Abnormal Psychology: Past and Present by Mg7kd8

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									Abnormal Psychology: Past and Present

   What is abnormal psychology?
    ◦ The field devoted to the scientific study of
      abnormal behavior to describe, predict,
      explain, and change abnormal patterns of
      functioning




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What Is Psychological Abnormality?
 ◦ “The Four Ds”
    Deviance – Different, extreme, unusual,
     perhaps even bizarre (context)
    Distress – Unpleasant and upsetting to the
     person
    Dysfunction – Interfering with the
     person’s ability to conduct daily activities in
     a constructive way
    Danger – Posing risk of harm

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The Elusive Nature of Abnormality

4   D’s often are vague
 Few  categories of abnormality
 are as clear-cut as they seem;
 most continue to be debated by
 clinicians


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What Is Treatment?

     Treatment, or therapy, is
      a procedure designed to
      change abnormal
      behavior into more
      normal behavior
      It, too, requires careful
       definition
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What Is Treatment?
   Three essential features:
    ◦ Sufferer seeks relief
    ◦ A trained healer, is accepted by the sufferer
      (and his or her social group)
    ◦ Healer & Sufferer try to produce certain
      changes in the sufferer’s emotional state,
      attitudes, and behavior



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What Is Treatment?
   Despite this straightforward definition,
    clinical treatment is surrounded by conflict
    and confusion:
    ◦ Lack of agreement about goals or aims
    ◦ Lack of agreement about successful outcome
    ◦ Lack of agreement about failure
    ◦ Are clinicians seeking to cure? To teach?
    ◦ Are sufferers patients (ill) or clients (having
      difficulty)?
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How Was Abnormality Viewed
and Treated in the Past?
   Yearly estimates in U.S. residents needing
    treatment:
     30% of adults
     19% of children
    ◦ most people have difficulty coping at various
      times




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Ancient Views and Treatments
   Ancient societies
    ◦ abnormal behavior --- evil spirits
      Cure : trephination and exorcism



   Stone Age?



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Greek and Roman
Views and Treatments
   500 B.C. to 500 A.D.
   Hippocrates taught that illnesses had
    natural causes
    ◦ He looked to an unbalance of the four
      humors
    ◦ His suggested treatment attempted to
      “rebalance”


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Europe in the Middle Ages:
Demonology Returns
   500 – 1350 A.D.
    ◦ Abnormality – good vs. evil
    ◦ Abnormal behavior apparently increased
    ◦ Demonological treatments re-emerged
   At the close of the Middle Ages,
    demonology and its methods began to
    lose favor again

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The Renaissance
and the Rise of Asylums
   1400 – 1700 A.D.
   German physician Johann Weyer believed
    that the mind was as susceptible to
    sickness as the body
   The care of people with mental disorders
    continued to improve in the positive
    atmosphere


                                           12
The Renaissance
and the Rise of Asylums
   Across Europe, religious shrines were
    devoted to the humane and loving
    treatment
   Rise of asylums – institutions whose
    primary purpose was care of the mentally
    ill
    ◦ The intention was good care, but because of
      overcrowding they became virtual prisons

                                                    13
The Nineteenth Century:
Reform and Moral Treatment
   1800 – treatment improved again


    ◦ – care that emphasized moral guidance and
      humane and respectful techniques
      U.S. - Benjamin Rush (father of American
       psychiatry)
      Dorothea Dix (Boston schoolteacher) were the
       primary proponents of moral treatment


                                                      14
The Nineteenth Century:
Reform and Moral Treatment
    Step Backwards early 1900s
    ◦ Money and staff shortages
    ◦ Declining recovery rates
    ◦ Lack of more effective treatment for severely
      mentally ill
    ◦ Emergence of prejudice
   long-term hospitalization became the rule
    once again
                                                  15
The Early Twentieth Century:
Dual Perspectives
   As the moral movement was declining
    ◦ The Somatogenic Perspective
      Abnormal functioning has physical causes

    ◦ The Psychogenic Perspective
      Abnormal functioning has psychological causes




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The Early Twentieth Century:
The Somatogenic Perspective
 ◦ Physical factors (like fatigue) are
   responsible for mental
   dysfunction
 ◦ Biological discoveries
   ◦ i.e. link between syphilis and
     general paresis

                                      17
    The Early Twentieth Century:
    The Psychogenic Perspective
   Hypnotism:
    ◦ Friedrich Mesmer and hysterical disorders
    ◦ Sigmund Freud’ s theory of psychoanalysis
   By the early twentieth century,
    psychoanalytic theory and treatment were
    widely accepted throughout the Western
    world

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Current Trends

 Have   we come a long way?
 ◦ 43% believe that people bring
   disorders upon themselves
 ◦ 35% consider mental health
   disorders to be caused by sinful
   behavior

                                   19
How Are People with Severe
Disturbances Cared For?
   Since the1950s, New medications:
    ◦ Antipsychotic drugs
    ◦ Antidepressant drugs
    ◦ Anti-anxiety drugs
   Deinstitutionalization
   rise in outpatient care


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What Are Today’s Leading Theories
and Professions?
 ◦ Psychoanalytic
 ◦ Biological
 ◦ Behavioral
 ◦ Cognitive
 ◦ Humanistic-existential
 ◦ Sociocultural
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INSERT TABLE 1-2
Profiles of Mental Health Professionals
Research in Abnormal Psychology

 Research   is the systematic
 search for facts through the use
 of careful observations and
 investigations




                                    24
Research in Abnormal Psychology

Difficulties:
 ◦ Measuring unconscious motives
 ◦ Assessing private thoughts
 ◦ Monitoring mood changes
 ◦ Calculating human potential
   Consider culture, race, and gender of
    Subjects
   Ethics.
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The Case Study


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The Correlational
Method


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INSERT TABLE 2-1
The Experimental Method

 ◦Three Important Variable
  types:
  ◦IV
  ◦DV
  ◦CV

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Causal Questions in Clinical
Research


   Does factor X cause a disorder?
   Is cause A more influential than cause B?
   Does treatment X alleviate a disorder?




                                                30
The Experimental Method

Guard   against confounds:
  A control group
  Random assignment
  Blind design


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