The effect of learning styles on the navigation needs of Web

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					 The effect of learning styles on the
 navigation needs of Web-based learners

Jens O. Lieglea, Thomas N. Janicki (in press). The effect
of learning styles on the navigation needs of Web-baised
learners. Computers in Human Behavior.
Speaker:陸虹妙
Date:2004/10/4




                                                            1
Outline
  Introduction
     Background & Motivation
     Research question
  Literature
     Kolb learning style
  Experimental design
  Results and Discussion
  Limitations
  Conclusion
  Future research


                                2
Introduction--Background & Motivation
  目前現況
      Web-based training 快速成長
      愈來愈多的課程教材放在網路上
      Course management tool只提供”one-size-fits-all”
       approach
      沒有考慮不同學習者的需要是許多學習系統失敗原
       因之 一
  文獻研究狀況
      Melara’s navigational control experiment (1996)
      Reed, Oughton, Ayersman, Ervin, and Giessler (2000)
      Chen and Macredie (2002)

                                                         3
Melara’s navigational control experiment                               (1996)


    研究目的
        examined the effect of learning style (based on Kolb’s Learning
         Style Inventory) on learner performance within two different
         hypertext structures: hierarchical and network.
    研究結果
        no significant differences in achievement for Explorers and
         Observers using either hypertext structure.
    建議
        examine the time spent on different activities that are targeted
         towards these two different personality types.
         (no correlation between learning style as measured by the Kolb
         groupings to time on task by Reed, Oughton, Ayersman, Ervin,
         and Giessler (2000).)



                                                                           4
Research by Reed, Oughton, Ayersman, Ervin,
and Giessler (2000)

  研究目的
      examined the relationship between learning style and nonlinear
       steps vs. linear steps
  研究結果
      no relationship based on the Kolb groupings
      a relationship between learning style as measured with the Group
       Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) and navigation behavior
  研究限制
      18 subjects were used
      an antiquated HyperCard system from before 1995 was used as the
       navigation environment, instead of a WWW (World Wide Web)-
       based hypertext system.



                                                                        5
Research by Chen and Macredie (2002)
研究目的
   Field Dependent (FD) vs. Field Independent (FI) learners differ in the
    preference for linear vs. nonlinear pathways through hypermedia
    systems.

研究結果
   FD learners preferred guided navigation, while FI preferred freedom of
    navigation.

結果推測
   FI might benefit from learning systems with learner control, while FD
    might prefer system-controlled linear navigation.




                                                                             6
Introduction -- Research questions

   Whether the learning styles explorer vs.
   observer have an effect on
      the navigational habits of users of Web-based
       training modules,
      the amount of learning that takes place.




                                                       7
Kolb learning style inventory




              Explorer :   learner control

              Observer:    system control


                                        8
Experimental design



 Ten different Ph.D. graduate
  business students
  a management theory of
   employee motivation.



                                 9
• An overview of learning objectives
• List of pre-requisites
• A variety of presentation styles
• Learner self-control
• Feedback and testing
                                10
Experimental design




The system had been programmed effectively.
support at least 16 simultaneous users without any
difficulties or degradation of speed and performance.




                                                        11
• 68 Undergraduate volunteers from three sections of the
  same class (Principles of Management)
• Three different instructors all agreed not to present any
  course material on the employee motivation theories


Details of phase four:




                                                              12
Results and Discussion
 Q1: Do learners with different learning styles use
  Web-based training systems differently?

 Hypothesis test
 H0: There is no difference in the approaches
 H1: Users classified with learning style Explorer
   follow a non-linear approach to learning in
   computer-based learning systems, while users
   with the learning style Observers follow a linear
   approach.

                                                 13
 Results and Discussion
Q2: Should the previous hypotheses be supported, does this (non-
  linear or linear movement) have an effect on the amount of
  learning that takes place?
Hypothesis test
H0: There is no difference in the amount of learning.
H1: (a) Users with the learning style Explorer that follow a non-
  linear approach to learning in computer-based learning systems
  learn more than Explorers that follow a linear learning
  approach, while
   (b) Users with the learning style Observers learn more
  following a linear approach instead of a non-linear learning
  approach.
                                                              14
Results and Discussion




Since p =0.083 < = 0.1, we reject H0 and conclude H1
The difference of the means is significant, and therefore
explorers jumped more than observers.


                                                        15
Results and Discussion




Since P = 0.064 <  = 0.1, we reject H0 and conclude H1.
Find that difference to be statistically significant.




                                                        16
Results and Discussion




  Since p = 0.16 > 1, we cannot reject H0.
  The difference is statistically not significant.




                                                     17
 Results and Discussion




The score difference indeed becomes significant at p=0.089
<  = 0.1




                                                      18
Limitations
 While =0.1, it is significant for exploratory
 research.
 *可能的原因是每一個訓練模組平均頁數相當少(8 pages /
  per module)
 *Longer modules, more links, and more time might lead to
 different results.




                                                       19
Conclusion
  Explorer : tended to “jump” more, learn at
  their own sequence
  Observer : tended to follow the suggested
  path
  “jump” explorers scored higher than “not
  jump” explorers on the quiz.
  “not jump” observers scored higher than
  “jump” observers on the quiz.

                                               20
Future research
  本實驗給所有使用者二種選擇:simply go to the next page or jump to
  am out-of-sequence page at any time
  *未來實驗可依observer vs. explorer分類,給予客製化的瀏覽選擇
  simple next button vs. hyperlink-enabled systems
  *假設「被強迫經常選擇跳任一頁的explorer應比只能跳下一頁的
  explorer學得多」。
  *假設「被強迫選擇跳下一頁的observer應比透過系統引導循序瀏
  覽下一頁的observer 學得少」。
  examines whether the potential increase in
  learning is offset by the increase in cost that
  comes with the need for providing multiple
  versions of the training system

                                                    21

				
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