CRITICAL THINKING

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					CRITICAL THINKING
“Learning without thought is a
 labor lost.”
                    -Confucius
         Suggested supplemental material:
Youtube Viewing:
   “Skepticism & the Media (Penn & Teller)
   James Randi [all videos] (“The Amazing Randi”)
   “Jonathan Edwards” (Michael Shermer)
Reading
Skeptic magazine (www.skeptic.com) Anything by Michael Shermer
Skeptical Inquirer magazine (www.csicop.org)

        Learning Objectives:
     Critically evaluating information
     Confirmation Bias
     Hindsight Bias
     5 Critical Questions
          CRITICAL THINKING
          “The Disillusioning Lecture”

    “Don’t Believe Everything You Think”
   How we “think” to see the world,
   How we “want” to see the world.
   The Importance of gaining a different view
   The willingness to change.
   Science (defined) - “to know.”
   Natural explanations for natural behavior
   The state motto of Missouri
   Changing HOW you think, not what you think
   The whole science-religion debate
   Magic, Psychics, Mediums etc.
     Debunking    101 (ex. Randi’s “Aura Test”)
   Looking beyond the surface (5 issues)
     (“American Idol® syndrome”)
     Urban legends/Opinions are not facts/Prejudicial
      Thinking/ Confirmation Bias/Hindsight Bias
       CRITICAL THINKING
   Defined:
    An approach to thinking
     characterized by skepticism
     and thoughtful analysis of
     statements and arguments.
         Evaluating Information
   Focus on observable data
   Focus on meaning
     Where  do we obtain our information?
     Correlation does not imply causation
     Prejudicial Thinking

“A great many people think they are thinking when they are merely
   rearranging their prejudices.”        -William James
    Principles of Critical Thinking
   Be skeptical
   Do not oversimplify or overgeneralize
   Examine definitions of terms, assumptions
   Be cautious drawing conclusions
   Consider alternative interpretations
      Recognizing Fallacies
   Arguments directed to the person
   Appeals to authority
   Appeals to force
   Appeals to popularity
Characteristics of critical thinkers
     Ability and willingness to evaluate evidence
     Recognize and evaluate arguments
     Appreciate the value of critical thinking
     Impose criteria upon thinking
                 “I have no particular talent.
             I am merely extremely inquisitive.”
                                            - Albert Einstein
      FIVE CRITICAL QUESTIONS
   What am I being asked to accept / believe?
   Is there evidence available to support the claim?
   Can the evidence be interpreted in another way?
   What evidence would help evaluate the
    alternatives?
   What conclusions are most reasonable?
          SUMMARY
   EVIDENCE BASED RESEARCH
   REPLICATED RESEARCH
   QUALITY OF THE EVIDENCE
   5 CRITICAL QUESTIONS

				
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posted:12/14/2011
language:English
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