BIO 100 UNIT 8 PRACTICE TEST
Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.
1. Therapeutic cloning aims to produce ________ from stem cells.
a. healthy tissues
c. model organisms
d. reproductive clones
2. Which molecule remains in the nucleus during protein synthesis?
3. Each cell in an organism contains a complete genetic complement. So why do cells express
only some of the genes encoded in the genetic material?
a. it would be a waste of time, energy, and raw materials to make proteins the cell does not need
b. cells with mutated DNA are unable to produce any protein
c. unnecessary proteins are broken down and recycled by the ribosomes
d. transcription sometimes skips a generation
4. Gene regulation in eukaryotic cells includes:
a. activators that help RNA polymerase bind to the promoter.
b. repressors that prevent DNA polymerase from binding.
c. binding of a repressor to an activator
d. direct binding of a repressor to the RNA polymerase
5. Translation occurs in the ______________ of the cell.
b. golgi apparatus
6. The possibly harmful environmental effects of GM foods include:
a. the increased use of herbicides when GM foods are herbicide-resistant.
b. the transfer of genetically modified genes to weedy relatives.
c. the reduction of genetic diversity in our GM crops.
d. All of the above.
7. To what does the "Ti" in Ti plasmid refer?
a. tumor inducing
b. transcription initiating
c. translation initiating
d. tumefaciens inclusion
8. The molecule that carries the genetic information from the DNA in the nucleus out into the
a. messenger RNA
b. ribosomal RNA
c. transfer RNA
d. RNA polymerase
9. Which of the following sequences best describes the flow of information that takes place when
a gene directs the synthesis of a protein?
a. RNA > DNA > RNA > protein
b. protein > RNA > DNA
c. DNA > amino acid > RNA > protein
d. DNA > RNA > protein
10. The GRAS designation made by the FDA stands for:
a. "genetic research and support."
b. "genome recognized and studied."
c. "genetically recombined and synthesized."
d. "generally regarded as safe."
11. In genetics, palindromes refer to:
a. the types of DNA sequences that are cut out by restriction enzymes.
b. the A-T complementary bases of DNA.
c. the C-G complementary bases of DNA.
d. the A-U base pairing between DNA and mRNA.
12. Which of the following is not directly involved in the process of translation?
13. Which of the following contains the anticodons?
d. amino acid
14. What is the function of tRNA molecules during translation?
a. They unzip double-stranded mRNA.
b. They serve as the starting point for RNA polymerase.
c. They carry amino acids to the ribosome.
d. They encode the instructions for protein synthesis.
15. Ribosomes are made of subunits that are composed of:
a. mRNA and DNA.
b. tRNA and mRNA.
c. rRNA and proteins.
d. DNA and proteins.
16. What is the sequence of the mRNA made from the gene TTACAGGTCC?
17. For the following sequence of DNA, determine the correct sequence of transcribed mRNA.
18. As a result of a frameshift mutation,
a. one or two nucleotides are inserted or deleted in a DNA strand.
b. amino acids are assembled into normal, functional proteins.
c. the DNA is always modified in such a way that protein synthesis is prevented.
d. the substitution of one amino acid for another with similar chemical properties has no effect
on protein synthesis.
19. All of the following are differences between DNA and RNA EXCEPT the:
a. number of strands in each molecule.
b. presence of a phosphate group.
c. type of sugar present.
d. presence of thymine.
20. Which of the following shows transcription:
a. RNA → DNA
b. DNA → RNA
c. RNA → protein
d. Protein → RNA
21. Translation consists of which of the following?
a. The conversion of genetic information from the language of proteins to the language of
b. DNA replication.
c. The conversion of genetic information from the language of nucleic acids to the language of
d. The conversion of genetic information from DNA nucleotides into RNA nucleotides
22. A molecule of RNA (ribonucleic acid) contains the bases:
a. adenine, guanine, thymine, and uracil.
b. uracil, adenine, guanine, and adenosine.
c. thymine, adenine, guanine, and cytosine.
d. adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil.
23. Using the processes of transcription and translation, determine the amino acid sequence for
the following DNA molecule. Use the “genetic code chart” in your book to determine the
proper amino acids.
A G T C C G
24. In question #23 the sequence of the mRNA molecule was:
25. In question #23 the sequence of a complementary tRNA molecule to your mRNA molecule
1. a 8. a 15. c 22. d
2. a 9. d 16. c 23. a
3. a 10. d 17. a 24. b
4. a 11. a 18. a 25. d
5. a 12. d 19. b
6. d 13. c 20. b
7. a 14. c 21. c