Global Navigation Satelite System
SEARCH AND RESCUE
Captain Maritim Kamaruszaman Bin Hj Abu Hassan
Search and Rescue & Disaster Relieve Department
MMEA HQ Putrajaya
MMEA OR APMM
Maritime Search and Rescue (MSAR)
MALAYSIAN SAR ORGANISATION
NATIONAL SAR COMMITTEE
CHAIRMAN: SEC. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL
TREASURY NATIONAL SEC. DIV.
MARITIME SAR (MSAR) AERONAUTICAL SAR (SAR)
M-SAR WORKING GROUP SAR WORKING GROUP
(CHAIRMAN : DG MMEA) (CHAIRMAN: DG DEPT OF CIVIL AVIATION)
DEPT OF CIVIL AVIATION (DCA)
ENFORCEMENT AGENCY (MMEA)
RMP RMAF MARDEP RMN FRD
ASSISTING SAR DEPTS & AGENCIES
MARITIME SAR MISSION ORGANISATION
MILITARY VESSEL BORDER MALAYSIA/INDONESIA
CONDUCTED BY RMN BORDER SAR MANUAL -
ARCC KUALA LUMPUR ARCC KOTA KINABALU
MMEA MRSC RMAF
SEARCH AND RESCUE REGION (SRR)
MALAYSIA MRCC , MRSC AND SRR
SEA KOTA KINABALU
Search - An operation, normally coordinated by a
rescue co-ordination centre or rescue sub-centre, using
available personnel and facilities to locate persons in
Search and rescue service - The performance of
distress monitoring, communication, co-ordination
and search and rescue functions, including provision
of medical advice, initial medical assistance, or medical
evacuation, through the use of public and private
resources, including co-operating aircraft, vessels and
other craft and installations.
Search and Rescue
Search “An operation, using available personnel & facilities
to locate persons in distress.”
Rescue “An operation to retrieve persons in distress, provide
for their initial medical or other needs, and deliver them to
a place of safety.”
. . . In other words, The use of available resources (personnel &
facilities) in rendering aid to person in potential or actual
SAR missisions are not based on schedules but rather
on ad hoc events
MRCC/MRSC alerted, response asap, issue SAR plan
Transit - an aircraft or vessel/boat receives a
mission order and begins a high-speed ferry flight to
the area of concern.
On-scene - After arrival in the area of the incident,
the aircraft typically performs a low-altitude (500 to
1,500 feet), low-speed search flight to locate
survivors and the vessel.
coast radio stations (CRSs);
Cospas-Sarsat local user terminals (LUTs) and mission
control centres (MCCs);
Inmarsat land earth stations (LESs) (also known as
maritime coast earth stations (CESs) and aeronautical
ground earth stations (GESs));
air traffic services (ATS) units; and
vessels, aircraft, or other persons or facilities which may
receive and relay alerts.
Distress position data are crucial to SAR personnel.
SAR system is alerted, position information of a
distressed craft either
without positions or
determination of the general location or
coordinates of the scene of the distress.
Direction Finding or homing
To pinpoint the position.
• Position Report - The target position and other
details are reported to the MRCC/MRSC in order
to initiate further rescue activities. All of these
activities require precise navigation and sensor
control, which may be obtained by a number of
GNSS/GPS applications on board the aircraft.
• An airborne surveillance system, and the
GPS/inertial navigation system (INS) that supports
Maritime SAR (MSAR)
Maritime search and rescue (SAR) operations do not fit
the usual and customary operational modes for aircraft
operations. Consequently, neither do their navigation
and flight management system (FMS) requirements.
Airborne search and rescue missions at sea pose a set of
challenging technical and operational requirements to
meet the life-critical application involved. These require
specialized navigation and flight management
capabilities that, in turn, support a variety of other
surveillance sensors and functions
Vessels and Aircraft
To navigate & determine own positions
use various navigation equipment, and
sometimes this equipment is connected to or
integrated with communications equipment to
include positions in alert messages
Navigation equipment & aircraft designated for
SAR operations should be equipped to
receive and home in on:
emergency locator transmitters (ELTs)
precise navigation equipment such as GPS can be
helpful in covering a search area carefully or locating
Modern navigation methods
Illustration Description Application
Dead reckoning or DR, in which one advances Used at all times.
a prior position using the ship's course and
speed. The new position is called a DR
position. It is generally accepted that only
course and speed determine the DR position.
Correcting the DR position for leeway,
current effects, and steering error result in an
estimated position or EP. An inertial
navigator develops an extremely accurate EP
Pilotage involves navigating in restricted When within sight of land.
waters with frequent determination of
position relative to geographic and
Celestial navigation involves reducing Used primarily as a backup
celestial measurements to lines of position to satellite and other
using tables, spherical trigonometry, and electronic systems in the
almanacs. open ocean.
Electronic navigation covers any method of position fixing using electronic means, including:
Radio navigation uses radio waves to Losing ground to GPS.
determine position by either radio direction
finding systems or hyperbolic systems, such
as Decca, Omega and LORAN-C.
Radar navigation uses radar to determine the Primarily when within
distance from or bearing of objects whose radar range of land.
position is known. This process is separate
from radar’s use as a collision avoidance
Satellite navigation uses artificial earth Used in all situations.
satellite systems, such as GPS, to determine
Probable Error of Position
NAVIGATIONAL FIX ERRORS
Global Navigation Satellite Systems
• standard generic term for satellite navigation
systems ("sat nav")
• provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with
– GNSS allows small electronic receivers to determine
their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude) to
within a few metres using time signals transmitted
along a line-of-sight by radio from satellites.
– Receivers calculate the precise time as well as
• United States NAVSTAR Global Positioning
System (GPS) is the only fully operational
• The global coverage for each system is
generally achieved by a constellation of 20–30
Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites spread
between several orbital planes.
• Operational since 1978 and globally available
since 1994, GPS is currently the world's most
utilized satellite navigation system.
• Boats and ships use GNSS to navigate all of the
world's lakes, seas and oceans.
• Maritime GNSS units include functions useful
on water, such as
– “man overboard” (MOB) functions that allow
instantly marking the location where a person has
fallen overboard, which simplifies rescue efforts.
– GNSS can also improve the security of shipping
traffic by enabling AIS.
Global Maritime Distress and
an internationally agreed-upon set of
•types of equipment, and
•to increase safety and
•make it easier to rescue distressed ships, boats and
Consists of several systems.
The system is intended to perform the following
alerting (including position determination of the unit
search and rescue coordination,
maritime safety information broadcasts,
general communications, and
Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB)
an element of the GMDSS designed to operate with Cospas-Sarsat system.
These automatic-activating EPIRBs, are designed to transmit to alert rescue coordination
centers via the satellite system from anywhere in the world.
COSPAS / SARSAT satellites could calculate EPIRB position to within about 3 nautical
miles by using Doppler techniques.
406 MHz EPIRB's transmit a registration number which is linked to a database of
information about the vessel.
Inmarsat B, C and F77
SOLAS now requires that Inmarsat C equipment have an integral satellite navigation
receiver, or be externally connected to a satellite navigation receiver. That connection will
ensure accurate location information to be sent to a rescue coordination center if a distress
alert is ever transmitted.
Search & Rescue Locating Device
The GMDSS installation on ships include two or more Search and Rescue Locating devices
called Search and Rescue Transponders (SART) which are used to locate survival craft or
distressed vessels by creating a series of twelve dots on a rescuing ship's 3 cm radar display.
types of maritime satellite EPIRBs:
406 MHz satellite EPIRBs whose signals are relayed via
Inmarsat-E EPIRBs whose signals are relayed via Inmarsat
non-satellite VHF EPIRBs on channel 70, used close to
shore in lieu of satellite EPIRBs where receiving stations are
Cospas-Sarsat calculates position information for EPIRBs and
Some ELTs and EPIRBs may also have integral GPS capabilities.
Digital Selective Calling
Digital Selective Calling (DSC) on MF, HF and VHF
maritime radios as part of the GMDSS system.
DSC distress alerts, which consist of a preformatted
distress message, are used to initiate emergency
communications with ships and rescue coordination
DSC-equipped MF/HF and VHF radios externally
connected to a satellite navigation receiver (GPS). That
connection will ensure accurate location information is
sent to a rescue coordination center if a distress alert is
MALAYSIAN VHF COVERAGE
FOR GMDSS-DSC SYSTEM
SEA AREA A1
DSC VHF - 20 nautical mile
Gunung Serapi Bukit Nyabau
Labuan Island Bukit Keratong
Gunung Jerai Gunung Berinchang
Gunung Ulu Kali Gunung Ledang
Tioman Island Kuala Rompin
Bukit Besar Bukit Bakar
MALAYSIAN MF COVERAGE
FOR GMDSS-DSC SYSTEM
SEA AREA A2
MF - 300-400 nautical mile
Operational Overview of GMDSS
an international satellite-based search and rescue system,
established by Canada, France, the United States, and Russia.
These four countries jointly helped develop the 406 MHz Emergency Position-
Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB), an element of the GMDSS designed to operate
with Cospas-Sarsat system.
incorporate GPS receivers to transmit highly accurate positions (within about 20
metres)of the distress position.
COSPAS / SARSAT satellites could calculate EPIRB position to within about 3
nautical miles by using Doppler techniques.
• In executing this search, the crew employs a
suite of surveillance radars, electro-optical
sensor, and scanning and direction finding
equipment to localize transmissions of
emergency beacons that may have been
activated during the accident.
• Accurate navigation and continued knowledge
of position within narrow limits is required,
often in areas with no or few navigation aids.
• precision in flying search patterns, maintaining
tracks and height
• & flying at low levels as applicable to normal
searches or to contour searches
Visual Search Pattern
Map-assisted aural electronic Time-assisted aural electronic