The Pesticide Label (PDF) by dffhrtcv3

VIEWS: 103 PAGES: 26

Pesticide                                                                                  Key to Pesticide Safety
Label                                                                                         and Education
January–March 2010
                                                                                              REGULATORY UPDATES
             TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                      Special Local Needs (SLN)
                                                                                    NEW PRODUCTS
Regulatory Updates ................................... 1
                                                                                    For growers of pineapple—use of the pesticide Re-
House Mouse (recertification) ................. 2                                   Tain® (Valent BioSciences, EPA Reg. No. 73049–
                                                                                    45)—requires having a copy of HI–100001, valid
Gloves (recertification) ............................ 6                             1/14/10–1/13/15—some notes: ● do not apply more
                                                                                    than 45 pouches (2250 grams a.i.) per acre per crop
Supervising Noncertified Applicators
                                                                                    cycle. ● keep spray away from flowering or fruiting
 (recertification) .................................... 12                          plants. ● REI 12 h.
A Sea Change on Inerts (recertification) 17
                                                                                    For growers of field corn and seed corn—use of
Arsenic Use Cancellations ....................... 19                                the pesticide Provado® 1.6 Flowable Insecticide
                                                                                    (Bayer CropScience LP, EPA Reg. No. 264-763)—
Birth of an Herbicide ................................ 20                           requires having a copy of HI–100002, valid
Ontario’s Cosmetic Pesticides Ban .......... 22                                     3/9/2010–3/8/2015—some notes: ● only for use by
                                                                                    authorized Bayer personnel. ●no part(s) of the crop
Proposed Spray Drift Labeling ................. 23                                  treated with this product shall be used as food for
                                                                                    human or animal consumption. ● PHI 15 days. ●
Illustrated Glossary .................................. 24                          minimum interval between applications 7 days. ● do
Previous Recertification Articles .............. 26                                 not apply where bees actively foraging.

The Pesticide Label Archives .................. 26
                                                                                    Updated packet item, “Hawaii Pesticide Laws
                                                                                       and Regulations” (January 2010) is the updated
                                                                                       version of an older study guide included in pesti-
NOTE: To navigate to an article from the                                               cide study packets that many of you purchased. It
Table of Contents, just left-click on its title.                                       can be downloaded free of charge from
                                                                                       ticide_Laws_Regs_100122.pdf It replaces the older
                                                                                       version titled “Pesticide Laws and Regulations”.

SOURCES, 3050 MAILE WAY, HONOLULU, HAWAII 96822. The UH-CTAHR Cooperative Extension Service and the U.S. Department of Agriculture
cooperate in presenting t the people of Hawaii programs and services without regard to race, sex, age, religion, color, national origin, ancestry, disability,
marital status, arrest and court record, sexual orientation, or veteran status. The University is an equal opportunity, affirmative action institution.
                                                                       HOUSE MOUSE (recertification)
RECERTIFICATION CREDITS may be earned by certi-              The house mouse (Mus musculus, Mus domesticus) is a recog-
fied applicators that score at least 70% on the set of       nized ―mighty mouse‖. It is the most widespread species of
comprehension evaluation questions about the "recerti-
fication" articles in this newsletter. These articles have   mammal, along with humans, and occurs in all the same envi-
a title which ends with "(recertification)". However, cre-   ronments. This small rodent (20 g or 0.7 oz) is capable of jump-
dits may not necessarily be applicable for the following
categories: Private 2, Private 3, Commercial 7f, and
                                                             ing almost a half-meter and squeezing through a hole just 6 mm
Commercial 11. The question sets (quizzes) are written       in diameter. It is a true, short-lived r-selected species (see side-
and administered by the Hawaii Department of Agricul-        bar), with a lifespan of about one year. The female is capable of
ture (HDOA) staff. Ask about earning recertification
credits at one of these HDOA offices: Kauai 274-3069,        4 to 6 litters per year, each litter containing 4 to 7 young. New-
Oahu 973-9424/9409, Maui 873-3960, Hawaii 974-               born mice mature in just three weeks and are quickly able to re-
4143. The area code for all offices is 808.
                                                             produce. In one experiment, 20 mice were placed in an enclosure
                                                             with ample food and water and their population reached 2,000 in
                                                             8 months.

                                                             House mice live in groups called demes and usually stay within
                                                             small areas, from a few square meters to 100 m2. These nocturnal
                                                             animals have a strong sense of touch and ―muscle memory‖ and,
                                                             together with the use of pheromones, can return home in total
       r- and K-selected species                             darkness after extensive travel.

        In ecology, the r/K selection theory                 Mice can survive extreme conditions and though they are mainly
        concerns the selection of characte-                  grass and seed eaters, they can eat almost anything. Unlike rats,
         ristics which promote survival in                   mice eat small but frequent meals, consuming 10 to 20 percent of
       different environments. It is derived                 their body weight each day. This explains the large number of
        from work on island biogeography                     droppings that often betray their presence, since mice are rarely
       and hypothesizes that selective pres-                 seen. Mice, unlike rats, do not need water to drink, but can get it
        sures drive evolution in one of two
                                                             from their food.
          generalized directions: r- or K-
           selection. Typically, r-selected                  House mice that are closely associated with humans are not as
          species take advantage of less-                    competitive as wild house mice, those that are not associated
       crowded habitats and produce many
                                                             with humans. The latter have larger home areas and actively de-
           offspring with a relatively low
                                                             fend their territory. Wild house mice are seasonal breeders and
        probability of survival. In contrast,
           K-selected species are strong                     undergo large changes in population density. Their populations
       competitors in crowded habitats and                   are determined mainly by rainfall and seed availability. A 1994
             have fewer offspring with a                     study on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, found that wild house mice mainly
            relatively high probability of                   ate insects (caterpillars), seeds, stems and flower stalks. They
                       survival.                             were not eating bird eggs, the concern that stimulated the re-
                                                             search, but were being eaten by feral cats. Conversely, this pre-
                                                             dation helped control the population of wild house mice and de-
                                                             creased the cats‘ tendency to prey on bird eggs and chicks. As
                                                             part of the ecosystem, wild house mice recycle nutrients, dis-
                                                             perse seeds and are prey for many larger animals.

                                                             The Pesticide Label                                         Page 2
                                          One of the most important economic impacts caused by house
                                          mice is feeding on and contaminating stored food. They can also
                                          be a nuisance indoors because of their noise, odor and droppings.
                                          Mice will gnaw on insulated electrical wiring and can cause fi-
                                          nancial loss due to interrupted communications. An even greater
Photo courtesy of James Cook University
                                          problem is the danger of house fires from exposed or damaged

                                          House mice are susceptible to many diseases and internal para-
                                          sites and can carry leptospirosis, plague and salmonella. They
                                          can transmit these diseases and others to humans, pets and lives-

                                          Physical control. As with most pests, a combination of methods
                                          is the best approach to managing mouse populations. Since it is
                                          so difficult to keep these small mammals out of buildings, an
                                          important first step in their control is good sanitation. This
                                          means reducing places mice can shelter and breed, as well as
                                          have access to food supplies.

                                          Snap traps are effective and have been used for many years to
                                          catch rodents, but they are not usually practical on a large scale.
                                          Some people prefer live traps, followed by releasing the mice in
                                          another area. State agencies are regulating this process carefully,
                                          however, as the mice can cause similar problems in the new area,
                                          including the transmission of disease.

                                          Some cats are good ―mousers‖, but they mainly feed on the sur-
                                          plus and do not reduce the core population. Mice can jump over
                                          glue boards, and repellents may only be effective in small areas.

                                          Chemical control. The most effective measures for house
                                          mouse control are probably chemical rodenticides. Most are
                                          formulated as food baits, but in situations where there is already
                                          plenty of food (granaries, around livestock), liquid baits and
                                          tracking powders may be more effective. The earlier, or first
                                          generation anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin, diphacinone) were de-
                                          veloped in the 1940s, have a relatively low toxicity and take sev-
                                          eral feedings before rodents are killed. The second generation of
                                          anticoagulants was introduced in the 1970s when genetic resis-
                                          tance began to develop against the first generation of anticoagu-
                                          lants. These newer rodenticides (e.g., bromadiolone, brodifa-
                                          coum, chlorophacinone) are more lethal, though some resistance

                                          The Pesticide Label                                       Page 3
                                       to them has also been reported. Zinc phosphide is a chemical
                                       toxic to most vertebrates and is often used in rotation with anti-
                                       coagulants to delay the development of resistance. Zinc phos-
                                       phide releases a toxic gas in the rodent‘s gut and they will often
                                       become sick and stop eating before consuming a lethal dose.
                                       This has been called ―bait shyness‖ as the mice usually won‘t
                                       approach the bait a second time. One way to avoid bait shyness
                                       is to first use another non-anticoagulant toxicant (e.g. cholecalci-
                                       ferol, bromethalin) before using zinc phosphide bait.

                                       In Hawaii, there are Special Local Needs labels for three roden-
                                       ticides: Ramik Mini Bars (diphacinone) for use in forests, off-
                                       shore islands and macadamia nut orchards; Rozol Mini Blocks
                                       and Pellets (chlorophacinone) for agricultural uses; and Prozap
                                       (zinc phosphide) for use in rural non-crop sites (e.g. around
                                       buildings), and on range or pasture lands. All of these products
                                       must be applied in bait stations (see sidebar). These devices pro-
Mouse and rat baits must be used       tect the bait from moisture and contamination, provide a safe
in a bait station. These stations 1)   place to feed, limit access to non-target animals, reduce spillage,
  keep the bait clean and dry, 2)      and make it easier to monitor the amount of bait consumed by a
 reduce spilling, 3) give rodents a    population. There are several other rodenticides registered in
protected place to feed, 4)exclude     Hawaii, though some are restricted use pesticides. The active
  pets and other non-target ani-       ingredients in these products include sulfuryl fluoride, methyl
   mals, 5) and make it easier to      bromide, aluminum phosphide and difethialone, a second gen-
      monitor the bait eaten.          eration anticoagulant rodenticide.

                                       Problems with rodenticides include primary and secondary poi-
                                       soning and bioaccumulation of residues. Primary poisoning oc-
                                       curs when a non-target organism, such as a dog or deer, feeds on
                                       the bait. Secondary poisoning refers to an animal being poisoned
                                       by feeding on an animal poisoned by the bait, for example a
                                       hawk or owl eating a poisoned rodent. Most rodenticides are
                                       formulated with very low dosages of anticoagulant, so secondary
                                       poisoning is not as likely as it seems. However, a diet of poi-
                                       soned rodents can lead to bioaccumulation of the poison in the

                                       House mouse outbreaks
                                       Massive increases in house mouse populations regularly occur.
                                       They have been commonly recorded in Australia and the U.S.,
                                       including Hawaii. According to a review article on house mice
                                       by USDA researchers, the outbreaks are most severe and most
                                       thoroughly studied in Australia. They are closely correlated with
                                       heavy rainfall and vegetation growth when it follows several

                                       The Pesticide Label                                         Page 4
                                               drought years. Mouse populations increase with the abundant
1. What are some of the reasons the            food source and move into crop fields, causing significant losses.
   house mouse is considered a                 After harvest, mice invade grain storage areas and create further
   pest?                                       reductions in yield. In Australia, management is assisted by pre-
                                               dictive models based mainly on rainfall.
2. Why are they so difficult to con-
   trol?                                       House mice on islands
                                               Islands that lack predators are ideal for seabirds that nest on the
3. What might be some of the ele-
                                               ground. If house mice are introduced, the defenseless eggs,
   ments of a good IPM plan to con-
                                               chicks and young birds are at risk. The extinction of many native
   trol house mice?
                                               island vertebrates have been caused by introduced rodents.

4. What is the mode of action for              There have been about 20 successful eradications of established
   the most commonly used rodenti-             rodent populations on islands. They mainly relied on anticoagu-
   cides?                                      lant baits (brodifacoum) either broadcast or in bait stations
                                               placed in a grid pattern. As mentioned earlier, eradication of the
5. Primary and secondary poisoning             rodent population can shift the diet of predators (e.g., cats, the
   are problems associated with ro-            mongoose) from the absent rodents to native birds. On the other
   denticides. What do these terms             hand, introduced predators like the feral cat can also be killed by
   mean and how might they be mi-              ―toxic prey-loading‖ as they consume rodents that have ingested
                                               anticoagulant baits.

                                               According to the Global Invasive Species Database
                                      Mus musculus is among
                                               100 of the ―World‘s Worst‖ invasive alien species. House mice
                                               will continue to be a control problem as long as humans exist to
   References                                  feed, shelter, and accidentally transport them to new areas. Re-
   Hawaii Pesticide Information Retrieval
     System. 2009. NPIRS, Purdue Uni-          search has shown that rodent problems are not all the same,
     versity. Viewed on 10 Sep 09 at           however, and their management needs to take into account the                                    history, unique conditions, and driving forces of the invasion. In
   U.S. EPA. Final risk mitigation decision    the near future, anticoagulants will probably remain the most
    for ten rodenticides, May 28, 2008.
                                               effective approach to large-scale rodent management. Research
    Viewed on 10 September 2009 at     into species-specific diseases, endoparasites, and fertility control
    ra-                                        agents also show promise. Perhaps more effective repellents and
    .                                          lures to enhance trapping could take advantage of the curiosity of
   Witmer, G. and Jojola, S. 2006. What‘s      house mice. The continuous pest pressure of our interactive envi-
     up with house mice: A review.             ronment demands that we protect ourselves by continuing the
     Viewed on 8 September 2009 at
                                               search for sustainable methods of pest management.

                                               The Pesticide Label                                        Page 5
                                                   GLOVES (recertification)
                                    Over 95 percent of exposure to pesticides during spray applica-
                                    tion is through the skin. The right gloves can protect you from
                                    much of this exposure, but not if you don‘t wear them. You or
                                    your employees may hesitate to use gloves if they are hard to get
                                    on or off, too hot or uncomfortable, clumsy to work in, or never
                                    handy when you need them. Choosing the ―right‖ gloves, as you
                                    will see in this article, entails a series of compromises.

                                    The ―Precautionary Statements‖ section of the pesticide label
                                    gives specific information on personal protective clothing and
Choosing the “right” gloves calls   equipment to be worn while mixing, loading, and applying the
for a series of compromises. You    product. This includes EPA chemical-resistant categories, from
may need several kinds of gloves.   A to H. These categories refer to the carrier solvent and its con-
                                    centration in the pesticide formulation (see Table).

                                    A. Any dry or water-based pesticide formulation
                                    B. Any pesticide with acetate as the carrier solvent
                                    C. Any pesticide with alcohol as the carrier solvent
                                    D. Any pesticide with halogenated hydrocarbons as the carrier
                                    E. Any pesticide with ketones (e.g. acetone) as the carrier sol-
                                    F. Any pesticide with ketone and aromatic petroleum distillates
                                        mixture as the carrier solvent
                                    G. Any pesticide with aliphatic petroleum distillates (e.g. kero-
                                        sene, petroleum oil, mineral oil) as the carrier solvent
                                    H. Any pesticide that has aromatic petroleum distillates (e.g. xy-
                                        lene) as the carrier solvent

                                    EPA ranks personal protective materials according to their resis-
                                    tance to chemical solvents. There are a number of glove mate-
                                    rials available within each carrier solvent category (see Table).
                                    Check the label for glove material recommended for each pesti-

                                    The following evaluations are from the University of Illinois.
                                    Prices are listed only for their comparative values. Photos are
                                    courtesy of the University of Florida IFAS Extension Publication

                                    The Pesticide Label                                        Page 6
                      barrier laminate (foil type): the most chemically
                      resistant but uncomfortable; poor dexterity due
                      to design ($7/pair)

barrier laminate

                              ≥ means “greater than or equal to”

                      butyl rubber ≥ 14 mils (i.e. greater than or equal
                      to 14 mils): a synthetic rubber; resistant to gas
                      and water vapors; good dexterity ($20/pair)

 butyl rubber

                      natural rubber ≥ 14 mils: for dry or water-based
                      formulations ($12-19/pair)

 natural rubber

                      nitrile rubber ≥ 14 mils: resists puncture better
                      than other materials; good dexterity, slip-proof
                      grip; comes in range of lengths, thicknesses
 nitrile rubber

                   The Pesticide Label                           Page 7
                         neoprene rubber ≥ 14 mils: synthetic rubber;
                         good dexterity; stays flexible at low tempera-
                         tures ($2-3/pair)
neoprene rubber

                         polyethylene: limited pesticide uses ($1-


                         PVC ≥ 14 mils: limited pesticide uses ($4/pair)

 polyvinyl chloride

                         Viton ≥ 14 mils: the most chemically resistant
                         ―rubber‖ glove available; thick but very flexible
                         and comfortable to wear ($150-175/pair)


                      The Pesticide Label                            Page 8
                                                         Resistance to chemicals
                                                         Gloves offer varying levels of protection and their chemical re-
                                                         sistance and longevity are referred to as High, Moderate, Slight,
                                                         and None (see Table). When testing gloves, the comparative
                                                         measure of chemical resistance for the glove material is called
                                                         ―break-through‖ time. This is the time it takes for a specific pure
                                                         chemical to soak through the glove. The longer the time, the bet-
                                                         ter the protection, but an 8-hour break-through time is common.

                                                              Highly resistant gloves should be cleaned or replaced at the
                                                              end of each day‘s work; rinse off all pesticides at rest breaks.
                                                              Moderately resistant gloves may need to be cleaned or re-
                                                              placed within an hour or two of contact.
                                                              Slightly resistant gloves may need cleaning or replacement
                                                              within 10 minutes of contact.
                                                              None says this glove is not resistant to the chemical in this
                                                              category. Do not wear personal protective clothing or
                                                              equipment made from this material if contact with the pesti-
                                                              cide is possible.

Table. EPA rating of personal protective materials for each carrier solvent category (see p. 6).
    Selection Category       Barrier      Butyl     Nitrile Rub-     Neoprene       Natural        Poly-    Polyvinly    Viton
    Listed on Pesticide     Laminate     Rubber      ber ≥ 14         Rubber         Rubber      ethylene   Chloride    ≥14 mils
   Label based on carrier                 ≥ 14          mils         ≥14 mils       ≥14 mils                 (PVC)
          solvent                         mils                                                              ≥14 mils
  A (dry & water based      HIGH        HIGH        HIGH            HIGH           HIGH          HIGH       HIGH        HIGH
  B                         HIGH        HIGH        SLIGHT          SLIGHT         NONE          SLIGHT     SLIGHT      SLIGHT
  C                         HIGH        HIGH        HIGH            HIGH           MOD           MOD        HIGH        HIGH
  D                         HIGH        HIGH        MOD             MOD            NONE          NONE       NONE        SLIGHT
  E                         HIGH        SLIGHT      HIGH            HIGH           SLIGHT        NONE       MOD         HIGH
  F                         HIGH        HIGH        HIGH            MOD            SLIGHT        NONE       SLIGHT      HIGH
  G                         HIGH        SLIGHT      SLIGHT          SLIGHT         NONE          NONE       NONE        HIGH
  H                         HIGH        SLIGHT      SLIGHT          SLIGHT         NONE          NONE       NONE        HIGH
                                   Only unlined gloves or gloves with separable liners may be used.

                                                         Gloves are made by two methods, handprint and molded.
                                                         Handprint gloves are made from layers of material die-cut in the
                                                         outline of a hand and heat-sealed together. Those made from a
                                                         hand-shaped mold dipped into a polymer solution are called
                                                         molded gloves. Handprint gloves fit either hand loosely and tend

                                                         The Pesticide Label                                              Page 9
                                          to be thin, slick, and stiff. The highly resistant barrier laminate
                                          gloves are made this way. Molded gloves are usually more com-
1. What are some issues to consider
   when selecting the ―right‖ glove?      fortable to wear and easier to work in, but thumb placement and
                                          finger length are variable. Some brands may offer a better fit
2. If a particular glove type is rec-
                                          than others, so try before you buy.
   ommended on a pesticide label,
   where would you find it?               Fit
                                          If gloves fit properly, they feel less awkward and more comfort-
3. Which personal protective cloth-
   ing material, including gloves, is     able. If they fit too tight, they will be harder to get on and off and
   the least resistant to chemical sol-   your hands may tire faster. If gloves are too big, you lose agility
   vents?                                 and there is a greater chance of catching them in machinery. To
                                          find your glove size (7 to 12), measure around your open hand. If
4. What signs may indicate the need       it measures 10 inches, you are a size 10. Some gloves are sized
   to replace your gloves? Do the         S-M-L and XL, men‘s and women‘s, or one size fits all. In this
   same apply when using highly
                                          case, try them on.
   toxic chemicals?

5. Should your shirt sleeves be inside
   or outside the gloves when spray-      Glove thickness is measured in mils or gauge and bigger num-
   ing a pesticide?
                                          bers usually mean thicker gloves and more chemical protection.
                                          For example, one barrier laminate glove, Silver Shield® is 0.004-
                                          inch (4 mil) and a particular Viton® design is 0.036-inch (36 mil)
                                          in thickness. Both are resistant to most solvents (see table). As a
                                          comparison, ―surgeon‘s‖ gloves of natural rubber are 4 mil to 9
                                          mil thick (1 mil = 0.001 inch) and are not durable enough for use
                                          with most pesticides. Uniform thickness is difficult to manufac-
                                          ture, however, and thinner areas will wear out first. Though
                                          thicker gloves may offer more protection from chemicals, tear-
                                          ing, and puncture, they are more bulky and clumsy. Thinner
                                          gloves are easier to work in, but are also damaged more easily.

                                          Removal and cleaning
                                          After use, try washing the outsides of your gloves in running
 Do your hands get hot and sweaty         water, and soap if possible, while you are still wearing them.
 wearing unlined gloves? Read the         Next, remove one glove by grasping it near the cuff, without
 note at the end of the article and       touching your skin, then peel it off. Hold the inside-out glove in
 work in comfort.                         your bare hand while you slip your ungloved finger under the
                                          cuff of the other glove, peeling it off. Put both gloves, now in-
                                          side-out, in a clean one-gallon zip-lock bag until they can be
                                          properly washed or disposed of.

                                          If you want to reuse a pair of gloves wash them the same day, as
                                          follows: 1) remove free pesticide and other material from the
                                          outside of the gloves with running water; 2) use a strong deter-

                                          The Pesticide Label                                         Page 10
                                           gent to remove remaining chemical residue; 3) rinse well in run-
                                           ning water; 4) hang by the fingertips with a clothespin to dry.
                                           Never put gloves in an automatic dryer.

                                           The usefulness of most gloves is short-lived. It may be time to
                                           replace them if you notice any of these signs:

                                               staining or color change inside or outside of the glove;
                                               softening, swelling, or bubbling;
                                               stiffening, cracking, or surface change;
                                               dissolving or becoming jelly-like; or
                                               leaking at any time.

                                           Even in the absence of these signs, pesticides can soak through
                                           or contaminate glove materials without changing the glove‘s ap-
                                           pearance or texture. So replace gloves when there is:

                                               direct glove contact with highly toxic chemicals for a short
                                               time, or
                                               repeated contact over a longer period.

                                           A routine replacement schedule may be useful, depending on the
                                           type of chemical exposure and amount of use. Cut gloves up so
                                           they cannot be reused and dispose of them as solid waste.

                                           Final tips
                                               Keep one set of gloves for mixing concentrates.
                                               Wash gloves after each use to reduce exposure time and
                                               lengthen glove life.
                                               Allow gloves to dry before storing.
                                               Manufacturers label packages, not gloves; write material
                                               type on cuffs with a permanent marker.
                                               Place sleeves outside of gloves if most of your spraying is at
                                               or below waist level (see sidebar 1).
                                               Place sleeves inside gloves if most of your spraying is over-
                                               head; make a 1- to 2-inch cuff to catch pesticide that runs
                                               down the glove (see sidebar 2).
                                               If spraying both above and below waist level, close your
                                               gloves tightly outside of your sleeves and secure with heavy-
                                               duty tape or an elastic band (see sidebar 3).
                                               Do not use flocked or lined gloves; they can absorb pesticide
Natl. Pest. Applicator Cert. Core Manual       (see the following note).

                                           The Pesticide Label                                      Page 11
                                                   Note: On 1 September 2004, EPA amended the Worker
                                                   Protection Standard‘s prohibition of using separable liners (e.g.
References                                         thin cotton gloves) in chemical-resistant gloves. The decision to
EPA. 2004. Federal Register Vol. 69, No.           use separable glove liners is now at the discretion of the pesti-
  169.          cide user: chemical-resistant gloves can continue to be used
  ers/fr-gloves.pdf                                without liners. EPA‘s new regulations contain restrictions to as-
Fishel, F. 2006. Glove selection for working       sure that contaminated liners will not remain in use. To assure
  with pesticides.                                 that contaminated liners will not be reused, all separable liners
Paulsrud, B. and Nixon, P. 2001. Choose the
                                                   will have to be discarded immediately after 10 hours of use with-
  proper gloves when handling pesticides.          in any 24-hour period; separable liners cannot be laundered and   reused. Separable glove liners that come into contact with pesti-
  cles/200111.html                                 cides must be discarded immediately and replaced with new lin-
Stone, J. 1996. Keep gloves handy for              ers. Discarding separable glove liners immediately is necessary
  pesticide work.                                  to ensure that gloves are not contaminated and reused, acciden-
                                                   tally or otherwise.

                                                    SUPERVISING NONCERTIFIED APPLICA-
                                                    TORS OF RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDES

                                                   State of Hawaii and federal laws and regulations allow a noncer-
                                                    tified pesticide applicator to use a restricted use pesticide (RUP)
                                                    if he or she is under the direct supervision of a certified pesti-
     A restricted use pesticide (RUP) is            cide applicator and has written instructions from the certified
     a chemical product that requires               applicator. If you are a certified applicator and you make a RUP
     regulatory controls in addition to             available to a noncertified applicator, you must: 1) select a com-
     the rules for controlling the mi-
                                                    petent person, 2) provide written instructions and adequate train-
     suse of pesticides.
                                                    ing, 3) be available if and when needed, 4) be sure required re-
                                                    cordkeeping is completed, and 5) be responsible for any viola-
                                                   tions of the Hawaii Pesticides Law.

                                                   Choosing a noncertified applicator
                                                   A critical part of direct supervision is that RUPs only be applied
        A competent applicator is one
                                                   by a competent person. A person is competent if he or she is
       who is able and qualified to do a
                                                   able and qualified to perform a particular function in pesticide
      specific pesticide application task.
                                                   application. For example, if calculating the square footage of an
                                                   area is necessary to perform the function, then a competent per-

                                                   The Pesticide Label                                       Page 12
                                  son must be able to do the calculation. And if using a respirator
                                  is necessary to perform the function, then the competent person
                                  must be qualified to use a respirator. It might be better to do the
                                  complex tasks yourself and leave the simple ones for the noncer-
                                  tified applicator. Further, the direct supervision policy of the
                                  U.S. EPA requires the certified applicator to judge competency
                                  by asking appropriate questions to ensure the noncertified appli-
                                  cator understands the instructions.

                                  Another facet of direct supervision is having the noncertified
                                  applicator under the instructions and control of the certified ap-
                                  plicator. If the ―supervising‖ certified applicator is not present
                                  during the application of a RUP, it may not count as direct su-
                                  pervision. This opinion came from a court decision related to Mr.
                                  C. Nagamine by the Hawaii Department of Agriculture‘s Pesti-
                                  cide Programs manager. The case involved the application of
                                  pesticides by aircraft. The certified applicator worked for a spray
                                  service during the prior year, but had since begun work at a
                                  bank. The certified applicator was retained as a consultant and
                                  was available for consultation by telephone. It was ruled that
                                  direct supervision was not provided because the certified appli-
Photo by USDA, Bugwood Archives
                                  cator did not provide instructions or control. Control was defined
                                  as the exercise of a restraint, directing or regulating influence;
                                  or supervision which involves careful watching and responsible
                                  care. The judge concluded that the retention of a consultant in
                                  this capacity was an effort to circumvent statutory and regulatory
                                  requirements. A fine of $10,000 was assessed.

                                  Being available when needed
                                  For most RUPs, the certified applicator need not always be phys-
                                  ically present at the time and place the RUP is applied. But la-
                                  bels of a few RUPs specifically require the physical presence of
                                  the certified applicator, so be sure to check the pesticide label for
                                  any such product-specific requirement. Here are two examples,
                                  with words italicized for emphasis.

                                  • The Vikane® label says: When used for fumigation of enclosed
                                  spaces, such as houses and other structures…, two persons
                                  trained in the use of this product, at least one being an applica-
                                  tor that is licensed/ certified by the state, must be present during
                                  introduction of fumigant, reentry prior to aeration, and during
                                  the initiation of the initial aeration procedure.

                                  The Pesticide Label                                        Page 13
                                      • The label for Cheminova Methyl 4 EC says: Direct supervision
                                      for this product is defined as the certified applicator being phys-
                                      ically present during application, mixing, loading, repair and
                                      cleaning of application equipment.

                                      Both of these pesticides are labeled with the signal word DAN-
                                      GER, the skull & crossbones symbol, and the word POISON in red

                                      In other cases, the required availability of the certified applicator
                                      is directly related to the hazard of the situation. EPA‘s interpreta-
                                      tion of this statement requires the physical presence of the certi-
                                      fied applicator when the use of a RUP poses a potentially serious
                                      hazard to people or the environment. In cases where physical
                                      presence is not required, the certified applicator must be availa-
                                      ble if and when needed. EPA interprets this statement to require,
                                      at a minimum, the availability of the certified applicator by tele-
                                      phone or radio immediately before, during, and after the noncer-
                                      tified applicator‘s use of a RUP. The certified applicator must
                                      also be able to get to the application site within a reasonable pe-
                                      riod of time if the need arises. When determining, ―a reasonable
                                      period of time‖, the potential or real consequences of a delay in
                                      arrival will be considered. Being on another island, for example,
                                      is not acceptable according to the Hawaii Department of Agri-

                                      Written instructions and training
                                      Hawaii Department of Agriculture‘s Pesticide Regulations re-
                                      quires that a noncertified applicator who handles a RUP be given
                                      written instructions by the certified applicator that provides the
                                      pesticide. The written instructions must include: 1) directions for
                                      applying the RUP; 2) safety measures to be taken, including
                                      emergency procedures; and 3) contacting the certified applicator
According to the Hawaii Depart-
                                      at any time during the application. To be more specific, the Ha-
ment of Agriculture, if a noncerti-
                                      waii Department of Agriculture provides the following details,
 fied applicator is to handle an
                                      along with an example.
RUP, the certified applicator must
  provide written instructions.       Written instructions must include:
                                      1. Information about the certified applicator
                                        a. Name of certified applicator
                                        b. Certification card number and expiration date
                                        c. Company name or employer name (suggested)
                                      2. Specific instructions for application
                                        a. Brand (product) name of the RUP
                                        b. Specific rate of application

                                      The Pesticide Label                                        Page 14
  c. Site or crop, location, and method of application
  d. Total area to be treated
  e. Specific sprayer or device (pre-calibrated if necessary) to be
  f. Amount and directions for preparing a pesticide spray mix-
      ture for the particular sprayer or device
  3. Safety measures to be taken
  a. Specific personal protective equipment (PPE) to be worn
  b. How to respond to spills or leaks (taken from the pesticide
      label). List cleanup materials that should be available, on
      the truck or nearby, where the handling tasks are being
  c. Other cautionary measures (taken from the Precautionary
      Statements section of the label)
  4. Responses to pesticide exposure
  a. Telephone number for medical emergency
  b. Decontamination methods and other first aid procedures
      (taken from the Statement of Practical Treatment section
      of the label)
  5. Means of contacting the certified applicator at any time dur-
      ing the application, such as the voice, cellular, or radio call
      phone number.
  6. Whether a special pesticide labeling should be in the posses-
      sion of the applicator at the time of application, for exam-
      ple, a Special Local Need labeling. EPA policy also speci-
      fies that instructions be given at a level and in a language
      understood by the noncertified applicator. If a noncertified
      applicator will be applying several different RUPs at dif-
      ferent kinds of sites (or crops), the certified applicator is
      required to accompany the noncertified applicator to at
      least one site (or crop) for each different type of pesticide
      used. In cases where the noncertified applicator has not
      previously used the particular RUP, or where there is any
      doubt about the noncertified applicator‘s full understand-
      ing of instructions, the certified applicator is obligated to
      provide on-the-job-training and to observe the perfor-
      mance of the noncertified applicator before leaving the
      site. As explained above, however, the certified applicator
      may not leave the site if his or her physical presence is re-
      quired by the pesticide label or by the hazard of the situa-

The Hawaii Department of Agriculture's "Pesticide Regulations"
(also known as "Chapter 66") specifies recordkeeping require-
ments for certified private and commercial applicators. Accord-
ing to the requirements, the records must be kept for two years.
Information about the items to record is available from two

The Pesticide Label                                        Page 15
                                               A consultation with a pesticide education specialist at the
                                               Hawaii Department of Agriculture's Pesticides Branch
                                               §4-66-62, in "Chapter 66" posted at

                                           Violations of pesticide laws
                                           Restricted use pesticides are not like ordinary pesticides sold at
                                           supermarkets and garden shops. They can cause serious prob-
                                           lems for people and wildlife if the applicators are not adequately
                                           trained and supervised. Suppose, for example, that you buy a
                                           RUP and allow a noncertified applicator to use it. Could you
                                           train and count on the applicator to do the following?

                                               Delay treatment if conditions are not right
                                               Figure and measure the proper amount
                                               Prepare the site for treatment
                                               Post signs or other information (required for some jobs)
                                               Protect any nearby workers and passers-by
                                               Choose and use personal protective equipment (PPE)
                                               Dilute the pesticide and load it into the application equip-
                                               Operate, adjust, and maintain the application equipment
                                               Control possible spray drift to nearby homes, schools and
                                               Make and keep a record of each job
                                               Store the container properly
                                               Dispose of an ―empty‖ container properly
                                               Wash the safety gear and application equipment
                                               Change out of contaminated clothing; wash up

                                             These aspects of using any pesticide are subject to an inspec-
                                             tion or complaint investigation by Hawaii‘s pesticide regulato-
Hawaii Pesticide Law, Pesticide Regula-
                                             ry agency. And for a RUP that you provide to someone else to
  tion (condensed), available at             apply, you would be responsible for any violations whether     you were involved in applying it or not. Consider this too: The
Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Ro-        list of tasks could be longer if the pesticide label required spe-
  denticide Act, available at                cial hardware, experience, or judgment. For example, a struc-
  l                                          tural fumigation treatment requires specialized air sampling
Food Agriculture Conservation and            devices and respirators that must be tested and maintained.
  Trade Act of 1990, available at            Soil, weather and other treatment site conditions must be rec-
  aib624/                                    ognized and factored into calculations for dosage and treat-
FIFRA Compliance Program Policy No.          ment time. Another layer of complexity is possible if the non-
  2.3, April 5, 1985 (U.S. Environmen-
  tal Protection Agency).                    certified applicator was instructed to treat different sites at
                                             different times. Finally, if you made more than one RUP
                                             product available to the noncertified applicator, would they

                                           The Pesticide Label                                       Page 16
choose the right one?

This article is from the January-March and April-June 2004 is-
sues of The Pesticide Label. Past and present issues of our new-
sletter are available in PDF for free viewing or download at

According to a September 30, 2009 announcement from the U.S.
EPA, the Agency, ―. . . intends to make a sea change in how inert
ingredient information is made available to the public‖. The an-
nouncement was in response to two petitions, dated August 1,
2006, for a ruling on disclosure of hazardous inert ingredients in
pesticide products. Currently, EPA only requires the active in-
gredient(s) in the product be listed on pesticide labels. This ar-
ticle defines active and inert ingredients and then summarizes the
2006 proposals and EPA‘s response.

An active ingredient is defined by EPA as, ―one that prevents,
destroys, repels or mitigates a pest, or is a plant regulator,
defoliant, desiccant or nitrogen stabilizer. By law, the active
ingredient must be identified by name on the label together with
its percentage by weight [author‘s emphasis]‖.

An inert ingredient (inert) is defined as, ―any substance (or
group of structurally similar substances if designated by the
Agency), other than an active ingredient, which is intentionally
included in a pesticide product.‖ Inert ingredients play a key role
in the effectiveness of a pesticidal product. For example, inert
ingredients may serve as a solvent, allowing the pesticide's active
ingredient to penetrate a plant's outer surface. In some instances,
inert ingredients are added to extend the pesticide product's
shelf-life or to protect the pesticide from degradation due to

The Pesticide Label                                      Page 17
                                      exposure to sunlight. Pesticide products can contain more than
                                      one inert ingredient, but federal law does not require that these
                                      ingredients be identified by name or percentage on the label
                                      [author‘s emphasis]. Only the total percentage of inerts is
                                      required to be on the pesticide product label‖.

                                      The State petition was a request from 14 states and the U.S.
                                      Virgin Islands that EPA amend its regulations governing certain
                                      chemicals already determined by EPA to be hazardous, toxic, or
                                      hazardous to man or the environment under the Federal
                                      Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) to require
                                      that those chemicals be listed as ―Hazardous Inert Ingredients‖
                                      on the label of any pesticide product that contains them.

                                      The Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides (NCAP)
                                      and 21 co-signing organizations also seek an amendment to the
                                      labeling regulations for inert ingredients. The NCAP wants a
                                      required listing on product labels of any inert ingredient(s) that
                                      EPA regulates as a hazardous chemical. If EPA cannot do this
 The term “inert ingredients” im-     within current statutes, they would like a determination, section-
  plies “inactive, without effect”,   by-section, on the 350 inert pesticide ingredients listed in their
  which most inerts are not. For      petition, or if that is not possible an individual determination of
this reason many people favor the     each chemical, as to whether it should be identified on the
     term “other ingredients”.        pesticide product label. They also request that EPA require
                                      labeling of inert ingredients listed in the Hazardous Substances
                                      Data Bank.

                                      EPA Response
                                      In their 30 September 2009 response
                             , EPA agreed that
                                      ―… increased transparency could lead to better informed deci-
                                      sion-making and to better informed pesticide use‖. They believe,
                                      in general, that formulations with hazardous inert ingredients
                                      have a less favorable cost/benefit ratio than formulations that
                                      work the same but do not contain the hazardous inerts. There-
                                      fore, EPA will start a rulemaking process that would increase
                                      availability to the public of inerts in specific pesticide formula-
                                      tions. It would include disclosure of all inerts, not just those
                                      listed as hazardous.

                                      This rulemaking process will begin with an Advance Notice of
                                      Proposed Rulemaking being submitted to the Office of Manage-
                                      ment and Budget. EPA states that there are many complex issues
                                      involved and all stakeholders should be given a chance to re-

                                      The Pesticide Label                                       Page 18
spond. The Agency believes that the request of the petitioners—
―issuing determinations for that [sic] the specific substances
listed in the petitions must be disclosed on product labels‖—
would bring many challenges for certain products. The progress
of the Office of Management and Budget deliberations can be
located at

At the request of the manufacturers, EPA is announcing cancel-
lations for certain uses of pesticides containing organic arseni-
cals, followed by their termination dates. The organic arsenicals
include monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA), disodium me-
thanearsonate (DSMA), calcium acid methanearsonate (CAMA),
and cacodylic acid and its sodium salt.

The requests terminate the following uses of MSMA: residential;
forestry; non-bearing fruit and nuts; citrus, bearing and non-
bearing; bluegrass, fescue and ryegrass grown for seed; drainage
ditch banks; railroad, pipeline, and utility rights of way; fence
rows; storage yards; and similar non-crop areas. These voluntary
cancellations for MSMA-containing products do not terminate
all of its uses in the U.S. The requests, however, do terminate
distribution and use of all products containing DSMA, CAMA,
cacodylic acid (CA) and its sodium salt (CAS).

Existing stocks of these organic arsenates are those registered
pesticides currently in the U.S. and which were packaged, la-
beled, and released for shipment prior to the effective date of the
cancellation. For existing stocks of these products and their can-
cellation dates, refer to the following Table of Cancellations and
Terminations of Uses of pesticides Containing Organic Arseni-
cals and the EPA website at

The Pesticide Label                                       Page 19
Table of Cancellations and Terminations of Uses of Pesticides Containing Organic Arsenicals.
Cancellation Date         Products                     Prohibited Except for the Following Labeled Uses
(action, subject)
January 1, 2010           MSMA                         Cotton, sod farms, golf courses, highway rights-of-way
(sales and distribution
by the manufacturer)      DSMA, CAMA, CA, CAS          All uses
January 1, 2011           MSMA                         Cotton, sod farms, golf courses, highway rights-of-way
(sales and distribution
by persons other than     DSMA, CAMA, CA, CAS          All uses
the manufacturer)
January 1, 2011           MSMA                         Cotton, sod farms, golf courses, highway rights-of-way
(purchased products
can be used legally       DSMA, CAMA, CA, CAS          All uses
until exhausted)
January 1, 2013           MSMA                         All uses
(sales and distribution
by the manufacturer)
December 31, 2013         MSMA                         All uses except cotton
(purchased products
can be used legally
until exhausted)
 MSMA=monosodium methanearsonate, DSMA=disodium methanearsonate, CAMA=calcium acid methanearsonate, CA=cacodylic
acid, CAS=cacodylic acid and its sodium salt.

                                                             BIRTH OF AN HERBICIDE
                                                Pesticide manufacturers are constantly searching for novel chem-
                                                icals with new modes of action. One good source of these com-
                                                pounds is allelochemicals, substances produced by some plants
                                                that are toxic to other plants. Though these compounds naturally
                                                affect other plants, they may need to be refined for agricultural
                                                use. For example, they may be 1) too complex to produce in
                                                economic amounts, 2) too weak and need too much product to be
                                                effective, 2) too toxic to non-target organisms, or 3) they may
                                                have other undesirable characteristics. Therefore, it is important
                                                to isolate relatively simple compounds and then change them
                                                chemically to produce a desired product.

                                                In 1977, a California biologist noticed that only a few weeds
                                                grew around his red bottle brush plants (Callistemon citrinus).
                                                He collected soil from under the plants and extracted allelochem-
                                                icals from it. Two of the five samples were allelopathic; they
                                                inhibited the growth of other plants. One of these was very active
                                                and was later named leptospermone.

                                                The Pesticide Label                                         Page 20
                                                      A review of the literature showed that leptospermone was first
                                                      reported in 1921 and since then has been extracted from many
                                                      plants, but never before from bottle brush. The substance was
                                                      purified and tested on a range of plants, both pre- and post-
                                                      emergence. The unique symptom, a white bleaching of the
                                                      leaves, interested the biologist and his company, Western Re-
                                                      search Centre (formerly Stauffer Chemical, now Syngenta).

                                                      The company synthesized and optimized the compound and
                                                      eventually produced some very active products. Some were so
                                                      toxic they killed 90 percent (LD90) of the test weeds at a dosage
                                                      as low as 0.001 grams of active ingredient per 2.5 acres, com-
                                                      pared to a 9,000-gram LD90 for leptospermone per 2.5 acres.
                                                      However, these highly active chemicals had other characteristics
Optimization steps from leptospermone to mesotrione
                                                      that prevented their use, such as a long life in the soil, too broad
                                                      a range of susceptible plants, or toxic effects to humans. After
                                                      thousands of compounds were tested, mesotrione was discovered
                                                      (see figure).

                                                      Mesotrione (2-[4-(methylsulphonyl)-2-nitrobenoyl]-1,3-
                                                      cyclohexadione) gives selective weed control in maize (corn). It
                                                      is quickly taken up by leaves, shoots and roots and translocated
                                                      throughout the plant. It can be used both pre- and post-
                                                      emergence against many broadleaved and some grassy weeds,
                                                      with excellent selectivity. Recommended rates of use are from
                                                      75 to 225 grams of active ingredient per 2.5 acres, about 100
                                                      times more powerful than leptospermone.

                                                      Mesotrione‘s mode of action is the same as for leptospermone. It
                                                      competitively blocks an enzyme that assists in the formation of
                                                      carotenoids. These are orange pigments necessary for photosyn-
                                                      thesis and the protection of chlorophyll and plant cell mem-
                                                      branes during photosynthesis. In sensitive species, inhibition of
                                                      this enzyme leads to bleaching of the aboveground parts of the
                                                      plant and its eventual death. Maize is tolerant of mesotrione,
                                                      breaking it down into inactive byproducts with very few symp-
                                                      toms and no loss of yield. According to a recent article in the
                                                      Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, mesotrione applied
                                                      to maize alone or together with atrazine can increase the level of
                                                      carotenoids in sweet corn kernels by 15 percent. The two dietary
                                                      carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, are important in suppressing
                                                      eye diseases caused by aging, such as macular degeneration, now
                                                      affecting almost 2 million older Americans.

                                                      The Pesticide Label                                       Page 21
                                           Mesotrione was introduced by Syngenta in the U.S. and Europe
                                           in 2000 under the brand name Callisto™ (from Callistemon). It
                                           reportedly has no significant risk to humans or other non-target
References                                 organisms or to the environment. It is quickly broken down in
Cornes, D. 2005. Callisto: a very suc-
 cessful maize herbicide inspired by al-   the soil and the threat of leaching into groundwater is slight.
Kopsell, D.A., et al. 2009. Increase in
 nutritionally important sweet corn ker-
 nel carotenoids following mesotrione
 and atrazine applications.

                                           ONTARIO’S COSMETIC PESTICIDES BAN
                                           The Cosmetic Pesticides Ban Act of 2008 went into effect on
                                           Earth Day, 22 April 2009 in Ontario, Canada. Under this new
                                           act, ―Pesticides cannot be used for cosmetic purposes on lawns,
                                           vegetable and ornamental gardens, patios, driveways, cemeteries,
                                           and in parks and school yards.‖ For pest infestations in these
                                           areas, ―…lower risk pesticides, biopesticides and alternatives to
                                           pesticides exist‖. The Act bans the sale of more than 250 pesti-
                                           cide products and over 80 active ingredients for cosmetic use.
                                           There are few exceptions and these require prior approval.

                                           Opinions are divided on this pesticide ban. Here are a few com-
                                           ments and their sources on the internet:

                                             ―The McGuinty government believes the use of pesticides to
                                             control pesky weeds and insects for purely cosmetic reasons is
                                             an unnecessary risk to our families and pets, especially when
                                             you can have a healthier lawn and garden without chemicals.‖
                                             Ontario Ministry of the Environment

                                               ―Ontario's Lawncare Industry is over $1.26 billion a
                                               year, with $577 million spent on equipment and wages.
                                               There are 21000 full time [sic] employees whose jobs
                                               are now at risk.‖ The Landscape Management Newslet-
                                               ter at

                                           The Pesticide Label                                       Page 22
    ―Earth Day this year is a particularly good day for the envi-
    ronment, and Ontario families, especially children. By ban-
    ning the sale and use of cosmetic pesticides, we‘ve elimi-
    nated the unnecessary risk posed by cosmetic pesticides and
    made Ontario a healthier place.‖ – John Gerretsen, Minister
    of the Environment

    ―When a world-recognized expert, Dean M. Stanbridge says,
    ‗it‘s sad that science and common sense were pushed aside
    by scare tactics and emotion,‘ it certainly reinforces the posi-
    tion taken by the Ontario Federation of Agriculture on On-
    tario‘s pesticide ban.‖ Greenhouse Canada magazine at

    ―We‘re delighted to be involved in helping Ontarians
    achieve a pesticide-free landscape. Communities in Bloom is
    dedicated to promoting green spaces, especially in urban set-
    tings, and we‘re proud that our efforts are helping the envi-
    ronment.‖ – Lee Rozon, Executive Director, Communities in
    Bloom – Ontario


The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has rolled out pro-
posed guidance for new pesticide labeling to reduce off-target
spray and dust drift. The new instructions, when implemented,
will improve the clarity and consistency of pesticide labels and
help prevent harm from spray drift. The agency is also request-
ing comment on a petition to evaluate children‘s exposure to pes-
ticide drift.

―The new label statements will help reduce problems from pesti-
cide drift,‖ said Steve Owens, the assistant administrator for
EPA‘s Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances.
―The new labels will carry more uniform and specific directions

The Pesticide Label                                       Page 23
on restricting spray drift while giving pesticide applicators clear
and workable instructions.‖

The new instructions will prohibit drift that could cause adverse
health or environmental effects. Also, on a pesticide-by-pesticide
basis, EPA will evaluate scientific information on risk and expo-
sure based on individual product use patterns. These assessments
will help the agency determine whether no-spray buffer zones or
other measures – such as restrictions on droplet or particle size,
nozzle height, or weather conditions – are needed to protect
people, wildlife, water resources, schools and other sensitive
sites from potential harm.

More at

             Terms from Pesticide Labels

Biopesticide. Biopesticides are certain types of pesticides
  derived from such natural materials as animals, plants,
  bacteria, and certain minerals. U.S. EPA divides these
  pesticides into three categories: 1) Microbial pesticides consist
  of a microorganism such as a bacterium, fungus, or protozoan;
  2) Plant-incorporated Protectants, or PIPs, are pesticidal
  genetic material that have been added to plants; and 3)
  Biochemical pesticides are naturally occurring substances that
  control pests by non-toxic mechanisms.

  Label example: Integrate this biofungicide (see Microbial pes-
   ticides above) into an overall disease and pest management
   strategy whenever fungicide use is necessary.

Gloves, chemical-resistant. Hand covers made of various mate-
 rials, such as rubber, neoprene, PVC, that protect the handler‘s
 hands from chemical contact; consult EPA chemical resistance
 category selection chart.

  Label example: Chemical-resistant gloves, such as barrier la-
   minate or viton.

The Pesticide Label                                        Page 24
Inert ingredient. Any substance (or group of structurally similar
  substances if designated by EPA), other than an active ingre-
  dient, which is intentionally included in a pesticide product
  (FIFRA). May also be listed in the ingredient statement as
  ―other ingredients‖.

  Label example: Inert ingredients … 60.0%

Intertidal zone. Area of the shore that is exposed to air during
  low tide and covered with water at high tide. Area between
  high and low tides. Seashore, foreshore, littoral.

  Label example: Do not apply directly to water or to areas
   where surface water is present or to intertidal areas below
   the mean high water mark.

Rodenticide. a substance used to kill rodents (rats, mice, voles,
 gophers, squirrels, etc.)

  Label example: Weather-resistant rodenticide for use in and
   around structures and in terrestrial nonfood/nonfeed areas
   to control commensal rats and mice …

      The definitions in this glossary are intended to help un-
      derstand the terms used on pesticide labels. Other defini-
      tions may be available for these terms.

      Mention of a trademark, company, or proprietary name
      is not an endorsement and does not imply a recommen-
      dation to the exclusion of other companies or products.

The Pesticide Label                                      Page 25
                                           The Pesticide Label
                                                     January—March 2010

                                   PREVIOUS RECERTIFICATION ARTICLES
October–December—Soil Fumigant Regulations: EPA Responds to Stakeholders (p. 2), Misbranding (p. 5), Her-
 bicide Flashback (p. 8)
July–September 2009—Pesticide Adjuvants (p. 2), Herbicides (p. 5)
April–June 2009—Invasive Snails and Slugs of Hawaii (p. 2), Temperature Effects of Storage on Greenhouse,
 Ornamental and Turf Pesticides (p. 9)
January–March 2009—Disposal of Pesticides and Pesticide Containers (p. 2), Pesticide Resistance (p. 3), Poly
  Tanks (p. 8)
July–December 2008—Gaseous Pesticide Formulations (p. 2), Fumigants (p. 5), EPA‘s New Regulations for Soil
  Fumigants (p. 10), Pesticide Shelf Life (p. 14)
April–June 2008—Reducing Spray Drift: Windbreaks and Buffer Zones (p. 5)
February–March 2008—Pesticide Labels (p. 4), Engineering Controls for Pesticide Exposure (p. 7)
October 2007–January 2008—What is a Pesticide? (p. 3), Special Hazards of Restricted Use Pesticides (p. 5), Su-
 pervising Noncertified Applicators of Restricted Use Pesticides (p. 9)

          Archived issues of “The Pesticide Label” available for free download at

Updated packet item, “Hawaii Pesticide Laws and Regulations” now available at

This newsletter is published by the Extension Pesticide Programs. For        Mention of a trademark, company, or proprietary name in this newsletter does
information on pesticide programs, please contact:                           not constitute an endorsement, guarantee, or warranty by the University of
                                                                             Hawaii Cooperative Extension Service or its employees and does not imply
                          Charles Nagamine
                                                                             recommendations to the exclusion of other suitable products or companies.
            Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences
                   3050 Maile Way, Gilmore 310
                   University of Hawaii at Manoa                             Caution: Pesticide use is governed by state and federal regulations. Pesticides
                         Honolulu, HI 96822                                  and pesticide uses mentioned in this newsletter may not be approved for Ha-
                                                                             waii, and their mention is for information purposes only and should not be
Telephone: (808) 956-6007 (Nagamine)                                         considered a recommendation. Read the pesticide’s labeling to ensure that the
E-mail:                                                  intended use is included on it and follow all labeling directions.
Web edition:

SOURCES, 3050 MAILE WAY, HONOLULU, HAWAII 96822. The UH-CTAHR Cooperative Extension Service and the U.S. Department of Agriculture
cooperate in presenting t the people of Hawaii programs and services without regard to race, sex, age, religion, color, national origin, ancestry, disability,
marital status, arrest and court record, sexual orientation, or veteran status. The University is an equal opportunity, affirmative action institution.

To top