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Biochemistry 1. What is an organic compound? 2. Besides carbon, name 3 other elements that make up most organic compounds. 3. How many electrons are in the outermost energy level of carbon? How many does it need to have this energy level filled? 4. How many covalent bonds can carbon form? 5. How many electrons are being shared in a single covalent bond? double covalent bond? triple covalent bond? quadruple covalent bond? 6. Large carbon molecules are built from smaller, simpler molecules called ____________. 7. Large carbon molecules made of monomers are called _______________. 8. What are large polymers called? 9. Name the 2 sugars that were combined to form sucrose. 10. Name the 4 main classes of macromolecules (organic molecules) & tell what 3 elements all of these contain. 11. In what ratio are hydrogen & oxygen atoms in carbohydrates? 12. In what 2 forms do carbohydrates exist? 13. What are the monomers of carbohydrates called? What is their common name? Give the ratio of carbons, hydrogens, & oxygens. 14. Name most common monosaccharides. Write the chemical formula for all one. 15. What forms a polysaccharide? Name a polysaccharide found in animals. Name 2 found in plants? 16. What are the 4 main elements making up proteins? How many covalent bonds does each of these elements form? 17. What are the monomers of proteins called? How many are there? Name the 4 things bonded to the center carbon of this monomer. 18. The main difference among amino acids is their ___________ group. What is the R- group on serine? on alanine? 19. Differences in R-groups give different proteins different ______________. 20. How does a peptide form? 21. Long chains of amino acids are called ___________________ and these join together to make a ________________. 22. What is the effect of temperature on protein shape? 23. Most proteins act as catalysts or __________________ inside of cells. 24. The substance an enzyme is acting upon is called the _____________ and it must ______ into a place called the active site on the enzyme. 25. When a substrate joins with an enzyme, what effect does this have on chemical bonding of that substrate? Is the enzyme affected temporarily or permanently? How is it affected? 26. When chemical bonds in a substrate are weakened, what effect does this have on activation energy needed to start the reaction? 27. After the reaction, what happens to the products? Can the enzyme be re-used & why? 28. What happens to lipids when they are placed in water? 29. If a compound has more bonds, what can it store more of in those bonds? 30. Most lipids are made of ______________ acids. Describe their shape. 31. In what type of fatty acid are there only single bonds in the carbon chain? 32. What type of bond appears in an unsaturated fatty acid? 33. Name the 2 groups of complex lipids. 34. What makes up steroids? How are they used in animals? 35. DNA and RNA are both examples of _____________ made of linked monomers called ________________. 36. Name the 3 parts to a nucleotide.
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