Chapter 26: Section 1 PowerPoint

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					     Chapter 26
Section 1: The World of Islam
                  LEQ (s)
► What   are the basic teachings of Islam?
► Why did Islam spread rapidly?
► Why did Islam split into different branches?
► What were some achievements of Islamic
  civilization?
► Define hejira, hajj, and caliph.
           Background History
► Muhammad    grew up in a time of violence and
  lawlessness
► Troubled by evil and corruption, he often withdrew
  to a cave to fast and pray
► According to Muslim belief, one day, while praying,
  Muhammad heard a voice call out, telling him to
  “Proclaim.”
► The voice was from the angel Gabriel sent by God.
► Muhammad was to be a prophet of God
      Background History cont.
► Muhammad      was encouraged by his wife Khadija,
  to tell people about the religion of Islam
► The words Gabriel spoke to Muhammad over the
  next 12 years become the Koran (also written
  Qur’an), the holy book of Islam.
► In the 600s and 700s A.D., Islam spread across
  the Middle East and beyond, into Africa, Asia, and
  Europe
               The Rise of Islam
►   Islam emerged in the
    Arabian Peninsula, which is
    a crossroads for trade
►   The city of Mecca and
    Yathrib (later renamed
    Medina) were two
    important trade cities in
    the area
►   Mecca was home to the
    Kaaba, a sacred shrine
    that housed many images
    of Arab gods
►   Many pilgrims came to the
    area to worship as well
►   The Kaaba housed a
    sacred Black stone, that
    Arabs believed was sent
    from heaven
from http://www.sitesatlas.com/Maps/Maps/604r.htm
      The prophet Muhammad
► Muhammad was     born in Mecca in 570 (A.D)
► His parents died when he was a child and
  he was raised by an uncle
► As a young man he worked for a wealthy
  widow named Khadija
► He lead trade caravans across the desert to
  Palestine and Syria. At 25 he married
  Khadija.
    The prophet Muhammad cont.
►   At age 40, Muhammad heard the voice of Gabriel and was told to
    “proclaim”
►   Khadija encouraged Muhammad to teach the word of God
►   Muhammad’s message angered the town’s merchants and
    innkeepers because they believed that giving up their traditional
    gods would end their pilgrim traffic
►   The pagan shop keepers believed that this would eventually hurt
    their profits
►   622 A.D. – after Khadija’s death, Muhammad and his followers were
    forced to leave Mecca
►   Muhammad was accepted in Yathrib, which was renamed Medina,
    or “city of the prophet”
►   The migration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to
    Medina is known as the hejira
►   the hejira represents the first year in the Muslim calendar
►   Muhammad and his followers returned to Medina in 630 A.D.
►   His army recaptured the city and rededicated the black stone to God
►   By 632 A.D., Muhammad had carried Islam across the Arabian
    Peninsula
          Teachings of Islam
► Islam  means “submission”, a Muslim is someone
  who submits to God
► The Five Pillars of Islam are
► 1. the belief in one God, and Muhammad is his
  prophet (Abraham, Moses, and Jesus are also
  important prophets in Islam)
► 2. Prayer, five times a day facing Mecca
► 3. Charity
► 4. Fasting in the Holy month of Ramadan
► 5. Hajj, pilgrimage to Mecca
►
                          The Koran
    The sacred book of Islam is the Koran (Qu’ran)
►   For a period of time, the Koran was forbidden to be translated from
    Arabic
►   Arabic became a universal language, which united Muslims around
    the world
►   Muhammad met many Jews and Christians on his travels. All three
    religions are monotheistic.
►   Muhammad believes that Allah is the same God of the Jews and
    Christians
►   All three of the religions believe in a final day of judgment
►   Muhammad accepted the original teachings of the Jewish and
    Christian scriptures as God’s word. He called Jews and Christians
    “people of the book” and they had a special status as “protected
    people.” Muslims were required to treat them with tolerance.
►   Like Judaism and Christianity, Islam has values such as honoring
    your parents, being honest and kind, protecting the weak and
    helpless, and that all people are equal
         Expansion of Islam
► In the next century after Muhammad’s death,
  the Muslim Arabs had conquered an empire that
  reached from the Indus River to the Atlantic
  Ocean (732 A.D.)
► The Muslim armies were extremely successful
  due to their united beliefs
► Islam taught that Muslim warriors who died in
  the service of Islam would win a place in
  paradise
► The idea of Jihad also motivated many Muslim
  soldiers
► The lure of riches to be won in the conquered
  lands was another powerful incentive
       Other reasons of Success
► In some places, the Arabs were welcomed
► The Byzantine and Persian empires ruled diverse
  peoples who resented foreign control
► The Arabs were sometimes looked upon as
  liberators
► The Islamic belief of equality was appealing to
  people as well
► The Muslims were tolerant conquerors and they
  did not force “people of the book” to convert to
  Islam
► However, they had to pay a special “nonbeliever
  tax”
              Divisions with Islam
►   30 years after Muhammad’s death, a serious dispute permanently
    split Islam into two separate branches: the Sunni and Shiite
►   The dispute concerned who would become caliph or successor to
    the prophet
►   The fourth caliph after Muhammad was named Ali (Muhammad’s
    cousin and son-in-law)
►   In 661, Ali was murdered and a rival leader established the
    Umayyad dynasty
►   Ali’s son challenged the Umayyad and he too was murdered
►   These murders caused the followers of Ali, the Shiites, to break
    away
►   The Shiites claimed that only descendants of Ali could become
    caliphs
►   The majority of Muslims are Sunni and they believe that any devout
    Muslim could become a caliph
                The Arab Empire
►   Under the Umayyads and Abbasisds, the Arab Empire
    enjoyed periods of stable, orderly government
►   Umayyad dynasty – (661-750), made Damascus, Syria the
    capital of their empire
►   Arabs held the highest government positions and Arabic
    was the official language of the empire
►   Non-Arab Muslims, such as the Persians resented the
    discrimination
►   Muslim Persians insisted that being a Muslim is more
    important that being Arab
►   750 A.D., the Shiites and other groups overthrew the
    Umayyads and set up the Abbassid dynasty
        Abbassid Dynasty (750 -1258)
► The  new capital was made at Baghdad (means
  “God-given”) on the banks of the Tigris rivers
► Known for their public work projects such as
  mosques, irrigation systems, libraries, hospitals,
  public baths, and schools.
► Abbassid dynasty lasted roughly 500 years despite
  some kingdoms that broke away
► Despite political divisions, religion and culture
  united the peoples of the Muslim world
  Golden Age of Muslim Civilization
► Blended   cultures of Greek, Persian, and Indian
► They traded as far as Scandinavia, East Africa,
  and China
► Muslims started business practices such as
  issuing letters of credit and receipts, which are
  later adopted by Europeans
► 830 A.D., Muslim scholar Al-Mamun set up a
  library of ancient texts from around the known
  world
► Muslim scholars have preserved many subjects
  for European use such as medical information,
  astronomy, music, poetry, and philosophy.

				
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