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```					      Benchmark Assessments 2011–2012

Science

1.   Elizabeth developed a hypothesis stating that the percentage of recyclable
materials thrown away was increasing by 75 percent.

Which investigative procedure should Elizabeth use to support her hypothesis?

A.     She should make a chart and list of the materials that cannot be
recycled.
B.     She should collect specific data on the total number of items thrown
during a given time period.
C.     She should develop a detailed poster describing all types of items that
can be recycled.
D.     She should sort through items thrown away and collect data on
recyclable versus non-recyclable items.

2.        Refer to the following passage to answer questions

Brynn completed an activity in class demonstrating how an oil spill affects ocean
life. She filled a pan with water and poured a small amount of oil on the surface.
Then she dipped a paper towel into the pan to show how the oil sticks to it.
Another student, observing Brynn’s model, is not persuaded that birds are
harmed by oil spills.

How could Brynn have improved her demonstration?
A. Cotton would absorb the oil better and show how the spill can be cleaned
up.
B. Brynn should dip her finger into the oil to show how the oil will cling to her
skin.
C. A feather could be used in place of a paper towel; then Brynn could try to
remove the oil from the feather.
D. A solid material, such as butter would be a better model for the material
that spreads on the water during an oil spill.
Refer to the following question to answer question 3:
Li makes a model of the solar system using clay spheres. She makes sure the
clay spheres are to scale by size. She lines them up on her desk about 5 cm
apart. They are in the correct order starting with the sun.

3.    How can Li revise her model to increase its accuracy?

A. Li can place the sun in the center.
B. Li can use styrofoam instead of clay.
C. Li can use different sizes of clay spheres.
D. Li can show that the distances between the planets are different.

Refer to the following passage for questions 4 and 5.

John is thinking about designing an experiment to test the effect of using
seawater to water his plants. John places 10 spider plants near a window for 20
days. Each day, he waters five plants with 10 mL of seawater and five plants with
10 mL of fresh water. He measures their heights before and after the 20 days.

4. Which of the following could be a hypothesis for John’s experiment?
A. Different types of plants are affected by salt water differently.
B. Salt water affects the growth of plants.
C. Plants need sunlight to grow.
D. Plants need water to grow.

5. Which of the following variables did John keep constant?
A. daily amount of water
B. daily amount of sunlight
C. daily amount of water and daily amount of sunlight
D. neither the daily amount of water nor the daily amount of sunlight
Use the diagram to answer questions 6 - 8. Remember positive (+) sign means
that organism posses that characteristics, negative sign (-) means it does not
possess the characteristics.

Organism Autorophs Heterotrophs Vascular               Open      Sexually        Breath With
with       Circulatory Reproduce by             Cell
Chlorophll System                    Means Wall
of
Lungs,
gills or
skin
A                  _              +                _       +          +               _        _
B                  _              +                _       _          +               +        _
C                  +              _                +       _          +               _        +
D                  _              +                _       _          +               _        +

6.     Which statement identifies organism C?

A. It is classified as a vertebrate.
B. It is classified as a plant.
C. It is classified as a fungi.
D. It is classified as an invertebrate.

7.     What organism shows the characteristics of a mushroom?

A. B
B. C
C. D
D. A
8.    Which of the following organism shows the characteristics of a crab?

A. B
B. C
C. D
D. A

9.    Which of the following structure is not present in animal cells?
A. cell membrane
B. chloroplast
C. mitochondrion
D. nucleus

10. During sexual reproduction one sperm cell unites with one egg cell to
produce a fertilized egg that develops into a new organism.

Which of the following statements best describes how an offspring receives
genetic information from its parents?

A. The offspring receives half of its genes from each parent.
B. The offspring receives all the genes from each parent.
C. The offspring receives more genes from the male parent than from the
female parent.
D. The offspring receives more genes from the female parent than from the
male parent.
11. Four students attempted to classify organisms into Plant and Animal
Kingdoms. Their classifications are shown in the table below

Plants                       Animals
Student 1                   Heterotrophic by             Heterotrophic by
absorption                   ingestion
Student 2                   Cells have cell walls        Cells do not have cell
walls
Student 3                   Multicellular                Unicellular
Student 4                   Eukaryotic                   Prokaryotic

Which student’s classification correctly contrasts the Plant and Animal
Kingdoms?

A. Student 1
B. Student 2
C. Student 3
D. Student 4

12. During the summer, Joel notices that his lemonade glass is wet on the
outside and wonders how this could happen. He develops the following
hypothesis.

If a glass of lemonade is left outside at 82 degrees Fahrenheit, then water
molecules will form on the outer surface of the glass.
Which scientific explanation supports Joel’s hypothesis?
A. condensation
B. perspiration
C. precipitation
D. respiration

13. If a spacecraft travels from Earth to the edge of the Solar System, what will
happen to the gravitational pull between Earth and the spacecraft?
The gravitational pull between Earth and the spacecraft will
A. become zero.
B. increase.
C. decrease.
D. remain the same.

14. Hydroelectric dams provide clean, inexpensive and renewable energy.
However, these dams can also have negative effects on the environment.
Which statement supports the opinion that a dam can harm a river
ecosystem?

A. Reservoir near hydroelectric dams provides water for drinking and
irrigation, which affects farmers.
B. Dams change water depth and alter the temperature of a river, affecting
fish and other organisms.
C. Hydroelectric dams on river emit less pollution which affects the energy
production of fossil fuels.
D. A series of dams on the river can reduce flooding downstream during
heavy rains, affecting various communities.

15. 10. Which feature best represents the crust of Earth?

A. iron-based rocks
B. separate moving plates
C. thickest under the ocean floor
D. composed mainly of molten rock
16. Thunderstorms and hurricanes are examples of severe weather. Which of
these weather conditions is necessary for the formation of thunderstorms and
hurricanes?
A. a cold rain falling to the ground
B. air masses combining to create a high-pressure area
C. winds spiraling downward and away from the center of a storm
D. air moving toward the center of a storm and rising into the atmosphere

17. Which geological events are most common along tectonic plate boundaries?

A. erosion and deposition
C. earthquakes and volcanoes
D. tidal waves and sedimentation

18. Plants use energy from the sun to convert
A. sugars to oxygen and water
B. oxygen and water to sugars
C. sugars to water and carbon dioxide
D. carbon dioxide and water to sugars
19. Which of these best describes the difference between physical and chemical
weathering?
A. Physical weathering affects rocks, but chemical weathering affects only
minerals.
B. Physical weathering is caused by ice, but chemical weathering is caused
only by water.
C. Chemical weathering changes the composition of a rock, but physical
weathering does not.
D. Chemical weathering affects all kinds of rocks, but physical weathering
affects only igneous rocks.

20. 19. The period of rotation for each planet in our solar system is different.
The period of rotation for Earth is

A. 24 hours
B. 28 days
C. 13 weeks
D. 1 year

21. Which of the following is NOT true about the cell wall?

A. It’s function is to help support and protect the cell.
B. It is present in the cells of animals.
C. It is stiff and rigid.
D. It is present in plant cells.
22. The diagram below shows the moon in one of its crescent phases.

Which statement best explains the cause of the phases of the moon?

A. The sun hides part of the surface of the moon.
B. The sun, the moon, and Earth are in a straight line in space.
C. Only part of the illuminated moon is visible from Earth.
D. Only the light from the back side of the sun is reflected by the moon.

23. A puppy has traits from its mother and its father. Which of these structures
provides genetic information from the father to the puppy?

A. a muscle cell
B. a nerve cell
C. a blood cell
D. a sperm cell
Use the information below to answer the following.

Fossils of tree ferns as old as 400 million years have been found in rocks. These
ancient ferns lived in swampy, lowland forests and reproduced asexually by
producing spores. The ferns were much taller than other plants living at the same
time. These extinct tree ferns have modern day relatives that grow in the tropics.
Ancient ground plants competed with ancient tree ferns for resources in swampy
areas.

24. For which resource were the tree ferns best able to compete?
A. air
B. shelter
C. sunlight
D. water

25. The core of Earth is best described as
A. a hot mass of metal.
B. a cold mass of metal.
C. less dense than the crust.
D. less dense than the mantle.

26. The solar system containing Earth consists of a sun and planets.
Which statement best describes the motion of the planets in our solar
system?

A. The planets rotate around the sun.
B. The sun rotates around the planets.
C. The planets revolve around the sun.
D. The sun revolves around the planets.
27. The rock cycle is a process that alters sedimentary, metamorphic, and
igneous rocks. The diagram below shows the rock cycle.

Which type of rock contains the best fossil record?

A. Igneous
B. Magma
C. Metamorphic
D. sedimentary

28.      The surface of Earth is constantly changing.

Which of these findings provides the best evidence that the crustal surface of
Earth has changed over time?

A. Some rock layers are very thick.
B. Some species have become extinct.
C. Marine fossils are found in mountain areas.
D. Igneous rock is found on all tectonic plates.

29.      Each spring, a crevice in the cliff wall widens and deepens.

What is the best explanation for how physical weathering causes the crevice to
widen and deepen?

A. Winds deposit sand into the crevice.
B. Water freezes and expands in the crevice.
C. Snow melts and evaporates between the rocks in the crevice.
D. Air pollution in the area causes a reaction that widens the crevice.
30. Use the information below to answer the following.

The Hawaiian Islands are home to some of the most studied volcanoes on
Earth. The volcanoes erupt often but are seldom explosive because of the
magma that they produce. Kilauea volcano is located on the largest of the
Hawaiian islands and rises over 4,200 feet above sea level. Kilauea has been
erupting continuously since 1983 and has resulted in new landmass.

Which event is best explained by tectonic plate movement?

B.   a   tsunami
C.   a   hurricane
D.   a   thunderstorm

Directions Use the technical passage below to answer Number 31
Green Ocean Machine
The plants in the window, the trees outside and the broccoli in the
refrigerator all have ancient ancestors that didn’t used to be green. They
only “got green” when they captured smaller green creatures that turn
sunlight into food. These small green creatures eventually became the
green “chloroplasts” that the plants use to capture energy from the sun
through the process of photosynthesis.
In Japan, scientists have now discovered a tiny ocean creature that
may be in a similar process of “getting green.” This process could
eventually provide the tiny sea creatures with their own chloroplasts, or
something similar.
These organisms are called “Hatena” which means “mysterious” in
Japanese. Sometimes they are green and sometimes they don’t have
much of a color at all. The creatures turn green after they swallow up an
even smaller, green sea creature called an “alga.” These single-celled
creatures stay green until it’s time to divide in two. At dividing time, one of
the two new cells is green. The other new cell is colorless, though you
might say it is “green with envy” because it develops an arm that captures
its own green creature. Once Hatena has a green sunlight- capturing alga
inside its body, its arm disappears. The new green partner seems to
provide Hatena with most of its energy needs.
If the scientists are right, then Hatena and the green critter are in the
process of becoming one organism instead of two separate organisms. If
this happens, the green creature will become an important sun-capturing
part of every Hatena–similar to the green “chloroplasts” found in the plants
in the window, the trees outside and the broccoli in the refrigerator.

The passage states that “the new green partner [alga] seems to
provide Hatena with most of its energy needs.”

Describe the process that enables organisms to use energy from
light to make food. In your description, be sure to include

 the specialized features needed to produce food
 the substances needed to produce food
 the substances produced during this process

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