"Cycles of Matter"
Cycles of Matter Integrated Science 2 Purpose of Cycles Cycles of matter maintain energy and homeostasis (balance) in nature. Cycles of Matter Water Nitrogen Carbon Mineral/ Nutrient Water Cycle Water Cycle Water is necessary for cell metabolism, nutrient transport, and waste removal in living organisms. Stages of the Water Cycle Evaporation Water changes phase from liquid to gas. Condensation Water collects in the atmosphere and on objects. Precipitation Water moves from the atmosphere to Earth as rain, snow, sleet, freezing rain, or hail. Transpiration Water moves from the leaves of plants into atmospheric vapor. Run-off Water runs off the surface of the ground instead of being absorbed. Groundwater Water accumulates in underground aquifers and reservoirs. Water Table The top level of water in an aquifer is the water table. Mineral/Nutrient Cycle Mineral/Nutrient Cycle Minerals and nutrients are transferred from plants to animals as food. Waste products are broken down by decomposers. Carbon Cycle Carbon is circulated in various forms throughout the ecosystem. Carbon Cycle Explains how carbon travels through the ecosystem by way of photosynthesis and cell respiration. Photosynthesis Autotrophs (plants) containing chlorophyll use sunlight to make their own food. Photosynthesis Sunlight Chlorophyll 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 (Only carried out by autotrophs.) Cell Respiration Cell respiration controls the release of energy for autotrophs (plants) and heterotrophs (animals). Cell Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (Carried out by autotrophs and heterotrophs.) Nitrogen Cycle The atmosphere is approximately 78% Nitrogen Nitrogen Cycle N2=78% of atmosphere Plants cannot use N2. Bacteria convert N2 into forms that plants can use. Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen fixation and nitrification allow bacteria to make useful nitrogen compounds for plants. Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen is transferred from plants to animals as food. Animals die and release nitrogen back to the soil.