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PLANT STRUCTURE REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

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PLANT STRUCTURE REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT Powered By Docstoc
					      PLANT STRUCTURE, REPRODUCTION, AND
                 DEVELOPMENT

I.    Plant scientist Katherine Esau was a preeminent student of plant
      structure and function
      a. Leading research in the field of plants
      b. Did most of her work before the proliferation of technology

II.   The two main groups of angiosperms are the monocots and the
      dicots
      a. 2 main groups
              i. MONOCOT  embryo with one seed leaf
             ii. DICOT  two seed leafs
      b. COTYLEDONS  seed leaves
III.   The plant body consists of roots and shoots




       a. ROOT SYSTEM  anchors it in the soil, absorbs and
          transports minerals and water, and stores food
       b. ROOT HAIR  outgrowth of an epidermal cell; increases
          surface area for absorption
       c. SHOOT SYSTEM  made up of stems, leaves, and
          adaptations for reproduction
              i. STEM  hold plants upright
                    1. NODES  point where leaves are attached
                    2. INTERNODES  portion of the stem between
                       nodes
             ii. LEAVES  main site of photosynthesis
IV.   Many plants have modified roots and shoots




      a. RHIZOMES  modified horizontal stems
      b. TUBERS  end of rhizomes; store food (starch)
V.   Plant cells and tissues are diverse in structure and function




     a. SIEVE-TUBE MEMBERS  food-conducting cells
     b. VASCULAR TISSUE




            i. XYLEM  water transport
           ii. PHLOEM  food (nutrient) transport
VI.   Three tissue systems make up the plant body
      a. 3 Tissue System




             i. EPIDERMIS  “skin”
                  1. CUTICLE  waxy coating
            ii. VASCULAR SYSTEM
                  1. Made of xylem and phloem
           iii. GROUND TISSUE SYSTEM
                  1. CORTEX
                  2. ENDODERMIS
                  3. PITH (in dicots)
      b. Leaves




             i. STOMATA
            ii. GUARD CELLS
           iii. MESOPHYLL
VII. Primary growth lengthens roots and shoots




      a. INDETERMINATE GROWTH  continues growth
         throughout life
      b. ANNUALS  one year life cycle
      c. BIANNUALS  two year life cycle
      d. PERENNIALS  live for many years
      e. MERISTEM  consists of localized, unspecialized cells that
         divide and generate new cells and tissues

VIII. Secondary growth increases the growth of woody plants
      a. Secondary growth pushes the cells outward making the plant
         stem thicker




      b. CORK and CAMBIUM are unique to woody plants
IX.   Overview: The sexual life cycle of a flowering plant




X.    The development of pollen and ovules culminates in fertilization
      a. POLLINATION  delivery of pollen grains to stigma

XI.   The ovule develops into a seed




      a. SEED COAT  covering of embryo
XII. The ovary develops into a fruit




      a. FRUIT  matured ovary designed to help disperse the seeds

XIII. Seed germination continues the life cycle
      a. GERMINATION  seed growing into plant




XIV. Asexual reproduction produces plant clones
     a. VEGETATIVE REPRODUCTION  plant cloning in nature

XV. Vegetative reproduction is a mainstay of modern agriculture
    a. VEGETATIVE PROPAGRATION  man-made cloning of
       plants

				
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posted:12/13/2011
language:English
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