural resources, boundaries, terrestrial and marine areas, source of water, land available for
              different activities

DAY TWO:

  3. An assessment and ‘inventory’ of natural resources, management issues, problems and
      opportunities
  This section will incorporate current uses and values of natural resources. The inventory will be based on
  an overview of the current understanding of species available and where they are located rather than on
  an actual biological inventory (which requires training and will come later). ‘Opportunities’ signifies
  those not taken (some may be taken, others will not be allowed to if they are unsustainable) as well as
  those available, building on the findings proposed in the CLA.

  This assessment should take the following steps:
          Resources and their present uses and values. E.g. reefs, fish, trees
          Issues in management of the resources.
          Problems in management, including unsustainable activities
          Opportunities for better management and more profit.
          Recommendations (sustainable better ways of managing and gaining value from in future,
          actions required)

  4. A village-based zoning scheme
  The community should be asked to assess and define the different zones they would like to have. This
  assessment should take the following steps:
           Creation of a Zonation map
           Description of each of the zones and their uses
  The mapping process should include zones such as living areas, graveyards, areas for schools, mosques
  etc., then zones for each core livelihood activity, landing sites, markets etc. Then, marine protection
  zones, ideally divided into three usage types: 1. Non utilisation. 2. Specified Utilisation 3. General Use.
  Such zoning should include areas set aside for marine life such as turtle nesting if possible.


                                                     43
DAY THREE:

  5. An Institutional Management System
  The management system will develop committees with roles and responsibilities and relationships with
  Park authorities, relations with the MPA, laws and penalties and financial management responsibilities.
  It will incorporate the development or creation of Village Natural Resources Committees (VNRCs). The
  VNRC will need (to an agreed level) the authority and formal status to be able to take political or
  environmental policing decisions for the beneficial management of the MPA. The committees will need
  to be transparent, electable and accountable.

  This stage will require the following steps, and should introduce the need to:
          Assess who will be responsible for implementing the various parts of this plan
          Discuss the need for the creation of a VNRC and potentially sub-committees, allocate their roles
          and responsibilities.
          Develop communications and relations between the village and the MPA.
          Develop communications and relations between the village and local government
          Suggest and create Laws, Byelaws and penalties. Each activity that will be seen as illegal will be
          discussed (linking in with traditional taboos) and agreement made how these will be addressed if
          someone breaks the law
          Discuss the need for natural resource financial management and allocate a value for key
          resources by a given amount, e.g. a certain amount per a certain type of fish, and then agree a
          system to levy these taxes. Agreement will be required as to who will manage the money and
          whether it will be banked, in which case, who will be signatories.
          Discuss the need for records and data, which need to be kept and how they will be used. E.g.
          agree the need for records on turtles, no. of nests and hatchings; verify this by visiting the
          breeding areas in a regulated manner; allocate specific people to obtaining and disseminating the
          data.

DAY FOUR:

  6. VEMP Management Strategy and Objectives
  Introduce the need to agree first the overall strategic direction that the VEMP should take and what its
  core objectives are. To do this, outline the objectives of the village as they see them, in order of
  importance, e.g., ‘all natural resources are protected and secure’ or ‘water sources are protected’, or
  ‘better governance systems created’ or ‘more reliable income generating activities achieved’. It is likely
  that some core objectives may be divided into more clearly defined versions. E.g. rather than ‘relieve
  poverty’, objectives may be stated as ‘social services improved’, economic opportunities increased’ etc.

  7. VEMP Management Actions
  Management actions will highlight the objectives that have been stated in the section above. Each
  objective will be turned into a core activity. Introduce the concept of these and explain that these will
  then be divided into sub activities for which a responsible person or group will be allocated. For each sub
  activity it will be essential to define what resources and tools will be required for each of these and
  where these resources/tools will come from. If possible a target date will be given for each of these
  activities.

  8. Monitoring and Evaluation
  The community will be introduced as to how they will monitor their plan. It is important to assess issues
  to be evaluated, indicators, data type and sources of data. E.g. Objective: Reefs-shallow and deep-
  protection improved. Indicators: Markers can be seen in the appropriate areas, the no. of living things
  have increased, there are improved fish catches etc. Type of data: No. of patrols per month etc. Source of
  Data: VGS, VNRC, fishers etc. Understanding which natural resources are available may initially be
  limited. Once complete the VEMPs should be agreed by the village as a whole and then incorporated
  as far as is practical into the GMP.




                                                    44
         Mukoma Road (off Magadi Road)
               P. O. Box 68200 - 00200
                                Nairobi
                                 Kenya
               Tel + 254 20 890605 - 12
                   Fax + 254 20 890615
                         earo@iucn.org

               www.iucn.org/places/earo



Eastern Africa Regional Programme

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:16
posted:12/14/2011
language:English
pages:55