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					Biology 48 - Human Physiology
Lecture Summary Sheet - Norris
                           Chemistry Review & Organic Molecules
I. Definitions
   A. Matter
   B. Energy

II. Composition of Matter
    A. Atomic Structure
       1. Protons
       2. Neutrons
       3. Electrons

III Chemical Interactions - Bonds
   A. Ionic Bonds
   B. Covalent Bonds
   C. Hydrogen Bonds


   D. Chemical reactions
        synthesis (endergonic)
        decomposition (exergonic)

IV. Biochemistry - the chemistry of living things
  A. Important Inorganic Compounds:
   1. Water:



    2. Salts:

    3. Acids and Bases:
                    +
        pH = -log [H ]


    4. Buffers (may be inorganic, organic or other)



  C. Important Organic Compounds - defined as having a carbon-hydrogen "backbone" (forming a chain or
      ring). Organic molecules are distinguished by their three dimensional structure and the functional groups attached
      to the carbon "backbone".
      Four major categories of organic molecules are recognized based on their similar structures
      and chemical properties:
    1. Carbohydrates (hydrated carbon: C + H2O) = structure and energy storage

       a. monosaccharide (monomer)
       b. disaccharides (i.e. sucrose, lactose, maltose…)


807d74c4-d364-4e45-bf93-6d8357cc7941.doc                                                         Bio 48 – Human Physiology
       c. polysaccharide (polymer)
           - starch
           - glycogen
           - cellulose

    2. Lipids (all are non-polar) = structure and energy storage


       a. triglycerides (neutral fats)
       b. phospholipids

       c. steroids
       d. eicosanoids (i.e. prostaglandins)

    3. Proteins = workhorse of the cell



       a. amino acids (monomer)
       b. polypeptide (polymer)
       c. protein (polymer)
         i. primary structure
         ii. secondary structure
         iii. tertiary structure
         iv. quaternary structure (if more than 1 AA chain)

    4. Nucleic Acids = information or energy carrier
      a. nucleotides (monomer)
          - pentose sugar (ribose or deoxyribose)
          - phosphate
          - nitrogen base

       b. nucleic acids (polymer)


V. Solutions
     a. solute & solvent
     b. concentration


VI. Additional Key Terms
  anabolic        base                     catabolic     catalyst    condensation dissociation
  electron shell endergonic                equilibrium   exergonic   hydrolysis   hydrophilic
  hydrophobic     ionization               mole          monomer     pH           product
  radioisotope    reactant

807d74c4-d364-4e45-bf93-6d8357cc7941.doc                                          Bio 48 – Human Physiology
                                           Study Questions – Chemistry:
1. Define “matter” and “energy”.
2. What is an atom?
3. Describe each of the subatomic particles (protons, neutrons & electrons) in terms of where they
    are found, their characteristics, and their contribution to the atoms properties
4. Define “atomic number” and “atomic weight”. Where are these values found on the periodic
    chart?
5. Describe the characteristics of ionic bonds, covalent bonds, polar covalent bonds and hydrogen
    bonds.
6. Describe the factors that influence the rates of chemical reactions.
7. Group the following terms into related categories: synthesis, decomposition, anabolic,
    endergonic, exergonic, catabolic, exothermic, endothermic.
8. What characterizes and distinguishes organic and inorganic molecules?
9. Describe the characteristics of water.
10. Describe the characteristics of salts.
11. Describe the characteristics of acids and bases.
12. Describe the characteristics of buffers.
13. Define “monomer” and “polymer”.
14. What are the monomers of carbohydrates called?
15. Describe three types of carbohydrate polymers.
16. What are some of the roles of carbohydrates in living things.
17. Describe the general characteristics of lipids.
18. Compare and contrast between triglycerides, phospholipids and steroids.
19. What are the monomers of proteins called?
20. What are the polymers of proteins called?
21. Describe the different levels of protein structure.
22. What is the significance of hydrogen bonds to protein structure?
23. What is the significance of hydrogen bonds to protein function?
24. What is the general role of protein in living things?
25. What are the monomers of nucleic acids called?
26. What are these monomers made of?
27. Name two types of nucleic acid polymer. (describe the different forms)
28. What is the roll of nucleic acids in living things?




807d74c4-d364-4e45-bf93-6d8357cc7941.doc                                        Bio 48 – Human Physiology

				
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