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MARITIME-GNSS

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					Global Navigation Satelite System
            (GNSS)
              FOR

         MARITIME
      SEARCH AND RESCUE

                     Captain Maritim Kamaruszaman Bin Hj Abu Hassan
                      Search and Rescue & Disaster Relieve Department
                                                MMEA HQ Putrajaya
       MMEA OR APMM
         Coordinator for
Maritime Search and Rescue (MSAR)
         Malaysia MSRR
               MALAYSIAN SAR ORGANISATION

                    NATIONAL SAR COMMITTEE
                   CHAIRMAN: SEC. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL

TREASURY                                                         NATIONAL SEC. DIV.



      MARITIME SAR (MSAR)                         AERONAUTICAL SAR (SAR)

      M-SAR WORKING GROUP                      SAR WORKING GROUP
       (CHAIRMAN : DG MMEA)             (CHAIRMAN: DG DEPT OF CIVIL AVIATION)

    MALAYSIAN MARITIME
                                                DEPT OF CIVIL AVIATION (DCA)
ENFORCEMENT AGENCY (MMEA)

           MRCC/MRSC                                          ARCC/ARSC


RMP              RMAF               MARDEP                RMN             FRD



                 ASSISTING SAR DEPTS & AGENCIES
       MARITIME SAR MISSION ORGANISATION

     MILITARY VESSEL                          BORDER MALAYSIA/INDONESIA
    CONDUCTED BY RMN                             BORDER SAR MANUAL -
                                                  MALINDO PREVAILS




                                 MRCC
ARCC KUALA LUMPUR                                 ARCC KOTA KINABALU
                               PUTRAJAYA


      MMEA                        MRSC                        RMAF
                                 KUCHING
                              KOTA KINABALU
      FRD                                                     RMN
                               JOHOR BAHRU
                                 KUANTAN                      RMP
    MARDEP                      LANGKAWI
                                                             OTHERS

            OSC                                        ACO

                                                             AIRCRAFT
                  SAR UNITS
                                                              SHIPS
SEARCH AND RESCUE REGION (SRR)
                 MALAYSIA MRCC , MRSC AND SRR


                                                                   Maritime
                                                                   Aeronautical
      LANGKAWI
                                     SOUTH CHINA
      MRSC
                                     SEA                            KOTA KINABALU
                                                                    MRSC
                                   KUANTAN MRSC




                      Peninsular
                                                                  Sabah
PUTRAJAYA
                      Malaysia              KUCHING
MRCC
                                            MRSC

                                                      Sarawak


                                                      Kalimatan

                                         JOHOR
                                         BAHRU MRSC
   Search - An operation, normally coordinated by a
    rescue co-ordination centre or rescue sub-centre, using
    available personnel and facilities to locate persons in
    distress.
   Search and rescue service - The performance of
    distress monitoring, communication, co-ordination
    and search and rescue functions, including provision
    of medical advice, initial medical assistance, or medical
    evacuation, through the use of public and private
    resources, including co-operating aircraft, vessels and
    other craft and installations.
    Search and Rescue
           is...
Search “An operation, using available personnel & facilities

  to   locate persons in distress.”
Rescue “An operation to retrieve persons in distress, provide
  for their initial medical or other needs, and deliver them to
  a place of safety.”
   . . . In other words, The use of available resources (personnel &
       facilities) in rendering aid to person in potential or actual
       distress.”
                     SAR MISSION

   SAR missisions are not based on schedules but rather
    on ad hoc events
   MRCC/MRSC alerted, response asap, issue SAR plan
      Transit - an aircraft or vessel/boat receives a
       mission order and begins a high-speed ferry flight to
       the area of concern.
      On-scene - After arrival in the area of the incident,
       the aircraft typically performs a low-altitude (500 to
       1,500 feet), low-speed search flight to locate
       survivors and the vessel.
                  Alerting Posts
   coast radio stations (CRSs);
   Cospas-Sarsat local user terminals (LUTs) and mission
    control centres (MCCs);
   Inmarsat land earth stations (LESs) (also known as
    maritime coast earth stations (CESs) and aeronautical
    ground earth stations (GESs));
   air traffic services (ATS) units; and
   vessels, aircraft, or other persons or facilities which may
    receive and relay alerts.
                Electronic Positioning
   Distress position data are crucial to SAR personnel.
   SAR system is alerted, position information of a
    distressed craft either
       without positions or
       inaccurate

   Positioning
       determination of the general location or
       coordinates of the scene of the distress.

   Direction Finding or homing
       To pinpoint the position.
                   Reporting
• Position Report - The target position and other
  details are reported to the MRCC/MRSC in order
  to initiate further rescue activities. All of these
  activities require precise navigation and sensor
  control, which may be obtained by a number of
  GNSS/GPS applications on board the aircraft.
• An airborne surveillance system, and the
  GPS/inertial navigation system (INS) that supports
  its operation.
             Maritime SAR (MSAR)

   Maritime search and rescue (SAR) operations do not fit
    the usual and customary operational modes for aircraft
    operations. Consequently, neither do their navigation
    and flight management system (FMS) requirements.
   Airborne search and rescue missions at sea pose a set of
    challenging technical and operational requirements to
    meet the life-critical application involved. These require
    specialized navigation and flight management
    capabilities that, in turn, support a variety of other
    surveillance sensors and functions
            Vessels and Aircraft

   To navigate & determine own positions
     use various navigation equipment, and
     sometimes this equipment is connected to or
      integrated with communications equipment to
      include positions in alert messages
      automatically.
SAR RESOURCES
                              SRU

   Navigation equipment & aircraft designated for
    SAR operations should be equipped to
       receive and home in on:
          radio signals
          emergency locator transmitters (ELTs)

          EPIRBs

          SARTs

       precise navigation equipment such as GPS can be
        helpful in covering a search area carefully or locating
        a datum.
18
                               Modern navigation methods
  Illustration                            Description                            Application
                       Dead reckoning or DR, in which one advances        Used at all times.
                       a prior position using the ship's course and
                       speed. The new position is called a DR
                       position. It is generally accepted that only
                       course and speed determine the DR position.
                       Correcting the DR position for leeway,
                       current effects, and steering error result in an
                       estimated position or EP. An inertial
                       navigator develops an extremely accurate EP
                       Pilotage involves navigating in restricted         When within sight of land.
                       waters with frequent determination of
                       position relative to geographic and
                       hydrographic features.

                       Celestial navigation involves reducing             Used primarily as a backup
                       celestial measurements to lines of position        to satellite and other
                       using tables, spherical trigonometry, and          electronic systems in the
                       almanacs.                                          open ocean.


Electronic navigation covers any method of position fixing using electronic means, including:
                       Radio navigation uses radio waves to               Losing ground to GPS.
                       determine position by either radio direction
                       finding systems or hyperbolic systems, such
                       as Decca, Omega and LORAN-C.

                       Radar navigation uses radar to determine the       Primarily when within
                       distance from or bearing of objects whose          radar range of land.
                       position is known. This process is separate
                       from radar’s use as a collision avoidance
                       system.
                       Satellite navigation uses artificial earth         Used in all situations.
                       satellite systems, such as GPS, to determine
                       position.
Probable Error of Position
    NAVIGATIONAL FIX ERRORS
  Global Navigation Satellite Systems
               (GNSS)
• standard generic term for satellite navigation
  systems ("sat nav")
• provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with
  global coverage.
  – GNSS allows small electronic receivers to determine
    their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude) to
    within a few metres using time signals transmitted
    along a line-of-sight by radio from satellites.
  – Receivers calculate the precise time as well as
    position.
                     GPS
• United States NAVSTAR Global Positioning
  System (GPS) is the only fully operational
  GNSS.
• The global coverage for each system is
  generally achieved by a constellation of 20–30
  Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites spread
  between several orbital planes.
• Operational since 1978 and globally available
  since 1994, GPS is currently the world's most
  utilized satellite navigation system.
DGPS
                SRU SURFACE
• Boats and ships use GNSS to navigate all of the
  world's lakes, seas and oceans.
• Maritime GNSS units include functions useful
  on water, such as
  – “man overboard” (MOB) functions that allow
    instantly marking the location where a person has
    fallen overboard, which simplifies rescue efforts.
  – GNSS can also improve the security of shipping
    traffic by enabling AIS.
      GMDSS
Global Maritime Distress and
       Safety System
  an internationally agreed-upon set of
       •safety procedures,
       •types of equipment, and
       •communication protocols
             •to increase safety and
             •make it easier to rescue distressed ships, boats and
             aircraft.
                           GMDSS


   Consists of several systems.
   The system is intended to perform the following
    functions:
      alerting (including position determination of the unit
       in distress),
      search and rescue coordination,

      locating (homing),

      maritime safety information broadcasts,

      general communications, and

      bridge-to-bridge communications.
                                        Components
   Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB)
      an element of the GMDSS designed to operate with Cospas-Sarsat system.

      These automatic-activating EPIRBs, are designed to transmit to alert rescue coordination
         centers via the satellite system from anywhere in the world.
      COSPAS / SARSAT satellites could calculate EPIRB position to within about 3 nautical
         miles by using Doppler techniques.
      406 MHz EPIRB's transmit a registration number which is linked to a database of
         information about the vessel.
   Inmarsat
      Inmarsat B, C and F77

      SOLAS now requires that Inmarsat C equipment have an integral satellite navigation
         receiver, or be externally connected to a satellite navigation receiver. That connection will
         ensure accurate location information to be sent to a rescue coordination center if a distress
         alert is ever transmitted.
   Search & Rescue Locating Device
      The GMDSS installation on ships include two or more Search and Rescue Locating devices
         called Search and Rescue Transponders (SART) which are used to locate survival craft or
         distressed vessels by creating a series of twelve dots on a rescuing ship's 3 cm radar display.
                             EPIRB

   types of maritime satellite EPIRBs:
      406 MHz satellite EPIRBs whose signals are relayed via
       Cospas-Sarsat satellites
      Inmarsat-E EPIRBs whose signals are relayed via Inmarsat
       satellites
      non-satellite VHF EPIRBs on channel 70, used close to
       shore in lieu of satellite EPIRBs where receiving stations are
       available.
   Cospas-Sarsat calculates position information for EPIRBs and
    ELTs.
   Some ELTs and EPIRBs may also have integral GPS capabilities.
EPIRB EQUIPMENT
SART EQUIPMENT
COSPASS-SARSAT




                 31
                 Digital Selective Calling

   Digital Selective Calling (DSC) on MF, HF and VHF
    maritime radios as part of the GMDSS system.
   DSC distress alerts, which consist of a preformatted
    distress message, are used to initiate emergency
    communications with ships and rescue coordination
    centers.
   DSC-equipped MF/HF and VHF radios externally
    connected to a satellite navigation receiver (GPS). That
    connection will ensure accurate location information is
    sent to a rescue coordination center if a distress alert is
    transmitted.
                  MALAYSIAN VHF COVERAGE
                   FOR GMDSS-DSC SYSTEM
                                       SEA AREA A1
                             DSC VHF - 20 nautical mile




                                                     Gunung Serapi   Bukit Nyabau
                                                     Labuan Island   Bukit Keratong


Gunung Jerai       Gunung Berinchang
Gunung Ulu Kali     Gunung Ledang
Tioman Island      Kuala Rompin
Bukit Besar        Bukit Bakar
Kemuning
MALAYSIAN MF COVERAGE
 FOR GMDSS-DSC SYSTEM
      SEA AREA A2




     MF - 300-400 nautical mile
Operational Overview of GMDSS
                               Cospass-Sarsat



   an international satellite-based search and rescue system,
   established by Canada, France, the United States, and Russia.
   These four countries jointly helped develop the 406 MHz Emergency Position-
    Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB), an element of the GMDSS designed to operate
    with Cospas-Sarsat system.
   incorporate GPS receivers to transmit highly accurate positions (within about 20
    metres)of the distress position.
   COSPAS / SARSAT satellites could calculate EPIRB position to within about 3
    nautical miles by using Doppler techniques.
                    Search
• In executing this search, the crew employs a
  suite of surveillance radars, electro-optical
  sensor, and scanning and direction finding
  equipment to localize transmissions of
  emergency beacons that may have been
  activated during the accident.
• Accurate navigation and continued knowledge
  of position within narrow limits is required,
  often in areas with no or few navigation aids.
• precision in flying search patterns, maintaining
  tracks and height
• & flying at low levels as applicable to normal
  searches or to contour searches
Visual Search Pattern
                 Electronic search
Map-assisted aural electronic   Time-assisted aural electronic
searc                           search
41

				
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