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									DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING
   AND APPLIED SCIENCE


   Health and Safety Guidelines




                              Revised September 2003
University of Bath
Health and Safety Guidelines

Department of Engineering and Applied Science


Contents

Officers and Services                        page 2
     University Officers
     Department Officers
     University Services
     First Aiders

Foreword                                     page 3

Safety Policy in the Department of
Engineering and Applied Sciences             page 4

Health and Safety Structure in the
Department and Individual Responsibilities   page 5

Basic Safety Advice                          page 7

Code of Practice for Laboratory Working      page 8

Ionising and Non-ionising Radiation          page 12

Electrical and Mechanical Safety             page 13

Working After Hours                          page 15

Code of Practice for Office Working          page 16

Centre for Electron Optical Studies          page 18

Emergency Procedures                         page 18

Declaration                                  page 21




                            1
University Officers                                 Department Officers
Mr P.C.E. Adams                                      Mr P.F.J. Taylor
University Safety Officer                            Department Safety Liaison Officer/
Wessex House, Room 3.13 tel. 6834                    Chief Technician
                                                     Room 3W 4.20A, tel. 6533
Mr D.J. Hornsey
University Radiological Protection Officer           Dr D.E. Packham
South Building, Annexe, tel. 6540                    Undergraduate Laboratory Safety Supervisor
                                                     Room 3W 2.7, tel. 3660
Dr C.W. Pouton
University Chemical Safety Advisor                   Professor D.P. Almond
Tel. 6786                                            Department Laser Safety Supervisor
                                                     Room 3W 2.2D tel. 6708
Dr M.D. Threadgill
University Chemical Safety Advisor                  Mr H.R. Perrott
5W 3.9, tel. 6840                                   Department Radiological Protection Supervisor
                                                    Room 3W 2.15A, tel. 5153
Mr P.J. Jewell
University Microbiological Protection Officer
South Building, Annexe, tel. 6540

Dr S.A. Macgregor
University Laser Officer
Room 4E 3.29, tel. 6481



Services                                            First Aiders in Building 3W
Security Office
Wessex House, Room 2.5 tel. 5349
                                                    Mrs U.J. Potter*, Room 2.15A, tel. 5651
Estates Office
Maintenance requests and enquiries tel. 3232
(Contact Security after working hours)
                                                    Ms C.M. Dyer, Room 3.19, tel. 6522

Medical Centre
Quarry House, North Road, tel. 6655Tel. Bath
462395 (24 hour service for emergencies)             *Trained in treatment for HF burns



                           In an Emergency Telephone 666




                                                2
Foreword


Accidents do not happen; they are always caused. Neglect of health and
safety can lead to considerable physical and mental pain and sometimes to
personal tragedy.


Health and safety cannot be left solely to committees, panels, working
parties, safety representatives and the University's Safety Officers. It is
necessary for each one of us to make safety an integral part of all our
activities. In this way there is hope of preventing accidents and the
consequential waste of human and physical resources.


Legislation makes it very clear that everyone is involved in safety. Each
person should take reasonable care of their own health and safety as well as
ensuring their actions do not cause others to be exposed to unnecessary risk.


This Safety Handbook sets out Departmental policy, guidance and
information together with the procedures to be followed in the event of
an emergency. Proper use of the information will help to minimise the
occurrence and effects of accidents. You should read the handbook
carefully and retain it for reference.




                              3
The Safety Policy in the Department of Engineering and
Applied Science


To provide adequate control of the health and safety risks arising
from the activities carried out in the Department.

To consult with staff and students on matters affecting their health
and safety.

To provide and maintain safe and healthy working conditions.

To maintain equipment so that it may be operated safely.

To ensure safe handling and use of substances.

To provide information, instruction and supervision for staff and
students.

To ensure that all staff and students are competent to do their tasks
and to give adequate training where necessary.

To prevent accidents and cases of work-related ill health.

To maintain safe and healthy working conditions.

To review and revise this policy as necessary at regular intervals.




  Signed                                            Date



                   Head of Department




  Review date      August 2004


                           4
                      Health and Safety Structure in the Department and
                      Individual Responsibilities

                      In the first place, you should refer any queries on health and safety matters to your superior. Your
                      immediate superior in respect of your employment or studentship with the University is given below:

                      Category of Personnel                                      Immediate Superior

                      Undergraduate Students                                     Tutor
                      Postgraduate Students                                      Supervisor
                      Research Officers                                          Supervisor
                      Technical Support Staff (Eng & Appl. Sci.)                 Chief Technician
                      Technical Support Staff (E. Optics)                        Department Safety Liaison Officer
                      Office Staff                                               Department Administrator
                      All Other Staff                                            Head of Department


Introduction          It is our duty to ensure the health, safety and welfare of all staff and students at work in the
                      laboratories and to protect others against risks to their health and safety that could arise while they
                      are using the facilities in the Department. To this end, current legal requirements and safety measures
                      will be applied, and the co-operation of every member of staff and every student is required to ensure
                      that by their activities they do not endanger themselves or others. The reduction or avoidance of
                      accidents depends ultimately upon the individual, and it is important to recognise that no document
                      can be a substitute for common senses and safety consciousness.


Statement of Intent   A concern for health and safety is an integral part of the management of the Department. This
                      statement indicates the organisation, arrangements, monitoring and remedial actions which will be
                      used by the Department to implement the requirements of the University Safety Policy. The local
                      rules are in addition to, and not a substitute for, the requirements of the general University Safety
                      Policy. The Department will make available resources of both time and money, and arrange for
                      training and instruction in safety matters, so far as is reasonably practicable in order that the Safety
                      Policy can be implemented.


Safety Structure      The Head of Department is responsible to the Vice-Chancellor for giving effect to the University's
in the Department     Safety Policy to ensure the health and safety of all staff, students, visitors and contractors and the
                      safety of all buildings, areas, constructions, plant, equipment, processes, articles, substances,
                      activities, and matters under his direct control.

                      The Head of Department is assisted by the Department Safety Liaison Officer who is primarily
                      concerned with day-to-day safety matters, acts as a link between the Department and the University
                      Safety Officer, and advises the Head of Department on safety matters. He also receives advice on
                      various areas of activity from certain colleagues whose technical expertise and training relate to those
                      specialist areas.

                      The person responsible for safety in the Department of Engineering and Applied Science is
                      Professor A.N. Bramley. Safety-related duties have been delegated to the following persons:
                      (i)   Department Safety Liaison Officer, Mr P.F.J. Taylor
                      (ii) Department Radiological Protection Supervisor, Mr H.R. Perrott
                      (iii) Department Laser Safety Supervisor, Professor D.P. Almond
                      (iv) Department Designated Technical Representative, Mr P.F.J. Taylor
                      (v) Appointed First Aider, Mrs U.J. Potter.

                      A Department Safety Committee has been formed to help the Head of Department discharge the
                      duties of implementing and monitoring University Safety Policy.
                      The following have agreed to be members of the committee
                      (i)    Head of Department, Professor A.N. Bramley, Chairman
                      (ii) Department Safety Liaison Officer, Mr P.F.J. Taylor, (who will deputise as
                             Chairman in the absence of the Head of Department)
                      (iii) Undergraduate Laboratories Supervisor, Dr D.E. Packham
                      (iv) Designated Technical Representative, Mr F. Hammett
                      (v) Research Staff Representative, current vacancy
                      (vi) Postgraduate Representative, current vacancy

                                                              5
                      (vii) Trade Union Representative, Miss A.K. Harrington
                      (viii) Department Administrator, Mrs .A. Marsland-Shaw, Secretary of the Committee
                      The Department Radiological Protection Officer, Mr H.R. Perrott and the Department Laser Safety
                      Supervisor, Professor D.P. Almond will be co-opted onto the committee when required.

                      The terms of reference of the Committee are as stated in Section 3 of the University Safety Manual.

                      The Safety Committee will meet at least three times a year.


Arrangements for      Compliance with the University Safety Policy will be monitored in accordance with the procedures
Monitoring and        laid down in section 3.3 of the University Safety Manual. The Head of Department will arrange, in
Remedial Actions      consultation with the Safety Committee, for Departmental inspections at least three times a year.
                      These will be performed by the Safety Liaison Officer and the Chief Technician with other
                      committee members invited to participate as appropriate. The results of the inspections will be
                      reported and target dates will be set for any remedial actions. The Head of Department will
                      acknowledge completion of remedial actions and a copy of the report will be sent to the University
                      Safety Officer for record purposes.


Evacuation Drills     An evacuation drill of building 3W will be held at least once a year to ensure that emergency
                      procedures work satisfactorily. This will be co-ordinated by the Safety Office and any deficiencies
                      will be reported to the Safety Committee for action.


Responsibilities of   As far as it is reasonably practicable it is the duty of every staff and student member of the
Staff and Students    Department to comply with safety instructions, standards and guidance laid down in this handbook,
                      and those issued by the University or the Head of Department

                      All members of the Department should take reasonable care of their own safety and that of others.

                      Academic and technical staff must set, by personal example, a high standard of safety so that
                      students leaving the Department accept good safety procedures as normal practice.

                      Staff and students should use properly, and not misuse, damage or remove, any equipment or
                      appliance provided for health and safety in the Department. It is an offence to interfere with
                      equipment and devices provided for safety.

                      Staff and students should acquaint themselves with the instructions for dealing with emergencies and
                      accidents, and the location of fire alarms, fire appliances, first aid boxes and emergency exits.

                      It is the duty of all members of staff and students that when they see a hazard either to act to
                      eliminate the hazard or to report it as soon as possible to their immediate superior and to the
                      Department Safety Liaison Officer. If an issue is outside the scope of a Department or if a conclusion
                      is not reached within a reasonable period of time, assistance is available through the University
                      Safety Officer or through Union Safety Representatives.

                      Members of staff must comply with the relevant statutory Acts of Parliament and follow, as far as it
                      is reasonably practicable, appropriate Codes of Practice in the design, construction, commissioning
                      and operation of experimental apparatus and the Safety Standards and Guidance issued from time to
                      time by the University or the Head of Department.


Personal Risk         Risk assessment is a key factor in ensuring that safe working practices are followed in the
Assessments           Department. Before undertaking any experiments final year undergraduates, postgraduates and
                      research staff must investigate all hazards associated their work. The assessment should be carried
                      out jointly by the person carrying out the experimental work and their supervisor. The supervisor is
                      responsible for ensuring that proper thought has been given to minimising any risks, that safe
                      working practices have been agreed and that a risk assessment form has been completed. No
                      experimental work is to be undertaken before the risk assessment has taken place.

                      Risk assessments must be updated when any changes take place to the experimental program which
                      have safety implications. In any event they must be reviewed annually. Forms and copies of all risk
                      assessments are held by the Department Administrator.

Generic Risk          In addition to individual risk assessments generic risk assessments have also been performed for a

                                                            6
Assessments           number of laboratories. This information is detailed on yellow cards attached to the laboratory doors
                      and indicates the hazards that have been identified and what precautions need to be taken. This
                      information is for people working in the laboratory, visitors, porters, security staff etc. It is not a
                      substitute for a personal risk assessment.


First and Second    First and second year undergraduates in the Department are required to read and comply with
Year Undergraduates the safety information contained in the relevant Laboratory Handbooks before undertaking any
                    laboratory experiment.


CEOS Users            All new users of the facilities in the Centre for Electron Optical Studies are required to read the
                      Centre's own Safety Booklet, copies of which are available in 3W 2.15. These may be signed out to
                      enable any safety aspects to be studied in greater depth.


Other Persons         Persons not employed by the University or registered as students with the University who use
                      Department facilities are also required to familiarise themselves with, and abide by, the health and
                      safety procedures of the Department.


Information           A statement of the University of Bath Health and Safety Policy is posted on the glass-fronted notice
                      board outside the Department Office.

                      A copy of the University Safety Manual is available for consultation from the Department
                      Administrator, the Chief Technician or the Safety Liaison Officer. It is also on the web at
                      www.bath.ac.uk/Admin/Safety/content.htm
                      Further safety information is available for consultation in 3W 4.9 and also on the web at
                      http://physchem.ox.ac.uk/MSDS/



Training              Staff and postgraduates will be encouraged to attend safety courses where deemed appropriate. In
                      order that areas of expertise are identified records of such attendance will be held by the Department
                      Safety Liaison Officer.

                      Staff having a supervisory responsibility, with their special knowledge of the area of work for which
                      they are responsible, must ensure that all persons under their supervision are taught the relevant safe
                      working practices. This means providing sufficient information, instruction, training and supervision
                      to ensure, as far as it is reasonably practicable, the health and safety of students/researchers and of
                      other persons who may be affected by their work. It must be stressed that this is an obligatory part of
                      being a supervisor.


Working off           Staff and students are legally entitled to health and safety protection at their place of work.
Campus                Anyone having concerns about safety aspects of their off-campus work environment or the tasks they
                      are carrying out should contact their supervisor at the University immediately. Placement students
                      should follow the advice given in the booklet " A Guide to Placements".




                     Basic Safety Advice

                      Newly polished and wet floors are potentially dangerous; walk carefully.

                      Do not run along corridors.


                                                             7
              Take care when ascending or descending stairs.

              Always wear suitable footwear.

              Do not carry sharp pointed objects in a top pocket.

              Do not overload a lift. The safe number of passengers is displayed.

              Do not park on yellow lines. Action by emergency services may be delayed.

              Children up to the age of 14 years are not allowed in academic areas of the buildings. In other parts
              of the University young children must be closely supervised by an adult unless special arrangements
              have been made for them in a designated area.


Fire          Do not wedge or prop open the smoke doors that safeguard staircases, or the fire separation
Precautions   doors in corridors. Keep access and escape routes clear.

              Know the location of fire alarm points and fire fighting appliances.

              Do not allow waste paper and combustible materials to accumulate.

              Do not use corridors and under stairways as storage areas..

              Observe the no smoking rules.




              Code of Practice for Laboratory Working

General       Food and drink must not be taken into any laboratory.

              Laboratory coats should be worn in all laboratories when carrying out work and removed before
              leaving. When special protective clothing is provided it must be worn.

              Specimens which are unlabelled are, at the least, dangerous, and may pose a hazard to others.
              Unless specimens are labelled, they will be destroyed.

              In many laboratories there is equipment being used for research purposes. Do not interfere with it.

              Ceiling tiles pose a particular threat as the ceiling voids often contain asbestos as part of their
              construction. Before lifting any ceiling tile consult with your supervisor who must contact the Estates
              Office to determine whether asbestos is contained within the ceiling void. If it is, then the ceiling tile
              must not be disturbed.

              Treat sharp edges and points with respect. Do not leave sharp implements on a working surface or
              loose in a drawer-keep them in a box. Do not use a razor blade without a suitable holder.
              Do not use or operate a machine or instrument with which you are not familiar. Seek advice or
              training. Always follow the makers instructions. Never use equipment which is defective. Report the
              matter to the Chief Technician.

              Noise can cause damage to hearing, or merely cause annoyance. Noisy equipment must be sound
              insulated whenever this is practicable. Sound intensities of 85 db(A) and above (averaged over an
              eight hour day) will have an adverse effect on hearing and ear protection will be necessary.

              Untidiness in laboratories is an unnecessary hazard. The following general rules are to be observed:
              Benches and surrounds must be kept clean and tidy and free from obstruction.
              Spillages must be mopped up at once - wet floors are dangerous.

              If a water leak is observed which cannot be stopped inform a member of staff without
              delay or, if outside normal working hours, contact Security in Wessex House. In the event of a water
              failure safeguard apparatus and make certain that all taps are shut off until the water supply is
              restored.

                                                     8
                     Equipment and apparatus should not be left running and unattended, even for short periods unless
                     specifically designed to do so.
.
Unattended           Apparatus left running after normal working hours must be designed to fail safe so that, for
Equipment            example, the failure of cooling water, gas pressure, electricity, fume cupboard extraction does not
                     result in a hazardous situation developing.

                     Apparatus should be tested for a reasonable period under the exact conditions in which it will
                     operate unattended.

                     All such apparatus must display a yellow "Experiment in Progress/Apparatus Left Running" card
                     available from the Chief Technician. Failure to display this card could lead to the apparatus being
                     shut down to avoid unknown hazards.

                     The joints of all temporary rubber and plastic tubing connected to a mains water supply must be
                     made secure with ring clips. If a connection should fail water can leak into the service ducts to the
                     floors below, and may cause an electrical fault leading to a fire.

                     When apparatus has to be supplied with water over a long period of time it must be connected using
                     conventional practices for permanent water services. Rubber and plastic hoses must be avoided
                     unless absolutely necessary. Connections should be checked regularly and a record made of who
                     carried out the inspection and the date.


Chemicals            Before starting an experiment, individuals must acquaint themselves with the known potential
                     hazards of the materials they are using. All chemicals should be regarded as potentially harmful and
                     should never be tasted.
                     The following procedures must be followed:
                     Check up on the potential toxic or hazardous nature of the chemicals before their use, either by
                     reference to the instruction schedule or the BDH hazard data sheets. The BDH hazard data sheets,
                     Hazards in the Chemical laboratory, Dangerous Chemical Emergency Spillage Guide and the
                     Emergency First Aid Guide are in room 3W 4.9 for consultation. Another useful reference is
                     http://physchem.ox.ac.uk/MSDS/ . Have ready any specific antidote and also inform some
                     other person of the measures to be taken in the event of accident.

                     All experiments with toxic and noxious chemicals must be carried out in the fume cupboard. Make
                     certain the fume cupboard is working, is gas proof and remains working the duration of the
                     experiment.

                     All experiments which are potentially of an explosive nature should be carried out with the
                     protection of a safety screen.

                     Do not pipette anything by mouth. Always use an automatic pipette filler.


Hydrogen             Hydrogen fluoride and its concentrated or dilute solutions in water, which we know as hydrofluoric
Fluoride             acid, inflict destructive and extremely painful burns on any tissue with which they come into contact.
                     With concentrated preparations these effects are rapidly apparent, but in dilute solutions they are
                     often delayed and may not be noticed for a number of hours.

                     The symptoms which may start immediately or may be delayed, commence as a dull throbbing which
                     builds up to become a particularly severe and persistent pain due to the death of the underlying
                     tissues. If not treated it can result in extensive and permanent damage, which may involve the
                     underlying bone. Accompanying the pain there may be a visible reddening of the damaged skin

                     Several common metallurgical etching solutions contain hydrofluoric acid.
                     Chemical grade goggles or a face visor and suitable gloves must be worn by users.


Transport, Storage   Winchester bottles must always be transported in Winchester carriers which are available from
and Disposal of      the Chief Technician, Mr P.F.J. Taylor.
Chemicals
                     Hazardous chemicals should not be stored in bulk in a laboratory.

                                                            9
               Flammable solvents, needing to be refrigerated, must only be stored in flash-proof refrigerators. All
               such solvents must be kept in sealed and labelled containers.

               Do not pour solvents down sinks: Dirty solvents should be poured into the containers stored in the
               fume cupboard. There are containers for chlorinated, non-chlorinated and non-halogenated solvents.
               Make sure that you use the correct one.

               It is the responsibility of the person emptying bottles of sodium dried solvents to dispose of the
               sodium wire. Any residual solvent should be poured into industrial methylated spirit (IMS) and the
               Winchester charged with IMS (250 ml). When all the sodium has been destroyed the contents of the
               Winchester should be poured on to water. Finally rinse the Winchester with IMS, followed by water.

               N.B. See also section below on Flammable Solvents.


Strong Acids   Strong acids and alkalis are dangerous. They should be stored and handled with respect for their
and Alkalis    corrosive properties and with regard for the safety of other persons. They should preferably be stored
               in capped bottles in strong cupboards.

               Many metallurgical etching and polishing solutions contain concentrated acids. Researchers and
               students should note the composition on the label and use with due care. Students may not make up
               etching or polishing solutions even if the reagent has been used up. It is strongly recommended that
               chemical grade goggles (or a face visor) and suitable gloves be worn by users. Do not store corrosive
               and oxidising substances in the same cupboard as solvents.


Flammable      Fire is a major laboratory hazard and the following precautions must be observed to minimise the
Solvents       risk of fire.

               Flammable solvents must not be stored in bulk in the laboratory. Solvents for which there is no
               immediate use must be returned to the store.

               Never heat flammable liquids with a flame and do not use flammable solvents in the vicinity of a
               naked flame.

               Always check that the condensing system is adequate to cope with the solvent in use.

               NB. See also section above on disposal of solvents.


Glassware      Glassware should always be inspected for faults prior to use. Defective glassware should be
               destroyed.

               Particular care should be exercised when inserting glass tubing into a bung, lubricating the tubing
               with water or glycerine. When breaking glass tubing or removing tubing from a bung, always protect
               hands with a cloth or other material.

               Always carry lengths of glass tubing vertically.

               A special bin marked „Glass Waste‟ in 3W 4.14 is to be used to deposit any waste glass. Do not use
               the normal laboratory waste bins.


Sharps         Used razor blades, scalpel blades etc. must be deposited in the special sharps bin provided in
               3W 4.14. Under no circumstances should ordinary waste bins be used.


Personal       Personal cleanliness is essential, and generally soap and hot water are the best materials to promote
Hygiene        this. Laboratory workers should understand that while oils, petrol, benzene, acetone and other
               organic solvents will easily remove certain stains from the hands, they are not without danger when
               used in this way. They promote excessive dryness of the skin, a condition which is particularly
               favourable to skin infection and dermatitis, and in some cases, solvents have carcinogenic properties.
               It should be noted that many solvents can also produce severe toxic effects by skin absorption.


                                                    10
                Avoid dabbing or dipping hands in any chemical solutions, however weak these solutions may be.
                Use ladles or stirring rods long enough to keep the hands well away from the hazard. Similarly, do
                not handle powders or other solids with hands, but use some form of scoop.

                If you are advised to wear protective equipment such as gloves, or to apply a protective barrier
                substance to exposed parts of the skin, make sure you do so strictly according to the instructions of
                the person in charge.

                Finally, have all cuts or skin injuries treated by the Medical Centre to avoid giving dermatitis a
                simple means to entry through the skin, and report at once any faint rash or skin irritation which you
                may notice. Do not wait until the skin is seriously affected.


Injuries        Remember that the severity of an injury may be greatly reduced by prompt action. Water is freely
                available and whether the injury is due to chemical or fire, tissue damage to the casualty may be
                reduced by copious drenching with water. Be careful of the power of a water jet on eyes.


Refrigerators   Refrigerators in the laboratory must not be used for the storage of foodstuffs.


Cryogenic       There are additional hazards when cryogenic fluids (critical temperature below 300K) are
Fluids          handled. The Cryogenics Safety Manual (The Safety Panel, British Cryogenics Council) should be
                consulted for detailed information.

                Protection should be provided against frost-bite caused by contact with cold metals. Beware of
                creating a flammable vapour-air mixture.

                Poorly ventilated rooms or vehicles should be avoided because of respiratory hazards due to oxygen
                deficiency or poisoning . Do not travel with liquid nitrogen in a lift. If a spillage occurs in a confined
                space you may be overcome by oxygen starvation - such a situation is potentially life threatening

                Particular dangers include

                Explosions caused by ice blocking vents.

                Low temperatures causing embrittlement.

                Evaporation of liquid nitrogen can result in a fire risk due to the production of an oxygen-rich
                mixture.


Vacuum and      The use of glass equipment attached to vacuum apparatus constitutes a potential danger through
High Pressure   the shattering of glass by implosion and when attached to high pressure apparatus there is a Systems
                risk of explosion.

                Ensure that the apparatus is free from fault and adequately protected prior to the commencement of
                an experiment. Reject any glassware that is scratched or cracked. Vacuum desiccators, Dewar flasks
                and large vessels must be enclosed in insulation tape, sellotape or other form of protection.

                Do not use flat bottomed flasks except where specially designed for the purpose .
                Experiments carrying the smallest risk of explosion must be conducted behind adequate safety
                shields and the apparatus should be screened from persons in the vicinity. Safety goggles or
                spectacles must be worn and can be obtained from the Chief Technician.


Compressed      All work with compressed and liquefied gases in cylinders must be carried out in accordance
and Liquefied   with Pressure Systems and Transportable Gas Regulations 1989. A copy of „ Safe under Pressure‟
Gases           BOC Gases provides guidelines for all who use BOC cylinder gases and is available from the
                University Safety Officer.

                Jets of compressed air and gases can be highly dangerous and must never be directed at people. A jet
                of compressed air or gas applied to an open cut or scratch can force its way under the skin and into
                the tissues. If it then enters the bloodstream the result can be fatal. Severe damage can also be caused



                                                      11
            if a jet is directed at any of the natural openings of the body. Do not use compressed air to blow dust
            from your clothing or to remove grit or swarf from machines


Gas         Gas cylinders are potentially dangerous in two respects - firstly as high pressure sources of gas and
Cylinders   secondly as heavy objects. It should also be remembered that many of the gases are themselves
            flammable or toxic. Be familiar with the colour code for identification of cylinders or valves for
            various gases, but always check the written name or chemical symbol.

            When moving a cylinder fasten it onto a purpose-built trolley and move it carefully. When in use,
            cylinders must be placed in suitable stands or chained to the bench or wall. Cylinders of liquefied or
            dissolved gases must always be fixed in a vertical position. Never drop a cylinder, it could crush a
            foot or hand, and there is also the possibility of the cylinder neck fracturing and causing an
            explosion.

            Always use the correct regulator for a particular gas. Oil or grease should never be used on cylinders
            or connections. This is particularly important when using oxygen gas because grease and oxygen can
            produce an explosive mixture. For the same reason extra care should be taken to select an oxygen
            regulator for an oxygen cylinder.

            Always make sure that the cylinder valve is turned off before removing a regulating valve. Failure to
            do this could result in the cylinder taking off like a rocket.

            It should be possible to open valves by hand pressure using standard keys. Only the appropriate tools
            must be used when connecting cylinders and regulators, not wrenches or hammers. If a cylinder
            valve cannot be opened, return it to the supplier with an explanatory note.

            Avoid opening valves too rapidly. With some gases this can cause ignition due to static electricity or
            explosion due to overheating in the regulator.

            Never empty a cylinder completely, but leave it with a slight pressure (say twice atmospheric) and
            the valve closed to prevent diffusion of air into it. Mark empty cylinders clearly.




            lonising and Non-lonising Radiation

Ionising    All work with radioactive substances and equipment which produce ionising radiation must
Radiation   be carried out in accordance with regulations, standards and guidelines. Mr H.R. Perrott, the
            Department Radiological Protection Supervisor, must be consulted prior to any work being
            undertaken.


X-ray       No unauthorised person may make use of X-ray crystallographic equipment.
Equipment
            No undergraduate student may use X-ray generators. Unauthorised persons must not enter the
            radiation area while an X-ray generator is energised. Switching on the generators, beam adjustment
            and sample exposure must be carried out only by 'designated' persons.


Lasers      Exposure to the high-intensity beams from Class 3 and 4 lasers can cause very severe, irreversible
            damage to the eyes and skin. The cornea can be damaged so that cells are sloughed off, resulting in
            an excruciatingly painful eye condition, and permanent blind spots can be produced on the retina.

            Prior to undertaking any work with Lasers, Professor D.P. Almond, the Department Laser Safety
            Supervisor, must be consulted.

            When working with low power lasers:
            Warning notices should be displayed. Experiments should be carried out in a well lit room, if
            possible, to avoid enlarging the pupils of the eyes.

            The source should be rigidly fixed so that the direction of the beam cannot be altered inadvertently.

            Stand behind the laser, facing at right angles to the beam path.

                                                  12
Ultraviolet       Ultraviolet radiation (wavelengths 10 - 400nm) is harmful to unprotected eyes, and can produce
Radiation         conjunctivitis, giving an intensely painful burning sensation, which may not develop until some days
                  after exposure. It can also produce redness on unprotected skin and the symptoms of sunburn.

                  Ultra-violet sources, including lamps, arcs and welding equipment should always be shielded, and
                  correct eye protection should be worn by those working close to them.


Microwave and     The main danger arises from selective heating effects within the body, the most heat sensitive
Radio-frequency   organs being the lens of the eye, the gall bladder, the ovaries and the testes.
Radiation         Normal clothing provides minimal protection.




                  Electrical and Mechanical Safety

Electrical        All electrical work must be carried out in accordance with the University‟s „Safety Standards
Safety            and Guidance for Electrical Work' and the following guidelines. Most of the equipment and
                  apparatus used will be connected to mains electricity supply.

                  Before using any electrical equipment ensure that it has a sticker on it marked „Tested for electrical
                  safety‟. If this sticker is missing inform the Chief Technician and do not use.

                  Equipment which is badly wired (either through ignorance or wear and tear) or which is otherwise
                  faulty must be reported to the Chief Technician for repairs and thorough checking. Researchers are
                  most likely to encounter any such faults and should particularly guard against a complacent approach
                  to the electrical safety of their equipment.

                  Always switch off and unplug before cleaning, adjusting or changing parts of a machine and when
                  not in use.

                  Electrical cables should be placed where they will not cause anyone to trip or pull over the
                  equipment to which the cable is connected. Do not run them under a carpet and take care not to put
                  the leg of a table or chair on a cable. Circulation space must be kept free of cables to minimise the
                  risk of tripping, or suitable ramps must be provided. Cables should not be longer than necessary.

                  Cables must be of sufficient capacity to carry the current that can flow in both normal and fault
                  conditions. The Electrical Services Section (Ext. 5613/5859) should be consulted if there is any
                  doubt.

                  Flexible cables must be compatible with the conditions in which they have to work.

                  Cables working at temperatures above 500 C may require special insulation.

                  Cables should be protected against mechanical damage.

                  Wires must be securely connected to terminals and cable clamps must effectively restrain the cable.

                  The colour coding of flexible cables is live-Brown, neutral-Light Blue, earth-Green with Yellow
                  Stripe. Consult the Electrical Services Section where apparatus has wiring of different colours.

                  A flexible cable must not be repaired or lengthened by twisted/soldered and taped joints or by using
                  a terminal block. Protection against excess current flow must be provided. All electrical equipment
                  and apparatus must be able to be switched off and unplugged (where appropriate) when not in use.
                  The cable must not be used to pull out the plug.

                  Exposed metal work of equipment and apparatus must be adequately earthed. Tests to prove the
                  effectiveness of an earthing system can be carried out by the Electrical Services Section.

                  Multiway adapters should not be used. Fused extension sockets should be used when a multi-outlet
                  facility is necessary, but these should be kept to a minimum. Socket outlets must not be overloaded.


                                                        13
                    Check with the Electrical Services Section if there is a high power demand on socket outlets in a
                    localised area.

                    Connectors used to supply portable apparatus with voltages in excess of 50 volts ac/ 110 volts dc
                    must be arranged so that live pins cannot be exposed.

                    In exceptional circumstances, when diagnostic testing can only be carried out with the circuit live the
                    person carrying out the testing must have the written authority of the Head of Department and they
                    must complete the register of live working.

                    All high voltage equipment must display a warning sticker bearing the words 'Danger High Voltage'.

                    Damaged or defective equipment, apparatus or services must not be used. Faults must be reported to
                    the Chief Technician. Electrical sockets, plugs, insulation and wiring should be regularly inspected
                    for damage.

                    Water and other conducting liquids must be kept away from electrical wiring, equipment and
                    apparatus. If any part becomes wet switch off, unplug and thoroughly dry. Avoid touching electrical
                    equipment when your hands are wet.


Workshop            No person may use any mechanical, electric, hydraulic or pneumatic equipment until evidence
Safety              of their competence to do so has been accepted by a senior member of the technical staff.

                    Grinding wheels are a particular source of hazard and every care should be taken when using and
                    storing them. Users of grinders must receive instruction on their use by an experienced member of
                    the technical staff. Never use a pedestal grinder without eye protection, and the correct setting of
                    work-rest. The wheel guard should always be in position to protect the operator from injury should
                    the wheel burst. Grinding wheels must always be mounted by persons who have received special
                    training and hold a certificate of competence (consult the Chief Technician).

                    No machine, whether manually or power operated, may be used without its appropriate guard or
                    other safety devices.

                    Should a machine fail to operate properly, it must be switched off immediately and disconnected
                    from the power supply.

                    The correct protective equipment: clothing, goggles, face masks and other apparel appropriate to the
                    work being carried out must be worn.

                    Hair, fingers and clothing must be kept well clear of any moving parts. Clothing must be reasonably
                    tight fitting and free from tears and frayed edges. Loose neckties and cuffs are a particular source of
                    danger where rotating shafts and flywheels are present. Long hair should be tied back.

                    When adjusting or cleaning a machine, it must be switched off and the plug removed from the
                    socket. To avoid injury to the operator and possible damage to the machinery, all moving parts must
                    be stationary before making adjustments.

                    Do not reach over live equipment or moving machine parts to switch off the supply, even when they
                    appear to be properly protected.

                    Cleanliness is essential in the workshop. Spillages of oil or other substances must be cleaned up
                    immediately.

                    All access ways and passages around machines and benches must be kept clear of obstruction at all
                    times.

                    Lifting equipment such as hoists, cranes, ropes and slings must be properly attached and not loaded
                    beyond the specified safe working load. All items of lifting equipment are subject to inspection and
                    insurance and must be registered with the Estates Office.


Portable Electric   Before using a portable electric tool, check that it is properly earthed, unless it is an approved type
Tools               that does not require earthing. Use tools only on the correct power supply as instructed on the
                    maker's label. If the casing is damaged do not use the tool: report the fact to the Chief Technician.
                    Make sure that all cables, plugs or connectors are sound and correctly wired up. The cable should be

                                                          14
                      long enough to reach your working place without straining it, but excessive lengths should be
                      avoided and care should be taken to keep cables off the floor in case they are damaged or trip
                      someone. Never stand on a damp or wet surface when using electric tools and keep them clean and
                      dry. Disconnect tools when not in use.

                      Mains voltage portable electric tools, equipment and handlamps should preferably be connected to
                      the supply through a residual current circuit breaker to protect against electric shock. This is
                      particularly important when work is carried out inside a metal enclosure or in wet conditions.


University            The only services to which connections can be made by the user, without reference to the Estates
Mechanical Services   Office are: hot and cold water outlets, drainage points, compressed air outlets, gas outlets.

                      Only connect equipment which is matched to the pressure of the compressed air supply (a maximum
                      of 7 bars but may be lower in certain areas).


Natural Gas           Gas supplies must be turned off when they are no longer needed. It should be remembered
                      that natural gas is flammable, explosive and can cause asphyxiation, and that a natural gas flame may
                      be invisible in sunlight

                      Care must be taken to ensure that any appliances connected to a natural gas supply are adapted for
                      use with natural gas. Connecting hoses must be regularly checked for cracks. All leaks must be
                      reported immediately to the Estates Office (Ext.5073).


Pressure              The safe working pressure must be clearly and permanently marked on all pressure vessels and
Vessels               their pressure gauges. Whenever practicable, safety valves and pressure relief devices should be
                      checked every time a pressure vessel is used, to ensure that they are in a safe working condition.

                      Pressure vessels and associated equipment and services must be regularly inspected for flaws and
                      defects. All pressure vessels are subject to insurance and inspection and must be registered with the
                      Estates Office A valid test certificate will be required before a pressure vessel can be used.


Manual                When lifting anything heavy get a good grip, keep your back straight and chin in, bend your knees
Handling              and have one foot in front of the other and lift with your leg muscles as you stand up. Move
                      smoothly and do not jerk or twist your body as you lift. Never attempt to move anything that feels
                      too heavy for you or is an awkward shape. If in doubt get someone to help you or use handling aids
                      such as trolleys or sack trucks. Do not carry a load that obstructs your view or which prevents you
                      from seeing stair treads.




Lifting               All lifting appliances and tackle are subject to inspection and insurance and must be registered with
Appliances            the Estates Office. Before using any type of lifting appliance or lifting tackle it is the responsibility
                      of the user to ensure that the load is within the capacity of the equipment to be used.

                      Except where provision has been made in the structural design, no item of lifting equipment shall be
                      suspended or attached to any part of the building for the purpose of hoisting a load without the
                      written authority of the Estates Office.




                      Working After Hours

                      In the Department of Engineering and Applied Science and the Centre for Electron Optical Studies
                      the term “Open Access Hours” applies to laboratories and “ Normal Working Hours” to offices.
                      Open Access Hours are from 0900h to 17.15h (Monday to Friday) and Normal Working Hours are
                      from 0800h to 18.30h (Monday to Friday), except during University closures.




                                                             15
                    Two factors are of primary importance: the safety of those undertaking after hours working and the
                    security of the Department's laboratories and equipment. Within the constraints which these factors
                    impose, the aim of this policy is to make access to laboratories as straightforward as possible.


Open Access Hours   Open Access Hours in the Department's laboratories are from 09.00h to 17.20h (Monday to Friday)
                    except during University closures. Outside these hours the laboratories are locked. All persons who
                    have been issued with keys and are working in laboratories outside Open Access Hours must sign the
                    After Hours Register (see below).


Authorisation       An academic supervisor, after agreement with the Chief Technician, will indicate on the Risk
                    Assessment of a postgraduate student, research officer, or other laboratory user whether permission is
                    given for that person to work in laboratories outside Open Access Hours and which keys, if any,
                    should be provided. The supervisor will also identify, on the Risk Assessment, those activities which
                    may be routinely undertaken outside Open Access Hours. Laboratory users who have been
                    authorised to work outside Open Access Hours can obtain the keys identified on their Risk
                    Assessment from the Chief Technician. Permission to work outside Open Access Hours may be
                    granted for periods of up to one year but will be reviewed at the same time as the laboratory user‟s
                    Risk Assessment.


Special Safety      All persons working in laboratories outside Open Access Hours must comply with the University
Rules               and the Department safety rules.

                    Only those activities specifically identified on the Risk Assessment, or explicitly authorised by the
                    supervisor and Chief Technician, may be undertaken. A laboratory user must obtain permission from
                    their academic supervisor and the Chief Technician before undertaking any new activity not
                    originally identified on their Risk Assessment as being suitable for after hours working.

                    At all times, a minimum of two people must be present if work of a hazardous nature is being
                    undertaken.

                    All persons working in laboratories outside Open Access Hours must sign the After Hours
                    Register at 17.20, or their time of arrival, to indicate their location and sign again on departure.
                    The Register will be located on the notice board in 3 West Level 2.

                    It is the responsibility of each person to ensure that any laboratory in which they have been working
                    outside Open Access Hours is left in a safe and tidy condition, i.e. with equipment, water and gas
                    taps etc. turned off, unless an 'Experiment in Progress' notice is attached.


Security Rules      The last person to leave a laboratory or laboratory area must ensure that doors are locked.

                    It is forbidden to provide access for an unauthorised person to the Department of Engineering and
                    Applied Science's laboratories outside Open Access Hours.

                    Keys for laboratories are the personal responsibility of the person to whom they are issued and they
                    must not be loaned to other individuals; breach of this rule will lead to immediate withdrawal of the
                    keys. Keys must be returned to the Chief Technician at the end of the period of authorisation,
                    otherwise a charge of £15 for each key will be made. Loss of keys must be reported to the Chief
                    Technician immediately. A charge of £15 for each lost key will be made.




                    Code of Practice for Office Working

                    Good and safe working practices are as important in offices as they are in laboratories. The objective
                    of this Code of Practice is to promote an office environment that is efficient, clean, and safe and in
                    which the needs of other office users are respected.


Office Space        Office space is allocated by the Department Administrator, Mrs Ann Marsland-Shaw. The


                                                         16
Allocation            Department Administrator has to ensure that sufficient desks are available for all office users,
                      including visitors, and therefore a record of desk allocations is kept. If an office user wishes to move
                      to another office, they must make a request to the Department Administrator. (Ext. 6480).


Use of Offices        Offices are exclusively for desk work and storage of paperwork, books, computer and teaching
                      materials. The carrying out of experimental work and the storage of experimental material, e.g.,
                      reagents and equipment, are not permitted. Such work and storage may contravene safety regulations.
                      Offices are not to be used for the storage of personal property and lockers are available from the
                      Chief Technician for this purpose.


Working after Hours   Normal Working Hours in the Department are within the period 08.00-18.30h (Monday to Friday)
                      except during University closures. All persons working outside Normal Working Hours must sign
                      the After Hours Register at 18.30, or at their time of arrival, to indicate their location, and sign
                      again on their departure. The Register is located on the notice board in 3West,
                      Level 2.


Securing Offices      Offices contain valuable equipment and files and therefore all users should exercise care about office
                      security. All office users will be issued with an office key by the Chief Technician. Keys are the
                      personal responsibility of the person to whom they are issued.They must not be loaned to other
                      individuals; breach of this rule will lead to immediate withdrawal of the key. Keys must be returned
                      to the Chief Technician at the end of the period of authorisation, otherwise a charge of £15 for each
                      key will be made. Loss of keys must be reported to the Chief Technician immediately. A charge of
                      £15 for each lost key will be made.


Electrical Safety     Ensure that any electric cables are placed where they will not cause anyone to trip. All electrical
                      equipment, including personal equipment should be checked for electrical safety by the technical
                      staff before being used. There will be periodic checks of electrical safety in offices as part of the
                      Department‟s regular safety inspections.


Display Screen        Display screens are extensively used in offices and it is important that the correct environment
Equipment             exists to minimise problems arising from eye strain, incorrect posture, repetitive strain injury etc.
                      Every user should ensure that they have filled in a workstation checklist available from the
                      Department Administrator. Any concerns they may have should be discussed with the Safety Liaison
                      Officer. Copies of the checklist will be held by the Department Administrator.


Filing Cabinets       These must have sufficient weight in the bottom drawer to prevent the cabinet tipping forward when
                      the top drawer is opened. Do not open more than one drawer at a time.



Aerosols/Cleaning     Most aerosol sprays, adhesives, cleaning, correcting and duplicating fluids, produce toxic vapours,
Fluids                some of which are flammable. Read the instructions, make sure there is adequate ventilation and
                      replace the cap or lid as soon as possible.


Housekeeping          It is important that we maintain office equipment and furniture in good order. Therefore, any damage
                      or defects in office equipment or furniture should be reported to the Chief Technician, Mr Peter
                      Taylor (Ex. 6533). If material is to be displayed in offices it should not cause offence to other office
                      users and it should be displayed in a way that does not result in damage to walls or furniture.


Conduct               When working in offices all users are expected to comply with this Code of Practice and with the
                      University Regulations regarding conduct (see Section 9 of the University Regulations). Failure to
                      comply may lead to withdrawal of office facilities.




                                                            17
                Centre for Electron Optical Studies

                The Centre has its own set of working procedures.

                New users are required to read the Electron Optics Studies Safety Booklet before undertaking any
                work in the Centre.

                All users will be required to undergo training sessions on equipment before being allowed to operate
                it.

                Working outside normal hours is only permitted in the case of highly experienced personnel.




                Emergency Procedures

General         Familiarise yourself with the positions of fire alarm points, fire fighting equipment, first aid
Guidelines      boxes, blankets, and the nearest available University and public telephones to summon help.

                In an emergency dial 666 on any University phone and alert Security.

                Messages should be brief and accurate.

                Assist any casualties.


Alarms          When you hear the emergency alarm:

                Leave the building by the most direct route to the nearest exit.

                Do not use a lift.

                Leave the lights on.

                The last person leaving a room should close the doors.

                Go to one of the assembly point shown on the emergency procedures notices which are posted in all
                buildings. Do not congregate on the Parade.

                Visitors present during an alarm should be escorted by a member of staff to an assembly point.

                Disabled persons who cannot evacuate without the use of a lift should be escorted to another
                building if on levels 1, 2 or 3 and if on level 4 or 5 to the nearest fire exit. Their location should then
                be reported to Security or the Fire Brigade to arrange evacuation if appropriate.


Fire            If you start or discover a fire, break the glass in the nearest fire alarm point which will sound the
                alarm in the building. When at a place of safety call Security on 666 and describe the problem. This
                should expedite the summoning of the Fire Brigade.

                If trapped in a room, close the door, open the window and attract attention.


Fire Fighting   If you decide to use your discretion and tackle a small fire with the local fire appliances before the
                arrival of the Fire Brigade:

                Do not underestimate the danger: a small fire can get out of control very quickly.

                Obtain assistance if alone.

                Do not take unnecessary risks.


                                                       18
                  Make sure any casualties are dealt with.


                  For general guidance use:

                  A fire blanket to smother a fat, oil or solvent fire, taking care not to knock over any container of
                  burning liquid.

                  Carbon dioxide for live electrical and flammable liquid fires. Switch off electricity as soon as
                  possible. Do not hold the tube or discharge horn of the extinguisher.

                  Water for paper, wood, fabrics, plastics and similar materials. Direct the jet/spray at the base of the
                  fire and work around and upwards.

                  Do not use water on a fat, oil or flammable liquid fire.

                  Do not use a carbon dioxide extinguisher on a person's body.

                  If clothing is set alight stop the person from moving about. Protect yourself with a fire blanket or
                  coat. Wrap it around the burning area and get him/her on to the floor and then smother or beat out
                  the burning material. If water is immediately available use it to quench the burning clothing.


Medical           In case of injury or illness requiring urgent medical attention:

                  Ring the University Medical Centre, Extension 6655 or Bath 462395 (24 hour service).

                  Where hospital treatment is obviously necessary: Ring 999 (on an outside line) for an ambulance.

                  Alternatively contact Security. Ring 666 on any University telephone and give location of casualty
                  and brief details.

                  If direct contact has been made with the Medical Centre or Ambulance Service inform Security who
                  will provide assistance if required.


Medical Centre    Quarry House, North Road
                  Bath 462395 (24 hour service for emergencies)
                  Extension 6655

                  Open from 0900 to 1730 hours, Mondays to Fridays, and from 0900 to 1100 hours on Saturday
                  morning. During vacations the Centre is open from 0900 to 1700 hours and the Nursing Sister is
                  normally in attendance to deal with minor injuries, dressings, etc.


First Aid Boxes   First aid boxes are located within the Department as follows:
                  Level 1: 3W 1.5,
                  Level 2: Department Office,
                  Level 4: Corridor and 3W 4.16.
                  (Doors to laboratories containing first aid boxes are labelled appropriately)


Emergency         There is a stretcher, blanket and first aid box in the Security Office and each Department
Equipment         Office has a blanket for use in an emergency.


Reporting         All accidents causing injury, cases of illness and occupational disease, or other condition
Accidents and     related to University duties, must be reported on the appropriate form available from the
Incidents         Department Safety Liaison Officer and Chief Technician.

                  All incidents involving fires, damage to equipment, or which could have caused injury must also be
                  reported using the same form.




                                                        19
A copy of the completed accident/incident form should be passed to the Department Safety Liaison
Officer and if action is required to prevent a further occurrence then he will initiate action to remedy
this as far as he is able. The event will be reported to the Department Safety Committee.




                                                          Professor Alan N Bramley


                                                          Head of Department




                                     S:Sports Degrees Undergraduates/Health & Safety Guidelines 2003.doc




                                      20
Declaration

I have received and read a copy of the Department of Engineering and
Applied Science's Health and Safety Guidelines which covers my activities
in the University and will endeavour to work to the standards and guidance
it contains



Name (caps): _____________________________________


Undergraduate/Postgraduate/Research Officer/Other (please specify)
(Delete as appropriate)



Signature: _____________________________________________



Date:       ______________________________________________



This declaration must be returned to the Department Administrator




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