ENG lotf answer keys De La Salle College

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ENG lotf answer keys De La Salle College Powered By Docstoc
					1. Allegory?

allegory: a narrative in which the characters, actions and setting are designed in
such a manner as to create the sense of a “literal” and a “figurative”
understanding of the story.

Jerome Egan states: “The book is an allegory. The boys are presented as typical
of human nature as it is essentially. Their isolation on an island is a device
whereby the author is able to transcend what he would consider the facade of
civilization in order to reach man as he truly is.”

2. Exemplum?

exemplum: a didactic story told in the form of a sermon; a device popular in the
Middle Ages as a means of preaching moral lessons

John Bowen states: “William Golding has also written about cruelty, and there
are those who see in his first novel Lord of the Flies only an exemplum of the
way in which, when civilized restraints which we impose upon ourselves are
abandoned, the passions of anger and fear wash across the mind, obliterating
common-sense care, and life once again becomes nasty, brutish and short. The
book may certainly be read that way, but it is also a religious allegory.”

3. Fable?

fable: a type of allegory in which the story exemplifies a moral or universal
theme; usually stated by a character in the conclusion in the form of a epigram

Louie Grande asserts: “Investigating the way and the why men act, he [Golding]
carries on in common with all of Western civilizations greatest creators of
imaginative literature; Golding goes back to the fable, to the apparently straight-
forward story that is actually multi-radiant in meaning.”

4. Fairy Tale?

fairy tale: stories of magic and wonder set in “the land of Fairie” originally for
adult audiences

C.B. Cox points out: “To find an exciting, stimulating plot which is both
dramatically credible and capable of allegorical interpretation is exceptionally
difficult. The idea of placing boys alone on an island, and letting them work out
ENG 2D Lord of the Flies Answer Keys       1
archetypal patterns of human society, is a brilliant technical device that suggests
the classic conventions of any fairy tale.”

5. Folk Tale?

folk tale: since the mid-19th century stories usually of unknown authorship about
social rituals and morals originally handed down by word of mouth and then
translated into written form

Brian Oldsey and Slyvia Weintraub point out: “Indeed, the problem in all
attempts to explain Lord of the Flies as some kind of parable is that the novel is
not a parable; it is too long, and lacks the point-by-point parallelism necessary to
meet the definition. Nor, in the precise sense, is it a fable, since it deals primarily
with human beings, since it does not rely upon folkloristic or fantastic materials,
and since it does not provide the convenience of an explicit moral. It is
allegoristic, rich in variant suggestions, and best taken at the level of suggestive

6. Myth?

myth: sacred tales originated from ancient peoples which reveal humanity’s
relationship to the secular and the divine

Nick Braybrooke claims: “the terms most frequently applied to the novel are
allegory, fable, and myth. The author prefers the last, because myth, as he says,
is something which comes out from the root of things in the ancient sense of
being the key to existence...and to experience as a whole.”

7. Parable?

parable: a short narrative that stresses an analogy between its parts and a moral
lesson given by the narrator; term parable comes from the Greek word para
which means beside.” How does the root help you to understand the meaning
of the English term?

Paul Drew claims: “Lord of the Flies, for all its clarity of outline, is a complex
novel. Although it is immediately successful simply as narrative it draws its
distinguishing power from its value as a symbolic representation. That is to say it
is a parable whose truth must he recognized, not discovered intellectually, a
sustained metaphor for human experience, for “the end of innocence, the
darkness of man’s heart.”
ENG 2D Lord of the Flies Answer Keys       2
The Island as an Archetype in Lord of the Flies

“No Man is an Island”’ (from Meditation 17) by John Donne

No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of a
continent, a part of the main. If a clod be washed away by the sea,
Europe is the less, as well as if a promontory were, as well as if a
manor of thy friend’s or of thine own were. Any man’s death
diminishes me because I am involved in humanity, and therefore
never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee.

Island, like all archetypes, has conflicting/contrasting symbolism:

a) Isolation, solitude, death, punishment for the immoral/criminal
b) “Sacred place”, stability, superiority, Garden of Eden, paradise,

The island is described as being in the shape of a boat, (p.31)

•    Boat symbolizes: resurrection, a venture (journey) and is an
    ancient symbol of civilization
•    Water current and island “moving steadily astern” (p.31)
    suggesting their new civilization may be going backwards [its
    inhabitants may be regressing]
•    Tropical location has a beach, where Ralph and Piggy emerge
    from the scar to find the conch.
•    further inland is the dense jungle, towards the center of which is
    Simon's mat of creepers.
•    Where pigs are hunted and the Lord of the Flies is eventually
•    Mountain located at the very left of this rendering is where the
    boys climb to the summit in order to take in their surroundings.
•    Location of the fire and the dead parachutist.
•    Castle Rock, the other high rising formation found on the opposite
    end of the island, rises high above the sea; area turned into a
    fortress for Jack and his tribe, and is the location of Piggy's death.
ENG 2D Lord of the Flies Answer Keys   3
Imagery, Symbol & Allegory in Lord of the Flies

What is an image in writing? Literal and concrete representation of a
sensory experience ; What is imagery? (vag tok) Collection of images
within a literary work, used synonymously with “figures of speech”

What is a symbol? (cup): Object or person that is itself, yet stands for and
suggests another level of meaning

What is an allegory?: Narrative in which characters, actions and setting
devised to create “literal” and “figurative” understanding over entire length
of work

How do we distinguish between image, symbol and allegory?
Image: literal sensory elements, i.e. descriptions:

Samples from the Novel

 “The shore was fledged with palm trees” (4); symbols: meanings of
   those images beyond the literal “(he) stood there among the skull-like
   coco-nuts...” (4); allegory: extended reference to specific ideas:
   references to boys adventure stories Treasure Island and Coral Island
 “The difficulty was not the steep ascent round the shoulders of rock, but
   the occasional plunges through the undergrowth to get to the next path.
   Here, the roots and stems of creepers were in such tangles that the
   boys had to thread through them like pliant needles. Their only guide,
   apart from the brown ground and occasional flashes of light through the
   foliage, was the tendency of slope: whether this hole, laced as it was
   with cables of creepers, stood higher than that.” (28)
 “The body lifted a fraction of an inch from the sand and a bubble of air
   escaped from the mouth with a wet plop. (170)
 “He heard a curious trickling sound and then a louder crepitation as if
   someone were unwrapping great sheets of cellophane.” (215)
 “Bars and splashed of sunlight flitted over him and sweat made
   glistening streaks on his dirty body.”

ENG 2D Lord of the Flies Answer Keys   4
From Imagery to Symbol to Allegory

When authors use a series of images, they become
synonymous with an idea/vision

This imaginative thought uses imagery as it vehicle and
creates a symbol—all symbols are created through

Three Levels of Allegory

Moral: conflict in man: Ralph (common sense & will) fails
in his attempts to balance Piggy (intellect), Jack
(emotions), and Simon (spirit), plunging the world into
chaos and turning himself into a partial savage

Social: Response to The Coral Island: Ralph (government)
fails in his attempts to balance Jack (power), Piggy
(technology) and Simon (humanism) as power warps
technology, destroys humanism and attempts to abolish

Religious: With hope of salvation, Ralph (everyman)
demeans intellect (Piggy), cannot understand spiritual
truth (Simon) and helps kill it because of his physical
appetites and desire to consort with violence/thrill-seeking
which he allows to flourish by letting Jack (unthinking
bestiality) corrupt choice; cringes hopelessly and
helplessly, a fallen creature, as hell fires consume

ENG 2D Lord of the Flies Answer Keys   5
The Island as Symbol cont’d

Island has conflicting/contrasting symbolism:
 isolation, solitude, death, punishment for the immoral/criminal
 “sacred place,” stability, superiority, Garden of Eden, paradise

(If island seen as “Eden,” then boy’s actions negate innocence.)

Opening scenes with Ralph (pleasing figure of innocence) ironically
counterpoint the paradise motif:

 “He...stood looking down in to the water. It was clear to the bottom
   and bright with the efflorescence of tropical weed and
   coral...Beyond the platform there was more enchantment. Some
   act of God — a typhoon perhaps, or the storm that had
   accompanied his own arrival had banked sand inside the lagoon so
   that there was a long, deep pool on the beach...The water was
   warmer than his blood (pg. 12-13).

(Passage concentrates on harmony between Ralph & lush nature, but
references to storm, typhoon, & blood oppose idyllic vision.)

 Natural beauty/paradise qualities             Harshness/discord:
“blue of all shades” (10)              “broken trunks” (pg.8, 9,10)
“palm fonds would whisper” (9)         “tangled foliage” (pg 9)
“thick sand” (10)                      “long grinding roar of the
“clear sand” (20)                        breakers” (10)
“pink cliffs of granite”(13)           “roots and stems of creepers” (28)

The island described in the shape of a boat (31)

 Boat symbolizes: resurrection, a venture [journey] & is ancient
  symbol of civilization (archetype)
 Water current and island “moving steadily astern” (31) suggesting
  their new civilization may be going backwards [its inhabitants may
  be regressing]

ENG 2D Lord of the Flies Answer Keys   6
Sample Characterization Analysis of Jack

Jack may personify “absolute evil” or the demonic element in human nature, yet there is much in him —
his enthusiasm, his direct action, his intensity, his love-hate relationship with Ralph, his obvious ability to
lead others — which could make him an attractive and compelling figure.

Statements Made by the Character:
You're talking too much...Shutup Fatty…I ought to be        Jack exudes over-confidence & self entitlement;
chief...I can sing a C sharp’ (p. 17-18)                    demonstrates controlling & demanding
  I agree with Ralph. We’ve got to have rules and obey      “It seems to be the dilemma we are faced with
them. After all, we’re not savages. We’re English, and      — that, on the whole, the politician is likely to
the English are best at everything. So we’ve got to do      be a Jack, and, at best, a Ralph — never a
the right things.’                                          Simon.” William Golding
 If you’re hunting sometimes... you can feel as if          This compulsion to track down and kill is
you’re not hunting, but—being hunted, as if                  swallowing him up.’
something’s behind you all the time in the jungle.’

Other Say:
I’m scared of him, and that’s why I know him. If       Boys do not elect him chief, because they recognized
you’re scared of someone you hate him but you          his willingness to resort to violence; they fear
can't stop thinking about him. You kid yourself        delivering themselves voluntarily to his dominion.
he’s all right really, an’ then when you see him       Nonetheless, he is the biggest and the strongest boy,
again; it’s like asthma an’ you can’t breathe.’        and no one dared stand in his way when he decided
                                                       to throw off the forms and act upon his primitive
"We can do without Jack Merridew." (p.140)             Piggy evaluates that Jack is a threat to the ultimate
                                                       success of their society

Actions of the Character:
"...Jack found the throat and the       Jack's determination to prove himself as hunter & leader is
hot blood spouted over his hands."      evident; also fascinated with the use of power/force; slowly
(p.149)                                 turning into a savage who is not afraid to kill
Viciously, with full intention, he      Jack’s hatred of Ralph emerges fully. As soon as he ceases to lead
hurled his spear at Ralph. (200)        and control. Jack turns vicious; and he has clearly begun to hate
                                        the boy who bars his leadership. Any possibility of responsible and
                                        sane decision on this expedition is sabotaged as Jack insists on
                                        turning it into a personal challenge and duel.

Physical Appearance:
His face was crumpled and freckled, and ugly without stillness. -        Jack was apparently a good boy; at
Out of this face stared two light eyes, frustrated now, and turning,     least, he was ostensibly so, because
or ready to turn, to anger. (21- 27)                                     he has risen to be head of the choir.
                                                                         Yet, very quickly, Jack becomes a
                                                                         sort of villain on the island.
“Jack was bent double…down like a sprinter, his nose only a few          He is closer to animal than human;
inches from the humid earth…dog-like…on all fours; and his bare          he appears to be going through a
back was a mass of dark freckles and peeling sunburn…for a               reptilian metamorphosis
minutes [he] became less a hunter than a furtive thing, ape-like
among the tangle of trees…and passed like a shadow” (52-53)
He looked in astonishment, no longer at himself but at an                He serves as a physical
awesome stranger. He spilt the water and leapt to his feet,              manifestation of irrational forces.
laughing excitedly. Beside the mere, his sinewy body held up a
mask that drew their eyes and appalled them. He began to dance
and his laughter became a bloodthirsty snarling...the mask was a
thing on its own, behind which Jack hid, liberated from shame and
self-consciousness.” (69, 80)
ENG 2D Lord of the Flies Answer Keys                  7
Sample Characterization Analysis of Simon

I wanted to go to a place—to a place I know. Simon’s peculiar strength is that he is not
A place in the jungle.(93)                        frightened of the island; indeed, he find the
                                                   Garden’ (archetypal sacred grove/place) used
                                                  to commune with God/Nature. (60-62)
“’What I mean is, maybe it’s only us…we could Simon understands who and where the beast
be sort of…’;Simon became inarticulate in his     is early in the book; he is the only one who
efforts to express mankind’s’ essential illness.” does not insist on seeking the beast
                                                  everywhere but in the place of its origin, the
                                                  human heart

Others Say:
Simon found for them the fruit they could not     Golding has stated that Simon represents the
reach…with endless, outstretched hands…the       Apostle Peter—a representation that escapes
littluns watched him inscrutably over double     the average reader, but that indicates Simon’s
handfuls of ripe fruit.” (61)                    importance to Golding as a purveyor of
                                                 religious truth.
“You are a silly little boy…You knew didn’t      Beelzebub was the Philistine Lord of Flies; the
you?                                             Jews named him Lord of Dung or Filth; by the
I’m part of you? Close, close, close!” (157-     time of the New Testament, he was Lord of
158)                                             the Devils, a generalized Satan; this is with
                                                 this potent deity Simon has his strange jungle

Then one of the boys flopped on his face in      His peculiarity has been insisted on ever since
the sand and the line broke up. They heaved      we first laid eyes on him; indeed, his role is
the fallen boy to the platform and let him       paradoxical: ultimately, weakened by Golding’s
lie…the choirboy had fainted. (22-29)            attempt to endow him with a mysterious
                                                 authority/insight that achieves nothing
A last Simon gave up and looked back; saw        As long as you have homo sapiens, you have
the white teeth and dim eyes, the blood—and      wickedness, because that’s what he’s about.’
his gaze was held by that ancient, inescapable   William Golding
recognition.                                     This being so, there is reason to fear.
“The beast was harmless and horrible; and the    Men reject divine truth that saints like Simon,
news must reach the others as soon as            would disclose to them if permitted and, also
possible.(162)                                   like them, is martyred for the undertaking

Physical description:
Now that the pallor of his faint was over, he        Simon potential as a leader, his manner of
was a skinny, vivid little boy, with a glance        presenting his ideas, his physical appearance,
coming up from under a hut of straight hair          his seizures make him easily overlooked
that hung down… (25)
Softy, surrounded by a fringe of inquisitive         It seems impossible that his sacrifice had no
bright creatures…Simon’s dead body moved             ultimate meaning
out towards the open sea (170)

ENG 2D Lord of the Flies Answer Keys             8
Sample Characterization Analysis of Piggy

We may feel impatient with Piggy’s premature middle-age: 1 bet it’s gone tea-time” ... and with the
“martyred expression of a parent who has to keep up with the senseless ebullience of the children.”
However, if we do, we soon learn the implications of acting like a “crowd of kids.” We are made aware
that innocence, which consists largely of ignorance and irresponsibility, may be far from harmless.

What are we? Humans? Or animals? Or savages?                 Piggy has the right answer for the wrong reasons,
What’s grown-ups going to think? Going off —                 in keeping with his philosophy, but his answer is
hunting pigs — letting fires out — and now! 99,113           finally the same as Simon’s: the beast is within
 I know there isn’t no beast—not with claws and all          Only the intelligence of Piggy is not tempted by the
that, I mean—but I know there isn’t no fear                  threat of The Beast & the tribal dances.
either...Unless—...Unless we get frightened of
people.’ 102

Others Say:
You were outside. Outside the circle. You never          Piggy’s attempt to rationalize the Simon death is his
really came in. Didn’t you see what we — what            ultimate flaw: he cannot reconcile how crude ritual
they did? 173                                            & the will to destruction can overwhelm rational

Ralph turned and smiled involuntarily. Piggy was a           His fat, asthmatic body is a natural butt for
bore; his fat, his assmar’ and his matter-of-fact            children, and continual mockery has taught him to
ideas were dull; but there was always a little               be humble and to enjoy being noticed even only as
pleasure to be got out of pulling his leg, even if one       a joke
did it by accident. Piggy saw the smile and
misinterpreted it as friendliness ... he rejoiced and
pressed his advantage.
Piggy held up the conch…the booing rose and died             He is the hopefully over-optimistic rationalist who
again as Piggy lifted the white, magic shell… which          assumes that man is a naturally reasonable
is better—to have rules and agree, or to hunt and            creature and that once scientific law has been fully
kill—to have law and rescue, or hunting and                  understood, man will live in accordance with it a
breaking things up?’ (199)                                   utopian life on earth--he is sacrificed because his
                                                             will-to-sanity is stronger than the will-to-
The rock struck piggy a glancing blow from chin to           His death is a poignant reminder of the unjust
knee; the conch exploded into a thousand white               treatment given by society to so many good men.
fragments and ceased to exist…Peggy’s arms and
legs twitched a bit, like a pig’s after it has been
killed.” 200

Physical Description:
The owner of the voice came backing out of the               Ah, well. Piggy is a scientist, He is a technocrat, He
undergrowth so that twigs scratched on a greasy              was meant to be a scientist, Talk: Conversations
windbreaker. The naked crooks of his knees were              with William Golding
plump, caught and scratched by thorns... He was
shorter than the fair boy and very fat, He came
forward, searching out safe lodgements for his
feet, and then looked up through thick spectacles.
(7, 11-12)
like a parent, thick spectacles, “the fat boy” ,
asthmatic, Sweets, martyred expression, middle-
aged, awkward, Outsider, thin hair, Whining, raised
by an auntie, flushed and perspiring, “I can’t swim.
I wasn’t allowed.”
ENG 2D Lord of the Flies Answer Keys                     9
Characterization Analysis of Ralph

Ralph ... provides the most consistent point of view, because he most nearly speaks for us,
rational, fallible humankind; He seems to stand for the qualities of balance, order, responsibility,
reason, common sense, and decisiveness which are necessary in a leader, However, he is far
from perfect.

Statements Made By the Character:
“He’s not Fatty,” cried Ralph, “his real name’s           Creates community by joining in the
Piggy!” (23, 25)                                          mocking of “Piggy”
“Because the rules arc the only things we’ve              He grows by discovering more about
got.”                                                     himself and his fellows, but especially about
                                                          himself…. to realize that the rules must be

Others Say:
But there was a stillness about Ralph as he sat           He seems especially favoured
that marked him out: there was his size, and
attractive appearance; and most obscurely, yet
most powerfully, there was the conch. (24, 35)
So Ralph asserted his chieftainship and could not         At times, Ralph shows a gift for leadership
have chosen a better way if he had thought for
days. (79, 91)

Actions of the Character:
He raised his spear, snarled a little, and waited.        The beast’ is latent ... in Ralph, who
(215, 239)                                                sometimes envies the abandon of the
Ralph launched himself like a cat.... (215, 240)          hunters and shares the desire to “get a
                                                          handful” of Robert’s brown, vulnerable
“...Ralph wept for the end of innocence, the              ...there is hope in Ralph’s gradual
darkness of man’s heart, and the fall through the         development to maturity; he learns to
air of a true, wise friend called Piggy.”
                                                          understand the minds of his enemies, to
                                                          notice how far short he falls of his own

Physical Appearance:
He turned neatly on to his feet, jumped down to            The first words of the book direct our at-
the beach, knelt and swept a double armful of              tention toward the attractive Ralph.
sand into a pile against his chest. (11,15)

This wind pressed his grey shirt against his chest         One quality that makes Ralph interesting
so that he noticed in this new mood of                     is his sensual awareness of the world
comprehension— how the folds were stiff like               around him.
board, and unpleasant; noticed the frayed edges of
his shorts making an uncomfortable, pink area on
the front of his thighs. (83-84, 96)

ENG 2D Lord of the Flies Answer Keys                 10
Three Views of Evil in the Novel

1. Piggy and Ralph believe in the essential goodness of people
and the island. If things “break up”...then it is the fault of
individuals, who deviate because there is something wrong with
them...Ralph says: “The world, that understandable and lawful
world, was slipping away. Once there was this and that; and
now—the ship had gone.” (p.98) In a similar manner Piggy
represents civility: “What are we? Humans? Or animals? Or
savages? What’s grown-ups going to think? Going off—hunting
pigs—letting fires out...” (p.98) In the adult world Jack could be
cured by seeing a psychiatrist or restrained by greater power
than his like school or the police.

2. Jack thinks that evil and destructiveness are living forces. In
a world dominated by force there are powers at work that are
stronger and greater than man. In such a world view, there is
no room for leniency: “...Next time there would be no mercy.”
(p.29) But these powers (Beast, Devil, or God) can be
propitiated/ expiated/ appeased by ritual, ceremony, sacrifice:
“This head is for the beast. It’s a gift”.

3. Simon’s view declares that blaming bad men, and the Devil,
is both right and wrong; there is evil, but it is neither outside
man nor confined to certain men, it is in everyone. In response
to whether the island should be seen as good or evil, he says:
“As if the beastie, the beastie or the snake-thing, was real.
Remember?” We all have our faults and weaknesses: Piggy has
poor vision; Jack is a savage; Ralph cannot move others to
work together and Simon is a strange little boy who has fits.

Does Golding encourage us to question all three views?

ENG 2D Lord of the Flies Answer Keys   11
Ashley Montagu’s “What is Human Nature?” - summary notes

• Humanity: man-made parts of the human environment
• What remains of man’s past working on their present to shape their
• Thesis: “What is man?” is usually returned in terms of what man’s nature
  is conceived to be.
• Most cultures begin with conception of human nature and then proceed
  to fashion image of man according to it; according to Montagu, man
  custom-made, tailored according to pattern prevailing in his particular
• In fact, man’s societies remarkably various.
• Western world generally believed man an “ornery” creature; there is
  good and evil in him, but good is so shot through with evil that one must
  constantly police it in order to give good opportunity to express itself;
  Hobbes: man is “nasty, brutish and short”; man is simply motions of
  organism; by nature a selfishly individualistic animal at constant war with
  all others
• Darwin convincingly showed, man as always struggling for existence,
  characterized by ruthless competition; conflict and combat the rule,
  indeed, law of nature

• Issue raised by Sigmund Freud but never fully realized: all living
  organisms tend to form social aggregates, that is, to interact with each
  other in a mutually beneficial manner, proves the deep-seated nature of
  this universal drive
• Montagu: “I know of no evidence which will withstand critical
  examination that any human being is born with the slightest element of
  evil within him, whether that evil be called original sin’ or a drive or
  tendency to destruction.’”
• Indisputable human record provides abundant proof of human
  aggressiveness; but record does not provide proof of its innateness
• Ill-bred person may react aggressively to have his toes stepped on,
  well-bred person may react with non-aggressive behaviour; may reflect
  no more than a difference in the learned ability to control the expression
  of aggression
• Aggression is love—frustrated love (desire to bond with others).

Ian Suttie: “purpose of aggression is not death-seeking or death-dealing,
but the preservation of the self from the isolation which is death, and the
restoration of a love relationship.”
ENG 2D Lord of the Flies Answer Keys   12
Gregory Baun’s “Social Sin” - summary notes

sin is...personal, knowingly and freely chosen by individuals...; social sin
is...accompanied by collective blindness, group egotism, and the pursuit of
a national life that betrays the covenant and violates the divine command:

    For all the crimes of the nation, Israel,
    I have made a judgment and will not
    hold back my punishment...

•      cultural and religious symbols, operative in the imagination and
       fostered by society, that legitimate and reinforce unjust institutions

•      “false consciousness” created by institutions and ideologies through
       which people involve themselves collectively in destructive action
       without acknowledging the moral implications

•      collective decisions, generated by a distorted consciousness, which
       increases the injustices in society and intensifies the power of
       dehumanizing trends

Original sin?

Corrects the liberal misunderstanding championed by intellectuals like
Montagu that we are born into a neutral environment, in which the good is
available to us if we so choose

Religious themes

“The novel is in fact a cannily constructed—perhaps contrived—exemplum
for the twentieth-century doctrine of original sin and its social and political
dynamics.” - O. Herndl


“Lord of the Flies” is the Old Testament name for Beelzebub/ Satan/ Lucifer

Simon (Peter) or Christ-like figure?
ENG 2D Lord of the Flies Answer Keys     13
Narrative Structure in Lord of the Flies

plot terminology? (ID-R3CFR)

Why frame the events of the novel with references to a global war?

• During the 1800’s and the early part of 1900’s, people in Britain, Europe and
  America tended to believe that they had developed the ultimate values of law,
  democracy, organization and religion

• Created a social order which enabled the basic good in human beings to
  flourish; believed that Jean Jacques Rousseau was correct when he said that:
  “Man is born free, but everywhere is in chains”; meaning that man is born
  good and his experience of society corrupts him

• After sorting out the evils of society, all humans could live in harmony:
  however, World War One disturbed this view

• Some argued that it was an aberration, that people would learn from that
  experience and never go to war again: “the war to end all wars” ; events of
  the twentieth century shattered this view (i.e. the Holocaust)

• Golding: far from being naturally good, humankind was basically evil; only the
  rule of law, civilization and threat of punishment kept people in check

• In order to explore his views in his novel, he took a popular children's novel by
  R. M. Ballantyne, entitled Coral Island, parodied its central plot and theme. In
  the novel, two British schoolboys, Ralph, Jack and an Australian boy, Peterkin,
  are marooned on a desert island. They encounter adventures with cannibals,
  pirates, and wild animals and survive admirably because they are British

• Golding uses a similar idea, the same names for the two main characters, yet
  his vision of how British schoolboys would behave in these circumstances
  differs to that of Ballantyne.

• Lord of the Flies can be seen as an allegory; that is a piece of writing in which
  the apparent meaning of the characters and events is used to symbolize a
  deeper meaning—moral, spiritual, political or social; consequently, it is
  possible to see the characters of this novel as symbolic of different attitudes
  and/or personality traits.

• Piggy: represents reason and learnt intelligence; Ralph: common sense; Jack,
  power and the need to control others; Simon: some form of spirituality and
  Sam 'n Eric: ordinary people.
ENG 2D Lord of the Flies Answer Keys       14
Making Up Words and Using the Right Words in LOTF

Out there, perhaps a mile away, the white surf flinked on a
coral reef and beyond that the open sea was dark blue. (p.4)

The birds cried, small animals scuttered. Ralphs breath failed;
the note dropped the octave, became a low wubber, was a rush
of air. (p.13)

And soon they were a happy, heaving pile in the under-dusk.

It was clear to the bottom and bright with the efflorescence of
tropical weed and coral. (p.7)

With that word the heat seemed to increase till it became a
threatening weight and the lagoon attacked with a blinding
effulgence. (p.9)

They were on the lip of a cirque, or a half-cirque, in the side of
the mountain. (p.25)

“A rock, almost detached, standing like a fort, facing them
across the green with one bold, pink bastion. (p.26)

Then with the martyred expression of a parent who has to keep
up with the senseless ebullience of the children, he picked up
the conch ... (p.38)

Jack stood there, streaming with sweat, streaked with brown
earth, stained by all the vicissitudes of a days hunting. (p.50)

“There was lashings of blood,” said Jack, laughing and
shuddering... (p.73)

ENG 2D Lord of the Flies Answer Keys   15
Form and Content in Lord of the Flies
General Observations About Diction & Syntax in the Novel

So when (William) Golding records the assault on the senses of facts,
the moment of confrontation between “thing” and “darkness,” he not
only describes terror and awe, he creates them. He has stated: “I dont
simply describe something. I lead the reader round to discovering it
                               - Peter Drew

➀ Alternating use of abstract and concrete words captures struggle of
characters to impose meaning or sense on a chaotic world, what some
have called a “language of psychological crisis”: i.e. “...the sunlight in
every patch blinked at him. This was so like the curtain that flapped in
his brain that for a moment he thought the blinking was inside him.”

➁ He invents words that suggest strangeness of island world, words
that look familiar but are not part of our everyday vocabulary: for
example, “...the white surf flinked on a coral reef...”; “Ralphs breath
failed; the note dropped the octave, became a low wubber...”; “And
soon they were a happy, heaving pile in the under-dusk.”

➂ In their syntactical construction, sentences lull and startle readers
(decrease + increase pulse rate) out of personal comfort of conventional
fiction— “...break down the Ballantyne picture of life...”; pleasant
impressions suddenly replaced with cruel, crude and unsympathetic
ones: “ the middle of them, with filthy body, matted hair, and
unwiped nose, Ralph wept for the end of innocence, the darkness of
man’s heart...”

➃ Lyrical syntax and poetic prose emphasize archetypal images in
nature; emphasis on terror that evil forces invoke and generally, power
of superstition: “clambering heavily among the creepers and broken
trunks...”; “a bird, a vision of red and yellow, flashed upwards with a
witch-like cry...”

ENG 2D Lord of the Flies Answer Keys   16
Student Sample Chart

Sentence       Words         First Four          Verbs            Unique Feature
No.            Per           Words
1              33            He was              Clambering,      balance between
                             clambering          flashed,         abstract/concrete
                             heavily             upwards, cry,    details
2              9              I can’t            Move             dialogue and lyrical,
                             hardly move                          poetic syntax
3              13            The owner of Backing,                vivid concrete details
                             the          scratched,
4              10            He bent      Bent down,              emphasis on kinetic
                             down,        removed,                sense
                             removed      turned around
5              12            The fair boy Peering                 built on oppositions
                             was                                  between beauty and
                                                                  an ominous quality
6              17            Ralph stood,        Stood,           “screwed up” non-
                             one hand            screwed up,      formal diction
7              41            The beach           Endless,         philosophic reflection
                             between the         infinity,
8              13            The sand            Thick, hit     physical description
                             was thick                          of setting
9              27            He became           kicked, ripped violent actions
                             conscious of
10             34            Then he             Leapt, back,     balance between
                             leapt back          pulled, stood,   abstract/concrete
                                                 sliding          details
11             30            He was old          Have, lost,      syntax places
                             enough,             awkward          emphasis on words
                                                                  that connote loss,
                                                                  innocence gone.

ENG 2D Lord of the Flies Answer Keys        17
Student Sample Response

      William Golding stated, “I don’t simply describe something. I lead the
reader round to discovering it anew!” Golding uses non-conventional
syntax to draw the reader into the experiences he describes. The longer
sentences that he writes tend to slow the pulse while shorter, more
emphatic ones build tension. The above syntax chart, analyzing one of the
introductory paragraphs from Chapter 1, captures a series of sentences
typical of Golding’s prose in the novel; they are either really short, or really
long. This creates a vacillating tone, an up and down pattern of emotions,
therefore resulting in an uneasy and tentative tone. Golding intentionally
catches the off guard. For example, when he describes, “He was
clambering heavily among the creepers and broken trunks when a bird, a
vision of red and yellow, flashed upwards with a witch-like cry; and this cry
was echoed by another,” Golding’s syntax places the archetypal images of
creepers and a broken tree trunk in balance, emphasizing the ominous
nature of the island earlier in the novel.
      Many writers use descriptive language to evoke a sense of time and
place. Golding builds description by means of layers of adjectives and
modifiers which create many loose or periodic sentences. These sentences
again guide the reader towards key words or phrases in each sentence that
the author wishes to emphasize. For example, in the sentence, “The
ground beneath them was a bank covered with coarse grass, torn
everywhere by the upheavals of fallen trees, scattered with decaying
coconuts and palm saplings”, Golding builds his observation out of a
lengthy, loose sentence. The independent clause (“the ground...was a
bank”) is located at the beginning of the sentence causing all the
adjectives clauses to trickle from there. Thus the bank is described
numerous times as “covered with coarse grass”, “torn everywhere” and
“scattered with decaying coconuts.”
      Golding uses contrasting description to underscore his theme of good
versus evil. He constantly emphasizes the commingling of good and evil
throughout the book. In the following sentence, Golding sets into balance
opposition the following characteristics: “A deep, harsh note boomed under
the palms, spread through the intricacies of the forest and echoed back
from the pink granite of the mountain”. Here the negative connotations of
“harsh notes” and “booming” sound are set against the positive
connotations of “intricacies” and “pink granite”.

ENG 2D Lord of the Flies Answer Keys   18
Designing Possible Theme Statements for LOTF

Like a thesis start with a topic that bears relevance to the
text, then consider DU TAGS...

Defects of Society
Golding says that "the theme (of the book) is an attempt
to trace back the defects of society to the defects of
human nature...The novel functions as a moral that
suggests that the shape of society must depend on the
ethical nature of the individual and not on any political

Different types of power exist in this world simultaneously,
some used for the general good of the community and
some abused exclusively for personal gain. Democratic
power is shown when choices and decisions are shared
among many people on the island. Jack shows
authoritarian power by threatening and terrifying others.
Some of the boys utilize brute force, when hunting for
pigs, and later hunting for Ralph.

Fear of the Unknown
One’s personal fears can lead, if left unchecked, to
potentially greater fear that consumes entire communities.
The boy's fear of the unknown on the island leads to their
fear of the beast. The boys cannot accept the notion of a
beast existing on the island, nor can they let go of it.
Recognition that no real beast exists, and that the only
beast on the island is fear itself one of the deepest
meanings of the story.
ENG 2D Lord of the Flies Answer Keys   19
Other Potential Themes in LOTF

Blindness and Sight
Those who are ridiculed for not adopting conventional
views often branded as “outsiders” and only later after
being put to death, acknowledged as prophetic visionaries.
Piggy is blind to his immediate surroundings but really
understands events on island. Unfortunately, boys do not
realize Piggy sees more, and is treated poorly and
eventually killed.

Fundamental Human Struggles
Obeying vs. scorning moral rules
Acting lawfully vs. indulging in violence
Cognizance that social order exists in the search for
democracy vs. the impulse to dominate over others via
brute power

"Civilizing instincts": encourage people to work together
toward common goals and behave peacefully; "barbarizing
instinct": the instinct toward savagery, which urges people
to rebel against authority and seek anarchy, chaos,
despotism, and violence.

Good Versus Evil
Does “Good and evil...grow from a common root@?; Are
good and evil related to ideas of justice and injustice? Is
evil real in the world or just a construct of the
imagination? How formidable is evil?

Other potential themes...?
ENG 2D Lord of the Flies Answer Keys   20

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