Chapter 12 Contemporary Issues in Leadership by T26rpfi


									           Chapter 12
      Contemporary Issues in
Introduction: The case of former major Guiliana the 21st
century leader
1. Trust: The foundation of Leadership
Trust is a positive expectation that another person will not
through words, actions, or discussion act opportunistically.
Positive expectation assumes knowledge and familiarity with
the other person/party. This is based on experience. This
takes time to build. Most of us find it hard to trust someone
but as we get to know the person and the relationship
matures we gain confidence.
Five key dimensions that underlie the concept of trust:
1.  Integrity- honesty and truthfulness. This is considered
2.  Competence-an individual’s technical and interpersonal
    knowledge and skills. Does the person know what he is
    talking about? You will not listen to someone whose
    abilities you don’t respect.
3.  Consistency- an individual’s reliability, predictability, and
    good judgment in handling situations' consistency
    between works and actions.
4.  Loyalty. The willingness to protect and save face for
    another person, you can depend on someone.
5.  Openness. Can you rely on the person to give you the
    full truth?
Now, managerial and leadership effectiveness depends on
the ability to gain the trust of the followers. For instance
reengineering, downsizing, and the increased use of
temporary employees have undermined the employees trust
in management. A recent survey in U.S. employees found
that only half trusted their senior manager. Also the bad
practices of corporations in the U.S. like the leaders of
ENRON, WORLDCOM, etc that were accused of engaging
in activities like secret loans, insider trading, manipulating
profit figures, evading taxes all these has lost the confidence
and trust of employees and investors, supplier, customers in
senior executives.
Three type of trust :
1. Deterrence based trust. This is based on fear of reprisal if
the trust is violated. They fear the consequences. Example is
a new manager employee relationship. They fear the
consequences. Example is a new manager employee
relationship. As an employee, you typically trust a new boss
even though there is little to base that trust on. This trust
lies in the authority held by the boss and the punishment
he/she can impose.
2. Knowledge based trust. This comes from the history of
interaction. It exists when you have adequate knowledge
about someone and you can predict his behavior.
Predictability enhances trust.
3. Identification Based Trust. The history level of trust is
achieved when there is an emotional conduction between
the parties. The parties understanding each others’
intentions and appreciated the other’s wants and desires.
Contract are minimal at this level. You don’t need to
monitor the other party because there exists unquestioned
loyalty. An example is long term happily married couple.

LEADERS AS Shapers of Meaning Framing Issues
Framing is a way to use language to manage meaning. It’s a
way for leaders to influence how events are seen and
understood. It involves selecting and highlighting of one or
more aspects of a subject while excluding the others. It is
like what a photographer does when he focuses on a specific
on a specific shot, lawyer frame issues. Lawyers shape
arguments to present their clients in the most favorable
John F. Kennedy, Bill Clinton are frequently cited as
   charismatic leaders. What is charismatic leadership?
   Followers attribute this to heroic or extraordinary
   leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors.
They have and characteristics:
1. They have a vision
2. They are willing to take risks to achieve the vision
3. They are sensitive to the needs of the followers.
4. They exhibit behavior that are out of the ordinary

How do charismatic leaders influence followers?
1. Articulator an appealing vision. He links the present
   with better future.
1.Communicator     high performance expectations and
expresser confidence that followers can attain them. This
enhances follower self ester and self confidence.
2.Conveys through words and actions, a new set of values
and sets an example for followers to imitate through his
3.Makes self sacrifices to demonstrate courage and
convictions about the vision.
Research found a positive correction between charismatic
leadership and high performance and satisfaction among

Are Charismatic Born? Made?
A small minority still think charisma cannot be learned. But
   some experts believe they can be trained to exhibit
   charismatic behaviors, How?
  Maintain an optimistic view. Communicate with the
   whole body not just with words.
  Inspire others to follow
  Tap into the emotions of the followers
Transformational leadership these kinds of leaders guide and
   motivate their followers in the direction of established
   good by clarifying roles and task requirements. This
   leader is able to transcend the followers’ self interest for
   the good of the organization. They pay attention to the
   concerns and developmental needs of individual
   followers; they change followers’ awareness of issues by
helping them to look at old problems in new ways; they are
   able to excite, arouse, inspire followers to work with
   extra effort to achieve group goals.
Characteristics of Transformational leaders
A: Charisma: Provider vision and sense of mission, instills
   pride, gain respect and trust.
B: Inspiration: Communicates high expectation, uses
   symbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes
   in sample ways.
C:      Intellectual Stimulation: Promoter intelligence,
   rationality, and careful problem solving
D: Individualized Consideration, Gives personal attention,
   treats each employee individually, coaches, advises.
EMOTIONAL Intelligence and Leadership Effectiveness
Leaders need basic intelligence and job related knowledge
   but this is not enough. They are necessary but not
   sufficient. It is emotional intelligence that makes him a
   star performer. These are:
  Self-awareness exhibited by self confidence, realistic self
   assessment and a sense of humor.
  Self management. Exhibited by trustworthiness,
   integrity, comfort with ambiguity, openness to change.
  Self motivation: exhibited by strong drive to achieve,
   optimism, and high organizational commitment.
  Empathy cross cultural sensitivity, expertise in building
5. Social skills ability to lead change and in building and
   leading teams. Without EI, a person can have
   outstanding training, highly analytical mind, long term
   vision, endless supply of terrific ideas but still not make
   a great leader. This is especially true when the person
   moves to a higher rank.. The case of Rudolph Giuliani is
   interesting because for 8 years that he was the major of
   New York, he ruled with an iron first. He talked tough,
   picked fights, and demanded results. The result was a
   city that was cleaner sager and better gowned but also
   more polarized. Critics called Mililani a tin eared tyrant.
   In the eyes of the many, something important was
   missing from his leadership. That something, is critics
acknowledged, emerged as the world Trade Center
collapsed. It was a newfound compassion to complement
his command: a mix of resolve, empathy, and inspiration
that brought comport to millions. It’s likely that Giuliani's
capacities and compassion for there were stimulated by a
series of personal hardships including prostate cancer and
his breakup of his marriage that had taken place less than a
year before the terrorist attack on Sept. 11, 2001.He stepped
up and led the city and Nation through the crisis. Within
minutes after the first plane hit, he was on the site directing
operation. Without regard for his own safety, he established
makeshift command center and a temporary morgue, found
a million pain of gloves and dust masks, respirators. He tried
to give the public reassurance with his hair and still covered
with silt from falling buildings. He provided the leadership
that the people needed very much. Day after day he gave
calm explanations that the situation was under control. He
found just the right balance between being a hardnosed
administrator and a caring and emotional leader. He
consorted widows, widowers, and survivors, He attended
200 funerals and always went to the site to join the rescue
workers. He encouraged survivors to go out and see life. He
reached out to tourists to come back to the city. He showed
traits that the public had rarely seen in him before:
compassion, fearlessness, calmness, and openness. He
conveyed optimism. He said on the first day, “Tomorrow,
New York is going to be here” we’re going to rebuild and
we will be stronger than before. Terrorism can’t step on us.
Time magazine named him “person of the year 2001” in
these words:
………for having more faith in us than we had in ourselves,
for being brave when required and rude where appropriate
and tender without being trite, for not sleeping and not
quitting and not shrinking from the pain all around him”

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